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CHAPTER 2

THE HISTORY OF THE INTERNAL COMBUSTION


ENGINE
2.1. INTRODUCTION
An internal combustion engine is any engine that uses the explosive combustion
of fuel to push a piston within a cylinder - the piston's movement turns a crankshaft that
then turns the car wheels via a chain or a drive shaft. The different types of fuel
commonly used for car combustion engines are gasoline (or petrol), diesel, and
kerosene.
Many people claimed the invention of the internal combustion engine in the
1860's, but only one has the patent on the four stroke operating sequence. In 1867,
Nikolaou's August Otto, a German engineer, developed the four-stroke "Otto" cycle,
which is widely used in transportation even today. Otto developed the four-stroke
internal combustion engine when he was 34 years old.
The Diesel Engine came about in 1892 by another German engineer, Rudolph
Diesel. The Diesel engine is designed heavier and more powerful than gasoline engines
and utilizes oil as fuel. Diesel engines are a commonly used in heavy machinery,
locomotives, ships, and some automobiles.
It is important to mention that the basic operating principles of these engines
have been around for more than a hundred years and they are still in place. Some
people get discouraged when they look under the hood and cannot recognize a thing on
their automobile. Rest assured that underneath all of those wires and sensors lies an
engine with the same basic operating principles of that "Otto" engine over a century old.
Early development of modern internal combustion engines occurred in the
latter half of the 1800s and coincided with the development
of the automobile.
History records earlier examples of crude internal combustion engines and selfpropelled road vehicles dating back as far as the 1600s . Most of these early
vehicles were steam-driven prototypes which never became practical operating
vehicles. Technology, roads, materials, and fuels were not yet developed enough.
Very early examples of heat engines, including both internal combustion and
external combustion, used gun powder and other solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels.
Major development of the modern steam engine and, consequently, the railroad
locomotive occurred in the latter half of the 1700s and early 1800s. By the 1820s
and 1830s, railroads were present in several countries around the world
Most of the very earliest internal combustion engines of the 17th and 18th
centuries can be classified as atmospheric engines. These were large engines with a
single piston and cylinder, the cylinder being open on the end. Combustion was
initiated in the open cylinder using any of the various fuels which were available.
Gunpowder was often used as the fuel. Immediately after combustion, the cylinder
would be full of hot exhaust gas at atmospheric pressure. At this time, the cylinder

end was closed and the trapped gas was allowed to cool. As the gas cooled, it created
a vacuum within the cylinder. This caused a pressure differential across the piston,
atmospheric pressure on one side and a vacuum on the other. As the piston moved
because of this pressure differential, it would do work by being connected to an
external system, such as raising a weight .
Some early steam engines
also were atmospheric
engines.
Instead of
combustion, the open cylinder was filled with hot steam. The end was then closed
and the steam was allowed to cool and condense. This created the necessary vacuum.

In addition to a great amount of experimentation and development in Europe


and the United States during the middle and latter half of the 1800s, two other
technological occurrences during this time stimulated the emergence of the
internal combustion engine. In 1859, the discovery of crude oil in Pennsylvania finally
made available the development
of reliable fuels which could be used in these
newly developed engines. Up to this time, the lack of good, consistent fuels was a
major drawback in engine development. Fuels like whale oil, coal gas, mineral oils,
coal, and gun powder which were available before this time were less than ideal
for engine use and development.
It still took many years before products of the
petroleum industry evolved from the first crude oil to gasoline, the automobile fuel of
the 20th century. However, improved hydrocarbon products began to appear as
early as the 1860s and gasoline, lubricating oils, and the internal combustion
engine devolved together.
the

The second technological

invention that stimulated

the development

of

internal combustion engine was the pneumatic rubber tire, which was first
marketed by John B. Dunlop in 1888 . This invention made the automobile much
more practical and desirable and thus generated a large market for propulsion
systems, including the internal combustion engine.
During the early years of the automobile, the internal combustion engine
competed with electricity and steam engines as the basic means of propulsion. Early
in the 20th century, electricity and steam faded from the automobile picture-electricity
because of the limited range it provided, and steam because of the long start-up time
needed.

2.2. A BRIEF OUTLINE OF HISTORY OF THE INTERNAL


COMBUSTION ENGINE
- 1680 - Dutch physicist, Christian Huygens designed (but never
built) an internal combustion engine that was to be fueled with
gunpowder.
-

1807 - Francois Isaac de Rivaz of Switzerland invented an internal


combustion engine that used a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen for
fuel. Rivaz designed a car for his engine - the first internal
combustion powered automobile. However, his was a very
unsuccessful design.

