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Glencoe Science

Chapter Resources

Cell Processes
Includes:
Reproducible Student Pages
ASSESSMENT

TRANSPARENCY ACTIVITIES

Chapter Tests

Section Focus Transparency Activities

Chapter Review

Teaching Transparency Activity

HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES

Assessment Transparency Activity

Lab Worksheets for each Student Edition Activity

Teacher Support and Planning

Laboratory Activities

Content Outline for Teaching

FoldablesReading and Study Skills activity sheet

Spanish Resources
Teacher Guide and Answers

MEETING INDIVIDUAL NEEDS


Directed Reading for Content Mastery
Directed Reading for Content Mastery in Spanish
Reinforcement
Enrichment
Note-taking Worksheets

Glencoe Science
Photo Credits
Section Focus Transparency 1: Doug Martin; Section Focus Transparency 2: Robert Lewellyn/SuperStock;
Section Focus Transparency 3: Kenneth W. Fink/Photo Researchers

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition
that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students,
teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with the
Cell Processes program. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited
without prior written permission of the publisher.
Send all inquiries to:
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Reproducible
Student Pages
Reproducible Student Pages

Hands-On Activities
MiniLAB: Determining How Enzymes Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
MiniLAB: Try at Home Observing Diffusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Lab: Observing Osmosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Lab: Photosynthesis and Respiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Laboratory Activity 1: Diffusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Laboratory Activity 2: Oxygen and Photosynthesis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Foldables: Reading and Study Skills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Meeting Individual Needs


Extension and Intervention
Directed Reading for Content Mastery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Directed Reading for Content Mastery in Spanish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Enrichment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Note-taking Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Assessment
Chapter Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Chapter Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Transparency Activities
Section Focus Transparency Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Teaching Transparency Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Assessment Transparency Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

Cell Processes

Hands-On Activities

Hands-On
Activities

2 Cell Processes

Date

Class

Hands-On Activities

Name

Observing How Enzymes Work


Procedure
1. Get two small cups of prepared gelatin from your teacher. Do not eat or
drink anything in lab.
2. On the gelatin in one of the cups, place a piece of fresh pineapple.
3. Let both cups stand undisturbed overnight.
4. Observe what happens to the gelatin.

Analysis
1. What effect did the piece of fresh pineapple have on the gelatin?

2. What does the fresh pineapple contain that caused it to have the effect on the gelatin you
observed?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Why do the preparation directions on a box of gelatin dessert tell you not to mix it with fresh
pineapple?

Cell Processes

Name

Date

Class

Procedure
1. Use two clean glasses of equal size. Label one Hot, then fill it until half full
with very warm water. Label the other Cold, then fill it until half full with
cold water. WARNING: Do not use boiling hot water.
2. Add one drop of food coloring to each glass. Carefully release the drop just
at the waters surface to avoid splashing the water.
3. Observe the water in the glasses. Record your observations immediately and
again after 15 min.

Data and Observations


Initial Observations

After 10 Minutes

Cold Water

Hot Water

Analysis
1. Describe what happens when food coloring is added to each glass.

2. How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion?

4 Cell Processes

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Hands-On Activities

Observing Diffusion

Name

Date

Class

Hands-On Activities

Observing Osmosis
Lab Preview
Directions: Answer these questions before you begin the Lab.
1. What safety symbols are associated with this lab?

2. What cell are you observing in this lab?

It is difficult to observe osmosis in cells because most cells are so small.


However, a few cells can be seen without the aid of a microscope. Try this lab
to observe how osmosis occurs in a large cell.

Real-World Question

Procedure

How does osmosis occur in an egg cell?

1. Use the tables on the next page to record


your data.
2. Obtain an unshelled egg from your teacher.
Handle the egg gently. Use a balance to find
the eggs mass and record it in the table.
3. Place the egg in the container and add
enough distilled water to cover it.
4. Observe the egg after 30 min, one day, and
two days. After each observation, record the
eggs appearance in Table 1.
5. After day two, remove the egg with a spoon
and allow it to drain. Find the eggs mass
and record it in Table 2.
6. Empty the container, then put the egg back
in. Now add enough corn syrup to cover it.
Repeat steps 4 and 5.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Materials
unshelled egg*
balance
spoon
distilled water (250 mL)
light corn syrup (250 mL)
500-mL container
*an egg whose shell has been dissolved by vinegar

Goals

Observe osmosis in an egg cell.


Determine what affects osmosis.

