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ICS 29.160.

01
K 21

NATIONAL STANDARD

GB

OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

GB/T 1029-2005
Replace GB/T 1029-1993

Test Procedures for Three-phase Synchronous


Machines

Issued on August 26, 2005


Implemented on April 01, 2006
Jointly issued by
the General Administration of Quality Supervision,
Inspection
and
Quarantine
(AQSIQ)
and
the
Standardization Administration (SAC) of the People's
Republic of China

Contents
Foreword ............................................................................................................................IV
1 Scope ..............................................................................................................................1
2 Normative References .....................................................................................................1
3 Test Preparation...............................................................................................................2
4 General Test Items ...........................................................................................................2
4.1 Determination of Insulation Resistance .........................................................................2
4.2 Determination of DC Resistance of the Winding at Actual Cold State............................4
4.3 Determination of Shaft Voltage .....................................................................................6
4.4 Determination of No-load Characteristics .....................................................................6
4.5 Determination of Steadystate Shortcircuit Characteristics..............................................8
4.6 Test of Exciter ..............................................................................................................9
4.7 Overspeed Test .............................................................................................................9
4.8 Interturn Short-circuit Test of Non-salient Pole Generator Rotor ...................................9
4.9 Determination of Vibration ...........................................................................................9
4.10 Inspection on Sealing State and Determination of Hydrogen Leakage .........................9
4.11 Interturn Impulse Withstand Voltage Test ....................................................................9
4.12 Short Time Voltage Rising Test ...................................................................................9
4.13 Power-frequency Withstand Voltage Test .................................................................. 10
4.14 DC Leakage Current Test and DC Withstand Voltage Test of the Insulation of Armature
Winding .............................................................................................................................. 12
4.15 Determination of Voltage Waveform Sinusoidal Distortion Factor ............................. 14
4.16 Noise Determination................................................................................................. 14
4.17 Determination of Telephone Harmonic Form Factor (THF)....................................... 14
5 Efficiency Determination............................................................................................... 14
5.1 Direct Determination Method of Efficiency ................................................................ 15
5.2 Indirect Determination Method of Efficiency .............................................................. 17
5.3 Calorimetric Method................................................................................................... 18
5.4 Determination of Losses Corresponding to the Rated Load ......................................... 18
5.5 Retardation Test.......................................................................................................... 22
5.6 Calculation of Efficiency under other Loads ............................................................... 23
6 Temperature Rise Test ................................................................................................... 24
6.1 Measurement Method of Temperature......................................................................... 24
6.2 Determination of Cooling Medium Temperature in Temperature Rise Test .................. 25
6.3 Determination of Temperature at Different Parts of the Machine in Temperature Rise
Test ..................................................................................................................................... 25
6.4 Correction of the Measured Temperature at Different Parts of the Machine after Cutting
off the Supply...................................................................................................................... 26
6.5 Short-circuit Insulation and Brake Method.................................................................. 26
6.6 Method of Temperature Rise Test................................................................................ 26
7 Determination of Voltage Regulation Performance at Self-excited Constant Voltage....... 31
7.1 Determination of Steady-state Voltage Regulation Rate............................................... 31
I

7.2 Determination of Voltage Deviation Degree of Generator Operating under Asymmetric


Loads .................................................................................................................................. 32
7.3 Determination of Transient Voltage Variation Rate ...................................................... 33
8 Determination of Torque and Rotational Inertia ............................................................. 33
8.1 Determination of Locked-rotor Current and Locked-rotor Torque................................ 33
8.2 Determination of Nominal Pull-in Torque ................................................................... 35
8.3 Determination of Pull-out Torque of Synchronous Motor ............................................ 37
8.4 Short-time Overtorque Test of Motor .......................................................................... 39
8.5 Determination of Rotational Inertia............................................................................. 39
9 Overcurrent Test and Mechanical Strength Test.............................................................. 39
9.1 Occasional Overcurrent Test ....................................................................................... 39
9.2 Overload Test ............................................................................................................. 40
9.3 Short-circuit Mechanical Strength Test........................................................................ 40
10 Negative Sequence Current Affordability Test.............................................................. 40
11 Determination of the Terminal Dynamic Characteristics of Stator Winding................... 40
12 Parameter Determination (This Chapter is identical to IEC 60034-4) ........................... 41
12.1 Description ............................................................................................................... 41
12.2 Determination of Parameters from No-load Saturation Characteristic and Three-phase
Steadystate Shortcircuit Characteristic................................................................................. 42
12.3 Over-excitation Test at Zero Power-factor ................................................................. 43
12.4 Determination of the Excitation Current Corresponding to the Rated Voltage and Rated
Armature Current at Zero Power Factor (Overexcitation)..................................................... 43
12.5 Determination of Potier Reactance from the No-load and Three-phase Steadystate
Shortcircuit Characteristics and the Excitation Current Corresponding to the Rated Voltage
and Rated Armature Current at Zero Power Factor (over-excitated) ..................................... 44
12.6 Determination of the Rated Excitation Current by the Potier's Diagram..................... 44
12.7 Determination of the Rated Excitation Current by the ASA Diagram......................... 46
12.8 Determination of the Rated Excitation Current by the Swedish Diagram ................... 46
12.9 Negative Excitation Test ........................................................................................... 48
12.10 Determination of Xq by Negative Excitation Test..................................................... 48
12.11 Low Slip Test.......................................................................................................... 49
12.12 Determination of Xq from the Low Slip Test ............................................................ 49
12.13 Determination of the Load Angle by On-load Test ................................................ 50
12.14 Determination of Xq from On-load Test Measuring the Load Angle ......................... 50
12.15 Sudden Three-phase Short-circuit Test .................................................................... 50
12.16 Determination of Parameters from the Sudden Three-phase Short-circuit Test ......... 53
12.17 Voltage Recovery Test............................................................................................. 54
12.18 Determination of Parameters from the Voltage Recovery Test ................................. 55
12.19 Applied Voltage Test with the Rotor in Direct and Quadrature Axis Positions with
Respect to the Armature Winding Field Axis ....................................................................... 56
12.20 Determination of Parameters from the Applied Voltage Test with the Rotor in Direct
and Quadrature Axis Positions with Respect to the Armature Winding Field Axis ................ 56
12.21 Applied Voltage Test with the Rotor in any Arbitrary Position ................................. 57
12.22 Determination of Parameters from the Applied Voltage Test with the Rotor in any
II

Arbitrary Position................................................................................................................ 57
12.23 Line-to-line Steadystate Short-circuit Test ............................................................... 57
12.24 Determination of Parameters from the Line-to-line Steadystate Short-circuit Test.... 58
12.25 Negative Phase Sequence Test ................................................................................ 59
12.26 Determination of Parameters from the Negative Phase Sequence Test ..................... 59
12.27 Single-phase Voltage Application to the Three-phase Test ....................................... 59
12.28 Determination of Parameters from Single-phase Voltage to Three-phase Test .......... 59
12.29 Line-to-line and to Neutral Steadystate Short-circuit Test ........................................ 60
12.30 Determination of Parameters from the Line-to-line and to the Neutral Steadystate
Short-circuit Test................................................................................................................. 60
12.31 Field Current Decay Test with the Armature Winding Open Circuited ..................... 61
12.32 Determination of T'd0 from Field Current Decay Test with the Armature Winding
Open Circuited.................................................................................................................... 61
12.33 Field Current Decay Test with the Armature Winding Short Circuited ..................... 61
12.34 Determination of T'd from Field Current Decay Test with the Armature Winding
Short-circuit ........................................................................................................................ 61
12.35 Suspended Rotor Oscillation Test............................................................................ 62
12.36 Determination of TJ and H from Suspended Rotor Oscillation Test .......................... 62
12.37 Auxiliary Pendulum Swing Test .............................................................................. 62
12.38 Determination of TJ and H from Auxiliary Pendulum Swing Test ............................ 63
12.39 No-Load Retardation Test ....................................................................................... 63
12.40 Determination of Tj and H from the No-load Retardation Test ................................. 63
12.41 On-load Retardation Test of Mechanically Coupled Machines with the Synchronous
Machine Operating as a Motor ............................................................................................ 64
12.42 Determination of Tj and H from the On-load Retardation Test with the Synchronous
Machine Operating as a Motor ............................................................................................ 64
12.43 Acceleration after a Load Drop Test with the Machine Operating as a Generator ..... 64
12.44 Determination of Tj and H from the Acceleration after a Load Drop Test with the
Machine Operating as a Generator....................................................................................... 64
12.45 Rated Voltage Regulation Factor UN ..................................................................... 65
12.46 Determination of Parameters by Calculations Using Known Test Parameters........... 65
Appendix A (Normative) The Value While Determining Excitation Winding Temperature
Rise by No-load Short-circuit Method ................................................................................. 69
Appendix B (Informative) Symbols and Units .................................................................. 70

III

Foreword
This standard specifies the test methods for the products of three-phase synchronous
machines and is the reference for the tests of three-phase synchronous machines.
The previous edition GB/T 1029-1993 "Test Procedures for Three-phase Synchronous
Machines" of this standard was developed referring to such international and foreign
standards as IEC 60034-2: 1972, IEC 60034-4: 1985, IEEE115: 1983, OCT 10169: 1977 and
OCT 11828: 1986.
This standard is a revision of GB/T 1029-1993 "Test Procedures for Three-phase
Synchronous Machines" and there have been some main revisions as follows:
1. In consideration of actual national conditions of China, Chapter 12 "Parameter
Determination" is modified in relation to IEC 60034-4: 1985 "Rotating Electrical
Machines-Part 4: Methods for Determining Synchronous Machine Quantities from Tests" of
the International Electrotechnical Commission, and Annex A of IEC 60034-4 provides the test
methods that are not finally authorized, as its contents are immature in practical application so
that it is deleted in this standard.
2. Foreword was added;
Negative-sequence performance test was added;
Determination of the terminal dynamic characteristics of stator winding was added;
Contents on determination of transient voltage variation were added.
3. Relevant contents on total current method and superposition method were deleted;
The specified synchronous feedback method that may be adopted for two similar or
suitable machines was deleted;
Contents on the short-circuit current test were deleted.
4. The determination of excitation current and voltage regulation factor and the
determination of rotational inertia were adjusted into the "Parameter Determination".
5. The mistakes in GB/T 1029-1993 were corrected. The main corrections are as follows:
In 6.6.3.4 of the former standard: ( I 2fN R f 73 ,75 c ) was changed into
( I 2fN R f 75 ,75 c );
In Formula (52) of the former standard: The second "=" was changed into "";

U N U ' P + Pfws
was changed

U U ' (1 s ) PN

In Formula (60) of the former standard: t pin =

U U ' P + Pfws

= N

U U ' (1 s ) PN
2

into t pin

Several errors in printed characters (superscripts and subscripts).


6. Appendixes A, B and C of the former standard were deleted.
This standard shall replace GB/T 1029-1993 from the implementation data hereof.
Appendix A of this standard is normative and Appendix B is informative.
This tandard was proposed by China Machinery Industry Federation.
IV

This standard is under the jurisdiction of Subcommittee on Generator of National


Technical Committee on Electric Rotating Machinery of Standardization Administration of
China.
This standard was drafted by Harbin Institute of Large Electrical Machinery with the
participation of Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd., Shanghai Turbine Generator Co.,
Ltd., North China Electric Power Research Institute, Huazhong University of Science and
Technology, Power Equipment National Engineering Research Center, Harbin Institute of
Technology and Shanghai Electrical Apparatus Research Institute, etc.
. Chief drafting staffs of this standard: Fu Lixin, Gou Zhide, Zhu Changqian, Shen
Rongzhou, Bai Yamin, Ning Yuquan, Zhao Yijun, Sun Li, Kang Erliang and Ni Lixin.
All previously repalced editions hereof are as:
GB 1029-1967 (issued for the first time), GB 1029-1980 (revised for the first time) and
GB/T 1029-1993 (revised for the second time). This edition is a revision for the third time.

NOTE: The English version hereof has been translated directly from the openly-published Chinese
standard GB/T 1029-2005 . In the event of any discrepancy in the process of implementation, the
Chinese version shall prevail.

Test Procedures for Three-phase Synchronous Machines

Scope

This standard specifies the test methods for three-phase synchronous machines.
This standard is applicable to the synchronous motors, generators and synchronous
compensators with rated power of 1kW (kvA) and above. It is not applicable to the
synchronous machines without DC exciting winding, but the tests on the synchronous motors
powered by static variable frequency power supply may be made reference to it.

Normative References

The following standards contain provisions which, through reference in this text,
constitute provisions of this standard. For dated reference, subsequent correctionments to
(excluding correction to), or revisions of, any of these publications do not apply. However, all
parties coming to an agreement according to this standard are encouraged to study whether
the latest edition of these documents is applicable. For undated references, the latest edition of
the normative document is applicable to this standard.
GB 755-2000 "Rotating Electrical Machines-Rating and Performance" (idt IEC 60034-1:
1996)
GB/T 5321 "Measurement of Loss and Efficiency for Large AC Electrical Machines by
the Calorimetric Method" (GB/T 5321-1985, neq IEC 60034-2A: 1974)
GB/T 7409.3 "Excitation System for Synchronous Electrical Machines-Technical
Requirements of Excitation System for Large and Medium Synchronous Generators"
GB 10068 "Mechanical Vibration of Certain Machines with Shaft Heights 56 mm and
Higher-measurement Evaluation and Limits of Vibration Severity" (GB 10068-2000, idt IEC:
60034-14: 1996)
GB/T 10069.1 "Measurement of Airborne Noise Emitted by Rotating Electrical
Machinery and the Noise Limits-Engineering Method for the Measurement of Airborne
Noise"
GB/T 10069.2 "Measurement of Airborne Noise Emitted by Rotating Electrical
Machinery and the Noise Limits-Survey Method for the Measurement of Airborne Noise"
GB/T 10585 "Fundamental Requirements of Excitation Systems Medium and Small
Synchronous Machines"
GB/T 15548 "General Specification for Three-phase Synchronous Generators Driven
by Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine"
JB/T 6227 "Checking Methods and Evaluation of Sealing of Hydrogen-cooled Electrical
Machines"
JB/T 7836.1 "Electric Heater for Electrical Machine Part 1: General Technique
1

Specifications"
JB/T 8445 "Test Methods for Negative Sequence Current Affordability of Three-phase
Synchronous Generator"
JB/T 8446 "Methods for the Determination of Interturn Short-circuit in the Rotor
Winding of Cylindrical Synchronous Generators"
JB/T 8990 "Modal Test Analyses and Natural Frequency Measurement Methods of
Large Turbo-generators on Stator End Windings and Evaluation Criteria"
JB/T 9615.1 "Test Methods of the Interturn Insulation on Random Wound Winding for
AC Low-voltage Machines"
JB/T 9615.2 "Test Limits of the Interturn Insulation on Random Wound Winding for
AC Low-voltage Machines"
JB/T 10098 "Impulse Voltage Withstand Levels of Rotating a.c. Machines with
Form-wound Stator Coils" (JB/T 10098-2000, idt IEC 60034-15: 1995)
JB/T 10500.1 "Embedded Thermometer Resistance for Electrical Machines Part1:
General Specification, Measuring Methods and Examine Rule"
IEC 60034-2 "Rotating electrical machines-Part 2: Methods for Determining Losses
and Efficiency from Tests"
IEC 60034-4 "Rotating electrical machines-Part 4: Methods of Determining
Synchronous Machine Quantities from Tests"

Test Preparation

The electric testing instruments and meters used during the tests shall have an accuracy
class no less than 0.5 (tramegger excluded), the measurements of the three-phase power may
be conducted by using three-phase wattmeter in accuracy class of 1.0 and the measurements
of temperature may be conducted by using the thermometer with error of 1.
Before the test, the to-be-tested machine shall be at its normal state and be correctly
wired, all the equipments and conductors shall meet the test requirements.

General Test Items

4.1 Determination of Insulation Resistance


4.1.1 Determination of insulation resistance of the winding with the enclosure and
between the windings
4.1.1.1 State of the machine during the measurement
The measurements of the insulation resistance of machine winding shall be conducted
respectively at the actual cold state and hot state of the machine (or after the temperature rise
test).
During the inspection test, unless otherwise specified, the measurements of the insulation
resistance of the winding with the enclosure and between the windings shall be conducted
only at the cold state.
When measuring the insulation resistance, the winding temperature shall be measured,
2

however, at the actual cold state, the environmental temperature may be measured as the
winding temperature.
4.1.1.2 Selection of tramegger
To measure the insulation resistance of the winding with the enclosure and between
windings, the tramegger shall be selected according to Table based on the rated voltage of the
tested winding.
Table 1
Rated voltage of the tested winding UN /V

Specification of tramegger /V

UN<1000

500

1000UN2500

500~1000

2500<UN5000

1000~2500

5000<UN12000

2500~5000

UN>12000

5000~10000

4.1.1.3 Measurement method


To measure the insulation resistance of winding, if the start and tail ends of the windings
are led out separately, then the insulation resistance of each winding with the enclosure and
between the windings shall be measured respectively, here, the other windings and
respectively embedded thermometric elements not included in the test shall have electrical
connection with the iron core or the enclosure, and the enclosure shall be grounded. Where
the neutral points are wired together and uneasy to separate, then the insulation resistance of
all the wired windings to the enclosure shall be measured.
After the insulation resistance measurement, each circuit shall have electrical connection
with the grounded enclosure so as to discharge.
To measure the insulation resistance of internal water-cooled winding, special insulation
resistance measuring apparatus shall be used, but ordinary tramegger may be used when the
insulating hose is dry or blown to dry.
The electrical elements (such as semiconductor rectifier, transistor and capacitor, etc)
that can not withstand the high voltage impulse of tramegger shall be dismantled or
short-circuited in the circuit before the measurement.
During the measurement, data shall be read and winding temperature shall be recorded
only after the pointer is stable.
To measure the absorption ratio, then the insulation resistance values at the 15s and 60s
shall be measured when the absorption ratio is R60/R15.
To measure the polarization index, the insulation resistance values at the 1min and 10min
shall be measured when the polarization index is R10/R1.
4.1.2 Determination of other insulation resistances
4.1.2.1 Determination of the bearing insulation resistance
The determination of bearing insulation resistance shall adopt the tramegger not above
1000V.
4.1.2.2 Determination of the insulation resistance of embedded temperature detector
The determination of the insulation resistance of embedded temperature detector shall be
conducted according to the method specified in JB/T 10500.1.
4.1.2.3 Determination of the insulation resistance of heater
The determination of the insulation resistance of heater shall be conducted according to
3

the method specified in JB/T 7836.1.


