Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 12

External Insulation

IP 14-1-1
Page 1 of 12

INTERNATIONAL
PRACTICE

(This practice is appropriate for attachment to Inquiry or Purchase Document)

Rev. 1

June 1999

Changes shown by

SCOPE
I

1.1

This practice covers the design, material selection, and application for thermal insulation systems to be used
on external surfaces of equipment (including piping, tankage) under the following operating conditions:
Hot Thermal Insulation:

I
S
I

1.2
1.3
1.4

a.
A temperature above the atmospheric dewpoint, and
b.
Not more than 10% of the time below the atmospheric dewpoint.
Cold Thermal Insulation: Operates for more than 10% of the time below the atmospheric dew point.
The requirements of this practice also apply to acoustic insulation systems.
Asbestos containing materials shall not be used.
An asterisk (V ) indicates that additional information is required. If a job is contracted, this additional
information is furnished in the Job Specification.

SUMMARY OF ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS


V

I
I

2.1

Table 1 lists the practices and standards which shall be used with this practice as specified by the
purchaser.

2.2

Table 2 lists the standards which shall be used for insulation materials purchased in the USA for use in the
USA, or in countries with no comparable standards. If local codes or standards exist for materials of
equivalent properties (to those listed in Table 2) they shall apply.
TABLE 1
PRACTICES
IP 14-3-1
IP 19-1-1

Fireproofing
Paint and Protective Coatings
STANDARDS

ASTM Standards
E 84
E 96
F 1249

Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials


Water Vapor Transmission of Materials
Test Method for Water Vapor Transmission Rate Through Plastic Film and Sheeting
Using a Modulated Infrared Sensor

TABLE 2

STANDARDS
ASTM Standards
A 167
A 463
A 526 / A526M
B 209 / B209M
C 533
C 547
C 552
C 591
C 592
C 610
C 612
C 871

2.3

Stainless and Heat-Resisting Chromium-Nickel Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip


Steel Sheet, Cold-Rolled, Aluminum-Coated (Type 2)
Steel Sheet, Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) by the Hot-Dip Process, Commercial Quality
Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Sheet and Plate
Calcium Silicate Block and Pipe Thermal Insulation (Type I or II)
Mineral Fiber Preformed Pipe Insulation (Class 5)
Cellular Glass Block and Pipe Thermal Insulation
Unfaced Preformed Rigid Cellular Polyisocyanurate Thermal Insulation
Mineral Fiber Blanket Insulation and Blanket-Type Pipe Insulation (Metal-Mesh
Covered) (Industrial Type)
Molded Expanded Perlite Block and Pipe Thermal Insulation
Mineral Fiber Block and Board Thermal Insulation (Class 5)
Test Method for Chemical Analysis of Thermal Insulation Materials for Leachable
Chloride Fluoride, Silicate, and Sodium Ions

The recommendations of the paint, insulation, and vapor barrier manufacturers shall be followed in addition
to the requirements of this practice. All conflicts with this practice shall be submitted to purchaser for
approval by Owner's Engineer. Where such manufacturer's instructions are given in permissive terms, e.g.,
should", may", and recommended", these instructions shall be considered required.

THIS INFORMATION FOR AUTHORIZED COMPANY USE ONLY


EXXON RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING COMPANY FLORHAM PARK, N.J.

IP 14-1-1

External Insulation

Page 2 of 12
Rev. 1

June 1999

INTERNATIONAL
PRACTICE

(This practice is appropriate for attachment to Inquiry or Purchase Document)

DOCUMENTATION
V

3.1

Proposal information. The following data, as applicable, shall be submitted to purchaser for approval by
Owner's Engineer.
a.

Product specifications including manufacturer's data sheets and Material Safety Data Sheets where
applicable.

b.
c.

Material storage requirements, including shelf life and temperature.


Design and application details of insulation systems shall include (but not be limited to):
(1)
Insulation expansion joints
(2)
Typical designs of weather jackets and/or vapor barrier to prevent water intrusion.
(3)
For storage tanks: floating roofs; junction of tank shell to roof; junction of insulation system to
fireproof coating on sphere supports; tank appurtenances, walkway areas to tank roof
appurtenances, termination of insulation system on the first shell course of cylindrical tanks
on grade or on low foundations.

d.
e.
f.
g.

(4)
Design of thermal and/or acoustical insulation systems.
(5)
Design of pipe and vessel insulation supports.
Repair procedures for damaged areas.
Inspection and testing procedures.
Recommended safety precautions.
Installer's quality control methods and inspection criteria.

DESIGN
O
O

4.1

Hot service insulation shall be installed to conserve heat and for personnel protection. Cold service
insulation shall be installed to limit surface condensation or icing and conserve refrigeration.

