GBT 1029-2005

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GBT 1029-2005

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01

K 21

NATIONAL STANDARD

GB

GB/T 1029-2005

Replace GB/T 1029-1993

Machines

Implemented on April 01, 2006

Jointly issued by

the General Administration of Quality Supervision,

Inspection

and

Quarantine

(AQSIQ)

and

the

Standardization Administration (SAC) of the People's

Republic of China

Contents

Foreword ............................................................................................................................IV

1 Scope ..............................................................................................................................1

2 Normative References .....................................................................................................1

3 Test Preparation...............................................................................................................2

4 General Test Items ...........................................................................................................2

4.1 Determination of Insulation Resistance .........................................................................2

4.2 Determination of DC Resistance of the Winding at Actual Cold State............................4

4.3 Determination of Shaft Voltage .....................................................................................6

4.4 Determination of No-load Characteristics .....................................................................6

4.5 Determination of Steadystate Shortcircuit Characteristics..............................................8

4.6 Test of Exciter ..............................................................................................................9

4.7 Overspeed Test .............................................................................................................9

4.8 Interturn Short-circuit Test of Non-salient Pole Generator Rotor ...................................9

4.9 Determination of Vibration ...........................................................................................9

4.10 Inspection on Sealing State and Determination of Hydrogen Leakage .........................9

4.11 Interturn Impulse Withstand Voltage Test ....................................................................9

4.12 Short Time Voltage Rising Test ...................................................................................9

4.13 Power-frequency Withstand Voltage Test .................................................................. 10

4.14 DC Leakage Current Test and DC Withstand Voltage Test of the Insulation of Armature

Winding .............................................................................................................................. 12

4.15 Determination of Voltage Waveform Sinusoidal Distortion Factor ............................. 14

4.16 Noise Determination................................................................................................. 14

4.17 Determination of Telephone Harmonic Form Factor (THF)....................................... 14

5 Efficiency Determination............................................................................................... 14

5.1 Direct Determination Method of Efficiency ................................................................ 15

5.2 Indirect Determination Method of Efficiency .............................................................. 17

5.3 Calorimetric Method................................................................................................... 18

5.4 Determination of Losses Corresponding to the Rated Load ......................................... 18

5.5 Retardation Test.......................................................................................................... 22

5.6 Calculation of Efficiency under other Loads ............................................................... 23

6 Temperature Rise Test ................................................................................................... 24

6.1 Measurement Method of Temperature......................................................................... 24

6.2 Determination of Cooling Medium Temperature in Temperature Rise Test .................. 25

6.3 Determination of Temperature at Different Parts of the Machine in Temperature Rise

Test ..................................................................................................................................... 25

6.4 Correction of the Measured Temperature at Different Parts of the Machine after Cutting

off the Supply...................................................................................................................... 26

6.5 Short-circuit Insulation and Brake Method.................................................................. 26

6.6 Method of Temperature Rise Test................................................................................ 26

7 Determination of Voltage Regulation Performance at Self-excited Constant Voltage....... 31

7.1 Determination of Steady-state Voltage Regulation Rate............................................... 31

I

Loads .................................................................................................................................. 32

7.3 Determination of Transient Voltage Variation Rate ...................................................... 33

8 Determination of Torque and Rotational Inertia ............................................................. 33

8.1 Determination of Locked-rotor Current and Locked-rotor Torque................................ 33

8.2 Determination of Nominal Pull-in Torque ................................................................... 35

8.3 Determination of Pull-out Torque of Synchronous Motor ............................................ 37

8.4 Short-time Overtorque Test of Motor .......................................................................... 39

8.5 Determination of Rotational Inertia............................................................................. 39

9 Overcurrent Test and Mechanical Strength Test.............................................................. 39

9.1 Occasional Overcurrent Test ....................................................................................... 39

9.2 Overload Test ............................................................................................................. 40

9.3 Short-circuit Mechanical Strength Test........................................................................ 40

10 Negative Sequence Current Affordability Test.............................................................. 40

11 Determination of the Terminal Dynamic Characteristics of Stator Winding................... 40

12 Parameter Determination (This Chapter is identical to IEC 60034-4) ........................... 41

12.1 Description ............................................................................................................... 41

12.2 Determination of Parameters from No-load Saturation Characteristic and Three-phase

Steadystate Shortcircuit Characteristic................................................................................. 42

12.3 Over-excitation Test at Zero Power-factor ................................................................. 43

12.4 Determination of the Excitation Current Corresponding to the Rated Voltage and Rated

Armature Current at Zero Power Factor (Overexcitation)..................................................... 43

12.5 Determination of Potier Reactance from the No-load and Three-phase Steadystate

Shortcircuit Characteristics and the Excitation Current Corresponding to the Rated Voltage

and Rated Armature Current at Zero Power Factor (over-excitated) ..................................... 44

12.6 Determination of the Rated Excitation Current by the Potier's Diagram..................... 44

12.7 Determination of the Rated Excitation Current by the ASA Diagram......................... 46

12.8 Determination of the Rated Excitation Current by the Swedish Diagram ................... 46

12.9 Negative Excitation Test ........................................................................................... 48

12.10 Determination of Xq by Negative Excitation Test..................................................... 48

12.11 Low Slip Test.......................................................................................................... 49

12.12 Determination of Xq from the Low Slip Test ............................................................ 49

12.13 Determination of the Load Angle by On-load Test ................................................ 50

12.14 Determination of Xq from On-load Test Measuring the Load Angle ......................... 50

12.15 Sudden Three-phase Short-circuit Test .................................................................... 50

12.16 Determination of Parameters from the Sudden Three-phase Short-circuit Test ......... 53

12.17 Voltage Recovery Test............................................................................................. 54

12.18 Determination of Parameters from the Voltage Recovery Test ................................. 55

12.19 Applied Voltage Test with the Rotor in Direct and Quadrature Axis Positions with

Respect to the Armature Winding Field Axis ....................................................................... 56

12.20 Determination of Parameters from the Applied Voltage Test with the Rotor in Direct

and Quadrature Axis Positions with Respect to the Armature Winding Field Axis ................ 56

12.21 Applied Voltage Test with the Rotor in any Arbitrary Position ................................. 57

12.22 Determination of Parameters from the Applied Voltage Test with the Rotor in any

II

Arbitrary Position................................................................................................................ 57

12.23 Line-to-line Steadystate Short-circuit Test ............................................................... 57

12.24 Determination of Parameters from the Line-to-line Steadystate Short-circuit Test.... 58

12.25 Negative Phase Sequence Test ................................................................................ 59

12.26 Determination of Parameters from the Negative Phase Sequence Test ..................... 59

12.27 Single-phase Voltage Application to the Three-phase Test ....................................... 59

12.28 Determination of Parameters from Single-phase Voltage to Three-phase Test .......... 59

12.29 Line-to-line and to Neutral Steadystate Short-circuit Test ........................................ 60

12.30 Determination of Parameters from the Line-to-line and to the Neutral Steadystate

Short-circuit Test................................................................................................................. 60

12.31 Field Current Decay Test with the Armature Winding Open Circuited ..................... 61

12.32 Determination of T'd0 from Field Current Decay Test with the Armature Winding

Open Circuited.................................................................................................................... 61

12.33 Field Current Decay Test with the Armature Winding Short Circuited ..................... 61

12.34 Determination of T'd from Field Current Decay Test with the Armature Winding

Short-circuit ........................................................................................................................ 61

12.35 Suspended Rotor Oscillation Test............................................................................ 62

12.36 Determination of TJ and H from Suspended Rotor Oscillation Test .......................... 62

12.37 Auxiliary Pendulum Swing Test .............................................................................. 62

12.38 Determination of TJ and H from Auxiliary Pendulum Swing Test ............................ 63

12.39 No-Load Retardation Test ....................................................................................... 63

12.40 Determination of Tj and H from the No-load Retardation Test ................................. 63

12.41 On-load Retardation Test of Mechanically Coupled Machines with the Synchronous

Machine Operating as a Motor ............................................................................................ 64

12.42 Determination of Tj and H from the On-load Retardation Test with the Synchronous

Machine Operating as a Motor ............................................................................................ 64

12.43 Acceleration after a Load Drop Test with the Machine Operating as a Generator ..... 64

12.44 Determination of Tj and H from the Acceleration after a Load Drop Test with the

Machine Operating as a Generator....................................................................................... 64

12.45 Rated Voltage Regulation Factor UN ..................................................................... 65

12.46 Determination of Parameters by Calculations Using Known Test Parameters........... 65

Appendix A (Normative) The Value While Determining Excitation Winding Temperature

Rise by No-load Short-circuit Method ................................................................................. 69

Appendix B (Informative) Symbols and Units .................................................................. 70

III

Foreword

This standard specifies the test methods for the products of three-phase synchronous

machines and is the reference for the tests of three-phase synchronous machines.

The previous edition GB/T 1029-1993 "Test Procedures for Three-phase Synchronous

Machines" of this standard was developed referring to such international and foreign

standards as IEC 60034-2: 1972, IEC 60034-4: 1985, IEEE115: 1983, OCT 10169: 1977 and

OCT 11828: 1986.

This standard is a revision of GB/T 1029-1993 "Test Procedures for Three-phase

Synchronous Machines" and there have been some main revisions as follows:

1. In consideration of actual national conditions of China, Chapter 12 "Parameter

Determination" is modified in relation to IEC 60034-4: 1985 "Rotating Electrical

Machines-Part 4: Methods for Determining Synchronous Machine Quantities from Tests" of

the International Electrotechnical Commission, and Annex A of IEC 60034-4 provides the test

methods that are not finally authorized, as its contents are immature in practical application so

that it is deleted in this standard.

2. Foreword was added;

Negative-sequence performance test was added;

Determination of the terminal dynamic characteristics of stator winding was added;

Contents on determination of transient voltage variation were added.

3. Relevant contents on total current method and superposition method were deleted;

The specified synchronous feedback method that may be adopted for two similar or

suitable machines was deleted;

Contents on the short-circuit current test were deleted.

4. The determination of excitation current and voltage regulation factor and the

determination of rotational inertia were adjusted into the "Parameter Determination".

5. The mistakes in GB/T 1029-1993 were corrected. The main corrections are as follows:

In 6.6.3.4 of the former standard: ( I 2fN R f 73 ,75 c ) was changed into

( I 2fN R f 75 ,75 c );

In Formula (52) of the former standard: The second "=" was changed into "";

U N U ' P + Pfws

was changed

U U ' (1 s ) PN

U U ' P + Pfws

= N

U U ' (1 s ) PN

2

into t pin

6. Appendixes A, B and C of the former standard were deleted.

This standard shall replace GB/T 1029-1993 from the implementation data hereof.

Appendix A of this standard is normative and Appendix B is informative.

This tandard was proposed by China Machinery Industry Federation.

IV

Technical Committee on Electric Rotating Machinery of Standardization Administration of

China.

This standard was drafted by Harbin Institute of Large Electrical Machinery with the

participation of Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd., Shanghai Turbine Generator Co.,

Ltd., North China Electric Power Research Institute, Huazhong University of Science and

Technology, Power Equipment National Engineering Research Center, Harbin Institute of

Technology and Shanghai Electrical Apparatus Research Institute, etc.

. Chief drafting staffs of this standard: Fu Lixin, Gou Zhide, Zhu Changqian, Shen

Rongzhou, Bai Yamin, Ning Yuquan, Zhao Yijun, Sun Li, Kang Erliang and Ni Lixin.

All previously repalced editions hereof are as:

GB 1029-1967 (issued for the first time), GB 1029-1980 (revised for the first time) and

GB/T 1029-1993 (revised for the second time). This edition is a revision for the third time.

NOTE: The English version hereof has been translated directly from the openly-published Chinese

standard GB/T 1029-2005 . In the event of any discrepancy in the process of implementation, the

Chinese version shall prevail.

Scope

This standard specifies the test methods for three-phase synchronous machines.

This standard is applicable to the synchronous motors, generators and synchronous

compensators with rated power of 1kW (kvA) and above. It is not applicable to the

synchronous machines without DC exciting winding, but the tests on the synchronous motors

powered by static variable frequency power supply may be made reference to it.

Normative References

The following standards contain provisions which, through reference in this text,

constitute provisions of this standard. For dated reference, subsequent correctionments to

(excluding correction to), or revisions of, any of these publications do not apply. However, all

parties coming to an agreement according to this standard are encouraged to study whether

the latest edition of these documents is applicable. For undated references, the latest edition of

the normative document is applicable to this standard.

GB 755-2000 "Rotating Electrical Machines-Rating and Performance" (idt IEC 60034-1:

1996)

GB/T 5321 "Measurement of Loss and Efficiency for Large AC Electrical Machines by

the Calorimetric Method" (GB/T 5321-1985, neq IEC 60034-2A: 1974)

GB/T 7409.3 "Excitation System for Synchronous Electrical Machines-Technical

Requirements of Excitation System for Large and Medium Synchronous Generators"

GB 10068 "Mechanical Vibration of Certain Machines with Shaft Heights 56 mm and

Higher-measurement Evaluation and Limits of Vibration Severity" (GB 10068-2000, idt IEC:

60034-14: 1996)

GB/T 10069.1 "Measurement of Airborne Noise Emitted by Rotating Electrical

Machinery and the Noise Limits-Engineering Method for the Measurement of Airborne

Noise"

GB/T 10069.2 "Measurement of Airborne Noise Emitted by Rotating Electrical

Machinery and the Noise Limits-Survey Method for the Measurement of Airborne Noise"

GB/T 10585 "Fundamental Requirements of Excitation Systems Medium and Small

Synchronous Machines"

GB/T 15548 "General Specification for Three-phase Synchronous Generators Driven

by Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine"

JB/T 6227 "Checking Methods and Evaluation of Sealing of Hydrogen-cooled Electrical

Machines"

JB/T 7836.1 "Electric Heater for Electrical Machine Part 1: General Technique

1

Specifications"

JB/T 8445 "Test Methods for Negative Sequence Current Affordability of Three-phase

Synchronous Generator"

JB/T 8446 "Methods for the Determination of Interturn Short-circuit in the Rotor

Winding of Cylindrical Synchronous Generators"

JB/T 8990 "Modal Test Analyses and Natural Frequency Measurement Methods of

Large Turbo-generators on Stator End Windings and Evaluation Criteria"

JB/T 9615.1 "Test Methods of the Interturn Insulation on Random Wound Winding for

AC Low-voltage Machines"

JB/T 9615.2 "Test Limits of the Interturn Insulation on Random Wound Winding for

AC Low-voltage Machines"

JB/T 10098 "Impulse Voltage Withstand Levels of Rotating a.c. Machines with

Form-wound Stator Coils" (JB/T 10098-2000, idt IEC 60034-15: 1995)

JB/T 10500.1 "Embedded Thermometer Resistance for Electrical Machines Part1:

General Specification, Measuring Methods and Examine Rule"

IEC 60034-2 "Rotating electrical machines-Part 2: Methods for Determining Losses

and Efficiency from Tests"

IEC 60034-4 "Rotating electrical machines-Part 4: Methods of Determining

Synchronous Machine Quantities from Tests"

Test Preparation

The electric testing instruments and meters used during the tests shall have an accuracy

class no less than 0.5 (tramegger excluded), the measurements of the three-phase power may

be conducted by using three-phase wattmeter in accuracy class of 1.0 and the measurements

of temperature may be conducted by using the thermometer with error of 1.

Before the test, the to-be-tested machine shall be at its normal state and be correctly

wired, all the equipments and conductors shall meet the test requirements.

4.1.1 Determination of insulation resistance of the winding with the enclosure and

between the windings

4.1.1.1 State of the machine during the measurement

The measurements of the insulation resistance of machine winding shall be conducted

respectively at the actual cold state and hot state of the machine (or after the temperature rise

test).

During the inspection test, unless otherwise specified, the measurements of the insulation

resistance of the winding with the enclosure and between the windings shall be conducted

only at the cold state.

When measuring the insulation resistance, the winding temperature shall be measured,

2

however, at the actual cold state, the environmental temperature may be measured as the

winding temperature.

4.1.1.2 Selection of tramegger

To measure the insulation resistance of the winding with the enclosure and between

windings, the tramegger shall be selected according to Table based on the rated voltage of the

tested winding.

Table 1

Rated voltage of the tested winding UN /V

Specification of tramegger /V

UN<1000

500

1000UN2500

500~1000

2500<UN5000

1000~2500

5000<UN12000

2500~5000

UN>12000

5000~10000

To measure the insulation resistance of winding, if the start and tail ends of the windings

are led out separately, then the insulation resistance of each winding with the enclosure and

between the windings shall be measured respectively, here, the other windings and

respectively embedded thermometric elements not included in the test shall have electrical

connection with the iron core or the enclosure, and the enclosure shall be grounded. Where

the neutral points are wired together and uneasy to separate, then the insulation resistance of

all the wired windings to the enclosure shall be measured.

After the insulation resistance measurement, each circuit shall have electrical connection

with the grounded enclosure so as to discharge.

To measure the insulation resistance of internal water-cooled winding, special insulation

resistance measuring apparatus shall be used, but ordinary tramegger may be used when the

insulating hose is dry or blown to dry.

The electrical elements (such as semiconductor rectifier, transistor and capacitor, etc)

that can not withstand the high voltage impulse of tramegger shall be dismantled or

short-circuited in the circuit before the measurement.

During the measurement, data shall be read and winding temperature shall be recorded

only after the pointer is stable.

To measure the absorption ratio, then the insulation resistance values at the 15s and 60s

shall be measured when the absorption ratio is R60/R15.

To measure the polarization index, the insulation resistance values at the 1min and 10min

shall be measured when the polarization index is R10/R1.

4.1.2 Determination of other insulation resistances

4.1.2.1 Determination of the bearing insulation resistance

The determination of bearing insulation resistance shall adopt the tramegger not above

1000V.