4.2 Determination of DC Resistance of the Winding at Actual Cold State
4.2.1 Determination of winding temperature at actual cold state
After keeping the machine indoors for some time, the temperature of the machine
winding and iron core as well as the ambient temperature shall be measured by using
thermometers (or embedded temperature detectors), the difference between the measured
temperature and the cooling medium temperature shall not exceed 2K; as for the large and
medium machines, the thermometers shall have the thermal insulating measures with the
outside, and the time for keeping the thermometer shall not be less than 15min.
To measure the temperature of armature winding and auxiliary winding (such as the
harmonic winding of self-excited constant voltage generator), the temperature at the winding
head and winding slot shall be measured at different positions based on the size of the
machine (if it is difficult, the surface temperature at the iron core tooth and iron core yoke
may be measured), the average value shall be taken as the temperature of winding at the
actual cold state.
To measure the temperature of excitation winding of salient pole machine, temperature
may be measured directly at several points on the winding surface. The average value of the
measured values shall be taken as the temperature of winding at the actual cold state.
To measure the temperature of the excitation winding of non-salient pole machine, the
surface temperature of winding shall be measured, if it is difficult to measure, it may be
replaced by the surface temperature of rotor; as for the large and medium machines, at least
three measuring points shall be set, and the average value of the measured values shall be
taken as the temperature of winding at the actual cold state.
To measure the temperature of the winding in excitation device of self-excited constant
voltage generator (such as the windings of transformer and reactor, etc), the surface
temperature of iron core or winding shall be measured by using thermometer as the
temperature of winding at the actual cold state.
As for the liquid directly cooled winding with liquid supplied, the average value of the
liquid temperatures at the inlet and outlet of winding when the difference in the inlet and
outlet liquid temperature does not exceed 1K and the difference in the core temperature and
ambient temperature does not exceed 2K may be taken as the temperature of winding at the
actual cold state.
4.2.2 Determination of the DC resistance of winding
The DC resistance of winding may be measured by bridge method, microhmmeter
method, voltmeter-amperemeter method or other measurement methods.
4.2.2.1 When measuring the DC resistance of winding by using such instruments as
automatic checkout equipment and digital microhmmeter, the test current passing through the
tested winding shall not exceed 10% of the rated current, and the power on time shall not
exceed 1min.
4.2.2.2 When measuring by bridge method, each resistance shall be measured for three
times, each measurement shall be done again after the bridge balance is destroyed, the
difference between the reading every time and the average value of the readings of these three
times shall be within 0.5% of the average value, and the average value shall be taken as the
actual measured value of resistance. If the DC resistance of winding is less than 1, the
4

double bridge with at least four significant digits shall be used for the measurement.
4.2.2.3 When measuring by the voltmeter-amperemeter method, the wiring principle is as
shown in Figure 1. In the diagram, Rb is the adjustable current-limiting resistance, R is the
winding of the machine under test, V is the voltmeter and A is the amperemeter. The wiring
shown in Figure 1(a) is applicable to the measurement of the resistance of such winding that
the ratio between the internal resistance of voltmeter and the measured resistance is larger
than 200, and the wiring shown in Figure 1(b) is applicable to the measurement of the
resistance of such winding that the ratio between the internal resistance of voltmeter and the
measured resistance is less than 200.
During the test, the applied current shall not exceed 10% of the rated current of winding,
the power on time shall not exceed 1min, the current and voltage values shall be read
simultaneously, each resistance shall be measured under at least three different kinds of
current values, the difference between each measured value and the average value shall be
within 0.5%, and the average value shall be taken as the actual measured value of resistance.

Figure 1

4.2.2.4 To measure the armature winding, the rotor of the machine shall be stay still. Where
both the start and tail ends of each phase and each branch circuit of the winding are led out,
the DC resistance of each phase and each branch circuit shall be measured respectively.
Where the windings of different phases are connected in the machine, the resistance
shall be measured between each outlet terminals, and the phase resistance values shall be
calculated according to the following formulae:
For the star-connected winding, as shown in Figure 2(a)
Ru=Rmed-Rvw
(1)
Rv=Rmed-Rwu
(2)
Rw=Rmed-Ruv
(3)
For the delta-connected winding, as shown in Figure 2(b)

Ru =

Rvw Rwu
+ Ruv Rmed
Rmed Ruv

(4)

Rv =

Rwu Ruv
+ Rvw Rmed
Rmed Rvw

(5)

Rw =

Ruv Rvw
+ Rwu Rmed
Rmed Rwu

(6)

Where: Rmed=(Ruv+Rvw+Rwu)/2, Ruv, Rvw and Rwu respectively are the resistance values ()
measured between the outlet terminal u and v, v and w, and wand u;
Ru, Rv and Rw respectively are the phase resistance of each phase ().

Figure 2

4.2.2.5 The DC resistance of the excitation winding shall be measured at the terminal from
which the winding is led to the slip ring or on the surface of slip ring, and the DC resistance
the winding in the excitation device of self-excited constant voltage generator shall be
measured on the outlet terminal of winding separately.
4.3 Determination of Shaft Voltage
The machine under test shall operate under no load at its rated voltage and speed. The
typical measurement diagram is shown as Figure 3, the shaft voltage U1 shall be measured
firstly with high internal resistance AC voltmeter, then the end without insulation of the
rotating shaft shall be short-circuited with its bearing seat (the rotating shaft insulated on both
sides shall be short-circuited on any side), the voltage U2 on the other side to the bearing seat
(namely the voltage of oil layer) shall be measured, and then the voltage U3 of this bearing
seat to the ground shall be measured. The surface of the measuring point shall contact well
with the lead wire of voltmeter. Before the test, the insulation resistance between the bearing
seat and metallic gasket and between the metallic gasket and metal base shall be inspected
respectively.
4.4 Determination of No-load Characteristics
4.4.1 Generator method
The machine under test shall be dragged to its rated speed with the armature winding
open-circuited, and the test shall be conducted by separate excitation mode.
The excitation current is adjusted. If there is no other requirement, the no-load armature
voltage shall be adjusted to 1.3 times of the rated value or the voltage corresponding to the
rated excitation current shall be taken as the starting point of no-load characteristic. Later, the
excitation current will be reduced to zero in one single direction, generally 7~9 points shall be
laid off (more points shall be measured near to the rated voltage value), the three-wire voltage,
excitation current and frequency (or rotation speed) shall be read at each point. Finally, the
residual voltage shall be read when the excitation current is equal to zero.
If the three-wire voltage is symmetrical, besides reading the three-wire voltage at the
rated voltage, the one-wire voltage value of any wire may be measured at other points.

1Bearing seat;
2Insulation gasket;
3Metallic gasket;
4Insulation gasket;
5Rotor.

Figure 3

Where the frequency f differs from the rated frequency fN during the test, the non-load
voltage of armature shall be converted according to the following formula:

U0 =

fN
U
f

(7)

Where:
Uthe no-load voltage (three-phase average value) measured from test, V;
U0the no-load voltage converted to the state at rated frequency, V.
The relation curve U0=f(If) is the calculated no-load curve. If the residual voltage is high
in the no-load characteristic test, then the no-load curve shall be corrected. The correction
method is to extend the straight line portion of the curve to intersect with the abscissa axis,
the absolute value If of the intersection point with abscissa is the corrected value, and all
the measured excitation current value from tests shall be added by this value (If) to obtain
the corrected curve. The straight line portion of no-load curve and its extension line generally
are named as the air-gap line, See Figure 4.

Figure 4

4.4.2 Motor method


7

The machine under test is connected to a actually symmetrical, stabilized supply with
rated frequency and adjustable voltage so that the machine will operate under no load at
separate excitation mode.
The supply voltage is adjusted and the excitation current of the machine under test is
adjusted correspondingly to make the armature current reach the minimum value (here, the
power factor of machine is 1.0, the readings of two wattmeters as connected by two-voltmeter
method are equal and are in the same direction), the corresponding excitation current at this
time is the excitation current at this voltage.
If there is no other requirement, the test shall be started from 1.3 times of the rated
voltage of armature, the terminal voltage and excitation current shall be adjusted till the
minimum voltage of the machine just before pull-out, 7~9 points shall be measured during the
whole process, and the applied voltage, excitation current and frequency (or rotation speed)
shall be read at each point.
If the three-wire voltage is symmetrical, besides reading the three-wire voltage at the
rated voltage, the one-wire voltage value of any wire may be measured at other points.
If the frequency during the test differs from the rated frequency, the no-load armature
voltage shall be corrected according to Formula (7).
4.4.3 As for the synchronous machines bellow 1000kVA, the excitation current at the rated
voltage shall be measured possibly during the tests.
4.5 Determination of Steadystate Shortcircuit Characteristics
4.5.1 To determine the three-phase steadystate shortcircuit characteristic, the low impedance
conductor shall be used to short circuit the terminals by approaching to the outlet terminal of
armature winding as much as possible. During the test, the machine shall operate at separate
excitation mode.
4.5.2 Generator method
In the test, the machine under test shall be dragged to its rated speed and the excitation
current shall be adjusted to make the armature current be about 1.2 times of the rated current,
meanwhile, the armature current and excitation current shall be read. The excitation current
will be reduced gradually down to zero, totally 5~7 points shall be read, and then the
shortcircuit characteristic curve IK=f(If) shall be plotted. If the three-phase current is
symmetrical, besides reading the three-wire current at the rated current, the one-wire current
value of any wire may be measured at other points.
4.5.3 Motor method (retardation test)
The motor under test shall operate under no load, the excitation current will be reduced
to zero immediately after cutting off the power, and the excitation source also shall be cut off,
then the three phases of the armature winding shall be short circuited simultaneously with
switches that have been prepared in advance.
The excitation source shall be switched on, the excitation current will be adjusted to
make the armature current be about 1.2 times of the armature current, meanwhile, the
armature current and excitation current shall be read. Later, the excitation current will be
reduced gradually, 5~7 points shall be read within the allowable range of the precision of
instruments and meters; if the read test data are insufficient from one retardation test, the
above-mentioned steps may be repeated till obtaining sufficient test data. Finally, the
shortcircuit characteristic curve Ik=f(If) shall be plotted.
8

4.5.4 As for the synchronous machines bellow 1000kVA, only the excitation current at the
rated armature current may be read possiblly during the tests.
4.6 Test of Exciter
The tests of exciter shall be conducted in accordance with GB/T 7409.3, GB/T 10585
and the method specified for this type of machine.
4.7 Overspeed Test
If there is no other requirement, the overspeed test may be conducted at cold state.
Before the overspeed test, the assembling quality of the machine, especially the
assembling quality of the rotating parts, shall be inspected carefully so as to prevent sundries
parts from flying out when the rotation speed is increased.
During the overspeed test, corresponding safety protection measures shall be taken, the
measurements of such parameters as the control of machine under test, vibration, rotation
speed and bearing temperature shall adopt the remote measurement method.
The overspeed test may adopt motor method (improving the supply frequency) or prime
mover dragging method according to specific conditions.
During the process of raising the speed, the working condition of the machine shall be
observed when its reaches its rated speed in order to confirm the machine is free from
abnormal phenomena, and then its speed shall be increased by a appropriate accelerated speed
till the specified rotation speed. The overspeed value and the duration time shall be carried out
according to the method specified in 8.5 of GB 755-2000 or the method specified in the
standard on this type of machine.
After the overspeed test, the machine shall be checked carefully whether its rotating
parts have damages or harmful deformation, whether its fasteners are loose or whether other
unallowable phenomena appear. After the test, the rotor winding must meet the requirements
of withstand voltage test.
4.8 Interturn Short-circuit Test of Non-salient Pole Generator Rotor
The interturn short-circuit test of the non-salient pole generator rotor shall be conducted
according to the method specified JB/T 8446.
4.9 Determination of Vibration
The determination of vibration shall be conducted according to the method specified GB
10068.
4.10 Inspection on Sealing State and Determination of Hydrogen Leakage
The test methods shall be carried out in accordance with the method specified JB/T
6227.
4.11 Interturn Impulse Withstand Voltage Test
The interturn impulse withstand voltage test shall be conduced according to the methods
specified in JB/T 10098, JB/T 9615.1 and JB/T 9615.2.
4.12 Short Time Voltage Rising Test
The test shall be done when the machine bear no load, except for the following
requirements, the applied voltage (motor) or induction voltage (generator) in the test shall be
130% of the rated voltage.
As for the machine of which the non-load voltage is above 130% of the rated voltage at
the rated excitation current, the test voltage shall be equal to the non-load voltage at rated
excitation current.
9

Where no other relevant standards or technical documents are available, the test duration
shall be 3min, but the following requirements are excluded.
At the voltage of 130% of the rated voltage, the test duration for the machine of which
the no-load current exceeds its rated current may be shortened to 1min. As for the exciter of
forced excitation, if the voltage during forced excitation exceeds 130% of the rated voltage,
then the test shall be conducted at the limit voltage for forced excitation, and the test duration
shall be 1min.
Where the test voltage is increased to 130% of the rated voltage, it is allowed to increase
the frequency or rotation speed simultaneously, however, the rotation speed shall not exceed
115% of the rated speed or the rotation speed specified in the overspeed test. The allowable
speed increasing value shall be specified in the standards on different types of machines.
As for the generator with relatively saturated magnetic circuit, when the rotation speed
is increased to 115% of the rated speed and the excitation current also has been increased to
the allowable limit, if the induction voltage value can not reach the specified test voltage, then
it is allowed to do the test at the achievable maximum voltage.
4.13 Power-frequency Withstand Voltage Test
The frequency of test voltage is the power frequency and the voltage waveform shall be
approximate to the sinusoidal waveform as much as possible. During the whole process of
withstand voltage test, necessary safety protection measures shall be taken. Specific personnel
shall be arranged around the machine under test for monitoring.
4.13.1 Test Requirements
4.13.1.1 Unless otherwise specified, the power-frequency withstand voltage test shall be
conducted when the machine is at stationary state.
4.13.1.2 The insulation resistance of the winding shall be measured before the test; if the
machine needs to pass the overspeed test, occasional overcurrent test, short-time overtorque
test and short-circuit mechanical strength test, the power-frequency withstand voltage test
shall be conducted after those tests. During the type test, the power-frequency withstand
voltage test shall be conducted immediately the temperature rise test.
4.13.1.3 Where the starting and tail ends of each phase or each branch circuit of the
armature winding or auxiliary winding are led out separately, the armature winding and
auxiliary winding shall be tested respectively.
4.13.1.4 During the test, both ends of the tested winding shall be applied with voltage
simultaneously (as for the small machines, the winding may be applied with voltage at one
end), here, the other windings and embedded thermometric elements not included in the test
all shall have electrical connection with the iron core or the enclosure, and the enclosure shall
be grounded. Where the neutral points of three-phase winding are uneasy to separate, the
three-phase winding shall be applied with voltage simultaneously.
4.13.1.5 As for the water-cooled armature winding, if the test is conducted when the
winding is supplied with water, the water header shall be grounded. If the test is conducted
when water is not supplied, the insulating hose must be blown to dry inside.
4.13.1.6 The testing transformer shall have adequate capacity, if the capacitance C of the
winding of the machine under test is large, the rated capacity SN(kVA) of this transformer
shall be larger than the value obtained by the following formula:
SN=2fCUUNT10-3
(8)
10

Where:
fthe supply frequency, Hz;
Uthe test voltage value, V;
UNTthe rated voltage at high-voltage side of testing transformer, V;
Cthe capacitance of the tested winding of machine, F.
4.13.2 Method of power-frequency withstand voltage test
The wiring diagram of the test is given in Figure 5 (the wiring diagram of the withstand
voltage test of rotor is given in diagram). In this diagram, T1 is the regulating transformer, T2
is the high-voltage test device, PT is the potential transformer, R is the current-limiting
protective resistance and its value generally is 0.2~1/V, R0 is the sphere gap protective
resistance (not for low-voltage machine) and its value generally may adopt 1 /V, QX is the
overvoltage protective sphere gap (not for low-voltage machine), V is the voltmeter, TM is
the machine under test, therein, the sphere gap and sphere diameter shall be selected
according to the insulation test voltage of high-voltage electrical apparatus and the
requirements of the test method, the discharge voltage of sphere gap shall be set to 1.1~1.5
times of the test voltage. If the capacitance current needs to be measured, the amperemeter
and the short-circuit protection switch parallel to the amperemeter may be connected at the
high-voltage side of the test device. If the amperemeter is connected at the low-voltage side,
the influence of stray current on the readings shall be taken into account.
In the test, the applied voltage shall be started from a value not exceeding a half of the
full test voltage and shall be increased to the full value by a rate no larger than 5% of the full
value uniformly or by stages, and the time for the voltage increasing from half of the full
value to the full value shall not be less than 10s. The voltage in the test adopting full value
shall be in accordance with those specified in Table 14 of GB 755-2000 and shall be
maintained for 1min.

Figure 5

When conducting routine tests on the 5kW (or kVA) or below machines that are
produced in batches, the 1mm test may be replaced by about 5s test, and the test voltage shall
adopt the normal value specified in Table 14 of GB 755-2000. Or the test may also be
replaced by 1s test, but the test voltage shall be 120% of those specified in Table 14 of GB
755-2000, and the test voltage shall be applied by using test bar. At the end of the test, the
voltage also shall be reduced uniformly, the supply source can be cut off only after the voltage
drops to one third of the full value, and the tested winding shall discharge.
During the test, if it is discovered that the voltmeter pointer beats greatly, the indication
of amperemeter increases suddenly and the insulation has such abnormal phenomena as
smoke or noise, the voltage shall be reduced immediately and the supply source shall be
11

disconnected, and the tested winding shall be checked after discharging.


4.14 DC Leakage Current Test and DC Withstand Voltage Test of the Insulation of
Armature Winding
Where the starting and tail ends of each phase or each branch circuit of the three-phase
winding are led out separately, their leakage current test to the ground shall be conduced
respectively. Before testing one phase or one branch circuit of the winding, the other two
phases of windings or other branch circuits shall be grounded; if the neutral points of
three-phase winding are linked together and uneasy to separate, then the test may be
conducted on these three phases of windings. In the test, the armature winding temperature
and the ambient temperature and humidity shall be recorded.
The maximum voltage for the DC leakage current test is the value from DC withstand
voltage test and this value is specified in the relevant technical documents.
4.14.1 Test methods
4.14.1.1 Air-cooled or hydrogen-cooled armature winding
The wiring for test is as shown in Figure 6. In the Figure, T1 is the voltage regulator; T2
is the high-voltage test device; R is the current-limiting protective resistance and its value is
(0.1~1); D is the high-voltage rectifying silicon stack; V is the high-voltage measurement
device; A is microammeter; K is knife switch; TM is the machine under test; and C is the
high-voltage filter capacitor.