4.2

Where insulation material type and thickness is specified, alternative materials may be used, provided that
the thermal conductivity at the mean temperature (Tm ) falls within 10% of the design thermal conductivity
(Kdes ) given below:

MATERIAL TYPE

Kdes AT MEAN TEMPERATURE Tm


Btu in./hr sq ft F

W/mC

Mineral Fiber

Kdes = 0.00050 Tm + 0.360

Kdes = 0.00013 Tm + 0.0542

Calcium Silicate

Kdes = 0.00043 Tm + 0.315

Kdes = 0.00011 Tm + 0.0474

Fibrous glass:to 450F (230C)


to 850F (454C)

Kdes = 0.00050 Tm + 0.210


Kdes = 0.00077 Tm + 0.225

Kdes = 0.00013 Tm + 0.0326


Kdes = 0.00020 Tm + 0.0360

Cellular Glass

Supplied by manufacturer

Polyurethane Foam:
Tm,

F
100
75
50
0
-25
-50
-100

C
38
24
10
-18
-32
-45
-73

0.175
0.170
0.165
0.180
0.190
0.180
0.150

0.0252
0.0245
0.0238
0.0260
0.0275
0.0260
0.0216

4.3

Fibrous type insulation shall not be used on tanks, equipment, or piping systems which handle oil with a
gravity equal to or higher than 0.9042 at 60F (15.5C) where spillage or leakage onto the insulation is
probable, for example manways, nozzles or sample points.

4.4

Insulation for piping and equipment subject to stress corrosion cracking, such as austenitic stainless
steels, shall meet the requirements of ASTM C 871.

THIS INFORMATION FOR AUTHORIZED COMPANY USE ONLY


EXXON RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING COMPANY FLORHAM PARK, N.J.

External Insulation

Page 3 of 12

INTERNATIONAL
PRACTICE

R
S
I,O

IP 14-1-1

(This practice is appropriate for attachment to Inquiry or Purchase Document)

Rev. 1

June 1999

4.5

Insulation containing sodium silicate shall not be used for insulating molybdenum containing austenitic
stainless steels (such as Type 316) operating at 1500F (815C) or greater.

4.6
4.7

Thermal insulation systems used for fireproofing steel vessels are specified in IP 14-3-1.
For hot service, the normal operating (fluid) temperature shall be used to establish insulation requirements
for equipment. For piping, the fluid operating temperature shall be determined from the upstream equipment
to which the piping is connected.
Anticipated startup and shutdown conditions, including steamout, process upsets, regeneration, etc., need
not be considered in establishing insulation requirements, except for plastic insulation.
For cold service, limitation of condensation shall be based on zero wind velocity, and humidity at the
location. If not otherwise specified, the insulation thickness shall be sufficient to limit condensation on the
outer surface of the insulation to 10% of the annual hours.

ACOUSTIC INSULATION SYSTEMS


O

4.8

When dual layer insulation systems employing different insulation materials, are used for combined
thermal and noise control, the insulation for noise control shall be installed as the inside layer. No credit for
noise reduction may be taken for any insulation material in the system other than the fibrous glass or mineral
fiber, unless approved by the Owner's Engineer.

4.9

Acoustic insulation system thickness shall be based on the actual noise reduction required. Insulation
noise reduction shall be considered on an octave band basis.

EQUIPMENT CONSTRUCTED OF LOW MELTING POINT ALLOYS


S,R

4.10

Vessels, heat exchangers, and other equipment constructed from low melting point alloys, such as
aluminum, require fireproofing if they contain flammable material and are located in potential fire areas such as within process unit area limits. The insulation (fireproofing) system shall be designed per the
following:
a.

Finished insulation shall be covered with a steel jacket: zinc coated or alloyed, aluminum coated or
alloyed, or stainless.

b.
c.

The insulation system shall be capable of withstanding the force of fire hose stream impingement.
The insulation system shall prevent the shell of the equipment from reaching a temperature where the
material will be stressed beyond its yield strength when exposed to a hydrocarbon fire for two hours.

d.

For aluminum equipment, this shell temperature shall be considered to be 350F (177C). The
temperature to be used for other low melting point materials will be specified.

HOT SURFACES NOT REQUIRING INSULATION


I

4.11

4.12

Insulation systems designed for heat conservation shall have the insulation omitted from the following
surfaces:
a.

Piping or vessel components designed on the basis or reduced metal temperature resulting from heat
loss to atmosphere.

b.
c.

Piping or vessel components which are insulated internally.


Water side surfaces of coolers and condensers.

d.
e.

Cooling water piping.


Steam traps, expansion joints, rotating joints.

f.

Pumps, turbines, and compressors at operating temperatures below 250F (120C) unless specified to
be fireproofed; insulated to afford process protection against the effects of ambient temperature
(viscosity change, condensation, etc.); for steam service; or for noise control.

The need for insulation on valve bodies, flanges, flanged fittings, and unions, will be specified.

THIS INFORMATION FOR AUTHORIZED COMPANY USE ONLY


EXXON RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING COMPANY FLORHAM PARK, N.J.