1824 - English engineer, Samuel Brown adapted an old Newcomen


steam engine to burn gas, and he used it to briefly power a vehicle
up Shooter's Hill in London.

1858 - Belgian-born engineer, Jean Joseph tienne Lenoir invented


and patented (1860) a double-acting, electric spark-ignition internal
combustion engine fueled by coal gas. several hundred of these
engines were built with power up to about 4.5 kW (6 hp) and
mechanical
efficiency up to 5 %. In 1863, Lenoir attached an
improved engine (using petroleum and a primitive carburetor) to a
three-wheeled wagon that managed to complete an historic fiftymile road trip.

1862 - Alphonse Beau de Rochas, a French civil engineer, patented


but did not build a four-stroke engine.

1864 - Austrian engineer, Siegfried Marcus, built a one-cylinder


engine with a crude carburetor, and attached his engine to a cart for
a rocky 500-foot drive. Several years later, Marcus designed a
vehicle that briefly ran at 10 mph that a few historians have
considered as the forerunner of the modern automobile by being the
world's first gasoline-powered vehicle.

- 1873 - George Brayton, an American engineer, developed an


unsuccessful two-stroke kerosene engine (it used two external
pumping cylinders). However, it was considered the first safe and
practical oil engine.
-

1866 - German engineers, Eugen Langen and Nikolaus August Otto


improved on Lenoir's and de Rochas' designs and invented a more
efficient gas engine, with efficiency improved to about 11%, was
first introduced, and several thousand of these were produced
during the next decade

- 1876 - Nikolaus August Otto invented and later patented a


successful four-stroke engine, known as the "Otto cycle"
1876 - The first successful two-stroke engine was invented by Sir
Dougald Clerk.

1883 - French engineer, Edouard Delamare-Debouteville, built a


single-cylinder four-stroke engine that ran on stove gas. It is not
certain if he did indeed build a car, however, DelamareDebouteville's designs were very advanced for the time - ahead of
both Daimler and Benz in some ways at least on paper.

1885 - Gottlieb Daimler invented what is often recognized as the


prototype of the modern gas engine - with a vertical cylinder, and
with gasoline injected through a carburetor (patented in 1887).
Daimler first built a two-wheeled vehicle the "Reitwagen" (Riding
Carriage) with this engine and a year later built the world's first
four-wheeled motor vehicle.

- 1886 - On January 29, Karl Benz received the first patent (DRP No.
37435) for a gas-fueled car.
- 1889 - Daimler built an improved four-stroke
mushroom-shaped valves and two V-slant cylinders.
-

engine

with

1890 - Wilhelm Maybach built the first four-cylinder, four-stroke


engine.

- 1892 - Rudolf Diesel had perfected his compression ignition


engine into basically the same diesel engine known today. This
was after years of development work which included the use of
solid fuel in his early experimental engines. Early compression
ignition engines were noisy, large, slow, single-cylinder engines.
They were, however, generally more efficient than spark ignition
engines. It wasn't until the 1920s that multicylinder compression
ignition engines were made small enough to be used with
automobiles and trucks.
- 1910 - McKechnie Diesel injected the fuel by means of a high-pressure
(70 bar) air blast, since a liquid pump for 'solid' or airless injection .
-1934- Don Cole, Ignition timing control secure maximum efficiency
from the engine and also to obtain the greatest amount of power
from a given quantity of fuel it is necessary that the spark which
ignites the charge should occur before the piston reaches the top
dead center position.
-1935- Maniscalco Pietro, relates to a novel and improved internal
combustion engine. One of the main objects of this invention is to
provide an improved internal combustion engine which is adapted to
handle either high grade or low grade fuel and to utilize a lean
mixture and feed it at a constant flow, so as to provide an
uninterrupted power development at a maximum of efficiency.
-1946- Herman V Stewart, This invention relates to improvements in
internal combustion engines, and it relates particularly to internal
combustion engines of the compression-ignition type which may be
used in aircraft, locomotives or for other purposes requiring a large
power output and relatively low Weight.