Figure 6

In the test, the voltage of voltage regulator shall be set at the minimum position, the
voltage regulator will be adjusted after being energized and the voltage will be increased
uniformly. The voltage shall be increased step by step during the test. For example, increasing
from 0.5UN, 1.0UN and 1.5UN to the specified value. The test shall stay at each voltage
stage and the current value (the leakage current value) of microammeter at the starting and at
the 1 min of this stage shall be recorded. At the end of the test, the voltage regulator shall be
reset, the supply source shall be cut off, and the winding shall be grounded after discharging.
After discharging, another winding can be tested.
During the test, if it is discovered that the leakage current increases rapidly with time or
abnormal discharge phenomenon exists, the test shall be stopped immediately and the supply
source shall be disconnected, the winding shall be grounded after discharging for testing
again.
The relation curve of leakage current with test voltage shall be plotted based on the test
data.
The amperemeter and the short-circuit protection switch parallel to it shall be connected
at the high-voltage side, and the personnel safety shall be guaranteed when measuring. If the
12

amperemeter is connected at the low-voltage side, the influence of stray current on the
readings shall be taken into account.
4.14.1.2 Internal water-cooled armature winding
The wiring for test is as shown in Figure 7. In the Figure, T1 is the regulating
transformer, T2 is the high-voltage test device; R is the current-limiting protective resistance
and its value is (0.1~1)/V; D is the high-voltage rectifying silicon stack; A is
microammeter; K is knife switch; TM is the machine under test; C is high-voltage filter
capacitor; V is high-voltage measurement device; C1 is low-voltage filter capacitor; L1 is
inductive choke coil; E is 1.5V battery; Rb is 100k carbon film resistor; Ra is 500k
potentiometer; and mA is milliammeter for monitoring. The selection of the capacitive C(F)
of high-voltage filter capacitor shall make the time constant meet the following conditions:
TCRy0.3s
Where:
Rythe insulation resistance between tested winding and water header, .
If the armature winding is tested with water supply, the water electrical conductivity
shall not be larger than 1.5s/cm; before each test, the potentiometer R shall be adjusted to
obtain one compensatory potential that has opposite polarity but equal value with polarization
potential, and the microammeter indicates zero. Then the no-load DC leakage current of the
tested equipment shall be measured (the reading of microammeter with no test object
connected).
The operating method after connecting the test object is given in 4.13.1.1. The actual
DC leakage current I(A) shall be calculated according to the following formula:

Water
header

Figure 7

R
I = I1 1 + 1 I 0
R2

(9)

Where:
I1the reading of microammeter, A;
R1the series resistance value of the resistance of choke coil with the internal
resistance of microammeter, ;
R2the resistance value to ground of the water header measured when the armature
winding is wire at test state, ;
I0the no-load DC leakage current of the test equipment, A.
If the armature winding is tested after blowing, the test method is basical same as that
13

for the armature winding with water supply, and the compensatory potential will be
unnecessary.
If required, the hydraulic test shall be conducted after this test.
4.15 Determination of Voltage Waveform Sinusoidal Distortion Factor
4.15.1 The machine shall operate at the state of no-load generator, its rotational speed and
voltage shall be adjusted to their rated values before the determination.
4.15.2 Based on the test conditions, any one method listed bellow may be adopted for the
determination.
4.15.2.1 Determination by using waveform distortion tester.
4.15.2.2 The values of the fundamental voltage and harmonic voltages shall be measured by
using harmonic analyzer and the distortion factor shall be calculated according to Formula
(10).

Ku =

U 22 + U 32 + U 42 + +U n2
100%
U1

(10)

4.15.2.3 The instantaneous value of voltage waveform shall be recorded with recorder, and
the values of fundamental voltage and harmonic voltages shall be obtained through
decomposing, and the distortion factor shall be calculated.
4.15.3 The measured armature voltage may be measured after reducing the voltage with
voltage divider or potential transformer, the waveform shall be kept undistorted when using a
voltage divider or potential transformer.
4.16 Noise Determination
The noise test shall be conducted according to the method specified in GB/T 10069.1
and GB/T 10069.2.
4.17 Determination of Telephone Harmonic Form Factor (THF)
The determination of THF shall be conducted when the machine is at the no-load rated
voltage and rated frequency, the values of the fundamental voltage and harmonic voltages
shall be measured by using special instruments or harmonic analyzer, and the frequency range
shall include all the harmonics from the rated value to 5000Hz. THF shall be calculated
according to the following formula:

THF (%) =

100
U

(E )
i 1

i i

(11)

Where:
Uthe effective value of line voltage, V;
Eithe effective value of the ith harmonic voltage, V;
ithe weighting coefficient corresponding to the ith harmonic frequency, the
weighting coefficients for different frequencies may be inquired from the weighting
coefficient table or the weighting curve, see Table 16and Figure 13 in GB 755-2000.
The telephone harmonic form factor of the machine shall adopt the maximum value
among the THF values obtained from three line voltages.

Efficiency Determination
14

5.1

Direct Determination Method of Efficiency


Output and input power of machine under test is measured so as to determine the
efficiency.
5.1.1 During the test, the measurement shall be carried out where the machine under test is
operated till thermal-stable at the rated power, voltage, speed and power factor.
Where the input and output power of machine under test is measured, the armature
current, excitation current and cooling medium temperature of the machine shall be measured
at the same time.
Where the cooling medium temperature is not at 25, every winding temperature rise
and DC resistance shall also be measured at the same time (it may be measured just after test,
however, shall be corrected to the disconnection instant).
5.1.2 Any of the following methods may be adopted where the machine efficiency is
determined with direct method.
5.1.2.1 Brake method
Where the machine under test operates as a motor, it shall be connected with the brake or
dynamometer in order to measure the rotation moment of machine; at the same time, its
rotation speed is determined to determine the output power of machine; the input power of
machine is measured with electrical instruments. Where the machine under test operates as a
motor, dynamometer shall be adopted to trail the machine under test and measure the input
power of the machine; electrical instrument is used to measure the output power of machine.
Rotation speed of the machine shall be paid much attention to due to its direct influence
on power calculation.
The test shall be conducted at the temperature which is obtained at the end of the
specified time of quota and it is not necessary to take temperature conversion for winding
resistance.
5.1.2.2 Machine calibration method
Machine under test is mechanically coupled with the calibrated machine; input (for
generator) or output (for motor) power of machine under test is measured with the calibrated
machine and the output (for generator) or input (for motor) of the machine under test is
measured with electrical instrument.
The test shall be conducted at the temperature which is obtained at the end of the
specified time of quota and it is not necessary to take temperature conversion for winding
resistance.
5.1.2.3 Towards-tow method
Two identical machines are mechanically coupled, with one as motor and another as
generator. Motor input power and generator output power are measured with electrical
instruments; where the operation conditions of two machines are almost the same and it is
assumed that the loss is shared, the motor output power is the difference between halves of
the input power and the total loss; while the generator input power is the sum of halves of the
output power and the total loss.
The test shall be conducted at the temperature which is obtained at the end of the
specified time of quota and it is not necessary to take temperature conversion for winding
resistance.
15

5.1.3 Total loss determination


5.1.3.1 Feedback method
Two identical machine machineries are coupled with electricity, with one as the motor
and the other as the generator; the losses of both machines are provided by the power grids
connected to them, by the dynamometer of mechanical coupling or by calibrated machines.
Where the operation conditions of both machines are almost the same and the loss is
assumed to be shared, the input/output power of the machine under test may be determined
according to the methods in 5.1.2.3.
The test shall be conducted at the temperature which is obtained at the end of the
specified time of quota and it is not necessary to take temperature conversion for winding
resistance.
As the power transfer size between two machines are different along the load angle size,
an accurate load angle relation shall be provided where two machines are mechanically
coupled.
5.1.3.2 Zero power factor test
The machine under test operates as no-load motor at rated voltage and rated speed;
power factor is at about zero and the excitation current is adjusted to ensure the primary
winding current reaches the rated value. Its total losses are equal to the input power during
test; thereinto, the excitation loss is corrected according to the difference between the actual
excitation current loss and the excitation current loss at rated load.
The machine shall be provided with the same core loss value at power supply voltage as
at no-load operation of rated voltage. The power supply voltage is generally equal to the rated
voltage unless the power supply voltage would make the core loss increase much more than it
does at full load. In principle, reactive power shall be positive (overexcited). If this couldn't
be achieved due to insufficient excitation voltage, the test may be conducted at the working
condition of absorbing reactive power (under-excitation).
5.1.4 Efficiency calculation
5.1.4.1 Efficiency of machine under test conditions is calculated according to the following
formula:

P
100%
Pin

(12)

Where:
POutput active power of the machine, kW;
PinInput active power of machine, kW.
5.1.4.2 Where the machine efficiency is determined using direct method, if the cooling
medium temperature is not 25, it shall be converted to 25 according to the following
formula:

( 25) =

P
Pin ( 25 )

100%

(13)

Where:
Pin(25)= Pin+Pcua+Pcuf(kW)

16

k + a + 25
Pcua = 3I a2 R a
1 (kW)
k +a

k + f + 25
Pcuf = I 2f R f
1 (kW)

+
k

IaArmature phase current during efficiency determination, A;


IfExcitation current during efficiency determination, A;
RaDC resistance value of armature winding single-phase during efficiency
determination, ;
RfDC resistance value of excitation winding during efficiency determination, ;
aTemperature rise value of armature winding during efficiency determination,
K;
fTemperature rise value of excitation winding during efficiency
determination .K;
aArmature winding temperature during efficiency determination, ;
fExcitation winding temperature during efficiency determination, ;
kCopper winding is taken with 235, non-copper winding is taken according to those
specified in 7.6.2.2 of GB 755-2000.
5.2 Indirect Determination Method of Efficiency
5.2.1 Where the machine efficiency is obtained through loss analysis method, the
following losses shall be respectively determined or calculated.
5.2.1.1 Constant loss is noted as Pa, including:
a) Iron loss (including no-load stray loss), which is noted as PFe;
b) Bearing friction loss;
c) Air loss;
d) Brush friction loss
The sum of the above losses in b), c) and d) are called to as mechanical losses, which are
noted as Pfw. 5.2.1.2 Load loss
I2R loss in machine armature winding, which is noted as Pcua
5.2.1.3 Excitation loss, which is noted as Pf, including:
a) I2R losses in excitation winding, which is noted as Pcuf;
b) Rheostat loss, which is noted as PR;
c) Electric loss of electrical brush, which is noted as Prs;
d) Exciter loss, which is noted as PE;
e) Loss of self excitation device, which is noted as PZE;
f) Loss of I2R of self auxiliary winding.
5.2.1.4 Stray loss, which is noted as Pd, including:
a) The stray loss in armature winding conductor;
b) The stray loss in magnetic circuit and other metal parts (excluding conductor).
5.2.2 Machine efficiency is determined according to the following formula:

= 1

P
100%
P+P

(14)

17

Where:
PTotal losses, namely, P= P0+Pcua+Pf+Pd(kW);
POutput power, kW.
In order to determine the I2R loss of each winding, the DC resistance of winding shall be
converted to the value corresponding to the reference operating temperature of the insulation
grade indicated on machine nameplate according to the following formula:

Rj =

k + j
k + 1

R1

(15)

Where:
RjWinding DC resistance at reference operating temperature () ;
R1Winding DC resistance under actual cold state, ,
1The winding temperature corresponding to R1 measurement, ;
jReference operating temperature, reference operating temperature is detailed in
Table 2;
kSee Formula (13).
Table

Heat grade of insulation structure

Reference operating

A,E

75

95

115

130

temperature /

Note: If the rated temperature rise or rated temperature is specified according to the heat grade lower than that used in
structure, the reference operating temperature shall be specified according to the lower heat grade.

5.3

Calorimetric Method
If the loss couldn't be determined through the methods as specified in 5.1 or 5.2,
calorimetric method may be adopted and the test methods are detailed in GB/T 5321.
5.4 Determination of Losses Corresponding to the Rated Load
5.4.1 Determination of constant losses
5.4.1.1 For no-load generator method: the excitation current of machine under test is
supplied by independent DC supply to operate as no-load generator; dragging machine shall
be the motor which has been analyzed or other prime movers (such as dynamometer) which
could accurately measure or calculate the output power. During the test, the rotation speed
shall be the rated speed of machine under test; output power of prime mover under different
voltages of generator shall be measured after the bearing friction loss and brush friction loss
become stable and this output power is the constant loss ( P0' )under corresponding voltage.
In order to separate the core loss from the mechanical loss, it shall plot the curve of
voltage per unit value square corresponding to the measured constant loss at different voltages

U
as shown in Figure8. Loss corresponding to 0
UN

= 0 is namely the mechanical loss of

the machine under test and the loss corresponding to the rated voltage is namely the constant
loss of the machine at rated voltage; difference of both values is the core loss (PFe) of the
18

machine at rated voltage, also as the core loss of the machine at rated load.
5.4.1.2 No-load motor method: Machine under test is connected to the adjustable, actual,
symmetrical and stabilized supply as no-load motor operation. Excitation current is supplied
by independent DC supply; the excitation current adjusting the machine under test makes the
armature current be the minimum; after the bearing friction loss and brush friction loss
become stable, input power Pin and armature current I0 are measured at different voltages and
the DC resistance Ra of armature winding is measured (which may be conducted immediately
after the test, however it shall be corrected to the disconnection instant); the constant losses

P0' (kW) of machine under test at corresponding voltage:

Figure 8

P0' = Pin 3I 02 Ra 10 3

(16)

Where:
PinInput power of machine under test, kW;
I0Armature phase current (average value of three phases), A;
R4DC resistance of armature phase winding (average value of three phases), .
It shall make the curve of the constant loss at corresponding voltage against the square of
voltage per unit value shall be plotted like 5.4.1.1. Straight line part of the curve is extended
to intersect with the longitudinal axis and the longitudinal coordinate of intersection point is

U
the mechanical loss and the loss corresponding to 0
U N

= 1 is the constant loss at rated

voltage; difference of the two values is the iron loss at rated voltage.
5.4.1.3 Retardation test is seen in 5.5
5.4.2 I2R loss (kW) of armature winding is calculated according to the following formula:

Pcua = 3I N2 R aj 10 3

(17)

Where:
INRated armature current, A;
RajAverage value of armature winding DC resistance at reference operating
temperature, .
As for the self-excited constant voltage generator, if there is a difference between
19

armature current and rated load current due to excitation mode, the I2R loss (kW) of armature
winding shall be calculated according to the following formula:

Pcua = Raj ( I u2 + I v2 + I w2 ) 10 3

(18)

Where:
Iu, Iv and Iw are the measured armature currents of each phase under rated working state,
A.
5.4.3 Excitation loss calculation
5.4.3.1 I2R loss (kW) of excitation winding is calculated according to the following
formula:

Pcuf = I 2fN R fj 10 3

(19)

Where:
IfNRated excitation current, A;
RfjExcitation winding DC resistance at referene operating temperature ()
5.4.3.2 Rheostat loss PR (kW) is calculated according to the following formula:

PR = I fRU R 10 3

(20)

Where:
IfRCurrent flowing across rheostat under rated conditions, A;
URPressure drop at both ends of master rheostat corresponding to the
above-mentioned current, V.
Where other auxiliary devices are provided in main field circuit, treatment method shall
be the same with that of master rheostat; if the excitation winding of the machine under test is
directly connected to the DC exciter armature circuit, this loss is zero.
5.4.3.3 Electric loss of electrical brush Prs (kW) is calculated according to the following
formula:
Prs= 2IfNUs10-3
(21)
Where:
IfNRated excitation current, A;
UsPressure drop on each grade of electrical brush, for carbon-blacklead and
electrographitic brush Us= 1V; For metallic graphite brush Us= 0.3V.
5.4.3.4 Exciter loss
If the exciter is not trailed by the machine under test itself and is the exciter special for
the machine under test, this loss is zero.
If the exciter may be removed from the shaft of the machine under test and could
conduct the test independently, the loss of this exciter may be independently determined
according to relevant test method standard.
If the exciter couldn't be removed, the losses of the whole unit under two situations:
exciter with the sum of equivalent loads as stated in 5.4.3 and the exciter without load shall be
measured with analyzed machine method, no-load motor method or retardation test.
Difference of the two losses is the input power of exciter. The exciting load is the output
power. The difference between input power and output power of exciter is the exciter loss. If
it is still necessary to separate the excitation loss from other losses, exciter shall be
20

independently excited by DC supply; at this time, the input power of exciter shall be equal to
the measured loss difference of the above two situations and the plus the excitation loss of
exciter.
If the above-mentioned methods are not available, the exciter loss may be determined
according to the loss analysis method of this type of machine; however, it shall not count in
the mechanical loss which has been counted into the machine loss under test.
5.4.3.5 Loss of self excitation device of machine
a) Electrical loss of rectifying element Pz (kW) is calculated according to the following
formula
Pz= UzI10-3
(22)
Where:
IOutput current of rectifying device , A;
UzOperating pressure drop of rectifying element, V; if it couldn't be determined,
it may take design value or 1.2 V.
b) The I2R loss of each winding is obtained by multiplying the square of the current
flowing across this winding in rated operation mode with the resistance of this winding at
reference operating temperature.
c) The core loss of each part of excitation device may be calculated according to the
design value.
5.4.3.6 Loss of I2R of auxiliary winding.
It is obtained by multiplying the square of the current flowing across this winding in
rated operation mode with the resistance of this winding at reference operating temperature.
5.4.4 Stray loss may be determined using the following method.
5.4.4.1 Short-circuit method
Armature winding of machine under test is short circuited and trailed to the rated speed
by prime mover; the prime mover shall be the machine which has been analyzed or other
prime mover (such as dynamometer) which may accurately measure or calculate the output
power. Excitation current is adjusted to make the armature current be the rated value; DC
resistance of armature winding R0 () is determined and the DC resistance is measured
immediately after the test. The stray loss Pd (kW) at rated armature current is obtained by
subducting mechanical loss PfN (kW), armature winding and I2R loss from the input power
Pin (namely the output power of prime mover, kW ) of the machine under test;