4.1.2.2 Determination of the insulation resistance of embedded temperature detector

The determination of the insulation resistance of embedded temperature detector shall be

conducted according to the method specified in JB/T 10500.1.

4.1.2.3 Determination of the insulation resistance of heater

The determination of the insulation resistance of heater shall be conducted according to

3

4.2 Determination of DC Resistance of the Winding at Actual Cold State

4.2.1 Determination of winding temperature at actual cold state

After keeping the machine indoors for some time, the temperature of the machine

winding and iron core as well as the ambient temperature shall be measured by using

thermometers (or embedded temperature detectors), the difference between the measured

temperature and the cooling medium temperature shall not exceed 2K; as for the large and

medium machines, the thermometers shall have the thermal insulating measures with the

outside, and the time for keeping the thermometer shall not be less than 15min.

To measure the temperature of armature winding and auxiliary winding (such as the

harmonic winding of self-excited constant voltage generator), the temperature at the winding

head and winding slot shall be measured at different positions based on the size of the

machine (if it is difficult, the surface temperature at the iron core tooth and iron core yoke

may be measured), the average value shall be taken as the temperature of winding at the

actual cold state.

To measure the temperature of excitation winding of salient pole machine, temperature

may be measured directly at several points on the winding surface. The average value of the

measured values shall be taken as the temperature of winding at the actual cold state.

To measure the temperature of the excitation winding of non-salient pole machine, the

surface temperature of winding shall be measured, if it is difficult to measure, it may be

replaced by the surface temperature of rotor; as for the large and medium machines, at least

three measuring points shall be set, and the average value of the measured values shall be

taken as the temperature of winding at the actual cold state.

To measure the temperature of the winding in excitation device of self-excited constant

voltage generator (such as the windings of transformer and reactor, etc), the surface

temperature of iron core or winding shall be measured by using thermometer as the

temperature of winding at the actual cold state.

As for the liquid directly cooled winding with liquid supplied, the average value of the

liquid temperatures at the inlet and outlet of winding when the difference in the inlet and

outlet liquid temperature does not exceed 1K and the difference in the core temperature and

ambient temperature does not exceed 2K may be taken as the temperature of winding at the

actual cold state.

4.2.2 Determination of the DC resistance of winding

The DC resistance of winding may be measured by bridge method, microhmmeter

method, voltmeter-amperemeter method or other measurement methods.

4.2.2.1 When measuring the DC resistance of winding by using such instruments as

automatic checkout equipment and digital microhmmeter, the test current passing through the

tested winding shall not exceed 10% of the rated current, and the power on time shall not

exceed 1min.

4.2.2.2 When measuring by bridge method, each resistance shall be measured for three

times, each measurement shall be done again after the bridge balance is destroyed, the

difference between the reading every time and the average value of the readings of these three

times shall be within 0.5% of the average value, and the average value shall be taken as the

actual measured value of resistance. If the DC resistance of winding is less than 1, the

4

double bridge with at least four significant digits shall be used for the measurement.

4.2.2.3 When measuring by the voltmeter-amperemeter method, the wiring principle is as

shown in Figure 1. In the diagram, Rb is the adjustable current-limiting resistance, R is the

winding of the machine under test, V is the voltmeter and A is the amperemeter. The wiring

shown in Figure 1(a) is applicable to the measurement of the resistance of such winding that

the ratio between the internal resistance of voltmeter and the measured resistance is larger

than 200, and the wiring shown in Figure 1(b) is applicable to the measurement of the

resistance of such winding that the ratio between the internal resistance of voltmeter and the

measured resistance is less than 200.

During the test, the applied current shall not exceed 10% of the rated current of winding,

the power on time shall not exceed 1min, the current and voltage values shall be read

simultaneously, each resistance shall be measured under at least three different kinds of

current values, the difference between each measured value and the average value shall be

within 0.5%, and the average value shall be taken as the actual measured value of resistance.

Figure 1

4.2.2.4 To measure the armature winding, the rotor of the machine shall be stay still. Where

both the start and tail ends of each phase and each branch circuit of the winding are led out,

the DC resistance of each phase and each branch circuit shall be measured respectively.

Where the windings of different phases are connected in the machine, the resistance

shall be measured between each outlet terminals, and the phase resistance values shall be

calculated according to the following formulae:

For the star-connected winding, as shown in Figure 2(a)

Ru=Rmed-Rvw

(1)

Rv=Rmed-Rwu

(2)

Rw=Rmed-Ruv

(3)

For the delta-connected winding, as shown in Figure 2(b)

Ru =

Rvw Rwu

+ Ruv Rmed

Rmed Ruv

(4)

Rv =

Rwu Ruv

+ Rvw Rmed

Rmed Rvw

(5)

Rw =

Ruv Rvw

+ Rwu Rmed

Rmed Rwu

(6)

Where: Rmed=(Ruv+Rvw+Rwu)/2, Ruv, Rvw and Rwu respectively are the resistance values ()

measured between the outlet terminal u and v, v and w, and wand u;

Ru, Rv and Rw respectively are the phase resistance of each phase ().

Figure 2

4.2.2.5 The DC resistance of the excitation winding shall be measured at the terminal from

which the winding is led to the slip ring or on the surface of slip ring, and the DC resistance

the winding in the excitation device of self-excited constant voltage generator shall be

measured on the outlet terminal of winding separately.

4.3 Determination of Shaft Voltage

The machine under test shall operate under no load at its rated voltage and speed. The

typical measurement diagram is shown as Figure 3, the shaft voltage U1 shall be measured

firstly with high internal resistance AC voltmeter, then the end without insulation of the

rotating shaft shall be short-circuited with its bearing seat (the rotating shaft insulated on both

sides shall be short-circuited on any side), the voltage U2 on the other side to the bearing seat

(namely the voltage of oil layer) shall be measured, and then the voltage U3 of this bearing

seat to the ground shall be measured. The surface of the measuring point shall contact well

with the lead wire of voltmeter. Before the test, the insulation resistance between the bearing

seat and metallic gasket and between the metallic gasket and metal base shall be inspected

respectively.

4.4 Determination of No-load Characteristics

4.4.1 Generator method

The machine under test shall be dragged to its rated speed with the armature winding

open-circuited, and the test shall be conducted by separate excitation mode.

The excitation current is adjusted. If there is no other requirement, the no-load armature

voltage shall be adjusted to 1.3 times of the rated value or the voltage corresponding to the

rated excitation current shall be taken as the starting point of no-load characteristic. Later, the

excitation current will be reduced to zero in one single direction, generally 7~9 points shall be

laid off (more points shall be measured near to the rated voltage value), the three-wire voltage,

excitation current and frequency (or rotation speed) shall be read at each point. Finally, the

residual voltage shall be read when the excitation current is equal to zero.

If the three-wire voltage is symmetrical, besides reading the three-wire voltage at the

rated voltage, the one-wire voltage value of any wire may be measured at other points.

1Bearing seat;

2Insulation gasket;

3Metallic gasket;

4Insulation gasket;

5Rotor.

Figure 3

Where the frequency f differs from the rated frequency fN during the test, the non-load

voltage of armature shall be converted according to the following formula:

U0 =

fN

U

f

(7)

Where:

Uthe no-load voltage (three-phase average value) measured from test, V;

U0the no-load voltage converted to the state at rated frequency, V.

The relation curve U0=f(If) is the calculated no-load curve. If the residual voltage is high

in the no-load characteristic test, then the no-load curve shall be corrected. The correction

method is to extend the straight line portion of the curve to intersect with the abscissa axis,

the absolute value If of the intersection point with abscissa is the corrected value, and all

the measured excitation current value from tests shall be added by this value (If) to obtain

the corrected curve. The straight line portion of no-load curve and its extension line generally

are named as the air-gap line, See Figure 4.

Figure 4

7

The machine under test is connected to a actually symmetrical, stabilized supply with

rated frequency and adjustable voltage so that the machine will operate under no load at

separate excitation mode.

The supply voltage is adjusted and the excitation current of the machine under test is

adjusted correspondingly to make the armature current reach the minimum value (here, the

power factor of machine is 1.0, the readings of two wattmeters as connected by two-voltmeter

method are equal and are in the same direction), the corresponding excitation current at this

time is the excitation current at this voltage.

If there is no other requirement, the test shall be started from 1.3 times of the rated

voltage of armature, the terminal voltage and excitation current shall be adjusted till the

minimum voltage of the machine just before pull-out, 7~9 points shall be measured during the

whole process, and the applied voltage, excitation current and frequency (or rotation speed)

shall be read at each point.

If the three-wire voltage is symmetrical, besides reading the three-wire voltage at the

rated voltage, the one-wire voltage value of any wire may be measured at other points.

If the frequency during the test differs from the rated frequency, the no-load armature

voltage shall be corrected according to Formula (7).

4.4.3 As for the synchronous machines bellow 1000kVA, the excitation current at the rated

voltage shall be measured possibly during the tests.

4.5 Determination of Steadystate Shortcircuit Characteristics

4.5.1 To determine the three-phase steadystate shortcircuit characteristic, the low impedance

conductor shall be used to short circuit the terminals by approaching to the outlet terminal of

armature winding as much as possible. During the test, the machine shall operate at separate

excitation mode.

4.5.2 Generator method

In the test, the machine under test shall be dragged to its rated speed and the excitation

current shall be adjusted to make the armature current be about 1.2 times of the rated current,

meanwhile, the armature current and excitation current shall be read. The excitation current

will be reduced gradually down to zero, totally 5~7 points shall be read, and then the

shortcircuit characteristic curve IK=f(If) shall be plotted. If the three-phase current is

symmetrical, besides reading the three-wire current at the rated current, the one-wire current

value of any wire may be measured at other points.

4.5.3 Motor method (retardation test)

The motor under test shall operate under no load, the excitation current will be reduced

to zero immediately after cutting off the power, and the excitation source also shall be cut off,

then the three phases of the armature winding shall be short circuited simultaneously with

switches that have been prepared in advance.

The excitation source shall be switched on, the excitation current will be adjusted to

make the armature current be about 1.2 times of the armature current, meanwhile, the

armature current and excitation current shall be read. Later, the excitation current will be

reduced gradually, 5~7 points shall be read within the allowable range of the precision of

instruments and meters; if the read test data are insufficient from one retardation test, the

above-mentioned steps may be repeated till obtaining sufficient test data. Finally, the

shortcircuit characteristic curve Ik=f(If) shall be plotted.

8

4.5.4 As for the synchronous machines bellow 1000kVA, only the excitation current at the

rated armature current may be read possiblly during the tests.

4.6 Test of Exciter

The tests of exciter shall be conducted in accordance with GB/T 7409.3, GB/T 10585

and the method specified for this type of machine.

4.7 Overspeed Test

If there is no other requirement, the overspeed test may be conducted at cold state.

Before the overspeed test, the assembling quality of the machine, especially the

assembling quality of the rotating parts, shall be inspected carefully so as to prevent sundries

parts from flying out when the rotation speed is increased.

During the overspeed test, corresponding safety protection measures shall be taken, the

measurements of such parameters as the control of machine under test, vibration, rotation

speed and bearing temperature shall adopt the remote measurement method.

The overspeed test may adopt motor method (improving the supply frequency) or prime

mover dragging method according to specific conditions.

During the process of raising the speed, the working condition of the machine shall be

observed when its reaches its rated speed in order to confirm the machine is free from

abnormal phenomena, and then its speed shall be increased by a appropriate accelerated speed

till the specified rotation speed. The overspeed value and the duration time shall be carried out

according to the method specified in 8.5 of GB 755-2000 or the method specified in the

standard on this type of machine.

After the overspeed test, the machine shall be checked carefully whether its rotating

parts have damages or harmful deformation, whether its fasteners are loose or whether other

unallowable phenomena appear. After the test, the rotor winding must meet the requirements

of withstand voltage test.

4.8 Interturn Short-circuit Test of Non-salient Pole Generator Rotor

The interturn short-circuit test of the non-salient pole generator rotor shall be conducted

according to the method specified JB/T 8446.

4.9 Determination of Vibration

The determination of vibration shall be conducted according to the method specified GB

10068.

4.10 Inspection on Sealing State and Determination of Hydrogen Leakage

The test methods shall be carried out in accordance with the method specified JB/T

6227.

4.11 Interturn Impulse Withstand Voltage Test

The interturn impulse withstand voltage test shall be conduced according to the methods

specified in JB/T 10098, JB/T 9615.1 and JB/T 9615.2.

4.12 Short Time Voltage Rising Test

The test shall be done when the machine bear no load, except for the following

requirements, the applied voltage (motor) or induction voltage (generator) in the test shall be

130% of the rated voltage.

As for the machine of which the non-load voltage is above 130% of the rated voltage at

the rated excitation current, the test voltage shall be equal to the non-load voltage at rated

excitation current.

9

Where no other relevant standards or technical documents are available, the test duration

shall be 3min, but the following requirements are excluded.

At the voltage of 130% of the rated voltage, the test duration for the machine of which

the no-load current exceeds its rated current may be shortened to 1min. As for the exciter of

forced excitation, if the voltage during forced excitation exceeds 130% of the rated voltage,

then the test shall be conducted at the limit voltage for forced excitation, and the test duration

shall be 1min.

Where the test voltage is increased to 130% of the rated voltage, it is allowed to increase

the frequency or rotation speed simultaneously, however, the rotation speed shall not exceed

115% of the rated speed or the rotation speed specified in the overspeed test. The allowable

speed increasing value shall be specified in the standards on different types of machines.

As for the generator with relatively saturated magnetic circuit, when the rotation speed

is increased to 115% of the rated speed and the excitation current also has been increased to

the allowable limit, if the induction voltage value can not reach the specified test voltage, then

it is allowed to do the test at the achievable maximum voltage.

4.13 Power-frequency Withstand Voltage Test

The frequency of test voltage is the power frequency and the voltage waveform shall be

approximate to the sinusoidal waveform as much as possible. During the whole process of

withstand voltage test, necessary safety protection measures shall be taken. Specific personnel

shall be arranged around the machine under test for monitoring.

4.13.1 Test Requirements

4.13.1.1 Unless otherwise specified, the power-frequency withstand voltage test shall be

conducted when the machine is at stationary state.

4.13.1.2 The insulation resistance of the winding shall be measured before the test; if the

machine needs to pass the overspeed test, occasional overcurrent test, short-time overtorque

test and short-circuit mechanical strength test, the power-frequency withstand voltage test

shall be conducted after those tests. During the type test, the power-frequency withstand

voltage test shall be conducted immediately the temperature rise test.

4.13.1.3 Where the starting and tail ends of each phase or each branch circuit of the

armature winding or auxiliary winding are led out separately, the armature winding and

auxiliary winding shall be tested respectively.

4.13.1.4 During the test, both ends of the tested winding shall be applied with voltage

simultaneously (as for the small machines, the winding may be applied with voltage at one

end), here, the other windings and embedded thermometric elements not included in the test

all shall have electrical connection with the iron core or the enclosure, and the enclosure shall

be grounded. Where the neutral points of three-phase winding are uneasy to separate, the

three-phase winding shall be applied with voltage simultaneously.

4.13.1.5 As for the water-cooled armature winding, if the test is conducted when the

winding is supplied with water, the water header shall be grounded. If the test is conducted

when water is not supplied, the insulating hose must be blown to dry inside.

4.13.1.6 The testing transformer shall have adequate capacity, if the capacitance C of the

winding of the machine under test is large, the rated capacity SN(kVA) of this transformer

shall be larger than the value obtained by the following formula:

SN=2fCUUNT10-3

(8)

10

Where:

fthe supply frequency, Hz;

Uthe test voltage value, V;

UNTthe rated voltage at high-voltage side of testing transformer, V;

Cthe capacitance of the tested winding of machine, F.

4.13.2 Method of power-frequency withstand voltage test

The wiring diagram of the test is given in Figure 5 (the wiring diagram of the withstand

voltage test of rotor is given in diagram). In this diagram, T1 is the regulating transformer, T2

is the high-voltage test device, PT is the potential transformer, R is the current-limiting

protective resistance and its value generally is 0.2~1/V, R0 is the sphere gap protective

resistance (not for low-voltage machine) and its value generally may adopt 1 /V, QX is the

overvoltage protective sphere gap (not for low-voltage machine), V is the voltmeter, TM is

the machine under test, therein, the sphere gap and sphere diameter shall be selected

according to the insulation test voltage of high-voltage electrical apparatus and the

requirements of the test method, the discharge voltage of sphere gap shall be set to 1.1~1.5

times of the test voltage. If the capacitance current needs to be measured, the amperemeter

and the short-circuit protection switch parallel to the amperemeter may be connected at the

high-voltage side of the test device. If the amperemeter is connected at the low-voltage side,

the influence of stray current on the readings shall be taken into account.

In the test, the applied voltage shall be started from a value not exceeding a half of the

full test voltage and shall be increased to the full value by a rate no larger than 5% of the full

value uniformly or by stages, and the time for the voltage increasing from half of the full

value to the full value shall not be less than 10s. The voltage in the test adopting full value

shall be in accordance with those specified in Table 14 of GB 755-2000 and shall be

maintained for 1min.

Figure 5

When conducting routine tests on the 5kW (or kVA) or below machines that are

produced in batches, the 1mm test may be replaced by about 5s test, and the test voltage shall

adopt the normal value specified in Table 14 of GB 755-2000. Or the test may also be

replaced by 1s test, but the test voltage shall be 120% of those specified in Table 14 of GB

755-2000, and the test voltage shall be applied by using test bar. At the end of the test, the

voltage also shall be reduced uniformly, the supply source can be cut off only after the voltage

drops to one third of the full value, and the tested winding shall discharge.