-1972- Francois A Lagarde, A four-stroke internal combustion engine


having an even number of cylinders whose combustion chambers
communicate in pairs, each pair of associated cylinders having on
the one hand a common exhaust valve, a valve for the admission of
a first carbureted mixture into the first cylinder, a valve for the
admission of air or a leaner carbureted mixture into the second
cylinder, a spark plug placed in the path of the first carbureted
mixture; the piston of the second cylinder is retarded by a
predetermined amount with respect to the piston of the first cylinder
and the chamber located above the piston of the second cylinder
being shaped to expel the leaner mixture (or air) into the first
cylinder shortly after ignition when said piston arrives to its top dead
center.
-1974- Luther B. Thomas, An internal combustion engine utilizes a
combustion cylinder formed in part of material which can withstand
high temperatures in conjunction with a displacement or power
piston having a ringless section capable of withstanding high
temperatures and being backed up by a relatively low temperature
lubricated ringed piston section. Means to inject fuel and water into
the combustion chamber is provided along with means to charge the
combustion chamber with air and to exhaust the combustion
chamber near the end of the power stroke
-1975- Delbert L. Overton, In addition to the gasoline-air mixing primary
carburetor on an internal combustion engine, an auxiliary carburetor
is provided for mixing air and alcohol, to thereby provide a
substantial portion of the fuel-air mixture used by the engine during
idle conditions and light-load conditions, while the primary carburetor
provides an increasingly greater portion of the total fuel-air mixture
during high-load conditions. The alcohol fuel-air mixture flows
directly to the intake manifold, thus by-passing the throttle valve
which controls the fuel-air mixture from the primary carburetor. The
auxiliary carburetor is vacuum controlled.
-1975-Frank Kaye, I.C. engine having improved air or air-fuel induction
system An internal combustion engine having at least one cylinder in
which at least one piston is reciprocable; the air, or air and fuel,
induction being by means of an inlet port giving rise to helical flow of
air, or air and fuel within the cylinder. In one form, the inlet port is
substantially tangential to the cylinder. The cylinder may have a pair
of pistons therein movable in unison to adjacent top dead center
positions wherein they define with the cylinder wall, an annular
combustion chamber.
-1976- John E. Lindberg, A controlled amount of a fluid (steam or water
or a solution of water plus additives) is injected into an internal
combustion engine to improve combustion, efficiency, and to reduce
emissions. The amount of the fluid injected is controlled in response

to engine need. The steam is generated by the heat produced by the


engine. Combustion gas temperature is used to control the amount
of steam produced by varying the fluid flow through one or more
fixed or variable orifice control valves. The steam is injected in a
piston engine to cool peak temperatures, to prevent detonation and
pre-ignition, to smooth out hot spots, to prevent auto-ignition or
dieseling, and to use the vapor energy in the expansion cycle to
increase low speed torque and acceleration. The steam is used to
cause full retard of the vacuum spark advance during acceleration at
full load from low speed, and a large amount of steam is injected at
this point in the cycle to prevent pre-ignition and detonation.
Ultrasonic energy is added to the injected steam to produce better
mixing and distribution. Hydrogen is also injected to permit better
combustion with higher amounts of air. The hydrogen is produced by
the interaction of a catalyst on the steam and fuel hydrocarbons and
ultrasonic energy. At times exhaust gas and other additives, such as
hydrogen peroxide, methyl alcohol and ammonia are injected.
-1978- John J. Csonka, Albert B. Csonka, The present disclosure shows a
system for providing a continuous supply of at least partly distilled
water to an internal combustion engine for inclusion in the air-fuel
mixture passing through the carburetor, in order to increase the
efficiency of the engine to decrease fuel consumption, to reduce
emissions and to prevent knocking. The water may be mixed and
emulsified with the liquid fuel before these components enter the
carburetor, or the fuel may be introduced to the carburetor
separately, or the water and the fuel may be introduced together
without a preliminary mixing. The partially distilled water, that is free
of solid ingredients, is produced continuously during engine
operation by diverting a portion of the exhaust gas from the engine
to an air cooled condenser to condense water therefrom and a
controlled amount of water is passed to the engine. Means are
provided for variably proportioning the quantity of water delivered to
the quantity of liquid fuel passing to the carburetor. This variable
predetermined proportioning is automatically arranged so that no
water is added at idling and small load settings, but at higher load
settings the amount of water in proportion to the amount of liquid
fuel is increased progressively as the load settings of the engine
increase.
-1978- Craig L. Werling, Donald I. Townsend, Diesel engine with dual
fuel injection system and method of operation The diesel engine of
this invention is designed to operate on more than one fuel
composition. The auto ignition temperature of each fuel composition
can be the same, or it can be different. As a typical example, the
engine can be operated using diesel fuel oil, as the primary fuel, and
a chlorinated hydrocarbon waste liquid, as the secondary fuel. The
waste liquid, which has a higher auto ignition temperature than the
diesel fuel, is injected into the combustion chamber of the engine an
instant before injection of the diesel fuel. Because of its lower auto

