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THE DESIGN PROCESS

The general design process :


1. Recognition of need
2. Definition of problem
3. Synthesis
4. Analysis and optimization
5. Evaluation
6. Presentation
Recognition of need : Recognition of need involves the realization by someone that a problem

exists for which some corrective action should be taken.


Definition of the problem : Definition of the problem involves a thorough specification of the
item to be designed. This specification includes physical and functional characteristics, cost,
quality, and operating performance.
Synthesis : Synthesis and analysis are closely related and highly interactive in the design
process. In this a creative design is planned and implemented in the product design. The
complete product is subjected is subjected to analysis and Improved through this analysis and
finally redesigned in improved manner.
Analysis and optimization : The improved design is subjected to analysis until the design is
optimized within the constraints imposed on the designer.
Evaluation : Evaluation is concerned with measuring the design against the specifications
established in the problem definition phase. This requires a prototype model needed to be
manufactured for testing against design specifications.
Presentation : This includes documentation of the design by means of drawings,
material specifications, assembly lists, and so on.
In CAD process , last four phases of traditional design process are replaced by the following
phases .

Geometric Modeling : In computer-aided design, geometric modeling is concerned with the


computer-compatible mathematical description of the geometry of an object. The mathematical
description allow s the image of the object to be displayed and manipulated on a graphics
terminal. The CAD software provides the
geometric modeling capabilities

Engineering analysis: For any engineering design, some type of analysis is required. The
analysis may involve stress strain calculations heat transfer calculations, the use of differential
equations to describe the dynamic behavior of the system being designed. The computer can be
used to aid in this analysis work.
Design review and evaluation: It can be done conveniently on the graphics terminal. One of the
most interesting evaluation feature available on some CAD system is kinematics. The available
kinematics package provides the capability to animate the motions of simple design mechanisms.
Automated Drafting : This is the final stage in the design process. In this stage the design is
documented in the form of drawings.