Pd = Pin PfN 3I N2 Ra 10 3

(23)

5.4.4.2 Over-and-under-excitation method


Machine under test is operated as no-load motor and is excited by independent supply
source; after the bearing and brush friction loss become stable, test on the rated voltage of
actually symmetrical rated frequency applied on armature winding may be conducted; during
the test, excitation current is adjusted under respectively over-and-under excitation mode of
machine to make the armature current reach the rated value; armature voltage, armature
current, input power, excitation current and rotation speed are read and the DC resistance of
armature winding is measured (it may be immediately measured after the test).
Stray losses of the machine under test during respectively the over-and-under excitation
operation are obtained by subducting constant loss and armature winding I2R loss from the
21

input power of the machine under test; their average value is regarded as the stray loss of
machine; if the armature current couldn't be adjusted to the rated value in under-excitation
mode, stray loss measured in over-excitation mode is allowed to be regarded as the stray loss
of the machine under test.
Low power factor wattmeter shall be adopted to measure the input power; the reading on
the two wattmeters shall be read at the same time when adopting two-wattmeter method to
determine the input power.
5.4.4.3 Retardation test is detailed in 5.5.
5.5 Retardation Test
This method is mainly applicable to the machine whose moment of inertia is relatively
big and whose losses are difficult to determine with other methods.
During the test, the machine under test is connected to the power supply, or trailed by
power machines and then supplied or excited by independent DC supply. The machine under
test is firstly been accelerated till its rotation speed is slightly greater than the rated speed and
for the nonsalient pole machine, it shall not be less than 105 % nN. For salient pole machine, it
shall not be less than 110%nN and then the power is cutoff; before the motor speed reaches the
above-mentioned rotation speed, required working state shall be established to make the
machine automatically decelerate. For non-salient pole machine, time required from 105nN to
95%nN is measured; for salient pole machine, time required from 110%nN to 90% is measured
and the time measurement accuracy between two upper and lower speed points is required to
be within 2%. To determine all kinds of losses, tests under the following working states shall
be conducted.
a) Armature winding is open-circuited and the machine is not excited, herein the
measured retardation time during the test is t1.
b) Armature winding is open-circuited, excitation current is adjusted till the armature
voltage at rated speed is the rated value; herein, the retardation time t2 is
measured during the test; armature voltage and excitation current shall be measured
at the same time where the machine retardation reaches the rated speed.
c) Armature winding is three-phase short circuited, excitation current is adjusted till the
armature current at rated speed is the rated value; herein the retardation time t3 is
measured during the test. Armature current and excitation current are measured
during retardation and are calculated according to the measured data:
Mechanical loss

PfN = 10.97 JnN

n
10 6
t1

(24)

Constant loss

P0 = 10.97 JnN

n
10 6
t 2

(25)

Sum of load loss, stray loss and mechanical loss

Pcua + Pd + PfN = 10.97 JnN

n
10 6
t3

(26)

22

Where:
JMoment of inertia of machine, kgm2;
nNRated speed, r/min;
nFor nonsalient pole machine, it is 1.05nN-0.95nN=0.10nN, For salient pole
machine, it is 1.10nN-0.90nN= 0.20nN.
In order to obtain an accurate result, the above-mentioned retardation test shall be
repeated for three times and the average value of the three times shall be regarded as the
actual value.
Where hydro generator test is conducted in the power station, if possible, hydro turbines
shall be disconnected; otherwise, the water in runner chamber shall be discharged; mechanical
loss of hydro turbines in the air determined through method of calculation is subducted from
each measured loss.
If the moment of inertia of machine is unknown, the following method may be adopted:
the machine under test is connected to the load of the known loss P (such as the transformer
with known no-load loss or short circuit loss), retardation test is then conducted to determine
the retardation time t1.
Where it is with no-load transformer:

J=

P
10 6
n n

10.97n N

t 4 t 2

(27)

Where it is with short-circuit transformer:

J=

P
106
n n

10.97nN

t
t
4
3

(28)

Constant loss may also be determined with no-load motor method in advance and then
item b) test in the above-mentioned retardation test is conducted; J is obtained by the
following formula:

J=

PfN + PFe
106
n
10.97n N
t 2

(29)

During retardation test, if velometer counting in definite time is adopted to record the
rotation speed, relation curve between rotation speed and time may be plotted and then

n
dn
corresponding to the rated speed is obtained on the curve to replace the
t
dt

gradient

in the above-mentioned method.


5.6 Calculation of Efficiency under other Loads
If the efficiency under other loads is required, it may be calculated according to the
following methods: Constant loss remains the same; load loss is converted according to the
square of armature current; stray loss is determined according to the method in 5.4.4 or
converted according to the square of armature current and the excitation loss is converted
23

based on the excitation current required under this load according to the corresponding
formulae in 5.4.3.

Temperature Rise Test

6.1

Measurement Method of Temperature


The temperature of machine winding or other parts may be measured by the following
three methods: resistance method, thermometer method and embedded temperature detector
method; different methods shall not be used to check each other.
6.1.1 Resistance method
The DC resistance of tested winding shall be measured and the average temperature of
the winding shall be determined according to the relation between DC resistance and
temperature variation.
6.1.1.1 Copper winding
The temperature rise (K) of copper winding is determined according to the following
formula:

R2 R1
(235 + 1 ) + 1 0
R1

(30)

Where:
R2Winding resistance at the end of the test ();
R1Winding resistance at actual cold state ();
1Winding temperature while determining R1 at corresponding actual cold state
();
0Cooling medium temperature at the end of the test ().
6.1.1.2 Non-copper winding
As for materials other than copper, the 235 in the above formula shall be replaced by the
reciprocal of temperature resistance coefficient of materials at 0; 225 shall be adopted for
aluminium winding unless otherwise specified.
6.1.2 Thermometer method
In this method, the temperature is measured by placing the thermometer close to the
accessible surface of machine; the thermometer includes expansion thermometer (such as
mercury and ethanol thermometer), semiconductor thermometer and non-embedded
thermocouple or resistance thermometer. During the measurement, the thermometer shall be
close to the surface of measuring points and the measured part of thermometer shall be
covered with thermal insulation materials so as to avoid the influence of surrounding cooling
medium. Mercury thermometer shall not be used where there is strong alternating magnetic
field.
6.1.3 Embedded temperature detector method
In this method, the temperature shall be measured with the temperature detector
embedded in the machine (such as resistance temperature detector, thermocouple or
semiconductor thermosensitive element); the temperature detector is embedded at the
inaccessible part of finished machine during its manufacturing process.
24

While measuring the resistance of embedded resistance thermometer, the measuring


current and galvanization time shall be controlled so that there will be no obvious change on
the resistance due to the heating of measuring current.
6.2 Determination of Cooling Medium Temperature in Temperature Rise Test
6.2.1 As for the machine (open type or closed type without cooler) cooled by the
surrounding air or gas, the ambient air or gas temperature shall be measured by several
thermometers; the thermometer shall be distributed at different locations around the machine
and shall be (1~2)m from the machine. The sphere part shall be at 1/2 of the machine height
and shall be prevented from the influence of all radiation and air flow.
As for the machine with forced air circulation or closed circulation cooling system, the
temperature of cooling medium shall be measured at the air inlet of machine.
The machine with internal water cooling for winding shall take the water inlet
temperature as the temperature of cooling medium winding.
The iron core and other parts with non-water direct cooling shall take the air inlet
temperature of cooling medium.
6.2.2 Determination of cooling medium temperature at the end of the test
As for the cooling medium temperature at the end of the test, it shall take the average
value of several thermometer readings measured at equal time interval within 1/4 of the whole
test period.
6.3 Determination of Temperature at Different Parts of the Machine in Temperature
Rise Test
6.3.1 Determination of winding temperature
The temperature of machine winding may be measured by resistance method and
embedded temperature detector method; however, where the resistance method is used, the
resistance at cold &hot state must measured at the same outlet terminal. Where both
embedded temperature detector method and resistance method can't be used, the thermometer
method may be adopted, which is also applicable to the occasions specified in a), b), c) and d)
of 7.6.1 in GB 755-2000.
6.3.2 Determination of excitation winding temperature
Where the temperature of excitation winding is measured with resistance method, the
voltage shall be measured on the slip ring.
6.3.3 Determination of the temperature of excitation device winding and auxiliary
winding temperature
Resistance method and thermometer method shall be used to measure it.
6.3.4 Determination of stator core temperature
Where embedded temperature detector is in use, it shall be measured with temperature
detector; otherwise, it shall be measured with thermometer (at least two for large and medium
machines), taking the maximum value as core temperature.
6.3.5 Determination of the temperature of slip ring, pole shoe and damping winding
Thermometer or digimite shall be used for measurement immediately after the machine
shuts down.
6.3.6 Determination of the temperature of bearing and sealing pad
It shall be determined by thermometer and embedded temperature detector and the
determination method is detailed in 7.9 of GB 755-2000.
25

6.4 Correction of the Measured Temperature at Different Parts of the Machine after
Cutting off the Supply
6.4.1 Where the temperature of shutdown machine is measured by resistance method, the
machine shall be stopped immediately after the end of temperature rise test; after the machine
is disconnected, the reading measured at the first point within the time specified in Table 3
shall be used to calculate the temperature rise of machine and no exterpolation is needed till
the instantaneous disconnection.
Table 3
Machine rated power P

Interval time after disconnection

kW(kVA)

P50

30

50<P200

90

200<P5000

120

P>5000

According to special agreement

6.4.2 If the reading at the first point fails to be measured within the above-mentioned
interval time, it shall be measured as soon as possible. Later, it shall be read once every one
minute until those readings begin to drop obviously from the maximum value. The cooling
curve for the relation between resistance (or temperature) and time shall be plotted and the
rated power of machine shall be based to extrapolate this curve till the corresponding interval
time in Table 3; the acquired temperature will be the temperature of machine at instantaneous
disconnection. During the plotting of curve, semi-logarithmic coordinates is recommended
and the temperature scale shall on the logarithmic coordinate. If the temperature measured
after stopping the machine continues to rise, the maximum temperature shall be used as the
temperature of the machine at instantaneous disconnection.
6.4.3 If the reading at the first point after the machine disconnection is measured twice later
than corresponding interval time, the methods specified in 6.4.2 can't be used until concluding
an agreement between manufacturer and user.
6.5 Short-circuit Insulation and Brake Method
Where the machine need be shut down to measure the armature winding resistance and it
difficult to brake rapidly, short-circuit insulation and brake method shall be adopted.
Where the temperature rise of machine under test keeps stable, the load shall be reduced
quickly and the circuit shall be cut off rapidly (the input into the prime mover shall be
immediately cut off for generator); meanwhile, the excitation current shall be reduced to zero.
Where there is no abnormal condition, the three-phase shortcircuit connected with the
armature winding shall be turned off with added excitation, and the excitation current shall be
added rapidly so that the armature current reaches 90% rated value; the period from
disconnecting machine adjusting armature current till disconnection to 90% shall be less than
or equal to 30s. Where the machine shuts down, the time shall be immediately recorded, and
the excitation current shall be reduced as soon and disconnected; meanwhile, the three-phase
shortcircuit of armature winding shall be disconnected to measure the armature winding
resistance immediately and the time shall be recorded; later, 4~5 points shall be measured
continuously as the relation curve between armature winding resistance and time.
6.6 Method of Temperature Rise Test
According to different test equipment conditions, it may adopt direct load method,
26

low-power factor load method and no-load shortcircuit method.


6.6.1 Direct load method
6.6.1.1 The machine under test shall be tested at rated operation mode according to its
functions; during the test, the cooling medium temperature shall meet the requirements of 5.3,
5.4 and 5.5 primary equipment of GB 755-2000 and mutation shall be avoided; the readings at
each point shall be recorded every 30min; where the temperature at all parts of the machine
tends to keep stable, the readings shall be recorded every 15 or 30 minutes. Where the
temperature variation at all parts of the machine is less than or equal to 2K within the last 1h,
the machine heating is considered as stable. The average value of temperature at several time
intervals within the stable stage shall be regarded as the temperature of the machine at rated
load; if shutdown exterpolation method is used to determine the temperature at load, it shall
refer to 6.4.2.
Where the difference between the current at temperature rise test and the rated value is
within 5%, the machine winding temperature rise N may be corrected according to the
following formula:

I
N = N
I

(31)

Where:
IThe average of current readings at several equal time intervals within the last 1h
(A);
Winding temperature rise corresponding to test current I (K).
6.6.1.2 Within the scope ranging from 0.6 rated power to the maximum allowable power
under test conditions, temperature rise test shall be carried out at 3~ 4 different loads, and the
power factor shall be close to rated value.
Where the temperature rise test is carried out at each load, it shall determine the
temperature rise of winding and core corresponding to the cooling medium temperature. The
test results at different loads shall be used to draw the relation curve between the temperature
rise at this part of the machine and the square of winding current or the losses corresponding
to this part; the temperature rise corresponding to rated load shall be determined according to
obtained curve exterpolation.
6.6.2 Low-power factor load method
Where the direct load method can't be used for temperature rise test due to the limit of
equipment condition, low-power factor load method may be adopted; the zero power factor
load of swap camera is also the direct load.
In this method, the machine under test may operate as a generator or motor, without
active load or with partial active load.
During the test, the machine is adjusted to rated frequency, rated excitation current and
rated armature current; the requirements during the test shall be the same as that for direct
load method. If the armature voltage at the moment is greater than or equal to 95% rated
value, the armature winding temperature rise a and stator core temperature rise Fe will
not be corrected; otherwise, they shall be corrected according to the following methods.
6.6.2.1 Twice no-load temperature rise test
a) Where the machine is no-load and the armature voltage is equal to the voltage in the
27

above-mentioned test, the measured armature winding temperature rise and stator
core temperature rise shall be a1 and Fe1 respectively.
b) Where the machine is no-load and the armature voltage is equal to rated voltage, the
measured armature winding temperature rise and stator core temperature rise shall
be a2 and Fe2 respectively.
The temperature rise at rated operation mode is calculated according to the following
formula:
Armature winding:
aN=a+ (a2-a1) (32)
Stator core:
FeN=Fe+ (Fe2-Fe1) (33)
6.6.2.2 Empirical formula
Armature winding temperature rise:

PFe
(34)
aN = a 1 +
K a Pcua
Where:
aArmature winding temperature rise during temperature rise test at low power
factor load (K);
PFeDifference between core losses PFe at rated voltage and core losses PFe
corresponding to temperature rise test voltage at low power factor load (kW);
2
PcuaI R losses of armature winding during temperature rise test at low power factor
load (kW);
KaCoefficient, taking 6 for small machine and 3 for medium machine.
Stator core temperature rise

PFe
(35)
FeN = Fe 1 +
'
+
P
P

cua
Fe
FeStator core temperature rise during temperature rise test at low power factor
load (K);
6.6.3 No-load shortcircuit method
6.6.3.1 The machine under test operates as a generator and the following four temperature
rise tests shall be conducted:
a) The measured temperature rise is 0 for idling machine without excitation;
b) The measured temperature rise is U1 for no-load machine with armature voltage
equal to 105 % rated value;
c) The measured temperature rise is U2 for no-load machine with armature voltage
close as much to 120% rated value where the core temperature rise is less than or
equal to the specified value;
d) The measured temperature rise is K for three-phase symmetrical short-circuit
machine with armature voltage equal to the measured temperature rise.
6.6.3.2 The armature winding temperature rise at rated operation mode is determined
according to the following formula:
Turbine generators
28

40 c + U 1 0
+ U 1 0
aN = K 1 +
k + c + K

(36)

Other machines

U 1 0
aN = K 1 +
k + c + K

+ U 1 0

(37)

Where:
cCooling medium temperature during temperature rise test at three-phase
symmetrical shortcircuit ();
kSee Formula (13).
6.6.3.3 The stator-core temperature rise at rated operation mode is determined according to
the following formula:
FeN=k+U1-0
(38)
6.6.3.4 The excitation winding temperature rise at rated operation mode is determined by
plotting method:
a) Turbine generators: First, f' = f + (See Appendix A for )
The excitation winding temperature rise during b), c) and d) temperature rise tests in
6.6.3.1 is converted to the temperature rise corresponding to 40 cooling medium
temperature; then, the excitation winding ho-state DC resistance Rf measured according to
during b), c) and d) tests is converted to the resistance at 40 cooling medium temperature
according to the following formula.

(39)
Where:
cCooling medium temperature during temperature rise test ().
Calculate the value of

and

plot the relation curve of

(1) (shown in Figure 9); mark the values of

and

as curve
corresponding 40

cooling medium temperature as well as 0K and 35K temperature rise (namely, with 40 and
75 winding temperature), and indicate Point A where straight line (2) intersects with the
extended line of curve (1) through Point (

, 0) and Point (

, 35) in Figure 9; then,

the temperature rise fN corresponding to Point A will refer to the temperature riseof
excitation winding at rated operation mode.
b) Other machines: The determination method of excitation winding temperature rise at
rated operation mode is similar to a). The difference is that the temperature rise f and
resistance Rf may not be converted and their measured values are adopted directly; and the
straight line (2) in Figure 9 is made through Point ( I 2fN R fQe , 0) and Point ( I 2fN R f 75 , 75-c). c
refers to the average of cooling medium temperature () at b), c) and d) temperature rise
29

tests in 6.6.3.1.