During the test, if it is discovered that the voltmeter pointer beats greatly, the indication

of amperemeter increases suddenly and the insulation has such abnormal phenomena as

smoke or noise, the voltage shall be reduced immediately and the supply source shall be

11

4.14 DC Leakage Current Test and DC Withstand Voltage Test of the Insulation of

Armature Winding

Where the starting and tail ends of each phase or each branch circuit of the three-phase

winding are led out separately, their leakage current test to the ground shall be conduced

respectively. Before testing one phase or one branch circuit of the winding, the other two

phases of windings or other branch circuits shall be grounded; if the neutral points of

three-phase winding are linked together and uneasy to separate, then the test may be

conducted on these three phases of windings. In the test, the armature winding temperature

and the ambient temperature and humidity shall be recorded.

The maximum voltage for the DC leakage current test is the value from DC withstand

voltage test and this value is specified in the relevant technical documents.

4.14.1 Test methods

4.14.1.1 Air-cooled or hydrogen-cooled armature winding

The wiring for test is as shown in Figure 6. In the Figure, T1 is the voltage regulator; T2

is the high-voltage test device; R is the current-limiting protective resistance and its value is

(0.1~1); D is the high-voltage rectifying silicon stack; V is the high-voltage measurement

device; A is microammeter; K is knife switch; TM is the machine under test; and C is the

high-voltage filter capacitor.

Figure 6

In the test, the voltage of voltage regulator shall be set at the minimum position, the

voltage regulator will be adjusted after being energized and the voltage will be increased

uniformly. The voltage shall be increased step by step during the test. For example, increasing

from 0.5UN, 1.0UN and 1.5UN to the specified value. The test shall stay at each voltage

stage and the current value (the leakage current value) of microammeter at the starting and at

the 1 min of this stage shall be recorded. At the end of the test, the voltage regulator shall be

reset, the supply source shall be cut off, and the winding shall be grounded after discharging.

After discharging, another winding can be tested.

During the test, if it is discovered that the leakage current increases rapidly with time or

abnormal discharge phenomenon exists, the test shall be stopped immediately and the supply

source shall be disconnected, the winding shall be grounded after discharging for testing

again.

The relation curve of leakage current with test voltage shall be plotted based on the test

data.

The amperemeter and the short-circuit protection switch parallel to it shall be connected

at the high-voltage side, and the personnel safety shall be guaranteed when measuring. If the

12

amperemeter is connected at the low-voltage side, the influence of stray current on the

readings shall be taken into account.

4.14.1.2 Internal water-cooled armature winding

The wiring for test is as shown in Figure 7. In the Figure, T1 is the regulating

transformer, T2 is the high-voltage test device; R is the current-limiting protective resistance

and its value is (0.1~1)/V; D is the high-voltage rectifying silicon stack; A is

microammeter; K is knife switch; TM is the machine under test; C is high-voltage filter

capacitor; V is high-voltage measurement device; C1 is low-voltage filter capacitor; L1 is

inductive choke coil; E is 1.5V battery; Rb is 100k carbon film resistor; Ra is 500k

potentiometer; and mA is milliammeter for monitoring. The selection of the capacitive C(F)

of high-voltage filter capacitor shall make the time constant meet the following conditions:

TCRy0.3s

Where:

Rythe insulation resistance between tested winding and water header, .

If the armature winding is tested with water supply, the water electrical conductivity

shall not be larger than 1.5s/cm; before each test, the potentiometer R shall be adjusted to

obtain one compensatory potential that has opposite polarity but equal value with polarization

potential, and the microammeter indicates zero. Then the no-load DC leakage current of the

tested equipment shall be measured (the reading of microammeter with no test object

connected).

The operating method after connecting the test object is given in 4.13.1.1. The actual

DC leakage current I(A) shall be calculated according to the following formula:

Water

header

Figure 7

R

I = I1 1 + 1 I 0

R2

(9)

Where:

I1the reading of microammeter, A;

R1the series resistance value of the resistance of choke coil with the internal

resistance of microammeter, ;

R2the resistance value to ground of the water header measured when the armature

winding is wire at test state, ;

I0the no-load DC leakage current of the test equipment, A.

If the armature winding is tested after blowing, the test method is basical same as that

13

for the armature winding with water supply, and the compensatory potential will be

unnecessary.

If required, the hydraulic test shall be conducted after this test.

4.15 Determination of Voltage Waveform Sinusoidal Distortion Factor

4.15.1 The machine shall operate at the state of no-load generator, its rotational speed and

voltage shall be adjusted to their rated values before the determination.

4.15.2 Based on the test conditions, any one method listed bellow may be adopted for the

determination.

4.15.2.1 Determination by using waveform distortion tester.

4.15.2.2 The values of the fundamental voltage and harmonic voltages shall be measured by

using harmonic analyzer and the distortion factor shall be calculated according to Formula

(10).

Ku =

U 22 + U 32 + U 42 + +U n2

100%

U1

(10)

4.15.2.3 The instantaneous value of voltage waveform shall be recorded with recorder, and

the values of fundamental voltage and harmonic voltages shall be obtained through

decomposing, and the distortion factor shall be calculated.

4.15.3 The measured armature voltage may be measured after reducing the voltage with

voltage divider or potential transformer, the waveform shall be kept undistorted when using a

voltage divider or potential transformer.

4.16 Noise Determination

The noise test shall be conducted according to the method specified in GB/T 10069.1

and GB/T 10069.2.

4.17 Determination of Telephone Harmonic Form Factor (THF)

The determination of THF shall be conducted when the machine is at the no-load rated

voltage and rated frequency, the values of the fundamental voltage and harmonic voltages

shall be measured by using special instruments or harmonic analyzer, and the frequency range

shall include all the harmonics from the rated value to 5000Hz. THF shall be calculated

according to the following formula:

THF (%) =

100

U

(E )

i 1

i i

(11)

Where:

Uthe effective value of line voltage, V;

Eithe effective value of the ith harmonic voltage, V;

ithe weighting coefficient corresponding to the ith harmonic frequency, the

weighting coefficients for different frequencies may be inquired from the weighting

coefficient table or the weighting curve, see Table 16and Figure 13 in GB 755-2000.

The telephone harmonic form factor of the machine shall adopt the maximum value

among the THF values obtained from three line voltages.

Efficiency Determination

14

5.1

Output and input power of machine under test is measured so as to determine the

efficiency.

5.1.1 During the test, the measurement shall be carried out where the machine under test is

operated till thermal-stable at the rated power, voltage, speed and power factor.

Where the input and output power of machine under test is measured, the armature

current, excitation current and cooling medium temperature of the machine shall be measured

at the same time.

Where the cooling medium temperature is not at 25, every winding temperature rise

and DC resistance shall also be measured at the same time (it may be measured just after test,

however, shall be corrected to the disconnection instant).

5.1.2 Any of the following methods may be adopted where the machine efficiency is

determined with direct method.

5.1.2.1 Brake method

Where the machine under test operates as a motor, it shall be connected with the brake or

dynamometer in order to measure the rotation moment of machine; at the same time, its

rotation speed is determined to determine the output power of machine; the input power of

machine is measured with electrical instruments. Where the machine under test operates as a

motor, dynamometer shall be adopted to trail the machine under test and measure the input

power of the machine; electrical instrument is used to measure the output power of machine.

Rotation speed of the machine shall be paid much attention to due to its direct influence

on power calculation.

The test shall be conducted at the temperature which is obtained at the end of the

specified time of quota and it is not necessary to take temperature conversion for winding

resistance.

5.1.2.2 Machine calibration method

Machine under test is mechanically coupled with the calibrated machine; input (for

generator) or output (for motor) power of machine under test is measured with the calibrated

machine and the output (for generator) or input (for motor) of the machine under test is

measured with electrical instrument.

The test shall be conducted at the temperature which is obtained at the end of the

specified time of quota and it is not necessary to take temperature conversion for winding

resistance.

5.1.2.3 Towards-tow method

Two identical machines are mechanically coupled, with one as motor and another as

generator. Motor input power and generator output power are measured with electrical

instruments; where the operation conditions of two machines are almost the same and it is

assumed that the loss is shared, the motor output power is the difference between halves of

the input power and the total loss; while the generator input power is the sum of halves of the

output power and the total loss.

The test shall be conducted at the temperature which is obtained at the end of the

specified time of quota and it is not necessary to take temperature conversion for winding

resistance.

15

5.1.3.1 Feedback method

Two identical machine machineries are coupled with electricity, with one as the motor

and the other as the generator; the losses of both machines are provided by the power grids

connected to them, by the dynamometer of mechanical coupling or by calibrated machines.

Where the operation conditions of both machines are almost the same and the loss is

assumed to be shared, the input/output power of the machine under test may be determined

according to the methods in 5.1.2.3.

The test shall be conducted at the temperature which is obtained at the end of the

specified time of quota and it is not necessary to take temperature conversion for winding

resistance.

As the power transfer size between two machines are different along the load angle size,

an accurate load angle relation shall be provided where two machines are mechanically

coupled.

5.1.3.2 Zero power factor test

The machine under test operates as no-load motor at rated voltage and rated speed;

power factor is at about zero and the excitation current is adjusted to ensure the primary

winding current reaches the rated value. Its total losses are equal to the input power during

test; thereinto, the excitation loss is corrected according to the difference between the actual

excitation current loss and the excitation current loss at rated load.

The machine shall be provided with the same core loss value at power supply voltage as

at no-load operation of rated voltage. The power supply voltage is generally equal to the rated

voltage unless the power supply voltage would make the core loss increase much more than it

does at full load. In principle, reactive power shall be positive (overexcited). If this couldn't

be achieved due to insufficient excitation voltage, the test may be conducted at the working

condition of absorbing reactive power (under-excitation).

5.1.4 Efficiency calculation

5.1.4.1 Efficiency of machine under test conditions is calculated according to the following

formula:

P

100%

Pin

(12)

Where:

POutput active power of the machine, kW;

PinInput active power of machine, kW.

5.1.4.2 Where the machine efficiency is determined using direct method, if the cooling

medium temperature is not 25, it shall be converted to 25 according to the following

formula:

( 25) =

P

Pin ( 25 )

100%

(13)

Where:

Pin(25)= Pin+Pcua+Pcuf(kW)

16

k + a + 25

Pcua = 3I a2 R a

1 (kW)

k +a

k + f + 25

Pcuf = I 2f R f

1 (kW)

+

k

IfExcitation current during efficiency determination, A;

RaDC resistance value of armature winding single-phase during efficiency

determination, ;

RfDC resistance value of excitation winding during efficiency determination, ;

aTemperature rise value of armature winding during efficiency determination,

K;

fTemperature rise value of excitation winding during efficiency

determination .K;

aArmature winding temperature during efficiency determination, ;

fExcitation winding temperature during efficiency determination, ;

kCopper winding is taken with 235, non-copper winding is taken according to those

specified in 7.6.2.2 of GB 755-2000.

5.2 Indirect Determination Method of Efficiency

5.2.1 Where the machine efficiency is obtained through loss analysis method, the

following losses shall be respectively determined or calculated.

5.2.1.1 Constant loss is noted as Pa, including:

a) Iron loss (including no-load stray loss), which is noted as PFe;

b) Bearing friction loss;

c) Air loss;

d) Brush friction loss

The sum of the above losses in b), c) and d) are called to as mechanical losses, which are

noted as Pfw. 5.2.1.2 Load loss

I2R loss in machine armature winding, which is noted as Pcua

5.2.1.3 Excitation loss, which is noted as Pf, including:

a) I2R losses in excitation winding, which is noted as Pcuf;

b) Rheostat loss, which is noted as PR;

c) Electric loss of electrical brush, which is noted as Prs;

d) Exciter loss, which is noted as PE;

e) Loss of self excitation device, which is noted as PZE;

f) Loss of I2R of self auxiliary winding.

5.2.1.4 Stray loss, which is noted as Pd, including:

a) The stray loss in armature winding conductor;

b) The stray loss in magnetic circuit and other metal parts (excluding conductor).

5.2.2 Machine efficiency is determined according to the following formula:

= 1

P

100%

P+P

(14)

17

Where:

PTotal losses, namely, P= P0+Pcua+Pf+Pd(kW);

POutput power, kW.

In order to determine the I2R loss of each winding, the DC resistance of winding shall be

converted to the value corresponding to the reference operating temperature of the insulation

grade indicated on machine nameplate according to the following formula:

Rj =

k + j

k + 1

R1

(15)

Where:

RjWinding DC resistance at reference operating temperature () ;

R1Winding DC resistance under actual cold state, ,

1The winding temperature corresponding to R1 measurement, ;

jReference operating temperature, reference operating temperature is detailed in

Table 2;

kSee Formula (13).

Table

Reference operating

A,E

75

95

115

130

temperature /

Note: If the rated temperature rise or rated temperature is specified according to the heat grade lower than that used in

structure, the reference operating temperature shall be specified according to the lower heat grade.

5.3

Calorimetric Method

If the loss couldn't be determined through the methods as specified in 5.1 or 5.2,

calorimetric method may be adopted and the test methods are detailed in GB/T 5321.

5.4 Determination of Losses Corresponding to the Rated Load

5.4.1 Determination of constant losses

5.4.1.1 For no-load generator method: the excitation current of machine under test is

supplied by independent DC supply to operate as no-load generator; dragging machine shall

be the motor which has been analyzed or other prime movers (such as dynamometer) which

could accurately measure or calculate the output power. During the test, the rotation speed

shall be the rated speed of machine under test; output power of prime mover under different

voltages of generator shall be measured after the bearing friction loss and brush friction loss

become stable and this output power is the constant loss ( P0' )under corresponding voltage.

In order to separate the core loss from the mechanical loss, it shall plot the curve of

voltage per unit value square corresponding to the measured constant loss at different voltages

U

as shown in Figure8. Loss corresponding to 0

UN

the machine under test and the loss corresponding to the rated voltage is namely the constant

loss of the machine at rated voltage; difference of both values is the core loss (PFe) of the

18

machine at rated voltage, also as the core loss of the machine at rated load.

5.4.1.2 No-load motor method: Machine under test is connected to the adjustable, actual,

symmetrical and stabilized supply as no-load motor operation. Excitation current is supplied

by independent DC supply; the excitation current adjusting the machine under test makes the

armature current be the minimum; after the bearing friction loss and brush friction loss

become stable, input power Pin and armature current I0 are measured at different voltages and

the DC resistance Ra of armature winding is measured (which may be conducted immediately

after the test, however it shall be corrected to the disconnection instant); the constant losses

Figure 8

P0' = Pin 3I 02 Ra 10 3

(16)

Where:

PinInput power of machine under test, kW;

I0Armature phase current (average value of three phases), A;

R4DC resistance of armature phase winding (average value of three phases), .

It shall make the curve of the constant loss at corresponding voltage against the square of

voltage per unit value shall be plotted like 5.4.1.1. Straight line part of the curve is extended

to intersect with the longitudinal axis and the longitudinal coordinate of intersection point is

U

the mechanical loss and the loss corresponding to 0

U N

voltage; difference of the two values is the iron loss at rated voltage.

5.4.1.3 Retardation test is seen in 5.5

5.4.2 I2R loss (kW) of armature winding is calculated according to the following formula:

Pcua = 3I N2 R aj 10 3

(17)

Where:

INRated armature current, A;

RajAverage value of armature winding DC resistance at reference operating

temperature, .

As for the self-excited constant voltage generator, if there is a difference between

19

armature current and rated load current due to excitation mode, the I2R loss (kW) of armature

winding shall be calculated according to the following formula:

Pcua = Raj ( I u2 + I v2 + I w2 ) 10 3

(18)

Where:

Iu, Iv and Iw are the measured armature currents of each phase under rated working state,

A.

5.4.3 Excitation loss calculation

5.4.3.1 I2R loss (kW) of excitation winding is calculated according to the following

formula:

Pcuf = I 2fN R fj 10 3

(19)

Where:

IfNRated excitation current, A;

RfjExcitation winding DC resistance at referene operating temperature ()

5.4.3.2 Rheostat loss PR (kW) is calculated according to the following formula:

PR = I fRU R 10 3

(20)

Where:

IfRCurrent flowing across rheostat under rated conditions, A;

URPressure drop at both ends of master rheostat corresponding to the

above-mentioned current, V.

Where other auxiliary devices are provided in main field circuit, treatment method shall

be the same with that of master rheostat; if the excitation winding of the machine under test is

directly connected to the DC exciter armature circuit, this loss is zero.

5.4.3.3 Electric loss of electrical brush Prs (kW) is calculated according to the following

formula:

Prs= 2IfNUs10-3

(21)

Where:

IfNRated excitation current, A;

UsPressure drop on each grade of electrical brush, for carbon-blacklead and

electrographitic brush Us= 1V; For metallic graphite brush Us= 0.3V.

5.4.3.4 Exciter loss

If the exciter is not trailed by the machine under test itself and is the exciter special for

the machine under test, this loss is zero.

If the exciter may be removed from the shaft of the machine under test and could

conduct the test independently, the loss of this exciter may be independently determined

according to relevant test method standard.

If the exciter couldn't be removed, the losses of the whole unit under two situations:

exciter with the sum of equivalent loads as stated in 5.4.3 and the exciter without load shall be

measured with analyzed machine method, no-load motor method or retardation test.

Difference of the two losses is the input power of exciter. The exciting load is the output

power. The difference between input power and output power of exciter is the exciter loss. If

it is still necessary to separate the excitation loss from other losses, exciter shall be

20

independently excited by DC supply; at this time, the input power of exciter shall be equal to

the measured loss difference of the above two situations and the plus the excitation loss of

exciter.

If the above-mentioned methods are not available, the exciter loss may be determined

according to the loss analysis method of this type of machine; however, it shall not count in

the mechanical loss which has been counted into the machine loss under test.

5.4.3.5 Loss of self excitation device of machine

a) Electrical loss of rectifying element Pz (kW) is calculated according to the following

formula

Pz= UzI10-3

(22)

Where:

IOutput current of rectifying device , A;

UzOperating pressure drop of rectifying element, V; if it couldn't be determined,

it may take design value or 1.2 V.

b) The I2R loss of each winding is obtained by multiplying the square of the current

flowing across this winding in rated operation mode with the resistance of this winding at

reference operating temperature.

c) The core loss of each part of excitation device may be calculated according to the

design value.