IP 14-1-1

External Insulation

Page 4 of 12
Rev. 1

R,S

June 1999

4.13

(This practice is appropriate for attachment to Inquiry or Purchase Document)

INTERNATIONAL
PRACTICE

When specified, hot thermal insulation of flanges is permitted where all of the following conditions are
met:
Max. Fluid Operating Temp.

550F (290C) (1)

Max. Design Pressure

600 psig (4140 kPa) (1)

Flange Material

Carbon Steel, or Low Alloy Steel (to 5% Cr)

Bolting Material

Grade B7 or B16

Insulation Details

(2) (3) (4) (5)

Service Restrictions

Not for hydrogen service, highly corrosive fluids such as concentrated


acids, or toxic materials such as phenol or hydrogen sulfide

Notes:
(1)
Steam service flanges may be insulated for temperatures up to a maximum fluid operating
temperature of 750F (400C) and a maximum design pressure of 650 psig (4480 kPa).
(2)
Insulation systems around flanged joints shall be provided with a 1/2 in. NPS (15 mm) drain tube
or vent (tell tale"). For hydrocarbon services, the flange periphery shall, in addition, be fitted
with a leak band.
(3)
Metal jacket weatherproofing is required.
(4)
The design shall permit removal of the insulation system without destruction of the insulation of
the connective piping.
(5)
Drains and vents shall be piped to a safe location, as specified, for the following services: highly
corrosive, flammable and combustible fluids with operating temperatures above their flash
points, light hydrocarbons [lighter than 68 API (0.709 relative density)].

INSULATING FOR PERSONNEL PROTECTION


S

4.14

Personnel protection shall comply with the following:


a.
Equipment located within 1 ft (300 mm) horizontally or 7 ft (2100 mm) vertically of a normal access,
walkway, or work area shall be insulated to provide a surface temperature no greater than 150F
(65C).
b.

As a preferred alternative to insulation, protection can be afforded by open guards, shields, or railing.

INSULATION SUPPORTS
M,O

4.15

Support rings shall be used on vertical piping to support insulation. One shall be located at the start of
the vertical rise. They shall be spaced so that the compressive strength of the insulation is not exceeded,
but not more than 12 ft (3600 mm) apart.

M,O

4.16

Support rings on vertical vessels shall be spaced at approximately 12 ft (3600 mm) centers. One shall be
located at or below the bottom tangent line. A support ring shall be located at the top tangent line if the
distance to the next ring down exceeds 8 ft (2400 mm).

M,O

4.17

If support rings are used on storage tank shells, they shall be spaced on approximately 12 ft (3600 mm)
centers, and not closer than 8 in. (200 mm) to horizontal weld seams.

M,O

4.18

The minimum thickness of support rings shall be 3/16 in. (5 mm). Width of support ring for single layer
insulation shall be 1/2 the thickness of the insulation. For double layer, it shall be equal to the thickness of
the inner layer plus 1/2 the thickness of the outer layer. The support rings shall be offset 1/4 in. for vessels
and tankage.

M,O

4.19

Materials for pins, clips, and studs, welded to pressure containing components, shall be of the same
nominal chemistry as the component to which they are attached, and shall be installed prior to any required
postweld heat treatment of the item being insulated.

M,O

* 4.20

Piping which needs to be continuously insulated at support points, to afford protection against the
effects of ambient temperature (viscosity change, congealing, condensation, etc.), shall be supported by
rigid bands, saddles, or similar devices matching the OD of the insulation. Insulation at supports shall be of
the load bearing type.

THIS INFORMATION FOR AUTHORIZED COMPANY USE ONLY


EXXON RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING COMPANY FLORHAM PARK, N.J.

IP 14-1-1

External Insulation

Page 5 of 12

INTERNATIONAL
PRACTICE

4.21

(This practice is appropriate for attachment to Inquiry or Purchase Document)

Rev. 1

June 1999

High density polyurethane foam pipe support design shall meet the following minimum requirements:
a.
Shall be designed and installed so as to match the outside diameter of the adjacent piping system.
b.
Foam density shall be 10 lb/cubic foot, minimum.
c.
Load bearing plate shall be hot dip galvanized sheet or plate (gauge no. 12 or 0.109 in. minimum);
heavier as needed for line size and weight.

d.

Cover/jacket (top-half) shall be 0.016 in. thick Galvalume or stainless steel; flat or 3/16 in. corrugated
as specified by Owner's Engineer.

e.

Detailed drawings and dimension tables shall be submitted for approval by Owner.

INSULATION COVERINGS - METAL JACKETS


I,O

4.22

Metal jackets shall comply with the following specifications, and thickness shall not be less than indicated:
METAL
SPECIFICATION

MATERIAL

Thermal Service
Only
0.016 in. (0.40 mm)

Noise Control and


Thermal or
Noise Control Only
0.016 in.