Safety Precautions
WARNING: Eggs may contain bacteria. Avoid
touching your face.

Cell Processes

Name

Date

Class

(continued)

Table 1

Table 2
Egg Mass Data

Egg Observations

Beginning
Egg Mass

After 30 minutes
After 1 day

Distilled
water

After 2 days

Corn
syrup

Egg Mass
After Two Days

Conclude and Apply


1. Explain the difference between what happened to the egg in water and in corn syrup.

2. Calculate the mass of water that moved into and out of the egg.

3. Hypothesize why you used an unshelled egg for this investigation.

4. Infer what part of the egg controlled waters movement into and out of the egg.

Communicating Your Data


Compare your conclusions with those of other students in your class. For more help,
refer to the Science Skill Handbook.

6 Cell Processes

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Hands-On Activities

Data and Observations

Name

Date

Class

Hands-On Activities

Photosynthesis and Respiration


Lab Preview
Directions: Answer these questions before you begin the Lab.
1. What safety symbols are associated with this lab?

2. Under what conditions will you place your test tubes?

Every living cell carries on many chemical processes. Two important chemical
processes are respiration and photosynthesis. All cells, including the ones in
your body, carry on respiration. However, some plant cells carry on both
processes. In this experiment you will investigate when these processes occur
in plant cells. How could you find out when plants were using these processes?
Are the products of photosynthesis and respiration the same?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Real-World Question
When do plants carry on photosynthesis and
respiration?

Materials
16-mm test tube (3)
150-mm test tube with stopper (4)
*small, clear-glass baby food jar with lid (4)
test-tube rack
stirring rod
scissors
carbonated water (5 mL)
bromthymol blue solution in dropper bottle
aged tap water (20 mL)
*distilled water (20 mL)
sprig of Elodea (2)
*other water plants
*Alternate materials

Goals

Observe green water plants in the light and


dark.
Determine whether plants carry on photosynthesis and respiration.

Safety Precautions
WARNING: Wear splash-proof goggles to protect
eyes from hazardous chemicals.

Procedure
1. Label each test tube using the numbers 1, 2,
3, and 4. Pour 5 mL of aged tap water into
each test tube.
2. Add 10 drops of carbonated water to test
tubes 1 and 2.
3. Add 10 drops of bromthymol blue to all of
the test tubes. Bromthymol blue turns
green to yellow in the presence of an acid.
4. Cut two 10-cm sprigs of Elodea. Place one
sprig in test tube 1 and one sprig in test
tube 3. Stopper all test tubes.
5. Complete the test-tube data in Table 1.
6. Place test tubes 1 and 2 in bright light.
Place tubes 3 and 4 in the dark. Observe
the test tubes for 30 min or until the color
changes. Record the color of each of the
four test tubes.

Cell Processes

Name

Date

Class

(continued)

Table 1
Test Tube

Color at Start

Color After 30 Minutes

1
2
3
4

Analyze Your Data


1. Identify what is indicated by the color of the water in all four test tubes at the start of the activity.

2. Infer what process occurred in the test tube or tubes that changed color after 30 min.

Conclude and Apply


1. Describe the purpose of test tubes 2 and 4 in this experiment.

2. Explain whether or not the results of this experiment show that photosynthesis and respiration
occur in plants.

Communicating Your Data


Choose one of the following activities to communicate your data. Prepare an oral presentation that explains how the experiment showed the differences between products of
photosynthesis and respiration. Draw a cartoon strip to explain what you did in this
experiment. Use each panel to show a different step. For more help, refer to the Science
Skill Handbook.
8 Cell Processes

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Hands-On Activities

Data and Observations

Date

Class

Diffusion

Laboratory
Activity

When you smell different aromas around you, you are experiencing diffusion. The same principle also applies to living cells. In cells, however, both water and material dissolved in water move
into and out of the cells.

Strategy
You will observe carrots in salt water and freshwater.
You will determine if the carrots have lost or gained water after a 24-hour period.

Materials
WARNING: Do not taste, eat, or drink any materials used in the lab.
2 beakers (500-mL)
salt
carrot
water
labels
thread
balance
scalpel
metric ruler

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Procedure
1. Half fill two beakers with water.
2. Use a balance to measure 15 g salt and add
it to one of the beakers. Mark this beaker
salt.
3. Cut a carrot in half as shown in Figure 1.
WARNING: Use care when cutting to avoid
injury. Tightly tie a piece of thread 2 cm
from the cut end of both parts.
4. Place one carrot half in the beaker of salt
water with the cut end down. See Figure 2.
5. Place the other carrot half with the cut end
down into the beaker of freshwater. Mark
this beaker fresh. See Figure 2.
6. Allow the beakers to remain undisturbed
for 24 hours. Remove the carrots and
observe the tightness of the threads. Record
your observations in Table 1 under Data
and Observations.