5.4.3.6 Loss of I2R of auxiliary winding.

It is obtained by multiplying the square of the current flowing across this winding in

rated operation mode with the resistance of this winding at reference operating temperature.

5.4.4 Stray loss may be determined using the following method.

5.4.4.1 Short-circuit method

Armature winding of machine under test is short circuited and trailed to the rated speed

by prime mover; the prime mover shall be the machine which has been analyzed or other

prime mover (such as dynamometer) which may accurately measure or calculate the output

power. Excitation current is adjusted to make the armature current be the rated value; DC

resistance of armature winding R0 () is determined and the DC resistance is measured

immediately after the test. The stray loss Pd (kW) at rated armature current is obtained by

subducting mechanical loss PfN (kW), armature winding and I2R loss from the input power

Pin (namely the output power of prime mover, kW ) of the machine under test;

Pd = Pin PfN 3I N2 Ra 10 3

(23)

Machine under test is operated as no-load motor and is excited by independent supply

source; after the bearing and brush friction loss become stable, test on the rated voltage of

actually symmetrical rated frequency applied on armature winding may be conducted; during

the test, excitation current is adjusted under respectively over-and-under excitation mode of

machine to make the armature current reach the rated value; armature voltage, armature

current, input power, excitation current and rotation speed are read and the DC resistance of

armature winding is measured (it may be immediately measured after the test).

Stray losses of the machine under test during respectively the over-and-under excitation

operation are obtained by subducting constant loss and armature winding I2R loss from the

21

input power of the machine under test; their average value is regarded as the stray loss of

machine; if the armature current couldn't be adjusted to the rated value in under-excitation

mode, stray loss measured in over-excitation mode is allowed to be regarded as the stray loss

of the machine under test.

Low power factor wattmeter shall be adopted to measure the input power; the reading on

the two wattmeters shall be read at the same time when adopting two-wattmeter method to

determine the input power.

5.4.4.3 Retardation test is detailed in 5.5.

5.5 Retardation Test

This method is mainly applicable to the machine whose moment of inertia is relatively

big and whose losses are difficult to determine with other methods.

During the test, the machine under test is connected to the power supply, or trailed by

power machines and then supplied or excited by independent DC supply. The machine under

test is firstly been accelerated till its rotation speed is slightly greater than the rated speed and

for the nonsalient pole machine, it shall not be less than 105 % nN. For salient pole machine, it

shall not be less than 110%nN and then the power is cutoff; before the motor speed reaches the

above-mentioned rotation speed, required working state shall be established to make the

machine automatically decelerate. For non-salient pole machine, time required from 105nN to

95%nN is measured; for salient pole machine, time required from 110%nN to 90% is measured

and the time measurement accuracy between two upper and lower speed points is required to

be within 2%. To determine all kinds of losses, tests under the following working states shall

be conducted.

a) Armature winding is open-circuited and the machine is not excited, herein the

measured retardation time during the test is t1.

b) Armature winding is open-circuited, excitation current is adjusted till the armature

voltage at rated speed is the rated value; herein, the retardation time t2 is

measured during the test; armature voltage and excitation current shall be measured

at the same time where the machine retardation reaches the rated speed.

c) Armature winding is three-phase short circuited, excitation current is adjusted till the

armature current at rated speed is the rated value; herein the retardation time t3 is

measured during the test. Armature current and excitation current are measured

during retardation and are calculated according to the measured data:

Mechanical loss

n

10 6

t1

(24)

Constant loss

P0 = 10.97 JnN

n

10 6

t 2

(25)

n

10 6

t3

(26)

22

Where:

JMoment of inertia of machine, kgm2;

nNRated speed, r/min;

nFor nonsalient pole machine, it is 1.05nN-0.95nN=0.10nN, For salient pole

machine, it is 1.10nN-0.90nN= 0.20nN.

In order to obtain an accurate result, the above-mentioned retardation test shall be

repeated for three times and the average value of the three times shall be regarded as the

actual value.

Where hydro generator test is conducted in the power station, if possible, hydro turbines

shall be disconnected; otherwise, the water in runner chamber shall be discharged; mechanical

loss of hydro turbines in the air determined through method of calculation is subducted from

each measured loss.

If the moment of inertia of machine is unknown, the following method may be adopted:

the machine under test is connected to the load of the known loss P (such as the transformer

with known no-load loss or short circuit loss), retardation test is then conducted to determine

the retardation time t1.

Where it is with no-load transformer:

J=

P

10 6

n n

10.97n N

t 4 t 2

(27)

J=

P

106

n n

10.97nN

t

t

4

3

(28)

Constant loss may also be determined with no-load motor method in advance and then

item b) test in the above-mentioned retardation test is conducted; J is obtained by the

following formula:

J=

PfN + PFe

106

n

10.97n N

t 2

(29)

During retardation test, if velometer counting in definite time is adopted to record the

rotation speed, relation curve between rotation speed and time may be plotted and then

n

dn

corresponding to the rated speed is obtained on the curve to replace the

t

dt

gradient

5.6 Calculation of Efficiency under other Loads

If the efficiency under other loads is required, it may be calculated according to the

following methods: Constant loss remains the same; load loss is converted according to the

square of armature current; stray loss is determined according to the method in 5.4.4 or

converted according to the square of armature current and the excitation loss is converted

23

based on the excitation current required under this load according to the corresponding

formulae in 5.4.3.

6.1

The temperature of machine winding or other parts may be measured by the following

three methods: resistance method, thermometer method and embedded temperature detector

method; different methods shall not be used to check each other.

6.1.1 Resistance method

The DC resistance of tested winding shall be measured and the average temperature of

the winding shall be determined according to the relation between DC resistance and

temperature variation.

6.1.1.1 Copper winding

The temperature rise (K) of copper winding is determined according to the following

formula:

R2 R1

(235 + 1 ) + 1 0

R1

(30)

Where:

R2Winding resistance at the end of the test ();

R1Winding resistance at actual cold state ();

1Winding temperature while determining R1 at corresponding actual cold state

();

0Cooling medium temperature at the end of the test ().

6.1.1.2 Non-copper winding

As for materials other than copper, the 235 in the above formula shall be replaced by the

reciprocal of temperature resistance coefficient of materials at 0; 225 shall be adopted for

aluminium winding unless otherwise specified.

6.1.2 Thermometer method

In this method, the temperature is measured by placing the thermometer close to the

accessible surface of machine; the thermometer includes expansion thermometer (such as

mercury and ethanol thermometer), semiconductor thermometer and non-embedded

thermocouple or resistance thermometer. During the measurement, the thermometer shall be

close to the surface of measuring points and the measured part of thermometer shall be

covered with thermal insulation materials so as to avoid the influence of surrounding cooling

medium. Mercury thermometer shall not be used where there is strong alternating magnetic

field.

6.1.3 Embedded temperature detector method

In this method, the temperature shall be measured with the temperature detector

embedded in the machine (such as resistance temperature detector, thermocouple or

semiconductor thermosensitive element); the temperature detector is embedded at the

inaccessible part of finished machine during its manufacturing process.

24

current and galvanization time shall be controlled so that there will be no obvious change on

the resistance due to the heating of measuring current.

6.2 Determination of Cooling Medium Temperature in Temperature Rise Test

6.2.1 As for the machine (open type or closed type without cooler) cooled by the

surrounding air or gas, the ambient air or gas temperature shall be measured by several

thermometers; the thermometer shall be distributed at different locations around the machine

and shall be (1~2)m from the machine. The sphere part shall be at 1/2 of the machine height

and shall be prevented from the influence of all radiation and air flow.

As for the machine with forced air circulation or closed circulation cooling system, the

temperature of cooling medium shall be measured at the air inlet of machine.

The machine with internal water cooling for winding shall take the water inlet

temperature as the temperature of cooling medium winding.

The iron core and other parts with non-water direct cooling shall take the air inlet

temperature of cooling medium.

6.2.2 Determination of cooling medium temperature at the end of the test

As for the cooling medium temperature at the end of the test, it shall take the average

value of several thermometer readings measured at equal time interval within 1/4 of the whole

test period.

6.3 Determination of Temperature at Different Parts of the Machine in Temperature

Rise Test

6.3.1 Determination of winding temperature

The temperature of machine winding may be measured by resistance method and

embedded temperature detector method; however, where the resistance method is used, the

resistance at cold &hot state must measured at the same outlet terminal. Where both

embedded temperature detector method and resistance method can't be used, the thermometer

method may be adopted, which is also applicable to the occasions specified in a), b), c) and d)

of 7.6.1 in GB 755-2000.

6.3.2 Determination of excitation winding temperature

Where the temperature of excitation winding is measured with resistance method, the

voltage shall be measured on the slip ring.

6.3.3 Determination of the temperature of excitation device winding and auxiliary

winding temperature

Resistance method and thermometer method shall be used to measure it.

6.3.4 Determination of stator core temperature

Where embedded temperature detector is in use, it shall be measured with temperature

detector; otherwise, it shall be measured with thermometer (at least two for large and medium

machines), taking the maximum value as core temperature.

6.3.5 Determination of the temperature of slip ring, pole shoe and damping winding

Thermometer or digimite shall be used for measurement immediately after the machine

shuts down.

6.3.6 Determination of the temperature of bearing and sealing pad

It shall be determined by thermometer and embedded temperature detector and the

determination method is detailed in 7.9 of GB 755-2000.

25

6.4 Correction of the Measured Temperature at Different Parts of the Machine after

Cutting off the Supply

6.4.1 Where the temperature of shutdown machine is measured by resistance method, the

machine shall be stopped immediately after the end of temperature rise test; after the machine

is disconnected, the reading measured at the first point within the time specified in Table 3

shall be used to calculate the temperature rise of machine and no exterpolation is needed till

the instantaneous disconnection.

Table 3

Machine rated power P

kW(kVA)

P50

30

50<P200

90

200<P5000

120

P>5000

6.4.2 If the reading at the first point fails to be measured within the above-mentioned

interval time, it shall be measured as soon as possible. Later, it shall be read once every one

minute until those readings begin to drop obviously from the maximum value. The cooling

curve for the relation between resistance (or temperature) and time shall be plotted and the

rated power of machine shall be based to extrapolate this curve till the corresponding interval

time in Table 3; the acquired temperature will be the temperature of machine at instantaneous

disconnection. During the plotting of curve, semi-logarithmic coordinates is recommended

and the temperature scale shall on the logarithmic coordinate. If the temperature measured

after stopping the machine continues to rise, the maximum temperature shall be used as the

temperature of the machine at instantaneous disconnection.

6.4.3 If the reading at the first point after the machine disconnection is measured twice later

than corresponding interval time, the methods specified in 6.4.2 can't be used until concluding

an agreement between manufacturer and user.

6.5 Short-circuit Insulation and Brake Method

Where the machine need be shut down to measure the armature winding resistance and it

difficult to brake rapidly, short-circuit insulation and brake method shall be adopted.

Where the temperature rise of machine under test keeps stable, the load shall be reduced

quickly and the circuit shall be cut off rapidly (the input into the prime mover shall be

immediately cut off for generator); meanwhile, the excitation current shall be reduced to zero.

Where there is no abnormal condition, the three-phase shortcircuit connected with the

armature winding shall be turned off with added excitation, and the excitation current shall be

added rapidly so that the armature current reaches 90% rated value; the period from

disconnecting machine adjusting armature current till disconnection to 90% shall be less than

or equal to 30s. Where the machine shuts down, the time shall be immediately recorded, and

the excitation current shall be reduced as soon and disconnected; meanwhile, the three-phase

shortcircuit of armature winding shall be disconnected to measure the armature winding

resistance immediately and the time shall be recorded; later, 4~5 points shall be measured

continuously as the relation curve between armature winding resistance and time.

6.6 Method of Temperature Rise Test

According to different test equipment conditions, it may adopt direct load method,

26

6.6.1 Direct load method

6.6.1.1 The machine under test shall be tested at rated operation mode according to its

functions; during the test, the cooling medium temperature shall meet the requirements of 5.3,

5.4 and 5.5 primary equipment of GB 755-2000 and mutation shall be avoided; the readings at

each point shall be recorded every 30min; where the temperature at all parts of the machine

tends to keep stable, the readings shall be recorded every 15 or 30 minutes. Where the

temperature variation at all parts of the machine is less than or equal to 2K within the last 1h,

the machine heating is considered as stable. The average value of temperature at several time

intervals within the stable stage shall be regarded as the temperature of the machine at rated

load; if shutdown exterpolation method is used to determine the temperature at load, it shall

refer to 6.4.2.

Where the difference between the current at temperature rise test and the rated value is

within 5%, the machine winding temperature rise N may be corrected according to the

following formula:

I

N = N

I

(31)

Where:

IThe average of current readings at several equal time intervals within the last 1h

(A);

Winding temperature rise corresponding to test current I (K).

6.6.1.2 Within the scope ranging from 0.6 rated power to the maximum allowable power

under test conditions, temperature rise test shall be carried out at 3~ 4 different loads, and the

power factor shall be close to rated value.

Where the temperature rise test is carried out at each load, it shall determine the

temperature rise of winding and core corresponding to the cooling medium temperature. The

test results at different loads shall be used to draw the relation curve between the temperature

rise at this part of the machine and the square of winding current or the losses corresponding

to this part; the temperature rise corresponding to rated load shall be determined according to

obtained curve exterpolation.

6.6.2 Low-power factor load method

Where the direct load method can't be used for temperature rise test due to the limit of

equipment condition, low-power factor load method may be adopted; the zero power factor

load of swap camera is also the direct load.

In this method, the machine under test may operate as a generator or motor, without

active load or with partial active load.

During the test, the machine is adjusted to rated frequency, rated excitation current and

rated armature current; the requirements during the test shall be the same as that for direct

load method. If the armature voltage at the moment is greater than or equal to 95% rated

value, the armature winding temperature rise a and stator core temperature rise Fe will

not be corrected; otherwise, they shall be corrected according to the following methods.

6.6.2.1 Twice no-load temperature rise test

a) Where the machine is no-load and the armature voltage is equal to the voltage in the

27

above-mentioned test, the measured armature winding temperature rise and stator

core temperature rise shall be a1 and Fe1 respectively.

b) Where the machine is no-load and the armature voltage is equal to rated voltage, the

measured armature winding temperature rise and stator core temperature rise shall

be a2 and Fe2 respectively.

The temperature rise at rated operation mode is calculated according to the following

formula:

Armature winding:

aN=a+ (a2-a1) (32)

Stator core:

FeN=Fe+ (Fe2-Fe1) (33)

6.6.2.2 Empirical formula

Armature winding temperature rise:

PFe

(34)

aN = a 1 +

K a Pcua

Where:

aArmature winding temperature rise during temperature rise test at low power

factor load (K);

PFeDifference between core losses PFe at rated voltage and core losses PFe

corresponding to temperature rise test voltage at low power factor load (kW);

2

PcuaI R losses of armature winding during temperature rise test at low power factor

load (kW);

KaCoefficient, taking 6 for small machine and 3 for medium machine.

Stator core temperature rise

PFe

(35)

FeN = Fe 1 +

'

+

P

P

cua

Fe

FeStator core temperature rise during temperature rise test at low power factor

load (K);

6.6.3 No-load shortcircuit method

6.6.3.1 The machine under test operates as a generator and the following four temperature

rise tests shall be conducted:

a) The measured temperature rise is 0 for idling machine without excitation;

b) The measured temperature rise is U1 for no-load machine with armature voltage

equal to 105 % rated value;

c) The measured temperature rise is U2 for no-load machine with armature voltage

close as much to 120% rated value where the core temperature rise is less than or

equal to the specified value;

d) The measured temperature rise is K for three-phase symmetrical short-circuit

machine with armature voltage equal to the measured temperature rise.

6.6.3.2 The armature winding temperature rise at rated operation mode is determined

according to the following formula:

Turbine generators

28

40 c + U 1 0

+ U 1 0

aN = K 1 +

k + c + K

(36)

Other machines

U 1 0

aN = K 1 +

k + c + K

+ U 1 0

(37)

Where:

cCooling medium temperature during temperature rise test at three-phase

symmetrical shortcircuit ();

kSee Formula (13).

6.6.3.3 The stator-core temperature rise at rated operation mode is determined according to

the following formula:

FeN=k+U1-0

(38)

6.6.3.4 The excitation winding temperature rise at rated operation mode is determined by

plotting method:

a) Turbine generators: First, f' = f + (See Appendix A for )

The excitation winding temperature rise during b), c) and d) temperature rise tests in

6.6.3.1 is converted to the temperature rise corresponding to 40 cooling medium

temperature; then, the excitation winding ho-state DC resistance Rf measured according to

during b), c) and d) tests is converted to the resistance at 40 cooling medium temperature

according to the following formula.

(39)

Where:

cCooling medium temperature during temperature rise test ().

Calculate the value of

and

and

as curve

corresponding 40

cooling medium temperature as well as 0K and 35K temperature rise (namely, with 40 and

75 winding temperature), and indicate Point A where straight line (2) intersects with the

extended line of curve (1) through Point (

, 0) and Point (

the temperature rise fN corresponding to Point A will refer to the temperature riseof

excitation winding at rated operation mode.

b) Other machines: The determination method of excitation winding temperature rise at

rated operation mode is similar to a). The difference is that the temperature rise f and

resistance Rf may not be converted and their measured values are adopted directly; and the

straight line (2) in Figure 9 is made through Point ( I 2fN R fQe , 0) and Point ( I 2fN R f 75 , 75-c). c

refers to the average of cooling medium temperature () at b), c) and d) temperature rise

29

tests in 6.6.3.1.