Aluminum (1)

ASTM B 209, Alloy 5005 or 3003

Stainless Steel

ASTM A 167,
Types 301, 302, 304, or 316

0.010 in. (0.25 mm)

0.016 in.

Zinc-coated (Galvanized) Steel

ASTM A 526,
Coating designation G90, Regular Spangle

0.010 in. (0.25 mm)


[uncoated thickness]

0.016 in.

Aluminum-coated Steel

ASTM A 463,
Coating designation T2

0.010 in. (0.25 mm)


[uncoated thickness]

0.016 in.

Zinc-Aluminum Coated Steel

ASTM A 792,
Coating designation AZ50 (minimum)

0.010 in. (0.25 mm)


(uncoated thickness)

0.016 in.

Note:

MINIMUM THICKNESS

4.23

(1) 1/4 in. (6 mm) corrugations for piping, 1-1/4 in. (32 mm) corrugations for vessels and tanks.

Steel jackets, zinc coated (galvanized), aluminum-coated, or stainless, are required for the following
insulation systems and applications:

a.

Any insulation system using plastic foam insulation on equipment handling flammable materials and
combustible liquids, if located within process unit area limits.

b.

Plastic foam dual insulation systems on equipment where credit is to be taken for sizing pressure relief
valves.

c.
d.

Any insulation system in areas liable to severe mechanical abuse.


Any insulation system on equipment constructed of low melting point alloys and located within a
designated potential fire area.

e.
f.
g.
h.

Any insulation system on vessels and piping where the insulation is considered as fireproofing.
Piping components which are a continuation of an insulation system requiring steel jackets.
Insulated hot flanges within the limitations of Par. 4.13.
Insulation systems applied to actuators and leads to actuators for the fireproofing of motor actuators
for valves.

i.
j.

Insulation systems applied to aboveground wiring systems specified to be fireproofed.


Steel jackets are required for insulation systems for noise control or combined thermal and noise
control.

S
S

I,C

4.24

Aluminum jackets are acceptable for covering insulation at locations and service conditions where steel
jackets are not required.

THIS INFORMATION FOR AUTHORIZED COMPANY USE ONLY


EXXON RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING COMPANY FLORHAM PARK, N.J.

IP 14-1-1

External Insulation

Page 6 of 12
Rev. 1

June 1999

(This practice is appropriate for attachment to Inquiry or Purchase Document)

INTERNATIONAL
PRACTICE

NON-MET ALLIC JACKETS AND APPLIED COATINGS - HOT SERVICE


I

I,O

4.25

4.26

The following materials may be used for weatherproofing in locations and for service conditions where
metal jackets are not required:
a.
Plastic jackets, such as glass fiber-reinforced polyester or PVC for in-door applications.
b.
Water-based mastic coatings.
c.
Elastomeric coating materials such as Hypalon or butyl rubber.
Reinforcing for applied elastomeric coatings shall be a synthetic fiber fabric, 6x6 to 10x10 square open
mesh.

INSULATION COVERING (VAPOR BARRIER) - COLD SERVICE


R

4.27

A continuous vapor barrier is required over cold service insulation. Acceptable types of vapor barriers and
limitations on their use are given below:
ACCEPTABLE TYPES OF
VAPOR BARRIERS

I
O,R

LIMITATIONS ON USE

a.

Factory Applied coating

Acceptable for installations within enclosed plant buildings without additional finishing.

b.

Reinforced metallic foil

Acceptable where it can be applied without wrinkles [For example: flat surfaces].
A plastic or metal weatherproofing jacket is required.

c.

Metal or plastic jackets

All joints shall be welded or sealed and provision made for contraction.

d.

Elastomeric coatings

Required for plastic foam rigid (block), and cellular glass, except where sealed (welded)
metal jackets are used.

4.28

Proposals to use sealed metal or plastic jackets as vapor barriers, or proprietary vapor barrier designs and
materials, shall be submitted to the Owner's Engineer for approval.

4.29

Elastomeric reinforced vapor barriers such as Hypalon or butyl rubber shall be used over the following
cold insulation materials except where sealed (welded) metal jacket vapor barrier systems are used:
a.
b.
c.

Plastic foam rigid block.


Cellular glass.
Elas tomeric coatings shall have a water vapor permeance of not more than 0.05 perm at 30 mils dry
per ASTM F 1249 or 0.025 perm at 5l mils dry per ASTM E 96.

d.

If a metal jacket is required to be installed over a vapor barrier coat applied to a cold insulation
system, it shall be applied so that it will not damage the vapor barrier.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
I,O

4.30

The design of thermal insulation systems, including the selection of paints, adhesives, weather coatings, and
joint sealers, shall take in account that piping and equipment may be subject to elevated temperatures
during steaming out for periods up to 24 hours.

4.31

The clearance between the outside surface of any insulation system and adjacent equipment or structural
members shall be not less than 4 in. (100 mm).

4.32

Expansion joints for systems using compressible insulation material shall be provided taking into account
the following:
a.
b.