Figure 9

6.6.3.5 No-load low-speed method


This is another indirect method for excitation winding temperature rise test. The machine
is fixed at certain excitation current and no-load temperature rise test is carried out at three
rotation speeds lower than the rated value; the relation between the three measured excitation
winding temperature rise values (f1, f2 and f3) and the rotation speed is drawn as
shown in Figure 10; where the curve is subject to exterpolation until rated speed, r is
obtained, namely the excitation winding temperature rise at such excitation current; the f1,
f2 and f3 of turbine generators shall be converted to the temperature rise at 40 cooling
medium temperature (See a of 6.6.3.4 for the conversion method) before making curve
exterpolation and obtaining f.
The excitation winding temperature rise at rated excitation current:
a) Turbine generators

fN

I fN
f

f
2
If
I fN

1+
= f
I
I fN
f
k + 40 + f f

If

(40)

b) Other machines

fN

I fN
f

f
2
If
I fN

1+
= f
I
I fN
f
k + c + f f
If

(41)

Where:
cAverage value of cooling medium temperature during the three tests ()

30

Figure 10

During the test, the lowest rotation speed should be greater than or equal to 50% nN.
Generally, there are three speeds70% nN, 80% nN and 90% nN, but the critical speed of the
machine unit shall be avoided. The excitation current shall be as large as possible, but must
ensure the armature voltage is less than or equal to 120 % rated value at maximum speed;
meanwhile, it shall also consider during the test the rising temperature of core and of
structural members passed through by positioning reinforcement, end cap, enclosure, finger
plate, fastening bolt and other magnetic flux leakage due to saturated core height and reduced
air volume in excitation winding. Thus, in the test, the temperature rise at all parts shall be
closely monitored so that it keeps less than or equal to the allowable value; the core
temperature may be controlled at less than the allowable temperature (5~10) ; the
temperature of structural members shall be less than or equal to 150 and the temperature of
excitation winding shall be within the corresponding allowable temperature range; otherwise,
the excitation current during the test shall be further lowered.

Determination of Voltage Regulation Performance at Self-excited

Constant Voltage
7.1 Determination of Steady-state Voltage Regulation Rate
7.1.1 Inspection of voltage setting range
7.1.1.1 Inspection of voltage setting range at no load
During the inspection, the generator shall be no-load, its rotation speed at cold state or
hot state shall be the specified value of the standard on that type of machine; the voltage
setting device shall be adjusted to determine the maximum value and minimum value of the
generator voltage, and this range will be the no-load voltage setting range of the generator at
cold state or hot state.
7.1.1.2 Inspection of voltage setting range at full load
During the inspection, the generator shall be maintained as the power factor of the full
load power and rated operation with the rotation speed at rated speed. The voltage setting
device shall be adjusted respectively at two conditions of cold state and hot state for the
generator so as to determine the maximum value and minimum value of the generator voltage
as the voltage setting range of the generator at full load and at cold state or hot state.
7.1.2 Determination of Steady-state Voltage Regulation Factor
31

The determination of the steady-state voltage regulation factor for the generator shall be
carried out at cold state or hot state according to the voltage, power factor and rotation speed
specified in the standard.
The generator shall be no-load and the rotation speed shall be adjusted to the specified
value before the test. The voltage setting device shall be adjusted to set the voltage within
range of the specified voltage regulation factor. For the generator of uncontrolled phase
compounded self excitation, the load and power factor shall be allowed to adjust to the rated
value before the determination, then the load shall be decreased to zero gradually and the
voltage shall be set within range of the voltage regulation factor repeatedly. During the testing,
the voltage regulation device shall be constant; the power factor shall be maintained as a
constant; the three-phase symmetrical load shall be increased gradually from zero to the rated
power, then be decreased from the rated power to zero in order to measure the voltage at all
points; the variation in load shall be about 25% of the rated power from point to point; the
measuring point may be reduced as appropriate in the inspection test.
The steady-state voltage regulation factor may be calculated with Formula (42) or (43) in
accordance with the different type and different operating mode of the generator excitation
system. The specific selection shall be specified based on that type of the machine.

stu =

Ut U N
100%
UN

(42)

Where:
Utthe steady state voltage has the maximum difference with the rated voltage UN
from no-load to rated load (according to the three-phase average value), V;
UNthe rated voltage, V.

stu =

U stmas U st min
100%
2U N

(43)

Where:
Ust mas, Ust minthe maximum value and minimum value of the terminal voltage
(effective value) respectively in variation from no-load to full-load under specified conditions,
V.
7.1.3 Determination of voltage variations at cold and hot states
During the test, the generator shall be adjusted to the rated operation mode; the voltage
setting device shall be fixed, the generator shall operate in the rated frequency, rated power
and rated power factor, and the voltage deviation from cold state to the actual steady
temperature shall be the voltage variation value of the generator at cold and hot states. The
variation of the ambient temperature shall not be larger than 10K in the test.
7.2 Determination of Voltage Deviation Degree of Generator Operating under
Asymmetric Loads
The three-phase symmetrical load of 25% of rated power with the power factor 0.8
(delay) shall be added first for the generator at no-load rated speed and rated voltage in the
test; then the resistive load of 25% of rated phase power shall be added in any phase; for
self-excited constant voltage generator of the mode of silicon controlled rectifier, the load
shall be added in the phase with a silicon controlled rectifier and the maximum (or minimum)
32

value of the wire voltage shall be determined. The ratio of the difference between the
maximum (or minimum) value and the average value of the three-phase wire voltage to the
average value of the three-phase voltage shall be as the voltage deviation degree.
The load method for the generator with the three-phase three-wire system shall be
carried out according to the requirements of the standard for that type of the machine.
7.3 Determination of Transient Voltage Variation Rate
The determination of the transient voltage variation shall be carried out according to the
method specified in GB/T 15548.

Determination of Torque and Rotational Inertia

8.1 Determination of Locked-rotor Current and Locked-rotor Torque


8.1.1 Locked-rotor test
Before the test, the rotor position corresponding to the maximum locked-rotor current
and minimum locked-rotor torque shall be determined at low voltage and the rotor shall be
blocked up. In the test, the connection mode of the excitation return circuit for the machine
shall be consistent with the starting-up connection mode in actual application. The starting
resistance value required to wire in the excitation return circuit should be 10 times of the
resistance value of the excitation winding if there is no requirement in technical documents of
related machine under test; the armature winding of the machine under test shall be connected
to such supply source in real balance with the rated frequency and adjustable voltage. When
the supply voltage is below 20% of the rated value, the machine under test shall be wired in,
then the supply voltage shall be increased as quickly as possible to make the armature current
as 200% around of the rated value (the current may be larger when the test is conducted on a
small scale machine and with a machine automatic test equipment); and the three-phase wire
voltage, three-phase wire current and power input or torque (in direct measurement) shall be
read rapidly at the same time in order to avoid the machine overheating, the test must be
carried out as soon as possible. Then the supply voltage shall be gradually decreased ( the
frequency shall be maintained as rated on this occasion), 8~9 points shall be read altogether
with the same above-mentioned method; at least 4 points of reading shall be measured evenly
within range of the maximum current to rated current. If the torque cannot be measured
because of the equipment restriction, the DC resistance value of the armature winding shall be
immediately measured when the test data of the last point is read and the supply source is off.
8.1.2 Determination of locked-rotor current and locked-rotor torque
Based on the test date, the relation curve of the three-phase current average value with
the three-wire voltage average value shall be plotted, as shown in Figure 11, the straight
portion of the maximum test voltage on the curve along the curve shall be extended to
intersect with the abscissa axis at voltage point U'.

33

Figure 11

The locked-rotor current IKN of the machine under test shall be determined according to
the following formula:

I KN =

U N U'
IK
U K U '

(44)

Where:
UKthe maximum test voltage value, V;
IKthe current corresponding to UK, A.
The locked-rotor torque TKN (Nm) of the machine under test shall be determined
according to the following formula:
2

TKN

U U'
TK
= N
U K U '

(45)

Where:
TKthe torque measured at the maximum test voltage, Nm.
If the torque is not be able to measure directly in the test, the locked-rotor torque may be
calculated according to the following methods, the electromagnetic power PM (kW) of
inputting rotors shall be calculated first when the rotor is blocked up.
PM = Pin PFe 3I K2 Ral 103

(46)

Where:
Pinthe input power at the maximum test voltage, kW;
PFethe iron loss corresponding to the maximum test voltage, kW, which shall be
determined by Figure 8;
IKthe average value of the three-phase current at the maximum test voltage, A;
Ra1the DC resistance of the armature winding in any phase measured immediately
after the test, .
The locked-rotor torque TK (Nm) shall be determined in accordance with PM.

TK = 9550

PM
nN

(47)

Where:
PMthe electromagnetic power of inputting rotors, kW;
34

nNthe rated speed of the machine under test, r/min.


In per unit values:

PM
PN

tK =

(48)

If there is no obvious straight portion in the relation curve of the voltage current in
Figure 11 (such as the solid rotor machine), the curve lgIK =f (lgUK) may be plotted as shown
in Figure 12. The maximum voltage of the test on the curve shall be extended as a straight
line, the locked-rotor current IKN corresponding to the rated voltage shall be inquired out from
the extension line.

Figure 12

The locked-rotor torque TK shall be determined by the following formula:

TKN

I
= KN
IK

TK

(49)

8.2

Determination of Nominal Pull-in Torque


During the determination of the nominal pull-in torque, the excitation return circuit of
the machine under test shall meet the requirements of 8.1, the nominal pull-in torque may be
determined with the direct on-load method or acceleration method.
8.2.1 Direct on-load method
The machine under test shall be connected to such supply source in real balance with the
rated frequency and adjustable voltage to operate as asynchronous motor; the test voltage of
the machine under test shall be increased as much as possible under the condition that the
damping winding and the whole magnetic pole are not overheated, generally it shall be above
50% of the rated value; the load of the machine under test shall be adjusted to make the slip
ratio at 0.05; the armature voltage, armature current, rotation speed or slip ratio of the
machine under test shall be read at the same time; the torque also shall be read if the load is a
dynamometer. If the analyzed dc machine is adopted as the load, the terminal voltage,
armature current and excitation current pass the dc machine shall be measured and analyzed
at the same time. The connection condition of the excitation return circuit and the value of the
short-circuit resistance for the machine under test also shall be recorded in the test.
The electromagnetic torque TM(Nm) of the machine under test with the slip ratio at s
shall be calculated according to the following formula:
35

TM = 9550

P + Pfws
(1 s )nN

(50)

Where:
Pthe output power of the machine under test, namely the input power of the loaded
machine, kW;
Pfwsthe mechanical loss of the machine under test with the slip ratio at s, kW, which
may be approximately adopted as Pfw value if there is no such parameters (see 5.2.1.1).
The nominal pull-in torque Tpin(Nm) of the machine under test at rated voltage shall be
calculated according to the following formula:
2

U U'
T pin = N
TM
U U'

(51)

Where:
Uthe test voltage when TM is obtained, V;
U'the voltage determined by Figure 11, V;
TMthe obtained electromagnetic torque when the slip ratio s=0.05, Nm.
The per unit value of the nominal pull-in torque tpin shall be calculated according to the
following formula:
2
U U ' P + Pfws
t pin = N

U U ' (1 s ) PN

(52)

In the test, if the point with the slip ratio at 0.05 is difficult to set accurately, then the
load of the machine under test may be adjusted to make the slip ratio at 0.05 around and adopt
4~5 points; the torque shall be calculated according to above-mentioned methods; then the
curve of the torque against the slip shall be plotted. The torque value with the slip ratio at 0.05
shall be determined from the curve.
8.2.2 Acceleration method
The machine under test shall be connected to the stabilized supply source in real balance
with the rated frequency and adjustable voltage to operate the machine start-up at no-load; the
supply voltage shall be adjusted so that the time from 30%nN to nN for the machine is about
1.5min around. During the acceleration process, the supply voltage and the frequency shall be
constant; if the minimum voltage be able to start up in the stationary state for the machine
cannot meet above-mentioned requirements, then the supply voltage shall be furtherly
reduced until it meets above-mentioned requirements. However, other methods shall be
adopted for helping starting-up of the machine on this occasion (for instance, starting-up with
the help of the crane or starting-up at higher voltage first, then the supply source shall be cut
off to make the machine slow down until the machine speed drop to 30%nN below, then the
test shall be performed by adding required voltage again). When the rotation speed is within
range of 30%nN~80%nN, one rotation speed shall be measured at interval of (5~10)s and the
time shall be recorded. When the rotation speed is within range of 80%nN~100%nN, it should
be recorded at interval of (3~5) s; whether the machine is overheating shall be noticed during
the testing.
The time for accelerating to the full value may be shorter than above-mentioned
36

requirements if the fast recorder is used in the test.


The curve of the rotation speed against time shall be plotted as shown in Figure 13 from
the test data, and the slope of curve

dn
at 95% nN shall be calculated, it may be determined
dt

with the following methods: take point a at 95% nN on the curve as a center, adopt two points
b and c with equal distance from point a on the curve (the ordinate of point b shall not exceed
nN). The ordinate difference of these two points shall be n, the abscissa difference shall be

t, and the obtained slope of curve shall be

n
.
t

Figure 13

The torque of the machine at test voltage Tpi (Nm) shall be calculated according to the
following formula:

T pi =

J n

9.55 t

(53)

Where:
Jthe rotational inertia of the machine under test, kgm2.
Calculating in per unit value, then:

n
t
=
91.2 10 3 PN
Jn N

t pi

(54)

The nominal pull-in torque at rated voltage TpiN (Nm) shall be:
2

T piN

U U '
= N
T pi
U U'

t piN

U U '
= N
t pi
U U'

(55)

Calculating in per unit value, then:


2

(56)

Where:
U'which shall be determined from Figure 11.
8.3 Determination of Pull-out Torque of Synchronous Motor
The pull-out torque of the synchronous motor may be determined with the direct on-load
method or analysis method.
37

8.3.1 Direct on-load method


The adjustable brake, torque measurement and dynamometer with uniform load or the
analyzed dc generator should be adopted as loads in the test. The motor under test shall be
connected to such supply source in real balance with rated frequency and rated voltage, the
machine under test shall be adjusted to operate at rated load state, then the excitation current
shall be constant; the load of the machine under test shall be increased gradually until it pulls
out, the torque value measured from the brake, dynamometer or torque measurement at the
pull-out instant shall be the pull-out torque of the machine under test.
If the load of the machine under test is the analyzed dc generator, then the pull-out torque
of the machine under test may be obtained according to the following steps: the input power
shall be calculated according to the efficiency curve and the output power of the dc generator
measured from the pull-out instant, namely is the output power P of the machine under test,
the pull-out torque Tpo (Nm) of the machine under test shall be determined by the following
formula:

T po = 9550

P + Pfw
nN

(57)

Where:
Pfwthe mechanical loss of the machine under test, kW.
8.3.2 Analysis method
If the pull-out torque of the machine under test is unable to determine by the direct
on-load method, it may be determined by the analysis method; the per unit value tpo of the
pull-out torque of the synchronous motor shall be calculated according to the following
formulae:

t po =

I fN
Ifo

1+ f ( )
xd cos N

I f o xd

I fN xq

(58)

(59)

Where:
IfNthe rated excitation current of the machine under test, A;
If o the excitation current at no-load air gap corresponding to the rated voltage, A,
See Figure 18;
xdthe unsaturated value of the direct-axis synchronous reactance of the machine
under test, which in per unit value (see 12.2.1);
xqthe quadrature-axis synchronous reactance of the machine under test, which in per
unit value (see 12.10).
f() shall be taken from Figure 14.

38

Figure 14

8.4

Short-time Overtorque Test of Motor


The short-time overtorque of the synchronous motor should be measured by adopting
with load adjustable brake, dynamometer and analyzed dc generator or other instruments and
equipments that can directly measure the output power on the machine shaft; the overtorque
multiple and duration shall be in accordance with the requirements of GB 7552000 or the
standard on this type of machine.
During the test, the machine under test shall be connected to the actual symmetrical
supply source with rated frequency and rated voltage and shall be adjusted to the rated power
round to operate; the machine temperature shall be close to the operating temperature (also
may be carried out after the temperature rising test immediately), then the excitation current
shall be maintained as constant; the load of the machine under test shall be increased to make
the torque reach the specified value; the machine under test shall be free from abnormal
conditions such as pull-out, smoking, odour and injurious deformation.
8.5 Determination of Rotational Inertia
The determination of the rotational inertia shall be carried out according to methods
specified in 12.35~12.44 in "Parameter Determination".
The relation between the rotational inertia and stored energy constant shall be:

J=

2S N
1800 S
H = 2 2 N H ; kgm2
2
wN
nN

(60)

Where:
wNthe rated angular speed, w N =

2
n N , rad/s.
60

nNthe rated speed, r/min;


SNthe rated apparent power, kVA;
Hthe stored energy constant, s.

Overcurrent Test and Mechanical Strength Test

9.1

Occasional Overcurrent Test


When the occasional overcurrent test is carried out for the synchronous machine, it shall
39

be at a status of close to hot state. The machine armature current shall be rapidly adjusted to
the specified current multiple, the multiple and duration of the occasional overcurrent shall be
specified according to the requirements of GB 7552000 or the standard on this type of the
machine. The machine frequency on this occasion shall be the rated value; the armature
voltage shall be close to the rated value as much as possible.
If the test cannot be conducted according to above-mentioned methods because of the
condition restriction, the test shall be allowed to conduct according to the requirements of the
standard on this type of the machine in the short-circuit condition.
The machine shall be free from such abnormal conditions as smoking, peculiar smell and
injurious deformation in the occasional overcurrent test. The overheating of the terminal part
shall be noticed for the water internal cooled machine and high electromagnetic load machine.
9.2 Overload Test
In the overload test, the machine shall be at a state close to hot state, and the rated
frequency, rated voltage and rated power factor shall be kept constant. The overload value and
test duration shall be in accordance with the requirements of the standard on this type of the
machine. The generator and excitation device shall be free from any abnormal conditions
during the specified test duration.
9.3 Short-circuit Mechanical Strength Test
This is a destructive test, the machine assembling and installation quality shall be
inspected carefully before the test, for instance, whether the terminal colligation of the
machine winding is firm; whether the tight nut of the rotor is tighten; whether the machine
foundation is in good condition; and whether the stone bolt and nut are tighten. The insulation
resistance the winding against the enclosure and mutual insulation resistance shall be
determined before the test.
People shall not stay nearby the machine under test, short circuiting switch and lead
wires (as short as possible) in order to ensure personnel safety during the operation of the
sudden short-circuit.
During the test, the machine shall be close to the operating temperature, the test shall
be performed when the machine is at no-load and the excitation (separate excitation)
corresponds to 1.05 times of rated voltage, the short circuit duration shall be 3s altogether.
After unshorting, the machine shall be free from injurious deformations and be able to
bear the withstand voltage test.

10

Negative Sequence Current Affordability Test

The negative sequence current affordability test shall be carried out according to the
method specified in JB/T 8445.

11

Determination of the Terminal Dynamic Characteristics of

Stator Winding

40

The determination of the terminal dynamic characteristics of the stator winding shall be
carried out according to methods specified in JB/T 8990.

