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IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

3, Issue 10, 2015 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Effect of Hydrochloric Acid Mixing on Strengths of Gravel Concrete and


Conventional Concrete
G. Divya1 G. Naveen Kumar2
M.Tech Student 2Assistant Professor
1,2
Gokul Institute of Technology and Sciences, Piridi, Bobbili, Andrapradesh, India
1

AbstractWater is an important ingredient of concrete,


which not only actively participates in the hydration of
cement but also contributes to the workability of fresh
concrete. Naturally available water contains many numbers
of chemical impurities like chlorides, various salts and acids
in different concentrations. HCl is not a common natural
chemical compound, but it can cause damage to concrete in
industrial environments .The effects of hydrochloric acid on
concrete are multiple .If there is presence of industrial
disposals containing HCl and such water is used in
construction has several problems. Studies on gravel
concrete and conventional concrete are performed with 0 ml,
50 ml, 100 ml per liter HCl acid solution. M20 grade
gravel concrete conventional concrete are designed based on
IS 10262-1982 code. The mix proportions for gravel
concrete is 1: 0.5 : 1.53 : 2.92 and conventional concrete is 1
: 0.5: 1.44: 3.28. The cubes and cylindrical specimens are
prepared as per mix proportions. The Compressive strength
of cube specimens after 7days, 28days and 60 days curing
period and split tensile strength for 28 days curing period
are performed. The compressive strength values obtained for
28 days curing without HCl are 24.31N/mm2 and
35.1N/mm2 for gravel and conventional concrete
respectively. The compressive strength values obtained after
28 days curing with 50 ml per liter HCl mixing in water are
19.51N/mm2 and 33N/mm2 for gravel and conventional
concrete respectively. The compressive strength values
obtained after 28 days curing with 100 ml per liter HCl
mixing in water are 19N/mm2 and 31.3N/mm2 for gravel
and conventional concrete respectively. The compressive
strengths cube specimens are decreased with increasing HCl
acid for a given duration and increased with increasing
curing period at a given concentration of HCl.
Key words: Compressive Strengths of Gravel Concrete,
hydrochloric acid, HCL
I. INTRODUCTION
Earth is predominantly used for various construction
purposes which in turn leads to depletion of natural
resources and also leads to increase in the cost of resources.
So there is necessity to use of alternatives instead of natural
resources to reduce the cost and also to reserve the
resources. In case of location of work which is far away
from the granite sites leads to increase in the transportation
cost which in turn increases the cost of construction. Hence
by the application of locally available gravel and quarry dust
which is treated as waste obtained from quarrying sites. By
the application of such materials makes effective
economical concrete which can be utilized for mass concrete
applications.
Concrete is an assemblage of cement, aggregate
and water. The most commonly used fine aggregate is sand
derived from river banks. The global consumption of natural
sand is too high due to its extensive use in concrete. The

demand for natural sand is quite high in developing


countries owing to rapid infrastructural growth which
results supply scarcity. Therefore, construction industries
of developing countries are in stress to identify alternative
materials to replace the demand for natural sand. On the
other hand, the advantages of utilization of by products or
aggregates obtained as waste materials are pronounced in
the aspects of reduction in environmental load and waste
management cost, reduction of production cost as well as
augmenting the quality of concrete. In this context, fine
aggregate has been replaced by quarry dust a by-product of
stone crushing unit and few admixtures to find a
comparative analysis for different parameters which are
tested in the laboratories to find the suitability of the
replacement
adhered
to
the Indian
Standard
specifications for its strength. Quarry dust has been
used for different activities in the construction industry
such as road construction and manufacture of building
materials such as light weight aggregates, bricks, and tiles.
Crushed rock aggregates are more suitable for production of
high strength.
The use of quarry dust in concrete is desirable
because of its benefits such as useful disposal of by
products, reduction of river sand consumption as well as
increasing the strength parameters and increasing the
workability of concrete .It is used for different activities in
the construction industries such as road construction,
manufacture of building materials, bricks, tiles and
autoclave blocks.
Water is an essential constituent of concrete, which
not only actively participates in the hydration of cement but
also contributes to the workability of fresh concrete.
Naturally available water contains many numbers of
chemical impurities like chlorides, sulphates , various salts
and acids in different concentrations and also if there is
presence of any industries which release chlorides may
dissolve in water and make water polluted. Generally the
standard of water that is used for making concrete should be
potable. I.S. 456-2000, specifies the minimum pH values as
6.0 and also permissible limits for solids in water to be fit
for construction purpose. But the drinking water may not be
always available abundantly for mixing and curing. The
impurities in water affect the strength and durability of
hardened concrete. HCl is not a common natural chemical
compound, but it can cause damage to concrete in industrial
environments. The effects of hydrochloric acid on concrete
are multiple. The changing mineralogy due to the leaching
processes causes a loss of strength. The damage resulted
from HCl corrosion is dangerous for safe application of
concrete structure, especially when the structure is subjected
to tensile or bending load. After HCl corrosion, the flexural
strength loss of the high strength concrete is larger than that
of the normal strength concrete, which indicates that the
sensitivity to HCl corrosion increases with increasing
concentration.