The expansion of the piping or equipment, based on the design temperature of the item.
The expansion, contraction, or shrinkage of the insulation material, based on the design temperature
of the item.

c.
d.

The resilience of the insulation.


The method of supporting the insulation.

THIS INFORMATION FOR AUTHORIZED COMPANY USE ONLY


EXXON RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING COMPANY FLORHAM PARK, N.J.

External Insulation

IP 14-1-1
Page 7 of 12

INTERNATIONAL
PRACTICE

(This practice is appropriate for attachment to Inquiry or Purchase Document)

Rev. 1

June 1999

ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR COLD INSULATION SYSTEMS


O,R

4.33

Contraction joints for systems using rigid insulation material shall be provided, taking into account the
following:
a.
b.

Contraction of the equipment or piping, based on the design temperature of the item.
The expansion, contraction or shrinkage of the insulating material, based on the design temperature of
the item.

c.
d.
e.

The resilience of the insulation.


The method of supporting the insulation.
The physical properties of the jacket material, where metal or plastic jackets are used as the vapor
barrier.

4.34

Cold boxes shall be of gas tight construction. Connections installed for purging and sealing shall be made
with couplings, 1/2 in. NPS (15 mm) min. size. Couplings shall be furnished with bar stock plugs.

4.35

Piping and equipment within cold boxes shall be insulated with oil-free mineral fiber blanket type
insulation, with approximately an eight lb/cu ft (128 kg/m 3) density. Voids shall be filled with loose-fill
expanded Perlite. Perlite shall not be in direct contact with metal surfaces of the equipment.

4.36

Hardwood blocks shall be installed between equipment (ex piping) supports and concrete pedestals of
equipment operating below -20F (-29C). The wood shall be treated to prevent rotting, moisture absorption
and insect attack. All faces of the block shall receive a thick coating of vapor barrier before the blocks are
secured in position.

4.37

Vapor stops are required in insulation systems to the extent indicated below:
a.
Straight runs of pipe in areas liable to severe mechanical abuse. The vapor stops shall be spaced at
intervals of 10 to 15 ft (3 to 5 m)
b.

Where piping is supported by rigid bands, saddles or similar devices, the vapor stops shall be installed
on both sides of such devices.

c.

On piping runs less than 6 ft (2 m) and around piping components, such as valves, operating at
temperatures below -40F (-40C), vapor stops shall not be used.

d.

Around nozzles, projecting structural members, or other protrusions from vessels and tanks.

PREPARATION FOR INSULATION


4.38

Piping joints (including welded joints), and welded joints of field fabricated equipment shall not be insulated
until after completion of field pressure testing.

4.39

Austenitic stainless steel equipment. Surfaces that have been exposed to salt spray during the period of
field storage and construction shall be washed with water containing less than 250 ppm (250 mg/L) chloride
ion. Potable water typically meets this requirement. Surfaces shall be dry prior to application of insulation.

4.40

Owner's Engineer will specify protective coatings or wrapped aluminum foil sheathing to protect thermally
insulated austenitic stainless steel equipment from chloride stress corrosion cracking.

I,R

4.41

The minimum operating temperature of a vessel, exchanger, or other equipment shall be the determining
factor for determining the need for coating beneath insulation.

R,M

4.42

Carbon steel equipment. Metal surfaces shall be painted per IP 19-1-1 for the following service conditions:
a.
Equipment in continuous service with operating (fluid) temperatures between 25F and 300F
(-4C and 150C).

I,R
I,R

I,R

b.

Equipment in intermittent service at any operating temperature. Intermittent service is one in which
the process temperature cycles on a recurrent basis from less than 25F (-4C) or greater than 300F
(150C) to between 25-300F (-4 to 150C).

c.

If the insulation requires an adhesive to secure it in place, the primer shall be selected to be
compatible with the adhesive.

THIS INFORMATION FOR AUTHORIZED COMPANY USE ONLY


EXXON RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING COMPANY FLORHAM PARK, N.J.

IP 14-1-1

External Insulation

Page 8 of 12
Rev. 1

June 1999

(This practice is appropriate for attachment to Inquiry or Purchase Document)

INTERNATIONAL
PRACTICE

MATERIALS
RIGID AND RESILIENT INSULATION
I,S

5.1

Insulation materials, including insulating cement and insulation covering, shall not contain asbestos.

BLOCK POLYURETHANE FOAM INSULATION


S,R
S,R

5.2
5.3

Polyurethane foam insulation shall have a flame spread classification of 25 or less per ASTM E 84.
Polyurethane foam insulation shall conform with ASTM C 591, Type II.

LOOSE FILL INSULATION


O,R

5.4

Water vapor permeability. Unless insulation is enclosed in an airtight container such as a cold box or the
annular space of a double wall storage tank, insulation material shall have a water vapor permeability not
more than 3 perm-in. (5.01 metric perm-cm) per ASTM E 96, Dessicant Method.