12

Parameter Determination (This Chapter is identical to IEC

60034-4)
12.1 Description
12.1.1 During the test, the machine winding connection, as a rule, should be as for normal
working.
The determination of all parameteies is made with star connection of the armature
winding (unless special connections such as open delta are specified). If the armature winding
is actually delta connected, the values of the parameters, obtained in accordance with this
chapter, shall correspond to an equivalent star-connected winding.
12.1.2 All the parameters and characteristics shall be designated in per unit values
considering the rated values of voltage (UN) and the apparent power (SN) as basic ones. In this
case, the basic current will be:

IN =

SN
3U N

, A

(61)

And basic impedance:

ZN =

U N2
S
= N2 ,
S N 3I N

(62)

The intermediate calculations, if it is convenient, may be performed in physical values


with subsequent conversion to the parameter in per unit value. It is recommended to express
time in seconds. In the calculations of characteristics, and when drawing diagrams, excitation
current corresponding to the rated voltage on the no-load curve is taken as the basic value of
the excitation current.
If a machine has several rated values, those taken for the basic values shall be stated.
Unless otherwise stated, the above-mentioned provisions are accepted in this chapter.
Small letters designate the parameters in per unit values, and capital letters designate physical
parameters.
12.1.3 In the formulae given in this chapter for determining synchronous reactances, the
positive sequence armature resistance, unless otherwise stated, is considered to be negligible.
When the positive sequence armature resistance constitutes more than 0.2 of the
measured reactance, the formulae shall be considered as approximate.
12.1.4 The determination and test methods of the majority of parameters, as given in this
chapter, correspond to the widely accepted two-axis theory of synchronous machines with
approximate representation of all circuits additional to the field-winding, and stationary
circuits relative to it, by two equivalent circuits, one along the direct axis and the other along
the quadrature axis, neglecting armature resistance or taking it into consideration only
approximately.
41

As a consequence of this approximate machine representation, three reactances


(synchronous, transient and subtransient) and two time constants (transient and sub-transient)
are considered in this chapter for transient phenomena studies along the direct axis, two
reactances (synchronous and subtransient) and one time constant (subtransient) along the
quadrature axis, and the armature short-circuit time constant.
These time constants are based on the assumption of an exponential decrease of the
particular components of parameters involved (currents, voltages, etc.). If the plot of the
measured component under consideration does not decrease as a pure exponential, as in the
case, for example, of a solid rotor machine, the time constant shall normally be interpreted as
the time required for the component to decrease to 1/ 0.368 of its initial value. Exponential
decay curves corresponding to these time constants shall be considered as equivalent curves
replacing the actual measured ones.
12.1.5 Synchronous machine parameters vary with saturation of the magnetic circuits. In
practical calculations, both saturated and unsaturated values are used.
In this chapter, unless otherwise stated, the "saturated value" of reactances and
resistances will be taken as the rated armature voltage value of the parameter, and their
"unsaturated value" will be taken as the rated armature current value, except synchronous
reactance which is not defined as saturated.
The rated (armature) voltage value of a quantity of a parameter corresponds to the
magnetic condition of the machine during sudden short-circuit of the armature winding from
no-load rated voltage operation, the machine running at rated speed.
The rated (armature) current value of a parameter corresponds to the condition in which
the fundamental component of armature current which determines this particular parameter is
equal to the rated current.
12.2 Determination of Parameters from No-load Saturation Characteristic and
Three-phase Steadystate Shortcircuit Characteristic
12.2.1 Direct-axis synchronous reactance is determined from the no-load saturation and
three-phase steadystate shortcircuit characteristics as a quotient of the non-load voltage taken
from the air-gap line at some excitation and the steadystate shortcircuit characteristic at the
same excitation current (Figure 15).

Xd =

UN
3I BC

AC OH iik
, ; x d =
=
=
BC OC i fg

(63)

The value of Xd determined in such a way is one unsaturated value.


12.2.2 The short-circuit ratio is determined from the no-load saturation and three-phase
steadystate shortcircuit characteristics as a quotient of the excitation current corresponding to
the rated voltage on the no-load saturation curve and the excitation current corresponding to
the rated current on the short circuit curve (Figure 15).

42

Figure 15

Kc =

OD i fo
=
OH i fk

(64)

12.3

Over-excitation Test at Zero Power-factor


The over-excitation test at zero power-factor is conducted with the to-be-tested machine
operating as a generator or a motor. The active power when the machine operates as a
generator shall be equal to zero. When the machine operates as a motor, the load on the shaft
shall be zero.
During the test, the excitation current corresponding to the values of voltage and
armature current preferably differing by not more than 0.15 (per unit value) from the rated
values, at zero power factor with overexcitation.
12.4 Determination of the Excitation Current Corresponding to the Rated Voltage and
Rated Armature Current at Zero Power Factor (Overexcitation)
If, during the over-excitation test at zero power-factor, the voltage differs from the rated
value by not more than 0.15 (per unit value), a graphical method is used for the
determination of the excitation current corresponding to the rated voltage and current, using
the date of the test and the no-load saturation and three-phase steadystate shortcircuit
characteristics.
A test point (Point C in Figure 16) is plotted on a diagram with the no-load saturation
curve of the test machine. This point corresponds to zero power factor and the measured
values of the voltage u, armature current i and excitation current if. Vector OD equal to the
excitation current corresponding to the armature current i on the three-phase steadystate
shortcircuit curve, is laid off along the abscissa axis. From the Point C, a length CF equal to
OD is laid off towards the no-load saturation characteristic and parallel to the abscissa axis. A
line FH is then drawn parallel to the extended straight line portion of the no-load saturation
characteristic intersecting the latter at Point H. Line HC is extended to a point N such that:

HN 1
=
HC i

(65)

Where:
ithe armature current corresponding to Point C.
The no-load saturation curve is then transferred to the right and downwards parallel to
43

itself and by a distance HN.


Point A may be found on this curve which corresponds to the rated voltage. The abscissa
of this point (OB) represents the excitation current corresponding to the rated voltage and
rated armature current at zero power factor (overexcitation).

Figure 16

12.5 Determination of Potier Reactance from the No-load and Three-phase Steadystate
Shortcircuit Characteristics and the Excitation Current Corresponding to the Rated
Voltage and Rated Armature Current at Zero Power Factor (over-excitated)
The Potier reactance is determined graphically. The no-load and three-phase steadystate
shortcircuit characteristics are plotted on a diagram (Figure 17) as well as a point vertical
ordinate of which is the rated voltage and the abscissa is the excitation current measured at
rated armature current and zero power factor at overexcitation (Point A).

Figure 17

To the left from the Point A, parallel to the abscissa, a length AF equal to the excitation
current (ifk) for the rated armature steadystate shortcircuit current is laid off. A line parallel to
the extended straight line portion of the no-load characteristic is drawn through the Point F up
to the intersection with the upper part of the no-load characteristic (Point H). The length of
perpendicular from Point H and Point G (intersection with AF line) represents the voltage
drop on reactance xp at the rated armature current. In per unit values, xp=HG.
12.6 Determination of the Rated Excitation Current by the Potier's Diagram
To determine the rated excitation current by Potier's diagram, the no-load saturation
44

characteristic, three-phase steadystate shortcircuit characteristic and Potier reactance xp will


be used.
The vector of the rated armature current (iN) of the tested machine is laid off along the
abscissa. At the power-factor angle N (which is considered to be positive for an overexcited
generator) to it draw the rated voltage vector (uN) (Figure 18).
The vector of the voltage drop (iNxp) in the Potier reactance t the rated current is drawn
perpendicular to the armature current vector from the end of the voltage vector. The voltage
drop in the armature winding resistance is usually neglected. If necessary, it may be taken into
account by drawing the of voltage drop in the positive sequence armature winding resistance
from the end of the voltage vector and parallel to the current vector.
In Figure 18, this vector shall be laid off in the direction of the armature current vector
for generators and in the opposite direction for motors.
The vector sum of the rated voltage and the voltage drop in the reactance xp represents
the potential vector ep; the excitation current ifp corresponding to the potential ep shall be
determined from the no-load curve and is laid off from the origin point at 90to the vector ifp.

Figure 18

The excitation current component (ifa) compensating armature reaction at rated armature
current shall be the difference between the excitation current corresponding to the rated
armature current on the three-phase steadystate shortcircuit characteristic and the excitation
current corresponding to the voltage drop in xp due to rated armature current on the no-load
saturation characteristic (Figure 17). Vector ifa shall be laid off from the end of the vector ifp
parallel to the armature current vector. The rated excitation current ifN is the vector sum of ifp
and ifa.
If the Potier reactance xp is unknown, it may be replaced in the construction of Figure 18
by (axa), where xa is the armature reactance measured without rotor, and a is a factor taken
equal to 1.0 for salient pole machines and 0.6 (0.65) for non-salient pole machines (unless
more precise figure are available from previous experience on machines of similar
construction).
12.6.1 The test without rotor is conducted with three-phase voltage at rated frequency
applied to terminals of the armature winding. The applied voltage is so chosen that the
armature current is approximate to the rated value. During the test, the terminal voltage (U),
line current (I) and input active power (P) shall be measured.
12.6.2 The armature reactance without rotor (Xa) shall be calculated from the following
formula:

X a = Z 2 R2 ,

(66)
45

Where:

Z=

U
3I

, ; R =

P
, ;
3I 2

u
p

2
2
x = z r ; z = i ; r = i 2 .
12.7

Determination of the Rated Excitation Current by the ASA Diagram


To determine the rated excitation current by ASA diagram (Figure 19), the no-load
saturation characteristic, three-phase steadystate shortcircuit characteristic and Potier
reactance will be used.
The determination of potential ep is made in accordance with 12.6. The excitation
current (ifg) for the air-gap line at the rated armature voltage is determined from the no-load
saturation characteristic. The vector ifg is laid off from the origin point along the abscissa axis.
From its end, at the rated power-factor angle N (which is considered to be positive for an
overexcited generator) to be right of the vertical line, the excitation current vector ifk
corresponding to the rated armature current on the three-phase steadystate shortcircuit
characteristic is laid off.
if is the difference between the excitation currents of the no-load saturation
characteristic (ifp) and the air-gap line (ifep), both corresponding to the voltage ep. The
corresponding if is added in the extension line of the vector sum of two excitation currents
(ifg, ifk), and then the sum of the three vector is the rated excitation current.

Figure 19

The rated excitation current may also be determined using the following formula (in per
unit values or physical values)

i fN = i f + (i fg + i fk sin N )2 + (i fk cos N )2

(67)

If the Potier reactance is unknown, it may be replaced in the construction of Figure 19


by axa.
12.8 Determination of the Rated Excitation Current by the Swedish Diagram
46

To determine the rated excitation current by the Swedish diagram, the no-load saturation
characteristic, the three-phase steadystate shortcircuit characteristic and the excitation current
corresponding to the rated voltage and rated armature current at zero power factor
(overexcitated) will be used.
Three values of the excitation current shall be laid off on the abscissa axis (Figure 20):
OD is the excitation current corresponding to the rated voltage on the no-load
characteristic;
OB is the excitation current corresponding to the rated voltage and armature current at
zero power factor;
OC is the excitation current corresponding to the rated armature current on the
steadystate shortcircuit characteristic.

Figure 20

From Point D a perpendicular to the abscissa axis is drawn on which the length FD
equal to 1.05OC is laid off. Points F and B are connected by a straight line and a
perpendicular is drawn from the center of this line down to the intersection with the abscissa
axis in Point M. From Point M, as a center, a circular arc is drawn through Points F and B.
From Point D at the power-factor angle N (which is considered to be positive for an
overexcited generator) to FD, a line is drawn to intersect with the arc FB at Point K. The
length of OK is the rated excitation current of this machine.
If necessary, the voltage drop in the armature resistance may be accounted for as
follows:
PG represents the voltage drop in the positive sequence armature resistance at rated
current and EP represents the excitation current component required to increase the non-load
voltage by a value of PG. The length KL is laid off along the circular arc FKB and this length
is equal to EP. The length OL represents the required excitation current.
When the tested machine operates as a motor, the voltage drop in the positive sequence
armature resistance is laid off downward from the Point E, and Point L is laid off to the left
from Point K.
If the excitation current corresponding to the rated voltage and current at zero power
factor is lacking, the following method may be used for the determination while using the
Swedish diagram. Along the ordinate axis, the voltage drop axa at rated armature current is
47

added to the rated armature voltage (Point H in Figure 17).


A line parallel to the abscissa axis is drawn from Point H to intersect with the no-load
characteristic at Point H. From Point H, a perpendicular is drawn to the intersection with the
abscissa axis at Point D (Figure 17). From Point D, vector ifa (length DB) is added along the
abscissa axis. The excitation current equal to the length OB is the required current to be used
in drawing the Swedish diagram.
12.9 Negative Excitation Test
This test is conducted with the machine operating under no-load in parallel with the
network. The excitation current is steadily reduced to zero, its polarity is reversed, and it is
then increased up to the moment when the machine slips one pole pitch. The values of the
voltage, armature current and excitation current are measured during the test till the moment
when the machine begins to slip.
12.10 Determination of Xq by Negative Excitation Test
The determination of Xq from negative excitation test shall be made using the following
formula (in per unit or physical values):

xq = ( xd )

ur
u r + (e )

(68)

Where:
(e)the no-load potential for the excitation current ifr at which the machine slips one
pole pitch; it is determined from the straightened no-load characteristic drawn through the
point corresponding to the voltage at the moment of slipping one pole pitch (Figure 21);
urthe voltage at the moment of slipping;
xdthe direct-axis synchronous reactance determined from the same straightened
no-load saturation characteristic.
If during the test the armature current (ir) at which the machine slips one pole pitch is
measured, xq shall be determined using the following formula:

Xq =

u
, ; x q = r
ir
3I r

Ur

(69)

Figure 21

The value of xq obtained from this test may vary depending upon the value of ur due to
48

the influence of saturation. To obtain an unsaturated value, applied voltage usually must be
lowered to 0.6 times of the rated value or even lower.
12.11 Low Slip Test
During the low slip test, symmetrical three-phase low voltage (0.01UN to 0.2UN) is
applied to the armature terminals of the machine under test. The selected voltage shall be such
that the machine does not pull in. The excitation winding shall be open-circuited, the rotor
shall be driven by a prime mover at a slip ratio less than 0.01 and for solid rotor machine
much less than that value so that the current induced in the damper circuit during the
asynchronous operation of machine will have negligible influence on the measurements.
During the switching on and off of the supply, the excitation winding shall be closed
(short-circuited or through a discharge resistance) to avoid possible damage. Armature current
and voltage and the slip-ring voltage and slip ratio are measured by indicating instruments or
recorded by oscillograph. If the residual voltage measured before the test is larger than 0.3
times of the supply test voltage, the rotor shall be demagnetized. Demagnetizing may be done,
for example, by connecting the excitation winding to a low-frequency power supply with
current about 0.5 times of the no-load rated voltage excitation current of the tested machine
and gradually decreasing its amplitude and frequency (the latter if possible).
12.12 Determination of Xq from the Low Slip Test
To determine Xq from the low slip test, armature current and voltage are measured at
maximum excitation winding voltage (Ufo) and Xq is calculated according to the following
formula:

U min

Xq =

3I max

u
, ; x q = min
imax

(70)

Note: If Imax does not coincide with Umin, then Imax, as a base, and its corresponding voltage shall be used in the
calculations.

If, during the test, the residual voltage (Ures) of the machine is in the limits of 0.1~0.3 of
the supply test voltage, the value of the current is determined using the following formula:

I max

U res
u
, A; imax = iav2 res
= I
x
3X

d
d

2
av

(71)

Where, Iav is the half sum of the two adjacent maximum values of the current envelope
curve (Figure 22).
A check of the measured value may be made by calculating Xd from the same test, using
the results of the voltage and current at the time when the voltage of the open-circuit
excitation winding is equal to zero and comparing it with its real value. Then,

Xd =

U max
3I min

u
, ; x d = max
imin

(72)

With a residual voltage less than 0.3 times of the supply test voltage, Imax will be half
sum of the two adjacent minimum values of the envelope curve.
The results of Xq measurements from the low slip test may be considered correct only if
the value of Xd obtained from the test practically aggress with its value obtained in accordance
49

with 12.2. Otherwise, the test is repeated at several low values of the slip ratio, followed by
extrapolation of Xq values to zero slip ratio. The value of quadrature-axis synchronous
reactance obtained from this test practically corresponds to the unsaturated value.
12.13 Determination of the Load Angle by On-load Test
The test is conducted with the machine operating in parallel with the network. The
loading of the machine shall not be less than 0.5 times of the rated active power at the rated
power factor. During the test, the armature current (i) and voltage (u), angle between the
voltage and the current (using the two wattmeter method) and load angle (the internal angle
between the terminal voltage and potential) shall be measured. The load angle may be
measured by using the stroboscopic method or any other accurate method.
12.14 Determination of Xq from On-load Test Measuring the Load Angle
The determination of Xq by the method of load angle measurement is made using the
following formula:

Xq =

Utg

utg
, ; x q =
i (cos sin tg )
3I (cos sin tg )

(73)

Figure 22

12.15 Sudden Three-phase Short-circuit Test


This test is conducted at rated speed for the determination of synchronous machine
parameters. Apply a short circuit to the armature winding when operating at the desired
voltage at no-load. Excitation of the machine is generally accomplished from its own
separately-excited exciter. If its own exciter cannot be used, then a separate exciter may be
used, but its rated current value should be at least twice the no-load field current of the
machine under test and its armature resistance shall not be greater than that of the main
machine exciter. This exciter shall be separately excited.
Short-circuit the three phases simultaneously. The phase contacts shall close within 15
electrical degrees of each other. This value may be exceeded on test when the armature dc
component is not of importance. Use non-inductive shunts, air-cored transformers or suitable
current transformers to measure the short-circuit current. The latter shall be used in dealing
with a.c. current components only, and shall be chosen so that the initial value of the
sub-transient component of the short-circuit current is on the straight portion of the
transformer characteristic.
50