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Effect of Hydrochloric Acid Mixing on Strengths of Gravel Concrete and Conventional Concrete
(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 10/2015/139)

Water is the major component in the concrete, if


such water is polluted or it may contain HCl as impurity. If
such water is used for construction causes damage to
strength of building and reduces the life span if building.
If the water containing impurity HCl is used in construction
purposes it causes leaching the concrete and also damages
its strength. The presence of chlorides causes a severe
damage to the strength and reduces the life of building.
Hence for this purpose we studied the presence of HCl in the
concentrations of 0 ml,50 ml,100 ml solution are performed
on both gravel concrete and on conventional concrete .And
comparison is made between gravel concrete and
conventional concrete in terms of compressive strength, split
tensile strength.
Soil stabilization is one of the techniques for
improving the properties of poor soils. The engineering
properties of the soils and gravels, such as plasticity and
strength can often be improved significantly by mechanical
stabilization, cement stabilization, lime stabilization and
addition of chemical stabilizing agents. Generally cement
stabilization is used for granular and sand soils for
improving the strength and durability of the soils.
Cement stabilization is generally recommended for
construction of roads. The major engineering benefits of
cement stabilization are increased strength and stiffness,
better volume stability and increased durability.

Fig. 1: Variation of Compressive Strength of Gravel


Concrete and Conventional Concrete without HCL

Fig. 2: Variation of Compressive Strength in Gravel


Concrete and Conventional Concrete with 50ml HCL

II. RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE


From the literature, it is found that, In this investigation an
attempt has been made to study the The compressive
strength,split tensile strength for the given concentration of
HCl acid the strength, compressive strength for the given
duration . testes are conducted in laboratory.

Fig. 3: Variation of Compressive Strength in Gravel


Concrete and Conventional Concrete with 100ml HCL

III. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM


The experimental program carried out for sieve analysis,
specific gravity of materials, compressive strength and tesile
strength tests are conducted as per standards.
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Compressive Strength Characteristics:
The compressive strength can be calculates as
Compressive strength = load / area
Split tensile strength = 2 load/ ( d l)
The gravel concrete strength is less when compared to
conventional concrete hence it can be applied for mass
concrete applications since it reaches certain strength. Hence
found its application by reduction in cost and to make an
effective economical concrete.

Fig. 4: Comparison between Compressive Strengths of


Gravel Concrete and Conventional Concrete for 7 Days
Mixing and Curing with HCl.
From the above graph it is observed that the
strength in gravel concrete and conventional concrete are
decreasing as the concentration of HCl solution increases in
the concrete. Thereby it can be empathize that the strengths
are decreasing irrespective with the period of curing and
mixing.

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650

Effect of Hydrochloric Acid Mixing on Strengths of Gravel Concrete and Conventional Concrete
(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 10/2015/139)

Fig. 5: Comparison between Compressive Strengths of


Gravel Concrete and Conventional Concrete for 28 Days
Mixing and Curing with HCL.
From the above graph it is observed that the
strengths in gravel concrete and conventional concrete are
decreasing as the concentration of HCl solution increases in
the concrete. Thereby it can be empathize that the strengths
are decreasing irrespective with the period of curing and
mixing. The decline in the compressive strengths are larger
in magnitude when compared to the compressive strengths
of gravel concrete and conventional concrete for 7 days
mixing and curing with HCl concentration.

Fig. 6: Comparison between Compressive Strengths of


Gravel Concrete and Conventional Concrete for 60 Days
Mixing and Curing with HCL.
From the above graph it is observed that the
strengths in gravel concrete and conventional concrete are
decreasing as the concentration of HCl solution increases in
the concrete.Thereby it can be empathize that the strengths
are decreasing irrespective with the period of curing and
mixing.
The decline in the compressive strengths for 60
days mixing and curing of both gravel and conventional
concrete are larger in magnitude when compared to both the
compressive strengths of gravel concrete and conventional
concrete for 7 days and 28 days mixing and curing with HCl
concentration.

Fig. 7: Variation of Split Tensile Strength in Gravel


Concrete and Conventional Concrete for 28 Days Mixing
and Curing with HCL.
The decrease in split tensile strengths in both
gravel and conventional concrete are due to acid attack on
cylindrical specimen by Hydrochloric acid. Hence there is
significant reduction in the split tensile strength in both
gravel concrete and conventional concrete.

Fig. 8: Comparison between Split Tensile Strengths of


Gravel Concrete and Conventional Concrete for 28 Days
Mixing and Curing with HCL.
From the above graph it is observed that the split
tensile strength in both gravel concrete and conventional
concrete are decreasing as the concentration of HCl solution
increases in the concrete. Due to the acid attack of HCl on
cylinder specimen causes decrease in the split tensile
strength in both gravel concrete and conventional concrete.
V. CONCLUSIONS
The major conclusions from the results are summarized
below:
1) The waste obtained from stone crushing plants can be
used as substitute for sand for reserving the natural
resource and also economical.
2) The locally available gravel can be used with quarry
dust and cement to produce effective economical
concrete which is applicable for mass concrete
applications.
3) The compressive strength for the given concentration
of HCl acid the strength increased with increasing the
curing period.
4) The compressive strength for the given duration of
curing decreased with increasing concentration of HCl.

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651

Effect of Hydrochloric Acid Mixing on Strengths of Gravel Concrete and Conventional Concrete
(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 10/2015/139)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to thank Department of Civil Engineering staff
and management of Gokul Institute of Technology and
Sciences for their support in doing this work.
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