ACOUSTIC INSULATION
O,R

I,R

5.5

Insulation used solely for noise control or in a system for combined thermal and noise control, shall be
fibrous glass, 6 to 8 lb/cu ft (96 to 128 kg/m 3), or mineral fiber, 8 to 10 lb/cu ft (128 to 160 kg/m 3). No
substitutions for these materials are permitted.

5.6

Material and thickness specifications for acoustical jackets or coatings shall be approved by Owner's
Engineer.

ACCESSORIES FOR THERMAL INSULATION SYSTEMS


M,O

5.7

Bands, seals, expansion springs, and clips used for securing insulation or jackets shall be of galvanized
steel, stainless steel, or Monel, as specified. The minimum size of bands shall be as follows:
EQUIPMENT

MINIMUM BAND SIZE

Pipe or Vessels 24 in. (600 mm) OD or less


Pipe over 24 in. OD

3/8 in. x 0.015 in. (10 mm x 0.4 mm)


1/2 in. x 0.015 in. (12 mm x 0.4 mm)

Vessels over 24 in. OD and tanks

3/4 in. x 0.020 in. (20 mm x 0.5 mm)

M,O

5.8

Sheet metal screws and rivets shall be galvanized steel, stainless steel, aluminum, or Monel, as specified.
Screws shall be the self-tapping type.

M,O

5.9

Components of dissimilar metals subject to galvanic corrosion shall not be brought into contact with
each other. Plated or clad accessories - such as bands, screws and rivets - shall not be used except where
galvanized steel or aluminum-coated steel is permitted.

APPLICATION OF HOT SERVICE THERMAL INSULATION


SURFACE PREPARATION
O,R
O,R

6.1

Surface preparation, including washing of stainless steel surfaces, and protective coating application will
be done by purchaser or vendor, as specified.

6.2

Surfaces to be insulated shall be dry, and have foreign matter removed by solvent cleaning. Unpainted
surfaces shall also be free of loose scale.

INSTALLATION
O,R
O,R

6.3
6.4

All gaps shall be filled with vendor specified caulking material.


Spacing of studs, clips, or pins for securing insulation shall be on approximately 24 in. (600 mm) centers
for blanket insulation. Block insulation shall be installed with no less than 2 studs (clips or pins) per block.

O,R

6.5

Split pins shall be spread, bent over, and imbedded into the face of the insulation.

THIS INFORMATION FOR AUTHORIZED COMPANY USE ONLY


EXXON RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING COMPANY FLORHAM PARK, N.J.

External Insulation

IP 14-1-1
Page 9 of 12

INTERNATIONAL
PRACTICE

(This practice is appropriate for attachment to Inquiry or Purchase Document)

Rev. 1

June 1999

VESSELS
O,R

O,R

6.6

Insulation on vessel heads shall be held in place with bands or braided steel wire radiating from a floating
ring. The floating ring shall be made of 1/4 in. (6 mm) round carbon steel rod. The bands shall be spaced
not more than 12 in. (300 mm) apart at the tangent line, and attached to a 1/4 in. (6 mm) carbon steel rod or
braiding at the head tangent.

6.7

Vessel nameplates (including code inspection plates) shall not be insulated. Insulation surrounding these
plates shall be sealed to prevent water from entering.

MACHINERY AND OTHER IRREGULAR SURFACES


O,R

O,R

6.8

Insulation for pumps and turbines, where required, may be of the removable box type. The fabricated box
shall have the interior surface lined with resilient type mineral fiber insulation.

6.9

All projections from surfaces shall be insulated completely or to the maximum practicable extent. (For
example; stairway clips shall be insulated to the attachment point of the stair tread; nozzles shall be
insulated to the connective flange; sphere supports shall be insulated to the termination point of the
fireproofing).

STORAGE TANKS
O,R

6.10

If not otherwise specified, the first course of insulation at the base of tanks shall start at an elevation of 8
to 12 in. (200 to 300 mm) above grade or above the bottom (annular) plate. The bare surface shall be
protected with a complete paint or coating system per the specified Painting Service Category of IP 19-1-1.

PIPING
O,R
O,R
O,R

6.11
6.12
V 6.13

Each line shall be insulated as a single unit.


Insulation at piping support points shall be of the load bearing type capable of carrying the pipe load.
All fittings, flanges, and valves, if required, shall be insulated to the same thickness as the insulation of the
pipe.

O,R
O,R

6.14
6.15

Insulation of valves shall leave the packing gland accessible.


Insulation system around flanged joints shall be provided with a 1/4 in. (6 mm) drain or vent (tell tale")
tube.

O,R
O,R

6.16
6.17

Extended bonnets of valves shall not be insulated.


Insulation for valves, elbows, fittings shall be shop fabricated.

ACCESS
O,R

6.18

Insulation systems for equipment and piping shall permit access to parts requiring maintenance without
requiring destruction of the entire insulation system.

