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Center for Science and Technology Development Studies (PAPPIPTEK) INDONESIAN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCES (LIPI) RURAL RESEARCH &

Center for Science and Technology Development Studies (PAPPIPTEK)

INDONESIAN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCES (LIPI)

RURAL RESEARCH & PLANNING GROUP (RRPG) 5 th International Conference and Field Study in Malaysia 2014 Institute for Rural Advancement (IFRA), Bangi, Malaysia, August 26-28, 2014

Can Household-Scale Biogas Support Rural

Development? Insight from the Study in

Cibodas Village

Galuh Syahbana Indraprahasta | gsyahbana@yahoo.com

Purnama Alamsyah | purnama.alamsyah@gmail.com

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Introduction

Energy source : critical role in rural livelihood, both for social and economic activities

Availability of modern energy services, in rural area of the developing countries are still limited

The key : improvement of access to more affordable and clean energy sources.

Biomass is seen as a promising type to be further developed (abundant amount)

Biogas has been developed in rural Indonesia since 4 decades ago. Various actors

ranging from governments, private sectors and NGOs have tried to implement biogas through various projects Serious attention to biogas development has been given just since 1 decade ago

Oil bonanza (1960s 1980s) oil importer 2004 (resigned from OPEC’s member

 

2008)

Biogas technology for household is not a sophisticated technology, but its potential to be successfully and appropriately implemented demands more complexity

Suitable for rural and remote areas where the energy infrastructure is still weak

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Introduction

Past researches : mostly focus on energy transition and sustainability issues.

Very limited : to relate biogas (and biomass as well) with rural development Rural development

Revitalizing & strengthening the rural and aims to reposition the rural within wider society (e.g. urban areas, national interests, etc.)

Based on natural resources : agricultural activities, clean environment, protection of

cultural heritage, scenic amenities

Rural development approach Value of self-reliant to reframe rural development in developing countries

Sector policy territory

Biogas policy Energy (sector) policy rural development approach

Case study : Cibodas Village (desa) in West Bandung District (Kabupaten Bandung Barat)

Project : Indonesia Domestic Biogas Programme (IDBP) or better known as BIRU (Biogas Rumah).

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Introduction

Rural Research & Planning Program (RRPG) 2014 4 Introduction

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Methodology

Study Area

Cibodas

Village

(kecamatan).

is

located

under

the

administration

of

Lembang Sub-District

Largest land use is agriculture (433.72 ha), plantation (351 ha), and settlement (111.5 ha).

10,112 inhabitants or 3,056 households, 66% of those are farmer’s households.

The main source of income : horticulture farmers.

All of the households have electricity access, National Electricity Company (PLN)

89%

of them

are provided by the

Rural Research & Planning Program (RRPG) 2014 5 Methodology Study Area • Cibodas Village ( kecamatan

CIBODAS

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Methodology

Analytical Framework

Built upon the concept of self-reliant rural development

Endogenous potentials as basis for its development, without relying much on urban area

Does not necessarily mean rural area should be self-sufficient

Exogenous factors are considered existed and should be managed to strengthen

endogenous factors and support rural development as whole.

Internal resource flow : interlinked within endogenous resources

Data Collection and Analysis

Conducted participant observation approach, the researcher is directly involved as active

agents and sources of information, participate actively participating in learning process

directly, or be passive recipients of information. Direct involvement of the researcher has been conducted since 2010.

Rural Research & Planning Program (RRPG) 2014

Result

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Policy Background

No

Time

Description

1

1981

With the support of FAO, Ministry of Agriculture started the construction of fixed dome type of biogas digesters in several provinces including West Java

2

1991

The Presidential Decree (Keppres) 43/1991 on Energy Conservation was the first policy giving more attention to renewable energy source, including biomass

3

2006-2010

Energy Village Program (DME) at district/city level

4

2006-2010

BATAMAS program (Biogas Originally Livestock via Community Collaboration) and Rural Bio-Energy Program (BEP) which were initiated by the Ministry of Agriculture

5

2008-2013

West Java Common Goals Development Plan 2008-2013 or Local Regulation of West

Java Energy Master Plan 2008-2013

6

2009 - Now

Indonesian Domestic Biogas Programme (IDBP)

7

2012

West Java Regional Action Plan on Mitigation of Green House Gases (West Java Governor Decree 56/2012)

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Result

IDBP and the Development Process in Cibodas Village

In 2009, Indonesia Domestic Biogas Programme Programme (IDBP) or better known as BIRU (Biogas Rumah) is entering Indonesia, including West Java

Funded by the Royal Netherlands Embassy and it is supported fully by the Directorate General of Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Indonesia

IDBP/BIRU program offers a system of credit financing for milk cow breeders wanting to build biogas reactor. In addition to credit, IDBP/BIRU also offers subsidy program of IDR 2 million to all types of biogas reactor (4 m 3 , 6 m 3 , 8 m 3 and 12 m 3 ) construction

The credit payment is conducted by cutting off the payment of milk to the cooperative (KPBSU).