The air-cored transformer is connected to the oscilloscope through an integrating


amplifier. When it is required to determine the maximum aperiodic and periodic values of
short-circuit current components only, an integrating oscillographic galvanometer may be
used.
The total resistance of the measuring instruments and their leads connected into the
secondary circuit of current transformers shall not exceed the rated values accepted for the
given type of transformers.
The terminal voltage of the machine, the excitation current and the excitation winding
temperature shall be measured immediately before the short-circuiting.
To obtain parameters corresponding to the unsaturated state of the machine, the test shall
be performed at several armature voltages of (0.1 to 0.4 times) rated value. The parameters
shall be obtained for each test and plotted against the initial values of a.c. transient or
sub-transient armature currents. From this relationship, the required parameters are obtained
at the rated armature current value.
To obtain parameters corresponding to the saturated state of the machine, the test shall be
performed with rated voltage at the terminals of the machine before short-circuiting the
armature winding.
If the sudden short-circuit test cannot be performed at rated voltage, it is recommended
that the tests shall be conducted at several armature voltages (e.g. 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 times of
rated voltage), and the parameters determined for each test. They are then plotted against
open-circuit voltage before short-circuiting and the approximate rated armature voltage
parameter shall be found by the extrapolation method.
To determine the parameter of the electric machine, oscillograms shall be taken of the
armature current in each phase and of the excitation current.
Oscillograph recording shall continue for a time interval not less than Td'+0.2s after the
short circuit. The steady values shall also be recorded by restarting the oscillograph following
the establishment of steady conditions. The final values for a check shall be measured by
instruments. Shorter oscillographic records may be taken if it is known from tests on similar
machines that the current value decays as an exponential function.
The change relation with time of aperiodic and periodic armature current components in
each phase shall be determined from the three-phase short-circuit oscillogram as an algebraic
half-sum and algebraic half-difference of the ordinates of the upper and lower envelopes of
the short-circuit current in separate phases, respectively.
Armature current periodic component at short-circuit shall be determined as a mean
arithmetic value of the periodic component of the current in three phases.
To determine the transient (ik) and sub-transient (ik) components, the value of the
steady-state short-circuit current i () shall be subtracted from the curve of the armature
current periodic component. The remainder, which is the sum of ik+ ik, shall be plotted on
paper with a semi-log scale. This plot may be a straight line or a curve.
a) When the latter part of this plot is a straight line (corresponding to an exponential
function), then this line extrapolated to t=0 gives the initial value ik (0) of the
transient component of short-circuit current (Figure 23).
b) When the latter part of this plot is a curve, the amplitude of the current iA shall be
measured at a time OA, where OA is taken as 0.2 s or the time at which
51

sub-transient effects become negligible. The time OB shall be measured at the time
at which the current is iB = iA/. The time constant Td shall be taken as (OBOA)
seconds. The straight line through the values of current iB and iA shall be assumed to
represent the equivalent value of ik and, when it is extrapolated to t=0, it gives the
initial value ik (0) of the transient component of short-circuit current (Figure 24).
The sub-transient short-circuit current component shall be defined as the difference
between the curve (ik+ ik) and the equivalent decaying curve representing the value of
ik. The variation of the sub-transient current component with time shall be also plotted on
the semi-log scale (Figure 23).
The aperiodic current components of all the phases are plotted against time on semi-log
scale. Extrapolation of these curves to t=0 gives the initial values of the corresponding
currents.
To find the greatest possible value of the aperiodic component, the initial values of the
aperiodic components of separate phases obtained by extrapolation shall be laid off as vectors
(Figure 25) along three radial lines 60apart, radiating from one origin, the largest of the three
vectors being laid off on the middle line. Perpendiculars shall be drawn through the end of
each vector. The vector drawn from the origin to the centre of the triangle formed by the
intersections of these perpendiculars represents the largest possible aperiodic component
equal to the initial value of the amplitude of the periodic component.

Figure 23

52

Figure 24

Figure 25

The largest possible value of the aperiodic component of the current may be determined
analytically (in per unit or physical values) by the following formula:

ia max =

2
3

i a22 + ia23 + ia 2 ia 3

(74)

Where,ia3 is the highest absolute initial value (regardless of sign) of the aperiodic
component of the current found from the test; ia2 is the absolute initial value of the aperiodic
current component in either of the two other phases. The function of the periodic component
of the excitation current against time shall be determined from the excitation current
oscillogram and is plotted on a semi-log scale. Extrapolation of the curve to zero time (t=0)
gives the initial value of the periodic current component.
12.16 Determination of Parameters from the Sudden Three-phase Short-circuit Test
The direct-axis transient reactance, as determined from the sudden short-circuit test, is
the ratio of the non-load voltage, measured immediately before the short circuit [u(0)] to the
initial value of the periodic component of the short-circuit current neglecting the sub-transient
component (See Figure 23).

X d' =

u ( 0)
, ; x d' =

'
i ( ) + i k ( 0)
3[ I () + I (0)]

U ( 0)

'
k

(75)

53

12.16.1 The direct-axis subtransient reactance, as determined from the sudden short-circuit
test, is the ratio of the non-load voltage, measured immediately before the short circuit, to the
initial value of the periodic component of the short-circuit current, obtained from the analysis
of the oscillogram (Figure 23).

X d" =

u ( 0)
, ; x d" =

'
"
i() + ik (0) + ik (0)
3[ I () + I (0) + I (0)]

U ( 0)
'
k

"
k

(76)

12.16.2 The direct-axis transient short-circuit time constant, as determined from the sudden
three-phase short-circuit test, is the time required for the transient armature current
component to decrease to 1/0.368 of its initial value.
12.16.3 The direct-axis subtransient short-circuit time constant, as determined from the
sudden three-phase short-circuit test, is the time required for the subtransient armature current
component to decrease to 1/0.368 of its initial value.
12.16.4 The armature short-circuit time constant shall be determined as the time required
for the excitation current periodic component to decrease to 1/0.368 of its initial value.
12.16.5 The armature short-circuit time constant from the decrease of the aperiodic
armature current components in each phase shall be determined as the average time required
for these components to decrease to 1/0.368 of their initial value. Any phase whose initial
aperiodic component is less than 0.4 times of the initial maximum resolved value shall be
disregarded in determining the armature short-circuit time constant.
The determination of the armature short-circuit time constant from the decrease of the
aperiodic armature current component shall be permissible, provided the armature current
during the sudden short-circuit test is measured by the non-inductive shunts.
12.16.6 The largest possible instantaneous initial short-circuit current shall be determined
from the sudden three-phase short-circuit test as the sum of the values of period and aperiodic
components at a half-cycle after the instant of the short-circuit.
The value of the period component for this instant shall be equal to the sum of the
steady-state, transient and sub-transient components of the sudden short-circuit current.
The two latter components shall be obtained directly from Figure 23 for the
corresponding instant.
The value of the aperiodic component shall be determined by the following formula (in
per unit or physical values).

ia = ia max e

0.5
f a

(77)

Where:
ia maxthe largest possible value of the aperiodic component of sudden short circuit;
ethe base of natural logarithm;
athe armature short circuit time constant;
fthe frequency, in Hzs, (cycle per second) (0.5/f corresponds to a half-cycle).
12.17 Voltage Recovery Test
The voltage recovery test after disconnection of a steady-state three-phase short-circuit
shall be conducted on a machine running at rated speed with the armature winding
short-circuited by a circuit-breaker at the beginning of the test.
54

The machine shall be operated with the armature winding short-circuited and with
excitation current set at a value corresponding to the linear portion of the no-load saturation
characteristic curve, which as a rule shall be not higher than 0.7 times of no load rated voltage,
conditions being steady at the instant of operation of the circuit-breaker.
Parameters obtained from this test shall correspond to the unsaturated state of the
machine. The requirements for the excitation system shall be the same as those specified in
Section 12.15.
The steady-state short circuit shall be switched off practically simultaneously in all three
phases with the currents being interrupted within 180 electrical degrees, or half a cycle.
Oscillographic records (initial part at high speed) of one line voltage recovery and one
armature current shall be required.
The difference between the steady-state voltage and the voltage determined by the
envelope of recovery voltage shall be plotted on a semi-log scale against time, and then
extrapolated to the instant of the switching off of the short circuit (Curve 1, Figure 26).
The extrapolation of the linear part of Curve 1 to the ordinate gives the initial value of
the transient voltage component u'(0).
The difference between the voltage determined by Curve 1 and the transient voltage
component (u') gives the sub-transient voltage component (u") for the corresponding
instants.
12.18 Determination of Parameters from the Voltage Recovery Test
The direct-axis transient reactance shall be determined from the voltage recovery test as
the ratio of the difference between the steady-state voltage U() and the initial value of the
transient voltage component u'(0) to the armature current (ik) measured immediately before
the disconnection of the short circuit (Figure 26).

X d' =

U ( ) U ' ( 0)
3I k

u () u ' (0)
, ; x d' =

ik

(78)

Figure 26

12.18.1 The direct-axis transient reactance shall be determined from the voltage recovery
test as the ratio of the difference between the steady-state voltage U() and the sum of the
55

initial values of the transient u'(0) and sub-transient u"(0) voltage components to the
armature current (ik) measured immediately before the disconnection of the short circuit
(Figure 26).

X d" =

U () [U ' (0) + U " (0)]


u () [u ' (0) + u" (0)]
, ; x d" =
ik
3I k

(79)

12.18.2 The direct-axis transient open-circuit time constant shall be determined from the
voltage recovery test as the time required for the transient voltage component u' to decrease
to 1/0.368 of its initial value.
12.19 Applied Voltage Test with the Rotor in Direct and Quadrature Axis Positions
with Respect to the Armature Winding Field Axis
To conduct the test, a.c. voltage at rated frequency shall be applied to any two terminals
of the armature winding.
The excitation winding shall be short-circuited. The duration of the voltage application
shall be limited to avoid serious overheating of solid parts.
The rotor shall be slowly rotated to find the angular positions corresponding to the
maximum and practically zero values of the excitation current. The first position corresponds
to the direct-axis, the second to the quadrature axis. The supply voltage, armature current and
the power input shall be measured respectively with the rotor stationary in these positions.
The excitation winding current shall be determined for the purposes of evaluation of the rotor
position (direct-axis or quadrature-axis), therefore to measure it the instrument need not
necessarily be of high precision.
If tests cannot be performed at the rated armature current or voltage, the determination of
parameters referred to the unsaturnated or saturated state of the machine must be done from
several tests with different supply voltages (0.2~0.7)UN.
The parameters shall be plotted against applied voltage or armature current and the
required values shall be found by extrapolation.
For machines with closed or semi-closed armature slots and closed damper winding slots,
the applied voltage shall not be less than 0.2 times of the rated value.
12.20 Determination of Parameters from the Applied Voltage Test with the Rotor in
Direct and Quadrature Axis Positions with Respect to the Armature Winding Field Axis
Direct-axis subtransient reactance from the applied voltage test is determined using the
formula:

X d" = Z d"2 Rd"2 ,

(80)

Where:

Z d" =

U
P
, ; Rd"
,
2I
2I 2

"
3 u " 3 p
"2
"2
"
; rd = 2
xd = zd rd ; zd =
2
i
2i

The values of voltage U, current I and input power P are measured for the rotor position
which gives the maximum excitation current.
12.20.1 The quadrature axis transient reactance from the applied voltage test is determined
56

using the formula in Section 12.20; however the subscript "d" is replaced by subscript "q".
The voltage, current and input power are measured for the rotor position which gives
practically zero excitation current.
12.21 Applied Voltage Test with the Rotor in any Arbitrary Position
To conduct the test, AC voltage is applied in turn to each pair of the armature winding
line terminal of the stationary machine under test.
The excitation winding shall be short circuited. It is necessary that the rotor position
remains the same for all three applications of test voltage.
If necessary, the rotor shall be braked. The duration of the voltage application shall be
limited so as to avoid overheating of solid parts.
The applied voltage, current and power input to the armature, and the excitation current
are measured when applying AC voltage to each pair of the terminals.
Requirements for obtaining parameters referred to the unsaturated or saturated state of
the machine are similar to Section 12.19.
12.22 Determination of Parameters from the Applied Voltage Test with the Rotor in
any Arbitrary Position
Subtransient reactance of direct-axis from the applied voltage test for the rotor in any
arbitrary position shall be determined as follows:
The reactance between each pair of the line terminals of the armature winding x12, x 23
and x31 are calculated from the formula given in Section 12.20 (replacing subscript "d" by
subscript 12, 23 and 31 according to the terminals between which voltage is applied).
The direct-axis subtransient reactance is then calculated from the formula (in per unit
value or physical value):
xd" = xmedx
(81)
Where:

xmed =
x =

x12 + x23 + x31


3

2
x12 ( x12 x 23 ) + x 23 ( x 23 x31 ) + x31 ( x31 x12 )
3

The sign before x is determined from the following relations: plus (+), if the maximum
of the three measured values of the excitation circuit current corresponds to the maximum
measured armature reactance; minus (-), if the maximum of the three measured excitation
circuit current values corresponds to the minimum measured reactance between a pair of
armature winding line terminals.
12.22.1 The quadrature axis subtransient reactance from the stationary impedance test with
the rotor in any arbitrary position is determined similarly to the method described in Section
12.22.
The sign before x is determined from the following relations: plus (+), if the manimum
of the three measured values of the excitation circuit current corresponds to the maximum
measured armature reactance; minus (-), if the minimum of the three measured excitation
circuit current values corresponds to the minimum measured reactance.
12.23 Line-to-line Steadystate Short-circuit Test
To conduct line-to-line steadystate short-circuit test, any two line terminals are short
circuited (Figure 27) and the machine is driven at rated speed by some prime mover.
57

Figure 27

The short-circuit current Ik2, excitation current and the voltage Uk2 between the open line
terminals and one of the short circuit terminals are measured.
Where there is harmonic voltage or current, it is recommanded to measure the active
power P and reactive power Q in order to improve the accuracy of measurement.
The measurements are taken at several values of the short-circuit current.
To avoid overheating of solid parts, where the test current exceeds 0.3IN, the duration
for line-to-line steadystate short-circuit test shall be restricted to the duraion required for
reading on measuring instrument.
For salient pole machines the current may be increased up to the rated value, if the
vibration of the machine does not exceed the allowable values. As for non-salient pole
machine, the armature current is generally limited at 0.5 times of the rated current.
12.24 Determination of Parameters from the Line-to-line Steadystate Short-circuit Test
The negative sequence reactance from the line-to-line steadystate short-circuit test is
determined using the following formula:

X2 =

P
3I k22

p
, ; x 2 = 3 2
ik 2

(82)

The above-mentioned formula is applicable to the situation where the harmonics of


voltage and current could be negligible.

X2 =

1
U2
P2
u2
p2
1
2

;
x
=

2
2
2
P P +Q
p p +q
3
3

(83)

The above-mentioned formula is applicable to the situation where the harmonics of


voltage and current must be considered.
Negative sequence reactance is determined for each measured short-circuit current. On
the base of the test data, relation curve between X2 and current is plotted.
Note: the value of X2 where the current equals

times the rated current will be taken as the negative sequence

reactance value at rated current.

12.24.1 Negative sequence resistance from line-to-line steadystate short-circuit test may be
determined using the following formula:

R2 =

U2
Q2
1
u2
q2
1
r
2

;
=

2
2
2
Q P +Q
q p +q
3
3

(84)

58

Negative sequence resistance is determined for each measured short-circuit current. On


the basis of the test data, relation curve between negative sequence resistance R2 and current
is plotted.
Note: the

value of R2

where the current equals

times the rated current will be taken as the negative sequence

reactance value at rated current.

12.25 Negative Phase Sequence Test


During test, the tested machine is connected to the external power supply of negative
phase sequence with an applied symmetric voltage of (0.02~0.2) UN and then driven to the
rated speed; here the tested machine operates in a mode of electromagnetic brake with the slip
to be 2.
The excitation winding shall be short circuited.
If the residual voltage of the machine under test exceeds 0.3 times of the supply voltage,
the rotor shall be demagnetized before testing the machine. All the three-phase voltage,
current and input power shall be measured during the test.
12.26 Determination of Parameters from the Negative Phase Sequence Test
Negative sequence reactance and resistance from negative phase sequence test is
determined using the following formula

X 2 = Z 22 R22 , ; Z 2 =

U
3I

, ; R2 =

P
, ;
3I 2

(85)
Where:
PInput power;
IAverage measured current;
UAverage measured voltage;
Negative sequence reactance and resistance are determined for each measured supply
voltage; On the basis of the test data, the relation curve between X2, R2 and current is plotted.
12.27 Single-phase Voltage Application to the Three-phase Test
The test of single-phase voltage application across the terminals of the three-phase
connected in series or in parallel is conducted with the machine driven at, or in the vicinity of,
rated speed.
The connection shall be arranged so that the current in the three phases at any instant
should flow in the same sense, that is from the neutral to line terminal or vice versa as defined
by zero sequence. The excitation winding shall be short circuited.
Voltage, current and input power are measured at several values of supply voltage. All
the selected supply voltages shall be able to make the armature current to be about the rated
value.
12.28 Determination of Parameters from Single-phase Voltage to Three-phase Test
The zero sequence reactance and resistance are determined from the test of single-phase
voltage application across the line terminals using the following formula:

X 0 = Z 02 R02 , ; x 0 = z 02 r02

(86)
59

Where the three phases are connected in series

Z0 =

1 u
U
P

p
, ; R0 = 2 , ; z 0 =
; r0 = 2
3I
3I
i
3 i

(87)

Where the three phases are connected in parallel

Z0 =

u
3U
3P
9P

, ; R0 = 2 , ; z 0 = 3 3 ; r0 = 2
I
i
I
i

(88)

12.29 Line-to-line and to Neutral Steadystate Short-circuit Test


To conduct the line-to-line and to the neutral steadystate short-circuit test, the armature
winding shall be star connected and the two terminals are short circuited to the neutral; the
machine is driven at rated speed and is excited (Figure 28).

Figure 28

Measurements are taken of the voltage U0 from the open terminal to neutral and the
current i0 in the connection from the short circuit terminals to neutral.
To takne account of the harmonic effect, active power and reactive power are measured.
Measurements shall be taken at several values of neutral current and the current value
and test duration shall be limited by rotor overheating or vibration.
12.30 Determination of Parameters from the Line-to-line and to the Neutral
Steadystate Short-circuit Test
Zero sequence reactance from the line-to-line steadystate short-circuit test is determined
using the following formula:

X0 =

3u
U0
, ; x 0 = 0
I0
i0

(89)

The above-mentioned formula is applicable to the situation where the harmonics of


voltage or current could be negligible.

X0 =

U 02
Q2
u02
q2
2

,
;
x
0

Q P + Q2
q p 2 + q2

(90)

60

The above-mentioned formula is applicable to the situation where the voltage or current
harmonics must be taken into account; in the formula, U, P and Q are respectively the
measured voltage, active power and reactive power.
Zero sequence reactance value is calculated for several values of neutral current. On the
basis of the test data, relation curve between X and neutral current is plotted.
Note: the value of X0 where the neutral current equals 3 times the rated phase current will be taken as the zero sequence
reactance value at rated current.