O,R

6.19

Insulation on both sides of flanged joints shall be tapered to permit stud removal without damage to the
insulation.

O,R

6.20

Edges of insulation openings such as around manholes, nozzles, cutouts for stud removal, pipe supports,
and other attachments, shall be sealed to prevent water from entering. Metal covers shall be used if
temperatures are beyond the usable range of weatherproofing coatings.

METAL JACKET COVERINGS


I
R

6.21
6.22

The type of jacket covering will be specified.


Laps of jackets shall be positioned to shed water and shall be sealed to prevent entrance of water.
Minimum lap shall be as follows:

6.23

Jacket attachment shall be designed to hold the jacket in place for the condition of maximum design wind
speed.

6.24

A minimum of two bands per jacket course shall be used.


On vertical surfaces, means to prevent sliding of the bands shall be provided.
Wire shall not be used to hold the jacket for pipe or vessels over 24 in. (600 mm).

THIS INFORMATION FOR AUTHORIZED COMPANY USE ONLY


EXXON RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING COMPANY FLORHAM PARK, N.J.

IP 14-1-1

External Insulation

Page 10 of 12
Rev. 1

June 1999

(This practice is appropriate for attachment to Inquiry or Purchase Document)

INTERNATIONAL
PRACTICE

MASTIC OR ELASTOMERIC COATINGS


O,R
I
O,R

6.25
6.26
6.27

The synthetic fabric reinforcing shall be completely covered by the elastomeric coating.
On fixed roof tanks, the last coat applied to the tank roof shall be white in color.
Reinforcing fabric used in conjunction with the coating shall be applied without wrinkles; metal fasteners
(e.g., staples) shall not be used to hold the fabric.

O,R

6.28

Application of multi-coat system:


a.
Surface cells of cellular glass shall be filled with a trowelable barrier elastomer. This will serve as the
first coat if built up 10 mils above the insulation material.

O,R

6.29

b.
Application of the mastic or elastomer shall be per the manufacturer's recommendation.
Double layers of fabric shall be used at joints of attachments, or other configurations, requiring a smooth
transition of the weatherproofing coatings.

APPLICATION OF COLD SERVICE INSULATION


SURFACE PREPARATION
R
R

7.1

Surface preparation, including washing of stainless steel surfaces, and protective coating application will
be done by purchaser or vendor, as specified.

7.2

Surfaces to be insulated shall be dry, and have foreign matter removed by solvent cleaning. Unpainted
surfaces shall also be free of loose scale.

INSTALLATION
R

7.3

All insulation joints shall be installed butted together. The gap between sections of insulation shall not
exceed 0.05 in. (1.25 mm).

R
R

7.4
7.5

Each layer of insulation shall be installed with transverse or longitudinal joints staggered.
If more than one layer of insulation is applied, each layer shall be secured in place and joints of each layer
offset.

7.6

Tape or bands may be used to secure the insulation. Tape may be used to hold an inner insulation layer,
or to hold an outer insulation layer only where metal jacketing is used.

7.7

Multiple layer construction shall be used for an insulation thickness 2 in. (50 mm) or greater. There shall
be no through joints.

7.8

Side and end joints shall be coated with joint sealer or adhesive. The complete face of each mating edge
shall be coated. If two or more layers are used, only the joints of the external layer require sealing.

7.9

Insulation with factory-applied, reinforced metallic foil vapor barrier shall be supplied in hinged halves
with a flap for sealing the longitudinal joint with a waterproof adhesive. The end joints shall be sealed with
strips of a vapor barrier material. The insulation shall be fastened only with bands or pressure sensitive tape.

7.10

Wood blocks installed between equipment supports and equipment, at piping supports, or where used in
conjunction with removable insulation sections, shall receive a thick coating of vapor barrier on all faces
before the blocks are secured in position.

7.11

Insulation systems for equipment and piping shall permit access to parts requiring maintenance without
requiring destruction of the entire insulation system.

VESSELS
R

7.12

Insulation on vessel heads shall be held in place with bands radiating from a floating ring. The floating
ring shall be made of 1/4 in. (6 mm) round carbon steel rod. The bands shall be spaced not more than 12 in.
(300 mm) apart at the tangent line, and attached to a 1/2 in. (12 mm) carbon steel rod at the head tangent.

7.13

Vessel nameplates shall be insulated. A duplicate nameplate, provided by the purchaser, shall be installed
over the outside surface of the insulation system. The method of attachment used shall not puncture the
vapor seal.

MACHINERY AND OTHER IRREGULAR SURFACES


R

7.14

Irregularly shaped equipment shall be insulated with rigid type prefabricated shapes or sections.

THIS INFORMATION FOR AUTHORIZED COMPANY USE ONLY


EXXON RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING COMPANY FLORHAM PARK, N.J.