In IDBP/BIRU program, KPSBU functioned as credit channel for farmers in Lembang and

it is facilitated by HIVOS to access credit from Rabobank with low interest rates. Rabo Foundation has signed credit assistance for KPSBU-Lembang through Rabobank with amount up to IDR 4.5 billion for the construction of 1,000 units of IDBP/BIRU digesters, which has ran since August 2010 in Lembang.

In the end of 2010 : initiative to re-process of bio-slurry (residual of biogas) to be used as

organic fertilizer and pesticide

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Result

IDBP and the Development Process in Cibodas Village

One of the groups having utilized bio-slurry (residual produced through biogas process)

as organic fertilizer and pesticide is farmers in Kampung Areng, Cibodas Village.

re-processed bio-slurry into organic fertilizer and pesticide. The products are used for own farming as well as are sold to others.

The success story of this product disseminated to their neighbors and some of them interested to try

The re-processing of bio-slurry in Kampung Areng was reinforced by IDBP/BIRU by adding the re-processing as assistantship program of biogas digester application. IDBP/BIRU conducted socialization program to implement that method. This socialization

was not only done in Cibodas Village, but also in other areas where IDBP/BIRU biogas

digester program is being implemented.

The development of bio-slurry products does not stop at the production methods, but continues to develop by building production house.

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Discussion

Biogas and Its Relation to Rural Development

Aspect

Biogas

Bio-slurry

Infrastructure

Alternative access of energy for cooking and lighting (alternative of State Electrici ty Company / PLN)

Alternative access of farming inputs, particularly fertilizer and pesticide (r eplacing chemical inputs)

Economy

Reducing cost of buying energy (LPG) f

Reducing cost of buying farming (ch

or cooking Reducing cost of paying for electricity (li ghting)

emical) inputs Creating additional income (by sellin g fertilizer)

Environment

Preventing of releasing of GHG emissio n to the atmosphere Preventing of cow manure disposal into drain (which later flows into the river) / ri ver pollution Preventing illegal logging (wood for cook ing)

Preventing of disposal of biogas wa ste into drain (which later flows into the river) / river pollution Increasing quality of soil and preven ting eutrophication of water

Rural Research & Planning Program (RRPG) 2014 10 Discussion Biogas and Its Relation to Rural Development
Rural Research & Planning Program (RRPG) 2014 10 Discussion Biogas and Its Relation to Rural Development

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Discussion

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Rural Research & Planning Program (RRPG) 2014 11 Discussion
Rural Research & Planning Program (RRPG) 2014 11 Discussion

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Discussion

Institution and Entrepreneurship as Driver of Change

The resources do not work alone : are influenced by less tangible resources =

institution & entrepreneurship

Institution has played a basic role on how biogas development has given multi-aspect benefits to rural development.

Institution : rule of game

SNV-HIVOS has created the rule of game as the key of success to link natural and

human-cultural resources in biogas development through IDBP/BIRU

Socio-technical co-development

Internalization of IDBP/BIRU biogas development as an non outsider’s program:

Construction of biogas digester is done not as free grant (moral hazard) Quality guarantee by providing 2-3 years warranty and ensuring the durability of digester up to 20-30 years (building trust) Training people to receive minimum standard (farmers and SNV-HIVOS’ partners) Interconnecting related actors to work together (KPBSU, local leader) (building trust)

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Discussion

Institution and Entrepreneurship as Driver of Change

In contrast to institution

which has been

built

upon

the

mixture of

exogenous and

endogenous factors, entrepreneurship in developing bio-slurry is purely derived from endogenous actor.

The entrepreneur is a woman living in Kampung Areng (a part of Cibodas Village) and also working as a farmer

End of 2010 : initiated re-process bio-slurry through vermi composting

Built a simple composting house with her own design.

a housewives’ group called as Kelompok Karya Ibu or Mother’s Work Group in 2013

This entrepreneurship has brought SNV-HIVOS to make the success story of bio-slurry development in Kampung Areng as national role model

Rural Research & Planning Program (RRPG) 2014 13 Discussion Institution and Entrepreneurship as Driver of Change

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Conclusion

This study shows that the development of biogas and its externality (bio-slurry) has

generated rural development and created lesser dependence to external resources.

Biogas and its bio-slurry, to certain extent, have effectively addressed several issues of rural development in Cibodas Village, mostly under the infrastructure, economy, and environment aspects.

Institution and entrepreneurship have played critical role to link natural and human-

cultural resources and have acted as the driver of change.

Thank You.