ignition temperature, the diesel fuel will ignite first and thus provide
a "spark" for igniting the secondary fuel.
-1980- John E. Lindberg, A controlled amount of a fluid (steam or water
or a solution of water plus additives) is injected into an internal
combustion engine to improve combustion, efficiency, and to reduce
emissions. The amount of the fluid injected is controlled in response
to engine need. The steam is generated by the heat produced by the
engine. Combustion gas temperature is used to control the amount
of steam produced by varying the fluid flow through one or more
fixed or variable orifice control valves. The steam is injected in a
piston engine to cool peak temperatures, to prevent detonation and
pre-ignition, to smooth out hot spots, to prevent auto-ignition or
dieseling, and to use the vapor energy in the expansion cycle to
increase low speed torque and acceleration. The steam is used to
cause full retard of the vacuum spark advance during acceleration at
full load from low speed, and a large amount of steam is injected at
this point in the cycle to prevent pre-ignition and detonation.
Ultrasonic energy is added to the injected steam to produce better
mixing and distribution. Hydrogen is also injected to permit better
combustion with higher amounts of air. The hydrogen is produced by
the interaction of a catalyst on the steam and fuel hydrocarbons and
ultrasonic energy. At times exhaust gas and other additives, such as
hydrogen peroxide, methyl alcohol and ammonia are injected.
-1982- Lewis C. Spence, A modified two-stroke or four-stroke internal
combustion engine comprises means and a method for increasing
the power output of an internal combustion engine by providing a
non-combustible fluid to the engine. The engine transfers thermal
energy of combustion to the non-combustible fluid, thereby causing
expansion of the fluid, and includes means for converting expansion
of the fluid to mechanical power.
-1984- Kurt Hierzenberger, The combustion chamber of an internalcombustion engine is fed via a dispersion supply conduit with a
dispersion of water and of fuel supplied via a fuel supply conduit and
is fed via an air supply conduit with the air required for the
combustion. The exhaust gases generated within the combustion
chamber during the combustion are passed via an exhaust gas
conduit into a heat exchanger being in connection with a condensate
collecting chamber for receiving the condensate formed on cooling
the hot exhaust gases and vapors. This condensate is utilized for the
production of the fuel-water-dispersion. The heat of condensation
being at disposal within the heat exchanger is utilized for heating the
dispersion-air-mixture supplied into the combustion chamber of the
internal-combustion engine or for heating the air required for the
combustion.
-1997- Makoto Suzuki, An apparatus for circulating cooling water for an
internal combustion engine has a cooling water outer passageway,
through which an engine body, a radiator, an indoor heater core and

an oil cooler communicate with each other, for flowing the cooling
water there through. The cooling water outer passageway includes a
gong-to-engine-body communicating passageway through which the
cooling water flows from the radiator towards the engine body, a
going-to-heater-core communicating passageway through which the
cooling water flows from the engine body towards the indoor heater
core, and an oil cooler cooling water communicating passageway,
bypasses the engine body communicating passageway and the
heater core communicating passageway with respect to a water
jacket, including an oil cooler midways of this oil cooler cooling water
communicating passageway. The engine body communicating
passageway and the heater core communicating passageway
provided with flow rate control valves for reducing a quantity of the
cooling water when a temperature of the cooling water comes to a
predetermined temperature. A connecting point between the oil
cooler cooling water communicating passageway and the heater core
communicating passageway, exists more upstream than a point M at
which the flow rate control valve is disposed on the heater core
communicating passageway.
-1998- Ingemar Denbratt, Jonny Nisbet, Henrik Oest Simonsen, LarsOlof Carlsson, Internal combustion engine with fuel injection directly
into the combustion chamber of the engine. The engine has inlet
channels, the angle of incidence (valve angle) () of which is greater
than 20 relative to the longitudinal axis of the cylinder chamber.
The piston tops are made, firstly, with a surface portion inclined
relative to a plane normal to the longitudinal axis of the cylinder
chamber by an angle () equal to or less than the angle of incidence
of the inlet channel, and, secondly, with a cavity connected to the
inclined surface portion. By interaction between the angle of
incidence of the inlet channels and the shape of the piston tops,
there is generated in the combustion chambers a primary vertical
movement in the inlet air about an axis perpendicular to the
longitudinal axis of the cylinder chamber. The primary vortical
movement generates a secondary vertical movement in the opposite
direction in the piston cavity.
-1999- Richard Patton, Internal combustion engine with regenerator
and hot air ignition An internal combustion engine and method is
disclosed wherein separate compression and power cylinders are
used and a regenerator or pair of regenerators is mounted between
them to provide heat for hot-air ignition. The single regenerator
embodiment operates as a two-stroke cycle engine and the
embodiment with an alternating pair of regenerators operates as a
four-stroke cycle engine. Valving is provided for uniflow design and
the system allows variable fuel ratios. The resulting engine achieves
brake efficiency and thermal efficiency greater than 50 %.
-1999- Cosimo Sarno, Multi-injection systems The aim of the proposed
systems is to increase the degrees of freedom in the management of