Figure 9

This is another indirect method for excitation winding temperature rise test. The machine

is fixed at certain excitation current and no-load temperature rise test is carried out at three

rotation speeds lower than the rated value; the relation between the three measured excitation

winding temperature rise values (f1, f2 and f3) and the rotation speed is drawn as

shown in Figure 10; where the curve is subject to exterpolation until rated speed, r is

obtained, namely the excitation winding temperature rise at such excitation current; the f1,

f2 and f3 of turbine generators shall be converted to the temperature rise at 40 cooling

medium temperature (See a of 6.6.3.4 for the conversion method) before making curve

exterpolation and obtaining f.

The excitation winding temperature rise at rated excitation current:

a) Turbine generators

fN

I fN

f

f

2

If

I fN

1+

= f

I

I fN

f

k + 40 + f f

If

(40)

b) Other machines

fN

I fN

f

f

2

If

I fN

1+

= f

I

I fN

f

k + c + f f

If

(41)

Where:

cAverage value of cooling medium temperature during the three tests ()

30

Figure 10

During the test, the lowest rotation speed should be greater than or equal to 50% nN.

Generally, there are three speeds70% nN, 80% nN and 90% nN, but the critical speed of the

machine unit shall be avoided. The excitation current shall be as large as possible, but must

ensure the armature voltage is less than or equal to 120 % rated value at maximum speed;

meanwhile, it shall also consider during the test the rising temperature of core and of

structural members passed through by positioning reinforcement, end cap, enclosure, finger

plate, fastening bolt and other magnetic flux leakage due to saturated core height and reduced

air volume in excitation winding. Thus, in the test, the temperature rise at all parts shall be

closely monitored so that it keeps less than or equal to the allowable value; the core

temperature may be controlled at less than the allowable temperature (5~10) ; the

temperature of structural members shall be less than or equal to 150 and the temperature of

excitation winding shall be within the corresponding allowable temperature range; otherwise,

the excitation current during the test shall be further lowered.

Constant Voltage

7.1 Determination of Steady-state Voltage Regulation Rate

7.1.1 Inspection of voltage setting range

7.1.1.1 Inspection of voltage setting range at no load

During the inspection, the generator shall be no-load, its rotation speed at cold state or

hot state shall be the specified value of the standard on that type of machine; the voltage

setting device shall be adjusted to determine the maximum value and minimum value of the

generator voltage, and this range will be the no-load voltage setting range of the generator at

cold state or hot state.

7.1.1.2 Inspection of voltage setting range at full load

During the inspection, the generator shall be maintained as the power factor of the full

load power and rated operation with the rotation speed at rated speed. The voltage setting

device shall be adjusted respectively at two conditions of cold state and hot state for the

generator so as to determine the maximum value and minimum value of the generator voltage

as the voltage setting range of the generator at full load and at cold state or hot state.

7.1.2 Determination of Steady-state Voltage Regulation Factor

31

The determination of the steady-state voltage regulation factor for the generator shall be

carried out at cold state or hot state according to the voltage, power factor and rotation speed

specified in the standard.

The generator shall be no-load and the rotation speed shall be adjusted to the specified

value before the test. The voltage setting device shall be adjusted to set the voltage within

range of the specified voltage regulation factor. For the generator of uncontrolled phase

compounded self excitation, the load and power factor shall be allowed to adjust to the rated

value before the determination, then the load shall be decreased to zero gradually and the

voltage shall be set within range of the voltage regulation factor repeatedly. During the testing,

the voltage regulation device shall be constant; the power factor shall be maintained as a

constant; the three-phase symmetrical load shall be increased gradually from zero to the rated

power, then be decreased from the rated power to zero in order to measure the voltage at all

points; the variation in load shall be about 25% of the rated power from point to point; the

measuring point may be reduced as appropriate in the inspection test.

The steady-state voltage regulation factor may be calculated with Formula (42) or (43) in

accordance with the different type and different operating mode of the generator excitation

system. The specific selection shall be specified based on that type of the machine.

stu =

Ut U N

100%

UN

(42)

Where:

Utthe steady state voltage has the maximum difference with the rated voltage UN

from no-load to rated load (according to the three-phase average value), V;

UNthe rated voltage, V.

stu =

U stmas U st min

100%

2U N

(43)

Where:

Ust mas, Ust minthe maximum value and minimum value of the terminal voltage

(effective value) respectively in variation from no-load to full-load under specified conditions,

V.

7.1.3 Determination of voltage variations at cold and hot states

During the test, the generator shall be adjusted to the rated operation mode; the voltage

setting device shall be fixed, the generator shall operate in the rated frequency, rated power

and rated power factor, and the voltage deviation from cold state to the actual steady

temperature shall be the voltage variation value of the generator at cold and hot states. The

variation of the ambient temperature shall not be larger than 10K in the test.

7.2 Determination of Voltage Deviation Degree of Generator Operating under

Asymmetric Loads

The three-phase symmetrical load of 25% of rated power with the power factor 0.8

(delay) shall be added first for the generator at no-load rated speed and rated voltage in the

test; then the resistive load of 25% of rated phase power shall be added in any phase; for

self-excited constant voltage generator of the mode of silicon controlled rectifier, the load

shall be added in the phase with a silicon controlled rectifier and the maximum (or minimum)

32

value of the wire voltage shall be determined. The ratio of the difference between the

maximum (or minimum) value and the average value of the three-phase wire voltage to the

average value of the three-phase voltage shall be as the voltage deviation degree.

The load method for the generator with the three-phase three-wire system shall be

carried out according to the requirements of the standard for that type of the machine.

7.3 Determination of Transient Voltage Variation Rate

The determination of the transient voltage variation shall be carried out according to the

method specified in GB/T 15548.

8.1.1 Locked-rotor test

Before the test, the rotor position corresponding to the maximum locked-rotor current

and minimum locked-rotor torque shall be determined at low voltage and the rotor shall be

blocked up. In the test, the connection mode of the excitation return circuit for the machine

shall be consistent with the starting-up connection mode in actual application. The starting

resistance value required to wire in the excitation return circuit should be 10 times of the

resistance value of the excitation winding if there is no requirement in technical documents of

related machine under test; the armature winding of the machine under test shall be connected

to such supply source in real balance with the rated frequency and adjustable voltage. When

the supply voltage is below 20% of the rated value, the machine under test shall be wired in,

then the supply voltage shall be increased as quickly as possible to make the armature current

as 200% around of the rated value (the current may be larger when the test is conducted on a

small scale machine and with a machine automatic test equipment); and the three-phase wire

voltage, three-phase wire current and power input or torque (in direct measurement) shall be

read rapidly at the same time in order to avoid the machine overheating, the test must be

carried out as soon as possible. Then the supply voltage shall be gradually decreased ( the

frequency shall be maintained as rated on this occasion), 8~9 points shall be read altogether

with the same above-mentioned method; at least 4 points of reading shall be measured evenly

within range of the maximum current to rated current. If the torque cannot be measured

because of the equipment restriction, the DC resistance value of the armature winding shall be

immediately measured when the test data of the last point is read and the supply source is off.

8.1.2 Determination of locked-rotor current and locked-rotor torque

Based on the test date, the relation curve of the three-phase current average value with

the three-wire voltage average value shall be plotted, as shown in Figure 11, the straight

portion of the maximum test voltage on the curve along the curve shall be extended to

intersect with the abscissa axis at voltage point U'.

33

Figure 11

The locked-rotor current IKN of the machine under test shall be determined according to

the following formula:

I KN =

U N U'

IK

U K U '

(44)

Where:

UKthe maximum test voltage value, V;

IKthe current corresponding to UK, A.

The locked-rotor torque TKN (Nm) of the machine under test shall be determined

according to the following formula:

2

TKN

U U'

TK

= N

U K U '

(45)

Where:

TKthe torque measured at the maximum test voltage, Nm.

If the torque is not be able to measure directly in the test, the locked-rotor torque may be

calculated according to the following methods, the electromagnetic power PM (kW) of

inputting rotors shall be calculated first when the rotor is blocked up.

PM = Pin PFe 3I K2 Ral 103

(46)

Where:

Pinthe input power at the maximum test voltage, kW;

PFethe iron loss corresponding to the maximum test voltage, kW, which shall be

determined by Figure 8;

IKthe average value of the three-phase current at the maximum test voltage, A;

Ra1the DC resistance of the armature winding in any phase measured immediately

after the test, .

The locked-rotor torque TK (Nm) shall be determined in accordance with PM.

TK = 9550

PM

nN

(47)

Where:

PMthe electromagnetic power of inputting rotors, kW;

34

In per unit values:

PM

PN

tK =

(48)

If there is no obvious straight portion in the relation curve of the voltage current in

Figure 11 (such as the solid rotor machine), the curve lgIK =f (lgUK) may be plotted as shown

in Figure 12. The maximum voltage of the test on the curve shall be extended as a straight

line, the locked-rotor current IKN corresponding to the rated voltage shall be inquired out from

the extension line.

Figure 12

TKN

I

= KN

IK

TK

(49)

8.2

During the determination of the nominal pull-in torque, the excitation return circuit of

the machine under test shall meet the requirements of 8.1, the nominal pull-in torque may be

determined with the direct on-load method or acceleration method.

8.2.1 Direct on-load method

The machine under test shall be connected to such supply source in real balance with the

rated frequency and adjustable voltage to operate as asynchronous motor; the test voltage of

the machine under test shall be increased as much as possible under the condition that the

damping winding and the whole magnetic pole are not overheated, generally it shall be above

50% of the rated value; the load of the machine under test shall be adjusted to make the slip

ratio at 0.05; the armature voltage, armature current, rotation speed or slip ratio of the

machine under test shall be read at the same time; the torque also shall be read if the load is a

dynamometer. If the analyzed dc machine is adopted as the load, the terminal voltage,

armature current and excitation current pass the dc machine shall be measured and analyzed

at the same time. The connection condition of the excitation return circuit and the value of the

short-circuit resistance for the machine under test also shall be recorded in the test.

The electromagnetic torque TM(Nm) of the machine under test with the slip ratio at s

shall be calculated according to the following formula:

35

TM = 9550

P + Pfws

(1 s )nN

(50)

Where:

Pthe output power of the machine under test, namely the input power of the loaded

machine, kW;

Pfwsthe mechanical loss of the machine under test with the slip ratio at s, kW, which

may be approximately adopted as Pfw value if there is no such parameters (see 5.2.1.1).

The nominal pull-in torque Tpin(Nm) of the machine under test at rated voltage shall be

calculated according to the following formula:

2

U U'

T pin = N

TM

U U'

(51)

Where:

Uthe test voltage when TM is obtained, V;

U'the voltage determined by Figure 11, V;

TMthe obtained electromagnetic torque when the slip ratio s=0.05, Nm.

The per unit value of the nominal pull-in torque tpin shall be calculated according to the

following formula:

2

U U ' P + Pfws

t pin = N

U U ' (1 s ) PN

(52)

In the test, if the point with the slip ratio at 0.05 is difficult to set accurately, then the

load of the machine under test may be adjusted to make the slip ratio at 0.05 around and adopt

4~5 points; the torque shall be calculated according to above-mentioned methods; then the

curve of the torque against the slip shall be plotted. The torque value with the slip ratio at 0.05

shall be determined from the curve.

8.2.2 Acceleration method

The machine under test shall be connected to the stabilized supply source in real balance

with the rated frequency and adjustable voltage to operate the machine start-up at no-load; the

supply voltage shall be adjusted so that the time from 30%nN to nN for the machine is about

1.5min around. During the acceleration process, the supply voltage and the frequency shall be

constant; if the minimum voltage be able to start up in the stationary state for the machine

cannot meet above-mentioned requirements, then the supply voltage shall be furtherly

reduced until it meets above-mentioned requirements. However, other methods shall be

adopted for helping starting-up of the machine on this occasion (for instance, starting-up with

the help of the crane or starting-up at higher voltage first, then the supply source shall be cut

off to make the machine slow down until the machine speed drop to 30%nN below, then the

test shall be performed by adding required voltage again). When the rotation speed is within

range of 30%nN~80%nN, one rotation speed shall be measured at interval of (5~10)s and the

time shall be recorded. When the rotation speed is within range of 80%nN~100%nN, it should

be recorded at interval of (3~5) s; whether the machine is overheating shall be noticed during

the testing.

The time for accelerating to the full value may be shorter than above-mentioned

36

The curve of the rotation speed against time shall be plotted as shown in Figure 13 from

the test data, and the slope of curve

dn

at 95% nN shall be calculated, it may be determined

dt

with the following methods: take point a at 95% nN on the curve as a center, adopt two points

b and c with equal distance from point a on the curve (the ordinate of point b shall not exceed

nN). The ordinate difference of these two points shall be n, the abscissa difference shall be

n

.

t

Figure 13

The torque of the machine at test voltage Tpi (Nm) shall be calculated according to the

following formula:

T pi =

J n

9.55 t

(53)

Where:

Jthe rotational inertia of the machine under test, kgm2.

Calculating in per unit value, then:

n

t

=

91.2 10 3 PN

Jn N

t pi

(54)

The nominal pull-in torque at rated voltage TpiN (Nm) shall be:

2

T piN

U U '

= N

T pi

U U'

t piN

U U '

= N

t pi

U U'

(55)

2

(56)

Where:

U'which shall be determined from Figure 11.

8.3 Determination of Pull-out Torque of Synchronous Motor

The pull-out torque of the synchronous motor may be determined with the direct on-load

method or analysis method.

37

The adjustable brake, torque measurement and dynamometer with uniform load or the

analyzed dc generator should be adopted as loads in the test. The motor under test shall be

connected to such supply source in real balance with rated frequency and rated voltage, the

machine under test shall be adjusted to operate at rated load state, then the excitation current

shall be constant; the load of the machine under test shall be increased gradually until it pulls

out, the torque value measured from the brake, dynamometer or torque measurement at the

pull-out instant shall be the pull-out torque of the machine under test.

If the load of the machine under test is the analyzed dc generator, then the pull-out torque

of the machine under test may be obtained according to the following steps: the input power

shall be calculated according to the efficiency curve and the output power of the dc generator

measured from the pull-out instant, namely is the output power P of the machine under test,

the pull-out torque Tpo (Nm) of the machine under test shall be determined by the following

formula:

T po = 9550

P + Pfw

nN

(57)

Where:

Pfwthe mechanical loss of the machine under test, kW.

8.3.2 Analysis method

If the pull-out torque of the machine under test is unable to determine by the direct

on-load method, it may be determined by the analysis method; the per unit value tpo of the

pull-out torque of the synchronous motor shall be calculated according to the following

formulae:

t po =

I fN

Ifo

1+ f ( )

xd cos N

I f o xd

I fN xq

(58)

(59)

Where:

IfNthe rated excitation current of the machine under test, A;

If o the excitation current at no-load air gap corresponding to the rated voltage, A,

See Figure 18;

xdthe unsaturated value of the direct-axis synchronous reactance of the machine

under test, which in per unit value (see 12.2.1);

xqthe quadrature-axis synchronous reactance of the machine under test, which in per

unit value (see 12.10).

f() shall be taken from Figure 14.

38

Figure 14

8.4

The short-time overtorque of the synchronous motor should be measured by adopting

with load adjustable brake, dynamometer and analyzed dc generator or other instruments and

equipments that can directly measure the output power on the machine shaft; the overtorque

multiple and duration shall be in accordance with the requirements of GB 7552000 or the

standard on this type of machine.

During the test, the machine under test shall be connected to the actual symmetrical

supply source with rated frequency and rated voltage and shall be adjusted to the rated power

round to operate; the machine temperature shall be close to the operating temperature (also

may be carried out after the temperature rising test immediately), then the excitation current

shall be maintained as constant; the load of the machine under test shall be increased to make

the torque reach the specified value; the machine under test shall be free from abnormal

conditions such as pull-out, smoking, odour and injurious deformation.

8.5 Determination of Rotational Inertia

The determination of the rotational inertia shall be carried out according to methods

specified in 12.35~12.44 in "Parameter Determination".

The relation between the rotational inertia and stored energy constant shall be:

J=

2S N

1800 S

H = 2 2 N H ; kgm2

2

wN

nN

(60)

Where:

wNthe rated angular speed, w N =

2

n N , rad/s.

60

SNthe rated apparent power, kVA;

Hthe stored energy constant, s.

9.1

When the occasional overcurrent test is carried out for the synchronous machine, it shall

39

be at a status of close to hot state. The machine armature current shall be rapidly adjusted to

the specified current multiple, the multiple and duration of the occasional overcurrent shall be

specified according to the requirements of GB 7552000 or the standard on this type of the

machine. The machine frequency on this occasion shall be the rated value; the armature

voltage shall be close to the rated value as much as possible.

If the test cannot be conducted according to above-mentioned methods because of the

condition restriction, the test shall be allowed to conduct according to the requirements of the

standard on this type of the machine in the short-circuit condition.

The machine shall be free from such abnormal conditions as smoking, peculiar smell and

injurious deformation in the occasional overcurrent test. The overheating of the terminal part

shall be noticed for the water internal cooled machine and high electromagnetic load machine.

9.2 Overload Test

In the overload test, the machine shall be at a state close to hot state, and the rated

frequency, rated voltage and rated power factor shall be kept constant. The overload value and

test duration shall be in accordance with the requirements of the standard on this type of the

machine. The generator and excitation device shall be free from any abnormal conditions

during the specified test duration.

9.3 Short-circuit Mechanical Strength Test

This is a destructive test, the machine assembling and installation quality shall be

inspected carefully before the test, for instance, whether the terminal colligation of the

machine winding is firm; whether the tight nut of the rotor is tighten; whether the machine

foundation is in good condition; and whether the stone bolt and nut are tighten. The insulation

resistance the winding against the enclosure and mutual insulation resistance shall be

determined before the test.

People shall not stay nearby the machine under test, short circuiting switch and lead

wires (as short as possible) in order to ensure personnel safety during the operation of the

sudden short-circuit.