12.30.1 Where zero sequence resistance is determined from the line-to-line and to the
neutral steadystate short-circuit test, several neutral current values shall be calculated using
the following formula:

R0 =

U 02
P2
u02
p2
2

,
;
r
0

Q P + Q2
p p2 + q2

(91)

On the basis of the test data, relation curve between R0 and neutral current is plotted.
Note: the value of R0 where the neutral current equals 3 times the rated phase current will be taken as the zero sequence
reactance value at rated current.

12.31 Field Current Decay Test with the Armature Winding Open Circuited
To conduct field current decay test where winding open circuited, the tested machine is
driven to the rated speed with some prime mover and then excited to the rated voltage. Here,
the excitation winding shall be suddenly short circuited. If necessary, it shall cut off the
excitation winding power within 0.02 s.
During test, a current limiting resistance may be adopted to connect the excitation
winding in series so as to limit the DC supply short-circuit current.
Oscillogram of armature winding voltage, excitation current and slip-ring voltage is
taken. The latter one is used to accurately determine the begin-end time (zero time) of
excitation current decay and the initial voltage value at the moment.
The difference between measured transient voltage from the oscillogram and residual
voltage of the machine is plotted against time is plotted on the semi-log scale.
12.32 Determination of T'd0 from Field Current Decay Test with the Armature
Winding Open Circuited
Direct-axis transient open circuit time constant is determined from the field current
decay test with the armature winding open circuited as the time required for the voltage
difference mentioned in Section 12.31 to decrease to 1/0.368 of its initial value.
12.33 Field Current Decay Test with the Armature Winding Short Circuited
The field current decay test with the armature winding short circuited is conducted with
the machine driven by a prime mover at rated speed and with rated armature current value;
and suddenly short circuiting the excitation winding. The limitation of the duration and the
valued of the supply source short-circuit current is made in accordance with 12.31.
An oscillogram is taken of any line current and of the excitation current or slip-ring
voltage.
The difference between the transient current obtained from the oscillogram and the
current due to the residual voltage is plotted against the time on a semi-log scale.
12.34 Determination of T'd from Field Current Decay Test with the Armature Winding
Short-circuit
61

Direct-axis transient short circuit time constant is determined from the field current
decay test with the armature winding open circuited as the time required for the voltage
difference mentioned in Section 12.33 to decrease to 1/0.368 of its initial value.
12.35 Suspended Rotor Oscillation Test
To conduct this test, the rotor shall be suspended with one or two parallel steel wires so
as to make its shaft straight. Turning the rotor so as to make it oscillate along the shaft; the
time required to make several oscillations is recorded and an averaging time of one cycle of
oscillation is calculated.
If only one steel wire is adopted to suspend, the test shall be conducted twice; with the
rotor itself and the rotor together with a flywheel or a pulley, acting as a known flywheel.
The unidirectional displacement angle for one-filament suspension should not be more
than 45 and for two-filament suspension not more than 10.
12.36 Determination of TJ and H from Suspended Rotor Oscillation Test
To conduct the suspended rotor oscillation test, the acceleration time and stored energy
constant is calculated using the following formula:

J 2
Tj =
10 3 s
PN
H=

J 2
10 3 , s
2S N

(92)

(93)

Where:
JMoment of inertia kgm2;
n/30, rad/s (Angular speed);
nRated speed of rotation, r'min;
PNRated active power kW;
SNRated apparent power, kVA.
Moment of inertia is determined using the formulae
When the totor is suspended by one filament
(94)
When the rotor is suspended by two filaments

J=

T 2 a 2 mg

,kg m 2
L (4 ) 2

(95)

Where:
JPKnown moment of inertia of pulley, kgm2;
gAcceleration of free fall, m/s2;
TOscillation cycle of rotor, s;
TpOscillation cycle of rotor with flywheel or pulley, s;
aDistance between the suspension points, m;
LSuspension length, m;
mRotor mass, kg.
12.37 Auxiliary Pendulum Swing Test
62

To conduct the test, an auxiliary pendulum (a lever and a mass at the end) is attached in a
plane at right angles to the machine shaft, placed horizontally. The mass of the pendulum,
which is known, shall be as small as possible. Instead of an auxiliary pendulum, a known
mass shall be attached at the circumference of the rotor or pulley.
The auxiliary pendulum is replaced at an angle of about 5 from its steady position. The
time required for oscillation is measured.
This test is applicable to the machine provided with ball or roller bearing.
12.38 Determination of TJ and H from Auxiliary Pendulum Swing Test
The acceleration time and stored energy constant from the auxiliary pendulum swing test
is determined using the formula in 12.36.
Moment of inertia is determined using the formulae

J = m p L(

Tp2 g
4

L),kg m 2

(96)

Where:
mpAuxiliary pendulum mass, kg;
LDistance from rotor shaft center to auxiliary pendulum gravity center or to the
gravity center of the heavy object attached at circumference of rotor or pulley, m;
gAcceleration of free fall, m/s2;
TpTime of one cycle of swing, s.
12.39 No-Load Retardation Test
The no-load retardation test is conducted where there is no additional flywheel mass on
the shaft of the machine under test. The machine is excited from a separate source and the
excitation remains constant during the test.
The machine under test is brought up to overspeed by increasing the supply frequency or
by means of a prime mover provided with a clutch; then the power cut supply is disconnected.
This test consists of measuring the retardation time t where the machine is slowing
down between two pre-determined speeds with difference , say from 1.10~0.9 per unit or
from 1.05 to 0.95.
12.40 Determination of Tj and H from the No-load Retardation Test
Acceleration time of and stored energy constant the machine from the no-load retardation
test are determined using the formulae:

T j = N

H=

N
2

t Pmech + PFe

,s

PN

t Pmech + PFe

,s

PN

(97)

(98)

Where:
PmechMechanical losses at rated speed (kW);
PFeCore losses corresponding to test voltage at rated speed (kW);
PNRated active power (kW);
NRated angular speed (rad/s);
SNRated apparent power (kVA).
63

12.41
On-load Retardation Test of Mechanically Coupled Machines with the
Synchronous Machine Operating as a Motor
The test is conducted with the machine operating as a motor. The rotation speed of the
unit before disconnecting from the network shall be equal to the rated speed, the power input
before disconnecting shall be not less than 0.6 of the rated power; the power factor shall be
close to 1.0. The excitation of the machine during the test is unchanged.
After disconnecting the supply source, the change of speed of the unit during the first
few seconds is determined.
The speed-time curve is plotted and a tangent to the initial point of the curve is drawn.
This tangent is used to determine the change in speed and the time interval t.
12.42 Determination of Tj and H from the On-load Retardation Test with the
Synchronous Machine Operating as a Motor
Acceleration time and stored energy constant of the machine together with the load from
the no-load retardation test with the machine operating as a motor are determined by the
formulae:

T j = N
H=

N
2

t P1 ( Pd + Pcu )

,s

PN

t P1 ( Pd + Pcu )

,s

SN

(99)

(100)

Where:
P1Power supplied to the motor immediately before disconnection from the supply
source (kW);
Pd+PcuArmature winding losses (stray and copper) immediately before
disconnection (kW);
NRated angular speed (rad/s).
This method of determination is not very precise.
12.43 Acceleration after a Load Drop Test with the Machine Operating as a Generator
The test is conducted with the machine operating as a generator driven by a
prime-mover.
Before the test, the generator load is fixed at 0.1~0.2 times of the rated load (the power
factor is fixed close to 1.0), the speed regulator of the prime mover is taken out of service.
The excitation of the generator during the test shall be unchanged. After a sudden
disconnection of the generator from the network, the change of speed with time curve is
determined. At a speed of about 1.07~1.1 rated value, the regulator of prime mover is put into
service or steam is cut off. The acceleration curve is plotted.
A tangent is drawn to the acceleration curve at the point corresponding to the rated speed
of the machine, and the speed change for the time interval is determined.
12.44 Determination of Tj and H from the Acceleration after a Load Drop Test with
the Machine Operating as a Generator
The acceleration time of the machine and its prime mover and stored energy constant
from the acceleration after a load drop test with the machine operating as a generator are
determined using the formulae:
64

Tj = N

H=

t P1
,s
PN

N t P1

,s
2 S N

(101)

(102)

Where:
P1Power supplied by the generator immediately before disconnection from the
network (kW).
This method of determination is not very precise.
12.45 Rated Voltage Regulation Factor UN
Where the rotation speed and excitation current keep unchanged, the voltage variation at
the armature end of generator from no-load condition to rated load condition shall be
expressed by the percentage of rated voltage.
The rated voltage regulation factor shall be determined by the following method:
Direct determination method; it shall be calculated by the plotting the rated excitation
current based on no-load characteristic and test.
12.46 Determination of Parameters by Calculations Using Known Test Parameters
The parameters xd', xd, Td0' and Td' are connected with each other vy the following
relation:
xdTd'=xd'Td0'
(103)
The relation is used for determination of xd' or T d' or Td0'from the known values of xd and
two other parameters.
12.46.1 The negative-sequence reactance X2 is determined from known test data xd and
xq.

X2 =

Xd + Xq
2

(104)

12.46.2 The positive sequence resistance of the armature winding is determined from the
known 3I2R losses (Pcu) and stray losses (Pd) in the armature winding measured at rated
current in accordance with "Rotating Electrical Machines, Part 2: Methods for Determining
Losses and Efficiency of Rotating Electrical Machinery From Tests (Excluding Machines for
Traction Vehicles)" (IEC 60034-2) using the formula:

R1 =

Pcu + Pd
, ; [r1=pcu+pd]
3I n2

(105)

Where:
R1The resistance at winding temperature for loss measurement.
12.46.3 Armature short-circuit time constant at rated frequency fN from the known test
values of x2 and ra is calculated using the formula:

Ta =

x2
,s
2f N ra

(106)

Note: Use a saturated value of x2.

65

Table 4 Test Methods and Correlations


Clause No.
Parameters

Saturated or

Test name

Remark
unsaturated value

No-load saturation and


Xd

Unsaturated
three-phase short-circuit test

12.2

No-load saturation and


Kc
three-phase short-circuit test

12.2

Negative excitation test

12.9

Saturated

Low slip test

12.11

Unsaturated

Xq

Preferred
On-load test by measuring the
load angle

Unsaturated
12.13

Sudden three-phase
Xd

Saturated
Unsaturated

short-circuit test

12.5

Saturated

Voltage recovery test

12.17

Unsaturated

short-circuit test

12.15

Unsaturated

Voltage recovery test

12.17

Saturated

Preferred

Sudden three-phase

Xd

Applied voltage test with the

Unsaturated

rotor in direct and quadrature

Unsaturated

axis positions with respect to

(Saturated)

the armature winding field axis

12.19

Applied voltage test with the


rotor in any arbitrary position

Preferred

Unsaturated
(Saturated)

12.21

Applied voltage test with the


rotor in direct and quadrature

Unsaturated

axis positions with respect to

(Saturated)

Xq
the armature winding field axis

12.19

Applied voltage test with the


rotor in any arbitrary position

Unsaturated
(Saturated)

12.21

Line-to-line steadystate
X2

Unsaturated
shortcircuit test

Preferred

12.23

Line-to-line steadystate
Unsaturated
R2

short-circuit test

12.23

Preferred
Unsaturated

Negative-phase sequence test

12.25

Single-phase voltage
application to the three-phase
Unsaturated
X0

test

12.27

Preferred
Unsaturated

Line-to-line and to the neutral


steadystate shortcircuit test

12.29

Single-phase voltage
application to the three-phase
Unsaturated
R0

test

12.27

Preferred
Unsaturated

Line-to-line and to the neutral


steadystate shortcircuit test

12.29

66

No-load saturation test,


three-phase steadystate
Xp

shortcircuit test and

12.2

over-excitation test at zero


power factor

12.3

Ammeter, voltmeter or bridge


Ra
method

4.2

Ammeter, voltmeter or bridge


Rf
method

4.2

Positive-sequence armature
Rt

See IEC 60034-2


winding resistance
Field current decay test with

12.45.2
12.32

the armature winding


Td0

Preferred
open-circuited
Voltage recovery test

12.17

Sudden three-phase
short-circuit test
Td

12.15

Field current decay test with

Preferred

armature winding
short-circuited

12.34

Sudden three-phase
Td
short-circuit test

12.15

Sudden three-phase
Ta
short-circuit test

12.15

Suspended rotor oscillation


test

12.35

Auxiliary pendulum swing test

12.37

No-load retardation test

12.39

On-load retardation test with


Tj
synchronous machine
operating as a motor

12.41

Acceleration after a load drop


test with synchronous machine
operating as a generator

12.43

Suspended rotor oscillation


test

12.35

Auxiliary Pendulum Swing


Test

12.37

No-load retardation test

12.39

H
On-load retardation test with
synchronous machine
operating as a motor

12.41

Acceleration after a load drop


test with synchronous machine

67

operating as a generator

12.43

Direct measurement method


Drawing by vector:
iIN

UN

Potier diagram

12.6

ASA diagram

12.7

Swedish diagram

12.8

Direct measurement method

12.6

Preferred

By diagram from no-load


saturation curve and known iIN

12.7, 12.8

68

Appendix A
(Normative)
The Value While Determining Excitation Winding Temperature
Rise by No-load Short-circuit Method
The value may be approximately calculated according to Formula (A.1):

f (40 c )
k + f + c

(A.1)

Where:
fExcitation winding temperature rise during the test (K)
cCooling medium temperature corresponding f ();
kSee Formula (13).
The value may also be obtained from Figure A.1 or A.2; Figure A.1 is applicable to
copper winding while Figure A.2 is applicable to aluminium winding.

Figure A.1

Figure A.2

69

Appendix B
(Informative)
Symbols and Units
a 1 Parallel branch number of armatur e winding
a 2 Parallel branch number of excitation winding
b 3 Axial width of ventilating duct (m)
CCapacitance (F)
fFrequency (Hz)
f N Rated fr equency (Hz)
HStored ener gy constant (s)
ICurrent (A)
I f Excitation current (A)
I fN Rated excitation curr ent (A)
I f No-load excitation curr ent (A)
I f Excitation current corresponding to air-gap line at rated voltage (A)
I K Shortcircuit curr ent (A)
I N Rated armature curr ent (A)
I K Shortcircuit curr ent transient component (A)
I K Shortcircuit current sub-transient component (A)
JRotational inertia (kg.m 2 )
kTemperature coefficient
K a Coefficient
K c Short-circuit Ratio
K w a Ar mature winding coefficient
K w f Excitation winding coefficient
L c Length of suspension wir e (m)
L Fe Total length of stator cor e (m)
mMass (kg)
N c Number of test coils
nNumber of revolutions (r/min)
n N Rated speed (r/min)
n v Number of stator ventilating ducts
POutput active power (kW I 2 R)
P c u a I 2 R losses in armature winding (kW) I 2 R
P c u f I 2 R losses in excitation winding (kW)
P d Stray losses (kW)
P E Exciter losses (kW)
P f Excitation losses (kW)
P F e Cor e losses at rated voltage (kW)
P f w Mechanical losses (kW)
P i n Input active power (kW)
P M Electromagnetic power (kW)
P N Rated power (kW)
P o Constant losses (kW)
P R Rheostat losses (kW)
P fs Electric losses of electric brush (kW)
P Z Electrical losses of rectifying elements (kW)
P ZE Losses of self excitation device
PNumber of pole pairs
70

QReactive power (kvar)


qNumber of fractional slots per pole and per phase
q'Maximum integral number of slots at each pole pitch
RResistance ()
R 0 Zero-sequence resistance ()
R 1 Positive-sequence resistance ()
R 2 Negative-sequence resistance ()
R a Ar mature winding DC resistance ()
R f Excitation winding resistance ()
R J Winding DC resistance at reference operating temperature ()
R N (1)Rated apparent power (kVA)
(2)Rated capacity of testing transformer (kVA)
T(1)Torque (Nm); 1kgfm=9.80665Nm
(2)Period (s)
(3)Time constant (s)
T a Aperiodic time constant with armature winding short-circuited (s)
T d Direct-axis transient time constant with armature winding
short-circuited (s)
T d Direct-axis subtransient time constant with armature winding
short-circuited (s)
T do Dir ect-axis transient open-circuit time constant (s)
T j Acceleration time (s)
T K Torque measured at highest test voltage (Nm)
T M Electromagnetic torque (Nm)
T pi Nominal pull-in torque (Nm)
T po Pull-out torque (Nm)
THFTelephone harmonic form factor
tTime (s)
UVoltage (V)
U c Test coil voltage (V)
U i Effective value of harmonic voltage at i th time (V)
U N Rated armature voltage (V)
U N T Rated voltage at high-voltage side of testing transformer (V)
U 0 no-load voltage converted to the state at rated frequency (V)
UVoltage regulation factor
U N Rated voltage regulation factor
U s Pressure drop on electric brush (V)
U Z Operating pr essur e dr op of r ectifying element (V)
U'Opencir cuit voltage transient component (V)
U"Opencir cuit voltage sub-transient component (V)
WNumber of ar matur e windings per phase
W f T otal number of excitation windings
X 0 Zer o-sequence r eactance ()
X 2 Negative-sequence r eactance ()
X d Dir ect-axis synchr onous r eactance ()
X d ' Dir ect-axis transient r eactance ()
X d Dir ect-axis sub-transient r eactance ()
X p Potier r eactance ()
X q Quadratur e-axis synchr onous r eactance ()
X q Quadratur e-axis sub-transient r eactance ()
X Ar matur e-leakage r eactance ()
Z 0 Zer o-sequence impedance ()
Z 2 Negative-sequence impedance ()
Z N Basic impedance ()
T emperatur e ( )
71

Temperature rise (K)


a Armature winding temperature rise (K)
f Excitation winding temper atur e r ise (K)
Fe Stator -cor e temper atur e r ise (K)
K Short-cir cuit temp eratur e r ise (K)
0 Idling temper atur e r ise (K)
U No-load temper atur e r ise (K)
Efficiency
Included angle between voltage and current
N Rated power -factor angle
Load angle; included angle between end voltage and potential
s t u Steady-state voltage r egulation factor of self-excited constant
voltage gener ator
i Weighing factor equivalent to i t h har monic fr equency

72