the injection in both the Diesel and gasoline engines (two and four
strokes); overall this is to improve the combustion with consequent
reduction of the polluting masses.
-2000- Palmer Dennis C, The improved internal combustion engine of
the cam drive axial piston type includes modification to the drive
shaft , bearings 200 and other internal elements to facilitate the flow
of oil and lubricants to engine parts. The cooling system is modified
to allow coolant flow directly to the engine block and head assembly
simultaneously and to control flow through the engine and radiator
to reduce hot spots. The valves and valve crown structure have
been modified for ease of assembly and reliability of the roller valve
lifter and valve interface. Use of alternate fuel supply systems which
eliminate the need for a valve train are also accommodated. The
drive shaft and engine have been modified to allow the mounding
of a variety of aircraft propellers using a hub as well as mounting a
flywheel for reduced start motor stress.
-2001- Lester P Berriman, John M Zabsky Dual fuel source diesel engine
In the operation of a diesel engine, a mixture of air and fuel is flowed
into each cylinder during the intake stroke when air alone normally
would be flowed in. However, the mixture is lean so it does not ignite
as the mixture is lean so it does not ignite as the mixture is
compressed and heated. Sufficient additional fuel is injected into the
cylinder near the top of the compression stroke to increase the
amount of fuel so the hot mixture ignites. As a result, most of the air
and fuel has intimately mixed prior to ignition.
-2002- Donald W. Stanton, Randall L. Zehr, Wayne A. Eckerle, Francois
Ntone, Internal combustion engine producing low emissions An
engine is provided which includes various precise configuration
parameters, including dimensions, shape and/or relative positioning
of the combustion chamber features, resulting in a combustion
process minimizing NOx emissions and particulates. The combustion
chamber includes one or more of the following: a spray angle relative
to an inner bowl floor angle; a vertical distance from the tip of the
piston bowl to the injection orifices; a number of injection orifices; a
swirl ratio; a vertical distance from the injection orifices to an inner
face of the cylinder head; a radius of curvature of an outer bowl
section; chamfer with dimensional parameters; and a transition
radius.
-2002-Tatsuo Kobayashi, Internal combustion engine of compressing
and auto-igniting air-fuel mixture and method of controlling such
internal combustion engine The technique of the present invention
produces a first fuel-air mixture containing a first fuel and the air at a
specific ratio, which does not allow for auto ignition of the first fuelair mixture by simple compression, in a combustion chamber. The
technique then injects a second fuel, which has a higher octane
value than that of the first fuel, into a partial area of the combustion

chamber, so as to produce a second fuel-air mixture. The technique


ignites the second fuel-air mixture for combustion, so as to compress
and auto-ignite the first fuel-air mixture. The second fuel has the
higher octane value, so that a combustion start timing of the second
fuel-air mixture is reliably regulated by ignition. Namely the
technique positively controls the timing of auto ignition of the first
fuel-air mixture. Setting an adequate value to the ignition timing thus
effectively prevents the occurrence of knocking.
-2005- John Zajac, Internal combustion engine and method with
compression and expansion chambers of variable volume, a
combustion chamber, a variable intake valve for controlling air intake
to the compression chamber, a variable outlet valve for controlling
communication between the compression chamber and the
combustion chamber, means for introducing fuel into the combustion
chamber to form a mixture of fuel and air which burns and expands
in the combustion chamber, a variable inlet valve for controlling
communication between the combustion chamber and the expansion
chamber, a variable exhaust valve for controlling exhaust flow from
the expansion chamber, means for monitoring temperature and
pressure conditions, and a computer responsive to the temperature
and pressure conditions for controlling opening and closing of the
valves and introduction of fuel into to the combustion chamber to
optimize engine efficiency over a wide range of engine load
conditions.