During the test, the machine shall be close to the operating temperature, the test shall

be performed when the machine is at no-load and the excitation (separate excitation)

corresponds to 1.05 times of rated voltage, the short circuit duration shall be 3s altogether.

After unshorting, the machine shall be free from injurious deformations and be able to

bear the withstand voltage test.

10

The negative sequence current affordability test shall be carried out according to the

method specified in JB/T 8445.

11

Stator Winding

40

The determination of the terminal dynamic characteristics of the stator winding shall be

carried out according to methods specified in JB/T 8990.

12

60034-4)

12.1 Description

12.1.1 During the test, the machine winding connection, as a rule, should be as for normal

working.

The determination of all parameteies is made with star connection of the armature

winding (unless special connections such as open delta are specified). If the armature winding

is actually delta connected, the values of the parameters, obtained in accordance with this

chapter, shall correspond to an equivalent star-connected winding.

12.1.2 All the parameters and characteristics shall be designated in per unit values

considering the rated values of voltage (UN) and the apparent power (SN) as basic ones. In this

case, the basic current will be:

IN =

SN

3U N

, A

(61)

ZN =

U N2

S

= N2 ,

S N 3I N

(62)

with subsequent conversion to the parameter in per unit value. It is recommended to express

time in seconds. In the calculations of characteristics, and when drawing diagrams, excitation

current corresponding to the rated voltage on the no-load curve is taken as the basic value of

the excitation current.

If a machine has several rated values, those taken for the basic values shall be stated.

Unless otherwise stated, the above-mentioned provisions are accepted in this chapter.

Small letters designate the parameters in per unit values, and capital letters designate physical

parameters.

12.1.3 In the formulae given in this chapter for determining synchronous reactances, the

positive sequence armature resistance, unless otherwise stated, is considered to be negligible.

When the positive sequence armature resistance constitutes more than 0.2 of the

measured reactance, the formulae shall be considered as approximate.

12.1.4 The determination and test methods of the majority of parameters, as given in this

chapter, correspond to the widely accepted two-axis theory of synchronous machines with

approximate representation of all circuits additional to the field-winding, and stationary

circuits relative to it, by two equivalent circuits, one along the direct axis and the other along

the quadrature axis, neglecting armature resistance or taking it into consideration only

approximately.

41

(synchronous, transient and subtransient) and two time constants (transient and sub-transient)

are considered in this chapter for transient phenomena studies along the direct axis, two

reactances (synchronous and subtransient) and one time constant (subtransient) along the

quadrature axis, and the armature short-circuit time constant.

These time constants are based on the assumption of an exponential decrease of the

particular components of parameters involved (currents, voltages, etc.). If the plot of the

measured component under consideration does not decrease as a pure exponential, as in the

case, for example, of a solid rotor machine, the time constant shall normally be interpreted as

the time required for the component to decrease to 1/ 0.368 of its initial value. Exponential

decay curves corresponding to these time constants shall be considered as equivalent curves

replacing the actual measured ones.

12.1.5 Synchronous machine parameters vary with saturation of the magnetic circuits. In

practical calculations, both saturated and unsaturated values are used.

In this chapter, unless otherwise stated, the "saturated value" of reactances and

resistances will be taken as the rated armature voltage value of the parameter, and their

"unsaturated value" will be taken as the rated armature current value, except synchronous

reactance which is not defined as saturated.

The rated (armature) voltage value of a quantity of a parameter corresponds to the

magnetic condition of the machine during sudden short-circuit of the armature winding from

no-load rated voltage operation, the machine running at rated speed.

The rated (armature) current value of a parameter corresponds to the condition in which

the fundamental component of armature current which determines this particular parameter is

equal to the rated current.

12.2 Determination of Parameters from No-load Saturation Characteristic and

Three-phase Steadystate Shortcircuit Characteristic

12.2.1 Direct-axis synchronous reactance is determined from the no-load saturation and

three-phase steadystate shortcircuit characteristics as a quotient of the non-load voltage taken

from the air-gap line at some excitation and the steadystate shortcircuit characteristic at the

same excitation current (Figure 15).

Xd =

UN

3I BC

AC OH iik

, ; x d =

=

=

BC OC i fg

(63)

12.2.2 The short-circuit ratio is determined from the no-load saturation and three-phase

steadystate shortcircuit characteristics as a quotient of the excitation current corresponding to

the rated voltage on the no-load saturation curve and the excitation current corresponding to

the rated current on the short circuit curve (Figure 15).

42

Figure 15

Kc =

OD i fo

=

OH i fk

(64)

12.3

The over-excitation test at zero power-factor is conducted with the to-be-tested machine

operating as a generator or a motor. The active power when the machine operates as a

generator shall be equal to zero. When the machine operates as a motor, the load on the shaft

shall be zero.

During the test, the excitation current corresponding to the values of voltage and

armature current preferably differing by not more than 0.15 (per unit value) from the rated

values, at zero power factor with overexcitation.

12.4 Determination of the Excitation Current Corresponding to the Rated Voltage and

Rated Armature Current at Zero Power Factor (Overexcitation)

If, during the over-excitation test at zero power-factor, the voltage differs from the rated

value by not more than 0.15 (per unit value), a graphical method is used for the

determination of the excitation current corresponding to the rated voltage and current, using

the date of the test and the no-load saturation and three-phase steadystate shortcircuit

characteristics.

A test point (Point C in Figure 16) is plotted on a diagram with the no-load saturation

curve of the test machine. This point corresponds to zero power factor and the measured

values of the voltage u, armature current i and excitation current if. Vector OD equal to the

excitation current corresponding to the armature current i on the three-phase steadystate

shortcircuit curve, is laid off along the abscissa axis. From the Point C, a length CF equal to

OD is laid off towards the no-load saturation characteristic and parallel to the abscissa axis. A

line FH is then drawn parallel to the extended straight line portion of the no-load saturation

characteristic intersecting the latter at Point H. Line HC is extended to a point N such that:

HN 1

=

HC i

(65)

Where:

ithe armature current corresponding to Point C.

The no-load saturation curve is then transferred to the right and downwards parallel to

43

Point A may be found on this curve which corresponds to the rated voltage. The abscissa

of this point (OB) represents the excitation current corresponding to the rated voltage and

rated armature current at zero power factor (overexcitation).

Figure 16

12.5 Determination of Potier Reactance from the No-load and Three-phase Steadystate

Shortcircuit Characteristics and the Excitation Current Corresponding to the Rated

Voltage and Rated Armature Current at Zero Power Factor (over-excitated)

The Potier reactance is determined graphically. The no-load and three-phase steadystate

shortcircuit characteristics are plotted on a diagram (Figure 17) as well as a point vertical

ordinate of which is the rated voltage and the abscissa is the excitation current measured at

rated armature current and zero power factor at overexcitation (Point A).

Figure 17

To the left from the Point A, parallel to the abscissa, a length AF equal to the excitation

current (ifk) for the rated armature steadystate shortcircuit current is laid off. A line parallel to

the extended straight line portion of the no-load characteristic is drawn through the Point F up

to the intersection with the upper part of the no-load characteristic (Point H). The length of

perpendicular from Point H and Point G (intersection with AF line) represents the voltage

drop on reactance xp at the rated armature current. In per unit values, xp=HG.

12.6 Determination of the Rated Excitation Current by the Potier's Diagram

To determine the rated excitation current by Potier's diagram, the no-load saturation

44

be used.

The vector of the rated armature current (iN) of the tested machine is laid off along the

abscissa. At the power-factor angle N (which is considered to be positive for an overexcited

generator) to it draw the rated voltage vector (uN) (Figure 18).

The vector of the voltage drop (iNxp) in the Potier reactance t the rated current is drawn

perpendicular to the armature current vector from the end of the voltage vector. The voltage

drop in the armature winding resistance is usually neglected. If necessary, it may be taken into

account by drawing the of voltage drop in the positive sequence armature winding resistance

from the end of the voltage vector and parallel to the current vector.

In Figure 18, this vector shall be laid off in the direction of the armature current vector

for generators and in the opposite direction for motors.

The vector sum of the rated voltage and the voltage drop in the reactance xp represents

the potential vector ep; the excitation current ifp corresponding to the potential ep shall be

determined from the no-load curve and is laid off from the origin point at 90to the vector ifp.

Figure 18

The excitation current component (ifa) compensating armature reaction at rated armature

current shall be the difference between the excitation current corresponding to the rated

armature current on the three-phase steadystate shortcircuit characteristic and the excitation

current corresponding to the voltage drop in xp due to rated armature current on the no-load

saturation characteristic (Figure 17). Vector ifa shall be laid off from the end of the vector ifp

parallel to the armature current vector. The rated excitation current ifN is the vector sum of ifp

and ifa.

If the Potier reactance xp is unknown, it may be replaced in the construction of Figure 18

by (axa), where xa is the armature reactance measured without rotor, and a is a factor taken

equal to 1.0 for salient pole machines and 0.6 (0.65) for non-salient pole machines (unless

more precise figure are available from previous experience on machines of similar

construction).

12.6.1 The test without rotor is conducted with three-phase voltage at rated frequency

applied to terminals of the armature winding. The applied voltage is so chosen that the

armature current is approximate to the rated value. During the test, the terminal voltage (U),

line current (I) and input active power (P) shall be measured.

12.6.2 The armature reactance without rotor (Xa) shall be calculated from the following

formula:

X a = Z 2 R2 ,

(66)

45

Where:

Z=

U

3I

, ; R =

P

, ;

3I 2

u

p

2

2

x = z r ; z = i ; r = i 2 .

12.7

To determine the rated excitation current by ASA diagram (Figure 19), the no-load

saturation characteristic, three-phase steadystate shortcircuit characteristic and Potier

reactance will be used.

The determination of potential ep is made in accordance with 12.6. The excitation

current (ifg) for the air-gap line at the rated armature voltage is determined from the no-load

saturation characteristic. The vector ifg is laid off from the origin point along the abscissa axis.

From its end, at the rated power-factor angle N (which is considered to be positive for an

overexcited generator) to be right of the vertical line, the excitation current vector ifk

corresponding to the rated armature current on the three-phase steadystate shortcircuit

characteristic is laid off.

if is the difference between the excitation currents of the no-load saturation

characteristic (ifp) and the air-gap line (ifep), both corresponding to the voltage ep. The

corresponding if is added in the extension line of the vector sum of two excitation currents

(ifg, ifk), and then the sum of the three vector is the rated excitation current.

Figure 19

The rated excitation current may also be determined using the following formula (in per

unit values or physical values)

i fN = i f + (i fg + i fk sin N )2 + (i fk cos N )2

(67)

by axa.

12.8 Determination of the Rated Excitation Current by the Swedish Diagram

46

To determine the rated excitation current by the Swedish diagram, the no-load saturation

characteristic, the three-phase steadystate shortcircuit characteristic and the excitation current

corresponding to the rated voltage and rated armature current at zero power factor

(overexcitated) will be used.

Three values of the excitation current shall be laid off on the abscissa axis (Figure 20):

OD is the excitation current corresponding to the rated voltage on the no-load

characteristic;

OB is the excitation current corresponding to the rated voltage and armature current at

zero power factor;

OC is the excitation current corresponding to the rated armature current on the

steadystate shortcircuit characteristic.

Figure 20

From Point D a perpendicular to the abscissa axis is drawn on which the length FD

equal to 1.05OC is laid off. Points F and B are connected by a straight line and a

perpendicular is drawn from the center of this line down to the intersection with the abscissa

axis in Point M. From Point M, as a center, a circular arc is drawn through Points F and B.

From Point D at the power-factor angle N (which is considered to be positive for an

overexcited generator) to FD, a line is drawn to intersect with the arc FB at Point K. The

length of OK is the rated excitation current of this machine.

If necessary, the voltage drop in the armature resistance may be accounted for as

follows:

PG represents the voltage drop in the positive sequence armature resistance at rated

current and EP represents the excitation current component required to increase the non-load

voltage by a value of PG. The length KL is laid off along the circular arc FKB and this length

is equal to EP. The length OL represents the required excitation current.

When the tested machine operates as a motor, the voltage drop in the positive sequence

armature resistance is laid off downward from the Point E, and Point L is laid off to the left

from Point K.

If the excitation current corresponding to the rated voltage and current at zero power

factor is lacking, the following method may be used for the determination while using the

Swedish diagram. Along the ordinate axis, the voltage drop axa at rated armature current is

47

A line parallel to the abscissa axis is drawn from Point H to intersect with the no-load

characteristic at Point H. From Point H, a perpendicular is drawn to the intersection with the

abscissa axis at Point D (Figure 17). From Point D, vector ifa (length DB) is added along the

abscissa axis. The excitation current equal to the length OB is the required current to be used

in drawing the Swedish diagram.

12.9 Negative Excitation Test

This test is conducted with the machine operating under no-load in parallel with the

network. The excitation current is steadily reduced to zero, its polarity is reversed, and it is

then increased up to the moment when the machine slips one pole pitch. The values of the

voltage, armature current and excitation current are measured during the test till the moment

when the machine begins to slip.

12.10 Determination of Xq by Negative Excitation Test

The determination of Xq from negative excitation test shall be made using the following

formula (in per unit or physical values):

xq = ( xd )

ur

u r + (e )

(68)

Where:

(e)the no-load potential for the excitation current ifr at which the machine slips one

pole pitch; it is determined from the straightened no-load characteristic drawn through the

point corresponding to the voltage at the moment of slipping one pole pitch (Figure 21);

urthe voltage at the moment of slipping;

xdthe direct-axis synchronous reactance determined from the same straightened

no-load saturation characteristic.

If during the test the armature current (ir) at which the machine slips one pole pitch is

measured, xq shall be determined using the following formula:

Xq =

u

, ; x q = r

ir

3I r

Ur

(69)

Figure 21

The value of xq obtained from this test may vary depending upon the value of ur due to

48

the influence of saturation. To obtain an unsaturated value, applied voltage usually must be

lowered to 0.6 times of the rated value or even lower.

12.11 Low Slip Test

During the low slip test, symmetrical three-phase low voltage (0.01UN to 0.2UN) is

applied to the armature terminals of the machine under test. The selected voltage shall be such

that the machine does not pull in. The excitation winding shall be open-circuited, the rotor

shall be driven by a prime mover at a slip ratio less than 0.01 and for solid rotor machine

much less than that value so that the current induced in the damper circuit during the

asynchronous operation of machine will have negligible influence on the measurements.

During the switching on and off of the supply, the excitation winding shall be closed

(short-circuited or through a discharge resistance) to avoid possible damage. Armature current

and voltage and the slip-ring voltage and slip ratio are measured by indicating instruments or

recorded by oscillograph. If the residual voltage measured before the test is larger than 0.3

times of the supply test voltage, the rotor shall be demagnetized. Demagnetizing may be done,

for example, by connecting the excitation winding to a low-frequency power supply with

current about 0.5 times of the no-load rated voltage excitation current of the tested machine

and gradually decreasing its amplitude and frequency (the latter if possible).

12.12 Determination of Xq from the Low Slip Test

To determine Xq from the low slip test, armature current and voltage are measured at

maximum excitation winding voltage (Ufo) and Xq is calculated according to the following

formula:

U min

Xq =

3I max

u

, ; x q = min

imax

(70)

Note: If Imax does not coincide with Umin, then Imax, as a base, and its corresponding voltage shall be used in the

calculations.

If, during the test, the residual voltage (Ures) of the machine is in the limits of 0.1~0.3 of

the supply test voltage, the value of the current is determined using the following formula:

I max

U res

u

, A; imax = iav2 res

= I

x

3X

d

d

2

av

(71)

Where, Iav is the half sum of the two adjacent maximum values of the current envelope

curve (Figure 22).

A check of the measured value may be made by calculating Xd from the same test, using

the results of the voltage and current at the time when the voltage of the open-circuit

excitation winding is equal to zero and comparing it with its real value. Then,

Xd =

U max

3I min

u

, ; x d = max

imin

(72)

With a residual voltage less than 0.3 times of the supply test voltage, Imax will be half

sum of the two adjacent minimum values of the envelope curve.

The results of Xq measurements from the low slip test may be considered correct only if

the value of Xd obtained from the test practically aggress with its value obtained in accordance

49

with 12.2. Otherwise, the test is repeated at several low values of the slip ratio, followed by

extrapolation of Xq values to zero slip ratio. The value of quadrature-axis synchronous

reactance obtained from this test practically corresponds to the unsaturated value.

12.13 Determination of the Load Angle by On-load Test

The test is conducted with the machine operating in parallel with the network. The

loading of the machine shall not be less than 0.5 times of the rated active power at the rated

power factor. During the test, the armature current (i) and voltage (u), angle between the

voltage and the current (using the two wattmeter method) and load angle (the internal angle

between the terminal voltage and potential) shall be measured. The load angle may be

measured by using the stroboscopic method or any other accurate method.

12.14 Determination of Xq from On-load Test Measuring the Load Angle

The determination of Xq by the method of load angle measurement is made using the

following formula:

Xq =

Utg

utg

, ; x q =

i (cos sin tg )

3I (cos sin tg )

(73)

Figure 22

This test is conducted at rated speed for the determination of synchronous machine

parameters. Apply a short circuit to the armature winding when operating at the desired

voltage at no-load. Excitation of the machine is generally accomplished from its own

separately-excited exciter. If its own exciter cannot be used, then a separate exciter may be

used, but its rated current value should be at least twice the no-load field current of the

machine under test and its armature resistance shall not be greater than that of the main

machine exciter. This exciter shall be separately excited.

Short-circuit the three phases simultaneously. The phase contacts shall close within 15

electrical degrees of each other. This value may be exceeded on test when the armature dc

component is not of importance. Use non-inductive shunts, air-cored transformers or suitable

current transformers to measure the short-circuit current. The latter shall be used in dealing

with a.c. current components only, and shall be chosen so that the initial value of the

sub-transient component of the short-circuit current is on the straight portion of the

transformer characteristic.