External Insulation

IP 14-1-1
Page 11 of 12

INTERNATIONAL
PRACTICE

(This practice is appropriate for attachment to Inquiry or Purchase Document)

Rev. 1

June 1999

PROJECTIONS
V

7.15

The extent of insulation around nozzles and projecting structural members will be specified.

PIPING
R
R
R
R
R

7.16
7.17
7.18
7.19
7.20

Each line shall be insulated as a single unit.


Insulation at pipe support points shall be of the load bearing type, capable of carrying the pipe load.
All fittings, flanges, and valves shall be insulated to the same thickness as the insulation of the pipe.
Extended bonnets of valves shall not be insulated.
Insulation for valves, elbows, fittings shall be shop fabricated. The number of joints and the amount of
adhesive used in the fabrication shall be kept to a minimum.

R,M

7.21

Insulation of valves shall leave the packing gland accessible.

INSTALLATION OF LOOSE FILL INSULATION


O,R

7.22

The moisture content of loose fill type insulation shall not exceed 0.5% by weight (mass) after application.

VAPOR BARRIER AND JACKET


R

7.23

Elastomeric coatings shall be reinforced with synthetic fiber fabric when plastic foam block or cellular glass
insulation is used.

7.24

Total elastomeric coating film thickness shall be between 45-60 mils dry (1.1-1.5 mm) [96-128 mils wet
(2.4-3.2 mm)], and applied in a minimum of three coats. The fabric shall be completely covered by the
elastomeric coating.

7.25

Reinforcing fabric used in conjunction with the coating shall be applied without wrinkles; metal fasteners
(e.g., staples) shall not be used to hold the fabric.

7.26

Application of multi-coat system:


a.
Surface cells of cellular glass shall be filled with a trowelable vapor barrier elastomer. This will serve
as the first coat if built up ten mils above the insulation material.

7.27

7.28

b.
Application of the vapor barrier elastomer shall be per the manufacturer's recommendation.
Double layers of fabric shall be used at joints of attachments, or other configurations, requiring a smooth
transition of the vapor barrier coating.
If a metal jacket is specified to be applied over a cold insulation system, the jacket must be positioned so
that it will not damage the vapor barrier during jacket installation.

INSPECTION AND TESTING


I
I,R

8.1
8.2

The term Inspector, used in this practice, refers to the Owner's representative.
Compliance with governing specifications shall be checked by the Inspector during the course of installation
of the insulation system.

I,R

8.3

Work shall not proceed with the next step in the insulation system sequence (i.e., surface preparation,
priming, insulation, weather barrier application) until the previous work has been inspected and approved.

THIS INFORMATION FOR AUTHORIZED COMPANY USE ONLY


EXXON RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING COMPANY FLORHAM PARK, N.J.

IP 14-1-1

External Insulation

Page 12 of 12
Rev. 1

June 1999

I,R

8.4

(This practice is appropriate for attachment to Inquiry or Purchase Document)

INTERNATIONAL
PRACTICE

The Inspector shall inspect the workmanship at each of (but not limited to) the following hold points:
a.
Adhesive mixing and application.
b.
Fit-up and joint gaps on inner layers of insulation.
c.
Inspect each layer for damage and cracks prior to continuing system application.
d.
Observe joint sealer application and fit-up of outer layer.
e.
Check thickness of elastomeric mastic insulation coatings for hot insulation and thickness of first coat
of vapor barrier for cold insulation.
f.
g.

Check fabric application and smoothness in first coat of mastic or vapor barrier.
Check second and third coat application of vapor barrier, thickness and reinforcing fabric coverage for
cold insulation systems.

h.

Check application of insulation weather barriers or coverings.

Revision Memo
9/68
1/72
1/73
6/74
1/76

Original Issue of Basic Practice


Revision 1
Revision 2
Revision 3
Revision 4

6/77
6/80
6/81
1/83
6/93

Revision
Revision
Revision
Revision
Revision

5
6
7
8
9

6/97
6/99

Revision 0 - Original Issue of International Practice


Revision 1
Old Par. 1.5 deleted. Table 2 aluminum coated steel changed to Type 2, ASTM C591 changed from "polyurethane"
to "polyisocyanurate". Par. 4.2 deleted thermal conductivity values for cellular glass and required this "to be supplied
by manufacturer". Par. 4.14a "may" changed to "shall". Par. 4.22 aluminum coated steel changed to type 2. Par.
4.25 Hypalon capitalized. Par. 4.39 potable water typically meets 250 ppm max chloride. Second paragraph from
Old Par. 5.5 relocated to New Par. 5.6. Old Pars. 5.6-5.8 renumbered. Par. 6.6 wording changed to allow braided
steel wire, values changed to 1/4 in and 6 mm. Par. 7.28 new addition regarding care during jacket insulation.
(corrected 7/29/99)

Exxon Research and Engineering Company, 1997, 1999

THIS INFORMATION FOR AUTHORIZED COMPANY USE ONLY


EXXON RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING COMPANY FLORHAM PARK, N.J.