2.3. THE IMPORTANCE OF NICOLAUS OTTO


One of the most important landmarks in engine design comes from
Nicolaus August Otto who in 1876 invented an effective gas motor engine.
Otto built the first practical four-stroke internal combustion engine called
the "Otto Cycle Engine," and as soon as he had completed his engine, he
built it into a motorcycle. Otto's contributions were very historically
significant, it was his four-stoke engine that was universally adopted for
all liquid-fueled automobiles going forward.

2.4. THE IMPORTANCE OF KARL BENZ


In 1885, German mechanical engineer, Karl Benz designed and built
the world's first practical automobile to be powered by an internalcombustion engine. On January 29, 1886, Benz received the first patent
for a gas-fueled car. It was a three-wheeler; Benz built his first fourwheeled car in 1891. Benz & Cie., the company started by the inventor,
became the world's largest manufacturer of automobiles by 1900. Benz
was the first inventor to integrate an internal combustion engine with a
chassis - designing both together.

2.5. THE IMPORTANCE OF GOTTLIEB DAIMLER

In 1885, Gottlieb Daimler (together with his design partner Wilhelm


Maybach) took Otto's internal combustion engine a step further and
patented what is generally recognized as the prototype of the modern gas
engine. Daimler's connection to Otto was a direct one; Daimler worked as
technical director of Deutz Gasmotorenfabrik, which Nikolaus Otto coowned in 1872. There is some controversy as to who built the first
motorcycle Otto or Daimler.
The 1885 Daimler-Maybach engine was small, lightweight, fast, used
a gasoline-injected carburetor, and had a vertical cylinder. The size,
speed, and efficiency of the engine allowed for a revolution in car design.
On March 8, 1886, Daimler took a stagecoach and adapted it to hold his
engine, thereby designing the world's first four-wheeled automobile.
Daimler is considered the first inventor to have invented a practical
internal-combustion engine.
In 1889, Daimler invented a V-slanted two cylinder, four-stroke
engine with mushroom-shaped valves. Just like Otto's 1876 engine,
Daimler's new engine set the basis for all car engines going forward. Also
in 1889, Daimler and Maybach built their first automobile from the ground
up, they did not adapt another purpose vehicle as they had always been
done previously. The new Daimler automobile had a four-speed
transmission and obtained speeds of 10 mph.
Daimler founded the Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft in 1890 to
manufacture his designs. Eleven years later, Wilhelm Maybach designed
the Mercedes automobile.
Development of direct injection stratified charge engines started in
1950s when Mercedes Benz developed an engine employing mechanical
injection system. It was followed by development of two very widely known
DISC engine prototypes during 1960s: Ford Programmed Combustion
(PROCO) engine and Texacos Stratified Charge (TCCS) engine. Both of
these engines employed mechanical jerk type fuel injection systems.
These engines could not be put into production as maintaining proper
charge stratification under all engine loads and speeds was not possible.
Moreover, the spray was directed very close to spark plug, which resulted
in frequent spark plug fouling and also emission of black smoke at high
engine loads.
During early 1970s, Honda developed a divided chamber stratified
charge engine using two carburetor. A small carburetor provided rich
mixture to the auxiliary small chamber where spark plug ignited the
mixture. The lean carburetor supplied mixture to the main chamber and
the overall mixture in the engine was significantly leaner than
stoichiometric. The burning mixture from the small chamber flowed via a
small throat into the main chamber like in the divided chamber diesel
engines.
This engine was called Honda CVCC (compound vortex combustion
chamber) engine. The Honda CVCC engine had high fluid dynamic and heat
transfer losses, and it also required catalytic after treatment for the
medium size and bigger cars to comply with the then US emission
standards.
The production of this engine did not continue much longer.

During 1990s, fuel economy improvement to reduce emissions of CO


.