50

amplifier. When it is required to determine the maximum aperiodic and periodic values of

short-circuit current components only, an integrating oscillographic galvanometer may be

used.

The total resistance of the measuring instruments and their leads connected into the

secondary circuit of current transformers shall not exceed the rated values accepted for the

given type of transformers.

The terminal voltage of the machine, the excitation current and the excitation winding

temperature shall be measured immediately before the short-circuiting.

To obtain parameters corresponding to the unsaturated state of the machine, the test shall

be performed at several armature voltages of (0.1 to 0.4 times) rated value. The parameters

shall be obtained for each test and plotted against the initial values of a.c. transient or

sub-transient armature currents. From this relationship, the required parameters are obtained

at the rated armature current value.

To obtain parameters corresponding to the saturated state of the machine, the test shall be

performed with rated voltage at the terminals of the machine before short-circuiting the

armature winding.

If the sudden short-circuit test cannot be performed at rated voltage, it is recommended

that the tests shall be conducted at several armature voltages (e.g. 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 times of

rated voltage), and the parameters determined for each test. They are then plotted against

open-circuit voltage before short-circuiting and the approximate rated armature voltage

parameter shall be found by the extrapolation method.

To determine the parameter of the electric machine, oscillograms shall be taken of the

armature current in each phase and of the excitation current.

Oscillograph recording shall continue for a time interval not less than Td'+0.2s after the

short circuit. The steady values shall also be recorded by restarting the oscillograph following

the establishment of steady conditions. The final values for a check shall be measured by

instruments. Shorter oscillographic records may be taken if it is known from tests on similar

machines that the current value decays as an exponential function.

The change relation with time of aperiodic and periodic armature current components in

each phase shall be determined from the three-phase short-circuit oscillogram as an algebraic

half-sum and algebraic half-difference of the ordinates of the upper and lower envelopes of

the short-circuit current in separate phases, respectively.

Armature current periodic component at short-circuit shall be determined as a mean

arithmetic value of the periodic component of the current in three phases.

To determine the transient (ik) and sub-transient (ik) components, the value of the

steady-state short-circuit current i () shall be subtracted from the curve of the armature

current periodic component. The remainder, which is the sum of ik+ ik, shall be plotted on

paper with a semi-log scale. This plot may be a straight line or a curve.

a) When the latter part of this plot is a straight line (corresponding to an exponential

function), then this line extrapolated to t=0 gives the initial value ik (0) of the

transient component of short-circuit current (Figure 23).

b) When the latter part of this plot is a curve, the amplitude of the current iA shall be

measured at a time OA, where OA is taken as 0.2 s or the time at which

51

sub-transient effects become negligible. The time OB shall be measured at the time

at which the current is iB = iA/. The time constant Td shall be taken as (OBOA)

seconds. The straight line through the values of current iB and iA shall be assumed to

represent the equivalent value of ik and, when it is extrapolated to t=0, it gives the

initial value ik (0) of the transient component of short-circuit current (Figure 24).

The sub-transient short-circuit current component shall be defined as the difference

between the curve (ik+ ik) and the equivalent decaying curve representing the value of

ik. The variation of the sub-transient current component with time shall be also plotted on

the semi-log scale (Figure 23).

The aperiodic current components of all the phases are plotted against time on semi-log

scale. Extrapolation of these curves to t=0 gives the initial values of the corresponding

currents.

To find the greatest possible value of the aperiodic component, the initial values of the

aperiodic components of separate phases obtained by extrapolation shall be laid off as vectors

(Figure 25) along three radial lines 60apart, radiating from one origin, the largest of the three

vectors being laid off on the middle line. Perpendiculars shall be drawn through the end of

each vector. The vector drawn from the origin to the centre of the triangle formed by the

intersections of these perpendiculars represents the largest possible aperiodic component

equal to the initial value of the amplitude of the periodic component.

Figure 23

52

Figure 24

Figure 25

The largest possible value of the aperiodic component of the current may be determined

analytically (in per unit or physical values) by the following formula:

ia max =

2

3

i a22 + ia23 + ia 2 ia 3

(74)

Where,ia3 is the highest absolute initial value (regardless of sign) of the aperiodic

component of the current found from the test; ia2 is the absolute initial value of the aperiodic

current component in either of the two other phases. The function of the periodic component

of the excitation current against time shall be determined from the excitation current

oscillogram and is plotted on a semi-log scale. Extrapolation of the curve to zero time (t=0)

gives the initial value of the periodic current component.

12.16 Determination of Parameters from the Sudden Three-phase Short-circuit Test

The direct-axis transient reactance, as determined from the sudden short-circuit test, is

the ratio of the non-load voltage, measured immediately before the short circuit [u(0)] to the

initial value of the periodic component of the short-circuit current neglecting the sub-transient

component (See Figure 23).

X d' =

u ( 0)

, ; x d' =

'

i ( ) + i k ( 0)

3[ I () + I (0)]

U ( 0)

'

k

(75)

53

12.16.1 The direct-axis subtransient reactance, as determined from the sudden short-circuit

test, is the ratio of the non-load voltage, measured immediately before the short circuit, to the

initial value of the periodic component of the short-circuit current, obtained from the analysis

of the oscillogram (Figure 23).

X d" =

u ( 0)

, ; x d" =

'

"

i() + ik (0) + ik (0)

3[ I () + I (0) + I (0)]

U ( 0)

'

k

"

k

(76)

12.16.2 The direct-axis transient short-circuit time constant, as determined from the sudden

three-phase short-circuit test, is the time required for the transient armature current

component to decrease to 1/0.368 of its initial value.

12.16.3 The direct-axis subtransient short-circuit time constant, as determined from the

sudden three-phase short-circuit test, is the time required for the subtransient armature current

component to decrease to 1/0.368 of its initial value.

12.16.4 The armature short-circuit time constant shall be determined as the time required

for the excitation current periodic component to decrease to 1/0.368 of its initial value.

12.16.5 The armature short-circuit time constant from the decrease of the aperiodic

armature current components in each phase shall be determined as the average time required

for these components to decrease to 1/0.368 of their initial value. Any phase whose initial

aperiodic component is less than 0.4 times of the initial maximum resolved value shall be

disregarded in determining the armature short-circuit time constant.

The determination of the armature short-circuit time constant from the decrease of the

aperiodic armature current component shall be permissible, provided the armature current

during the sudden short-circuit test is measured by the non-inductive shunts.

12.16.6 The largest possible instantaneous initial short-circuit current shall be determined

from the sudden three-phase short-circuit test as the sum of the values of period and aperiodic

components at a half-cycle after the instant of the short-circuit.

The value of the period component for this instant shall be equal to the sum of the

steady-state, transient and sub-transient components of the sudden short-circuit current.

The two latter components shall be obtained directly from Figure 23 for the

corresponding instant.

The value of the aperiodic component shall be determined by the following formula (in

per unit or physical values).

ia = ia max e

0.5

f a

(77)

Where:

ia maxthe largest possible value of the aperiodic component of sudden short circuit;

ethe base of natural logarithm;

athe armature short circuit time constant;

fthe frequency, in Hzs, (cycle per second) (0.5/f corresponds to a half-cycle).

12.17 Voltage Recovery Test

The voltage recovery test after disconnection of a steady-state three-phase short-circuit

shall be conducted on a machine running at rated speed with the armature winding

short-circuited by a circuit-breaker at the beginning of the test.

54

The machine shall be operated with the armature winding short-circuited and with

excitation current set at a value corresponding to the linear portion of the no-load saturation

characteristic curve, which as a rule shall be not higher than 0.7 times of no load rated voltage,

conditions being steady at the instant of operation of the circuit-breaker.

Parameters obtained from this test shall correspond to the unsaturated state of the

machine. The requirements for the excitation system shall be the same as those specified in

Section 12.15.

The steady-state short circuit shall be switched off practically simultaneously in all three

phases with the currents being interrupted within 180 electrical degrees, or half a cycle.

Oscillographic records (initial part at high speed) of one line voltage recovery and one

armature current shall be required.

The difference between the steady-state voltage and the voltage determined by the

envelope of recovery voltage shall be plotted on a semi-log scale against time, and then

extrapolated to the instant of the switching off of the short circuit (Curve 1, Figure 26).

The extrapolation of the linear part of Curve 1 to the ordinate gives the initial value of

the transient voltage component u'(0).

The difference between the voltage determined by Curve 1 and the transient voltage

component (u') gives the sub-transient voltage component (u") for the corresponding

instants.

12.18 Determination of Parameters from the Voltage Recovery Test

The direct-axis transient reactance shall be determined from the voltage recovery test as

the ratio of the difference between the steady-state voltage U() and the initial value of the

transient voltage component u'(0) to the armature current (ik) measured immediately before

the disconnection of the short circuit (Figure 26).

X d' =

U ( ) U ' ( 0)

3I k

u () u ' (0)

, ; x d' =

ik

(78)

Figure 26

12.18.1 The direct-axis transient reactance shall be determined from the voltage recovery

test as the ratio of the difference between the steady-state voltage U() and the sum of the

55

initial values of the transient u'(0) and sub-transient u"(0) voltage components to the

armature current (ik) measured immediately before the disconnection of the short circuit

(Figure 26).

X d" =

u () [u ' (0) + u" (0)]

, ; x d" =

ik

3I k

(79)

12.18.2 The direct-axis transient open-circuit time constant shall be determined from the

voltage recovery test as the time required for the transient voltage component u' to decrease

to 1/0.368 of its initial value.

12.19 Applied Voltage Test with the Rotor in Direct and Quadrature Axis Positions

with Respect to the Armature Winding Field Axis

To conduct the test, a.c. voltage at rated frequency shall be applied to any two terminals

of the armature winding.

The excitation winding shall be short-circuited. The duration of the voltage application

shall be limited to avoid serious overheating of solid parts.

The rotor shall be slowly rotated to find the angular positions corresponding to the

maximum and practically zero values of the excitation current. The first position corresponds

to the direct-axis, the second to the quadrature axis. The supply voltage, armature current and

the power input shall be measured respectively with the rotor stationary in these positions.

The excitation winding current shall be determined for the purposes of evaluation of the rotor

position (direct-axis or quadrature-axis), therefore to measure it the instrument need not

necessarily be of high precision.

If tests cannot be performed at the rated armature current or voltage, the determination of

parameters referred to the unsaturnated or saturated state of the machine must be done from

several tests with different supply voltages (0.2~0.7)UN.

The parameters shall be plotted against applied voltage or armature current and the

required values shall be found by extrapolation.

For machines with closed or semi-closed armature slots and closed damper winding slots,

the applied voltage shall not be less than 0.2 times of the rated value.

12.20 Determination of Parameters from the Applied Voltage Test with the Rotor in

Direct and Quadrature Axis Positions with Respect to the Armature Winding Field Axis

Direct-axis subtransient reactance from the applied voltage test is determined using the

formula:

(80)

Where:

Z d" =

U

P

, ; Rd"

,

2I

2I 2

"

3 u " 3 p

"2

"2

"

; rd = 2

xd = zd rd ; zd =

2

i

2i

The values of voltage U, current I and input power P are measured for the rotor position

which gives the maximum excitation current.

12.20.1 The quadrature axis transient reactance from the applied voltage test is determined

56

using the formula in Section 12.20; however the subscript "d" is replaced by subscript "q".

The voltage, current and input power are measured for the rotor position which gives

practically zero excitation current.

12.21 Applied Voltage Test with the Rotor in any Arbitrary Position

To conduct the test, AC voltage is applied in turn to each pair of the armature winding

line terminal of the stationary machine under test.

The excitation winding shall be short circuited. It is necessary that the rotor position

remains the same for all three applications of test voltage.

If necessary, the rotor shall be braked. The duration of the voltage application shall be

limited so as to avoid overheating of solid parts.

The applied voltage, current and power input to the armature, and the excitation current

are measured when applying AC voltage to each pair of the terminals.

Requirements for obtaining parameters referred to the unsaturated or saturated state of

the machine are similar to Section 12.19.

12.22 Determination of Parameters from the Applied Voltage Test with the Rotor in

any Arbitrary Position

Subtransient reactance of direct-axis from the applied voltage test for the rotor in any

arbitrary position shall be determined as follows:

The reactance between each pair of the line terminals of the armature winding x12, x 23

and x31 are calculated from the formula given in Section 12.20 (replacing subscript "d" by

subscript 12, 23 and 31 according to the terminals between which voltage is applied).

The direct-axis subtransient reactance is then calculated from the formula (in per unit

value or physical value):

xd" = xmedx

(81)

Where:

xmed =

x =

3

2

x12 ( x12 x 23 ) + x 23 ( x 23 x31 ) + x31 ( x31 x12 )

3

The sign before x is determined from the following relations: plus (+), if the maximum

of the three measured values of the excitation circuit current corresponds to the maximum

measured armature reactance; minus (-), if the maximum of the three measured excitation

circuit current values corresponds to the minimum measured reactance between a pair of

armature winding line terminals.

12.22.1 The quadrature axis subtransient reactance from the stationary impedance test with

the rotor in any arbitrary position is determined similarly to the method described in Section

12.22.

The sign before x is determined from the following relations: plus (+), if the manimum

of the three measured values of the excitation circuit current corresponds to the maximum

measured armature reactance; minus (-), if the minimum of the three measured excitation

circuit current values corresponds to the minimum measured reactance.

12.23 Line-to-line Steadystate Short-circuit Test

To conduct line-to-line steadystate short-circuit test, any two line terminals are short

circuited (Figure 27) and the machine is driven at rated speed by some prime mover.

57

Figure 27

The short-circuit current Ik2, excitation current and the voltage Uk2 between the open line

terminals and one of the short circuit terminals are measured.

Where there is harmonic voltage or current, it is recommanded to measure the active

power P and reactive power Q in order to improve the accuracy of measurement.

The measurements are taken at several values of the short-circuit current.

To avoid overheating of solid parts, where the test current exceeds 0.3IN, the duration

for line-to-line steadystate short-circuit test shall be restricted to the duraion required for

reading on measuring instrument.

For salient pole machines the current may be increased up to the rated value, if the

vibration of the machine does not exceed the allowable values. As for non-salient pole

machine, the armature current is generally limited at 0.5 times of the rated current.

12.24 Determination of Parameters from the Line-to-line Steadystate Short-circuit Test

The negative sequence reactance from the line-to-line steadystate short-circuit test is

determined using the following formula:

X2 =

P

3I k22

p

, ; x 2 = 3 2

ik 2

(82)

voltage and current could be negligible.

X2 =

1

U2

P2

u2

p2

1

2

;

x

=

2

2

2

P P +Q

p p +q

3

3

(83)

voltage and current must be considered.

Negative sequence reactance is determined for each measured short-circuit current. On

the base of the test data, relation curve between X2 and current is plotted.

Note: the value of X2 where the current equals

12.24.1 Negative sequence resistance from line-to-line steadystate short-circuit test may be

determined using the following formula:

R2 =

U2

Q2

1

u2

q2

1

r

2

;

=

2

2

2

Q P +Q

q p +q

3

3

(84)

58

the basis of the test data, relation curve between negative sequence resistance R2 and current

is plotted.

Note: the

value of R2

During test, the tested machine is connected to the external power supply of negative

phase sequence with an applied symmetric voltage of (0.02~0.2) UN and then driven to the

rated speed; here the tested machine operates in a mode of electromagnetic brake with the slip

to be 2.

The excitation winding shall be short circuited.

If the residual voltage of the machine under test exceeds 0.3 times of the supply voltage,

the rotor shall be demagnetized before testing the machine. All the three-phase voltage,

current and input power shall be measured during the test.

12.26 Determination of Parameters from the Negative Phase Sequence Test

Negative sequence reactance and resistance from negative phase sequence test is

determined using the following formula

X 2 = Z 22 R22 , ; Z 2 =

U

3I

, ; R2 =

P

, ;

3I 2

(85)

Where:

PInput power;

IAverage measured current;

UAverage measured voltage;

Negative sequence reactance and resistance are determined for each measured supply

voltage; On the basis of the test data, the relation curve between X2, R2 and current is plotted.

12.27 Single-phase Voltage Application to the Three-phase Test

The test of single-phase voltage application across the terminals of the three-phase

connected in series or in parallel is conducted with the machine driven at, or in the vicinity of,

rated speed.

The connection shall be arranged so that the current in the three phases at any instant

should flow in the same sense, that is from the neutral to line terminal or vice versa as defined

by zero sequence. The excitation winding shall be short circuited.

Voltage, current and input power are measured at several values of supply voltage. All

the selected supply voltages shall be able to make the armature current to be about the rated

value.

12.28 Determination of Parameters from Single-phase Voltage to Three-phase Test

The zero sequence reactance and resistance are determined from the test of single-phase

voltage application across the line terminals using the following formula:

X 0 = Z 02 R02 , ; x 0 = z 02 r02

(86)

59

Z0 =

1 u

U

P

p

, ; R0 = 2 , ; z 0 =

; r0 = 2

3I

3I

i

3 i

(87)

Z0 =

u

3U

3P

9P

, ; R0 = 2 , ; z 0 = 3 3 ; r0 = 2

I

i

I

i

(88)

To conduct the line-to-line and to the neutral steadystate short-circuit test, the armature

winding shall be star connected and the two terminals are short circuited to the neutral; the

machine is driven at rated speed and is excited (Figure 28).

Figure 28

Measurements are taken of the voltage U0 from the open terminal to neutral and the

current i0 in the connection from the short circuit terminals to neutral.

To takne account of the harmonic effect, active power and reactive power are measured.

Measurements shall be taken at several values of neutral current and the current value

and test duration shall be limited by rotor overheating or vibration.

12.30 Determination of Parameters from the Line-to-line and to the Neutral

Steadystate Short-circuit Test

Zero sequence reactance from the line-to-line steadystate short-circuit test is determined

using the following formula:

X0 =

3u

U0

, ; x 0 = 0

I0

i0

(89)

voltage or current could be negligible.

X0 =

U 02

Q2

u02

q2

2

,

;

x

0

Q P + Q2

q p 2 + q2

(90)

60

The above-mentioned formula is applicable to the situation where the voltage or current

harmonics must be taken into account; in the formula, U, P and Q are respectively the

measured voltage, active power and reactive power.

Zero sequence reactance value is calculated for several values of neutral current. On the

basis of the test data, relation curve between X and neutral current is plotted.

Note: the value of X0 where the neutral current equals 3 times the rated phase current will be taken as the zero sequence

reactance value at rated current.

12.30.1 Where zero sequence resistance is determined from the line-to-line and to the

neutral steadystate short-circuit test, several neutral current values shall be calculated using

the following formula:

R0 =

U 02

P2

u02

p2

2

,

;

r

0

Q P + Q2

p p2 + q2

(91)

On the basis of the test data, relation curve between R0 and neutral current is plotted.

Note: the value of R0 where the neutral current equals 3 times the rated phase current will be taken as the zero sequence

reactance value at rated current.

12.31 Field Current Decay Test with the Armature Winding Open Circuited

To conduct field current decay test where winding open circuited, the tested machine is

driven to the rated speed with some prime mover and then excited to the rated voltage. Here,

the excitation winding shall be suddenly short circuited. If necessary, it shall cut off the

excitation winding power within 0.02 s.

During test, a current limiting resistance may be adopted to connect the excitation

winding in series so as to limit the DC supply short-circuit current.

Oscillogram of armature winding voltage, excitation current and slip-ring voltage is

taken. The latter one is used to accurately determine the begin-end time (zero time) of

excitation current decay and the initial voltage value at the moment.

The difference between measured transient voltage from the oscillogram and residual

voltage of the machine is plotted against time is plotted on the semi-log scale.

12.32 Determination of T'd0 from Field Current Decay Test with the Armature

Winding Open Circuited

Direct-axis transient open circuit time constant is determined from the field current

decay test with the armature winding open circuited as the time required for the voltage

difference mentioned in Section 12.31 to decrease to 1/0.368 of its initial value.

12.33 Field Current Decay Test with the Armature Winding Short Circuited

The field current decay test with the armature winding short circuited is conducted with

the machine driven by a prime mover at rated speed and with rated armature current value;

and suddenly short circuiting the excitation winding. The limitation of the duration and the

valued of the supply source short-circuit current is made in accordance with 12.31.

An oscillogram is taken of any line current and of the excitation current or slip-ring

voltage.

The difference between the transient current obtained from the oscillogram and the

current due to the residual voltage is plotted against the time on a semi-log scale.

12.34 Determination of T'd from Field Current Decay Test with the Armature Winding

Short-circuit

61

Direct-axis transient short circuit time constant is determined from the field current

decay test with the armature winding open circuited as the time required for the voltage

difference mentioned in Section 12.33 to decrease to 1/0.368 of its initial value.

12.35 Suspended Rotor Oscillation Test

To conduct this test, the rotor shall be suspended with one or two parallel steel wires so

as to make its shaft straight. Turning the rotor so as to make it oscillate along the shaft; the

time required to make several oscillations is recorded and an averaging time of one cycle of

oscillation is calculated.

If only one steel wire is adopted to suspend, the test shall be conducted twice; with the

rotor itself and the rotor together with a flywheel or a pulley, acting as a known flywheel.

The unidirectional displacement angle for one-filament suspension should not be more

than 45 and for two-filament suspension not more than 10.

12.36 Determination of TJ and H from Suspended Rotor Oscillation Test

To conduct the suspended rotor oscillation test, the acceleration time and stored energy

constant is calculated using the following formula:

J 2

Tj =

10 3 s

PN

H=

J 2

10 3 , s

2S N

(92)

(93)

Where:

JMoment of inertia kgm2;

n/30, rad/s (Angular speed);

nRated speed of rotation, r'min;

PNRated active power kW;

SNRated apparent power, kVA.

Moment of inertia is determined using the formulae

When the totor is suspended by one filament

(94)

When the rotor is suspended by two filaments

J=

T 2 a 2 mg

,kg m 2

L (4 ) 2

(95)

Where:

JPKnown moment of inertia of pulley, kgm2;

gAcceleration of free fall, m/s2;

TOscillation cycle of rotor, s;

TpOscillation cycle of rotor with flywheel or pulley, s;

aDistance between the suspension points, m;

LSuspension length, m;

mRotor mass, kg.

12.37 Auxiliary Pendulum Swing Test

62

To conduct the test, an auxiliary pendulum (a lever and a mass at the end) is attached in a

plane at right angles to the machine shaft, placed horizontally. The mass of the pendulum,

which is known, shall be as small as possible. Instead of an auxiliary pendulum, a known

mass shall be attached at the circumference of the rotor or pulley.

The auxiliary pendulum is replaced at an angle of about 5 from its steady position. The

time required for oscillation is measured.

This test is applicable to the machine provided with ball or roller bearing.

12.38 Determination of TJ and H from Auxiliary Pendulum Swing Test

The acceleration time and stored energy constant from the auxiliary pendulum swing test

is determined using the formula in 12.36.

Moment of inertia is determined using the formulae

J = m p L(

Tp2 g

4

L),kg m 2

(96)

Where:

mpAuxiliary pendulum mass, kg;

LDistance from rotor shaft center to auxiliary pendulum gravity center or to the

gravity center of the heavy object attached at circumference of rotor or pulley, m;

gAcceleration of free fall, m/s2;

TpTime of one cycle of swing, s.

12.39 No-Load Retardation Test

The no-load retardation test is conducted where there is no additional flywheel mass on

the shaft of the machine under test. The machine is excited from a separate source and the

excitation remains constant during the test.

The machine under test is brought up to overspeed by increasing the supply frequency or

by means of a prime mover provided with a clutch; then the power cut supply is disconnected.

This test consists of measuring the retardation time t where the machine is slowing

down between two pre-determined speeds with difference , say from 1.10~0.9 per unit or

from 1.05 to 0.95.

12.40 Determination of Tj and H from the No-load Retardation Test

Acceleration time of and stored energy constant the machine from the no-load retardation

test are determined using the formulae:

T j = N

H=

N

2

t Pmech + PFe

,s

PN

t Pmech + PFe

,s

PN

(97)

(98)

Where:

PmechMechanical losses at rated speed (kW);

PFeCore losses corresponding to test voltage at rated speed (kW);

PNRated active power (kW);

NRated angular speed (rad/s);

SNRated apparent power (kVA).

63

12.41

On-load Retardation Test of Mechanically Coupled Machines with the

Synchronous Machine Operating as a Motor

The test is conducted with the machine operating as a motor. The rotation speed of the

unit before disconnecting from the network shall be equal to the rated speed, the power input

before disconnecting shall be not less than 0.6 of the rated power; the power factor shall be

close to 1.0. The excitation of the machine during the test is unchanged.

After disconnecting the supply source, the change of speed of the unit during the first

few seconds is determined.

The speed-time curve is plotted and a tangent to the initial point of the curve is drawn.

This tangent is used to determine the change in speed and the time interval t.

12.42 Determination of Tj and H from the On-load Retardation Test with the

Synchronous Machine Operating as a Motor

Acceleration time and stored energy constant of the machine together with the load from

the no-load retardation test with the machine operating as a motor are determined by the

formulae:

T j = N

H=

N

2

t P1 ( Pd + Pcu )

,s

PN

t P1 ( Pd + Pcu )

,s

SN

(99)

(100)

Where:

P1Power supplied to the motor immediately before disconnection from the supply

source (kW);

Pd+PcuArmature winding losses (stray and copper) immediately before

disconnection (kW);

NRated angular speed (rad/s).

This method of determination is not very precise.

12.43 Acceleration after a Load Drop Test with the Machine Operating as a Generator

The test is conducted with the machine operating as a generator driven by a

prime-mover.

Before the test, the generator load is fixed at 0.1~0.2 times of the rated load (the power

factor is fixed close to 1.0), the speed regulator of the prime mover is taken out of service.

The excitation of the generator during the test shall be unchanged. After a sudden

disconnection of the generator from the network, the change of speed with time curve is

determined. At a speed of about 1.07~1.1 rated value, the regulator of prime mover is put into

service or steam is cut off. The acceleration curve is plotted.

A tangent is drawn to the acceleration curve at the point corresponding to the rated speed

of the machine, and the speed change for the time interval is determined.

12.44 Determination of Tj and H from the Acceleration after a Load Drop Test with

the Machine Operating as a Generator

The acceleration time of the machine and its prime mover and stored energy constant

from the acceleration after a load drop test with the machine operating as a generator are

determined using the formulae:

64

Tj = N

H=

t P1

,s

PN

N t P1

,s

2 S N

(101)

(102)

Where:

P1Power supplied by the generator immediately before disconnection from the

network (kW).

This method of determination is not very precise.

12.45 Rated Voltage Regulation Factor UN

Where the rotation speed and excitation current keep unchanged, the voltage variation at

the armature end of generator from no-load condition to rated load condition shall be

expressed by the percentage of rated voltage.

The rated voltage regulation factor shall be determined by the following method:

Direct determination method; it shall be calculated by the plotting the rated excitation

current based on no-load characteristic and test.

12.46 Determination of Parameters by Calculations Using Known Test Parameters

The parameters xd', xd, Td0' and Td' are connected with each other vy the following

relation:

xdTd'=xd'Td0'

(103)

The relation is used for determination of xd' or T d' or Td0'from the known values of xd and

two other parameters.

12.46.1 The negative-sequence reactance X2 is determined from known test data xd and

xq.

X2 =

Xd + Xq

2

(104)

12.46.2 The positive sequence resistance of the armature winding is determined from the

known 3I2R losses (Pcu) and stray losses (Pd) in the armature winding measured at rated

current in accordance with "Rotating Electrical Machines, Part 2: Methods for Determining

Losses and Efficiency of Rotating Electrical Machinery From Tests (Excluding Machines for

Traction Vehicles)" (IEC 60034-2) using the formula:

R1 =

Pcu + Pd

, ; [r1=pcu+pd]

3I n2

(105)

Where:

R1The resistance at winding temperature for loss measurement.

12.46.3 Armature short-circuit time constant at rated frequency fN from the known test

values of x2 and ra is calculated using the formula:

Ta =

x2

,s

2f N ra

(106)

65

Clause No.

Parameters

Saturated or

Test name

Remark

unsaturated value

Xd

Unsaturated

three-phase short-circuit test

12.2

Kc

three-phase short-circuit test

12.2

12.9

Saturated

12.11

Unsaturated

Xq

Preferred

On-load test by measuring the

load angle

Unsaturated

12.13

Sudden three-phase

Xd

Saturated

Unsaturated

short-circuit test

12.5

Saturated

12.17

Unsaturated

short-circuit test

12.15

Unsaturated

12.17

Saturated

Preferred

Sudden three-phase

Xd

Unsaturated

Unsaturated

(Saturated)

12.19

rotor in any arbitrary position

Preferred

Unsaturated

(Saturated)

12.21

rotor in direct and quadrature

Unsaturated

(Saturated)

Xq

the armature winding field axis

12.19

rotor in any arbitrary position

Unsaturated

(Saturated)

12.21

Line-to-line steadystate

X2

Unsaturated

shortcircuit test

Preferred

12.23

Line-to-line steadystate

Unsaturated

R2

short-circuit test

12.23

Preferred

Unsaturated

12.25

Single-phase voltage

application to the three-phase

Unsaturated

X0

test

12.27

Preferred

Unsaturated

steadystate shortcircuit test

12.29

Single-phase voltage

application to the three-phase

Unsaturated

R0

test

12.27

Preferred

Unsaturated

steadystate shortcircuit test

12.29

66

three-phase steadystate

Xp

12.2

power factor

12.3

Ra

method

4.2

Rf

method

4.2

Positive-sequence armature

Rt

winding resistance

Field current decay test with

12.45.2

12.32

Td0

Preferred

open-circuited

Voltage recovery test

12.17

Sudden three-phase

short-circuit test

Td

12.15

Preferred

armature winding

short-circuited

12.34

Sudden three-phase

Td

short-circuit test

12.15

Sudden three-phase

Ta

short-circuit test

12.15

test

12.35

12.37

12.39

Tj

synchronous machine

operating as a motor

12.41

test with synchronous machine

operating as a generator

12.43

test

12.35

Test

12.37

12.39

H

On-load retardation test with

synchronous machine

operating as a motor

12.41

test with synchronous machine

67

operating as a generator

12.43

Drawing by vector:

iIN

UN

Potier diagram

12.6

ASA diagram

12.7

Swedish diagram

12.8

12.6

Preferred

saturation curve and known iIN

12.7, 12.8

68

Appendix A

(Normative)

The Value While Determining Excitation Winding Temperature

Rise by No-load Short-circuit Method

The value may be approximately calculated according to Formula (A.1):

f (40 c )

k + f + c

(A.1)

Where:

fExcitation winding temperature rise during the test (K)

cCooling medium temperature corresponding f ();

kSee Formula (13).

The value may also be obtained from Figure A.1 or A.2; Figure A.1 is applicable to

copper winding while Figure A.2 is applicable to aluminium winding.

Figure A.1

Figure A.2

69

Appendix B

(Informative)

Symbols and Units

a 1 Parallel branch number of armatur e winding

a 2 Parallel branch number of excitation winding

b 3 Axial width of ventilating duct (m)

CCapacitance (F)

fFrequency (Hz)

f N Rated fr equency (Hz)

HStored ener gy constant (s)

ICurrent (A)

I f Excitation current (A)

I fN Rated excitation curr ent (A)

I f No-load excitation curr ent (A)

I f Excitation current corresponding to air-gap line at rated voltage (A)

I K Shortcircuit curr ent (A)

I N Rated armature curr ent (A)

I K Shortcircuit curr ent transient component (A)

I K Shortcircuit current sub-transient component (A)

JRotational inertia (kg.m 2 )

kTemperature coefficient

K a Coefficient

K c Short-circuit Ratio

K w a Ar mature winding coefficient

K w f Excitation winding coefficient

L c Length of suspension wir e (m)

L Fe Total length of stator cor e (m)

mMass (kg)

N c Number of test coils

nNumber of revolutions (r/min)

n N Rated speed (r/min)

n v Number of stator ventilating ducts

POutput active power (kW I 2 R)

P c u a I 2 R losses in armature winding (kW) I 2 R

P c u f I 2 R losses in excitation winding (kW)

P d Stray losses (kW)

P E Exciter losses (kW)

P f Excitation losses (kW)

P F e Cor e losses at rated voltage (kW)

P f w Mechanical losses (kW)

P i n Input active power (kW)

P M Electromagnetic power (kW)

P N Rated power (kW)

P o Constant losses (kW)

P R Rheostat losses (kW)

P fs Electric losses of electric brush (kW)

P Z Electrical losses of rectifying elements (kW)

P ZE Losses of self excitation device

PNumber of pole pairs

70

qNumber of fractional slots per pole and per phase

q'Maximum integral number of slots at each pole pitch

RResistance ()

R 0 Zero-sequence resistance ()

R 1 Positive-sequence resistance ()

R 2 Negative-sequence resistance ()

R a Ar mature winding DC resistance ()

R f Excitation winding resistance ()

R J Winding DC resistance at reference operating temperature ()

R N (1)Rated apparent power (kVA)

(2)Rated capacity of testing transformer (kVA)

T(1)Torque (Nm); 1kgfm=9.80665Nm

(2)Period (s)

(3)Time constant (s)

T a Aperiodic time constant with armature winding short-circuited (s)

T d Direct-axis transient time constant with armature winding

short-circuited (s)

T d Direct-axis subtransient time constant with armature winding

short-circuited (s)

T do Dir ect-axis transient open-circuit time constant (s)

T j Acceleration time (s)

T K Torque measured at highest test voltage (Nm)

T M Electromagnetic torque (Nm)

T pi Nominal pull-in torque (Nm)

T po Pull-out torque (Nm)

THFTelephone harmonic form factor

tTime (s)

UVoltage (V)

U c Test coil voltage (V)

U i Effective value of harmonic voltage at i th time (V)

U N Rated armature voltage (V)

U N T Rated voltage at high-voltage side of testing transformer (V)

U 0 no-load voltage converted to the state at rated frequency (V)

UVoltage regulation factor

U N Rated voltage regulation factor

U s Pressure drop on electric brush (V)

U Z Operating pr essur e dr op of r ectifying element (V)

U'Opencir cuit voltage transient component (V)

U"Opencir cuit voltage sub-transient component (V)

WNumber of ar matur e windings per phase

W f T otal number of excitation windings

X 0 Zer o-sequence r eactance ()

X 2 Negative-sequence r eactance ()

X d Dir ect-axis synchr onous r eactance ()

X d ' Dir ect-axis transient r eactance ()

X d Dir ect-axis sub-transient r eactance ()

X p Potier r eactance ()

X q Quadratur e-axis synchr onous r eactance ()

X q Quadratur e-axis sub-transient r eactance ()

X Ar matur e-leakage r eactance ()

Z 0 Zer o-sequence impedance ()

Z 2 Negative-sequence impedance ()

Z N Basic impedance ()

T emperatur e ( )

71

a Armature winding temperature rise (K)

f Excitation winding temper atur e r ise (K)

Fe Stator -cor e temper atur e r ise (K)

K Short-cir cuit temp eratur e r ise (K)

0 Idling temper atur e r ise (K)

U No-load temper atur e r ise (K)

Efficiency

Included angle between voltage and current

N Rated power -factor angle

Load angle; included angle between end voltage and potential

s t u Steady-state voltage r egulation factor of self-excited constant

voltage gener ator

i Weighing factor equivalent to i t h har monic fr equency

72

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