Figure 1

Figure 2

Salt

Fresh
Cell Processes

Hands-On Activities

Name

Name

Date

Class

Laboratory Activity 1 (continued)


Complete Table 1 by circling the proper term in the column under Water Type that matches the
description in the column under Condition.

Table 1
Effect of Water
Type on Carrot Cells
Condition

Water Type

1. Loose thread

freshwater-salt water

2. Firm texture

freshwater-salt water

3. Tight thread

freshwater-salt water

4. Soft texture

freshwater-salt water

5. Decrease in
cell size

freshwater-salt water

6. Loss of water
by cells

freshwater-salt water

7. Gain of water
by cells

freshwater-salt water

Questions and Conclusions


1. What was the purpose of tying thread on each carrot?
2. In which kind of water did the carrot cells lose water? How can you tell?

3. In which kind of water did the carrot cells gain water? How can you tell?

4. What might happen to human blood cells if placed in a beaker of salt water? Explain.

Strategy Check
Can you observe carrots in salt water and freshwater?
Can you determine if the carrots have lost or gained water after 24 hours?
10 Cell Processes

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Hands-On Activities

Data and Observations

Date

Laboratory
Activity

Class

Oxygen and Photosynthesis

Green plants can turn chemicals into food. Green plants take in water and carbon dioxide
and, in the presence of light and chlorophyll, turn these chemicals into food. This process is called
photosynthesis. One of the by-products of photosynthesis is oxygen. The amount of oxygen
produced by a plant during a period of time can serve as a way of telling how much photosynthesis
is taking place.

Strategy
You will place a plant under continuous light conditions for 24 h while another plant remains in
the dark for the same amount of time.
You will compare the amount of photosynthesis that takes place in these two plants by measuring
the amount of oxygen the plants produce.

Materials
WARNING: Do not taste, eat, or drink any materials used in the lab.
2 glass jars (large enough to hold the funnels)
metric ruler
aged tap water (standing for at least 24 h)
scissors
sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)
2 glass funnels (small)
balance
2 test tubes (18 150-mm)
Elodea
lamp
Figure 1
Water

Test tube

Water and
sodium bicarbonate

Jar
Funnel

Elodea

Gas column
Water

Figure 2

1. Fill each jar with water that has been standing for at least one day. Add 1 g of sodium
bicarbonate to the water in each jar.
2. Obtain two Elodea plants and cut about
1 or 2 cm from the bottom of the stem.
Throw away the part you cut off.
WARNING: Always be careful when using
scissors. Lightly crush the upper 2.5 cm of
the stem between your fingers.
3. Place an Elodea plant into the water in
each jar and cover it with a funnel. Position
the plants so that the crushed ends are up.
(See Figure 1.)
4. Fill a test tube completely with water. Hold
your index finger over the mouth of the
test tube and invert it over the stem of the
funnel. Do not let any water escape from
the test tube. NOTE: The test tube must be
completely filled with water at the beginning of the experiment. If some water
pours out before the test tube is in place,
start over again. Do not remove your finger
until the mouth of the test tube is completely under water. Place a test tube over
each funnel. (See Figure 1.)

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Procedure

24 h later

Cell Processes

11

Hands-On Activities

Name

Name

Date

Class

Laboratory Activity 2 (continued)


7. In Table 1, record the height of the gas
column you measured in the test tube for
each plant.
8. Compare the data table with the average
gas column height measured by your class.

Data and Observations


Table 1
Height of gas column
Plant
1.

in light

2.

in dark

My results

Class average

Questions and Conclusions


1. What proof do you have that light is needed for photosynthesis?

2. What proof do you have that oxygen is being given off during this experiment? Before you
answer, carefully review what you observed during this experiment.

3. Why was sodium bicarbonate added to the water? HINT: Sodium bicarbonate gives off
carbon dioxide when mixed with water.

12 Cell Processes

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Hands-On Activities

5. Place one jar near a bright light where it


will remain in light for 24 h. Place the other
jar in the dark. The one in the dark is the
control.
6. After 24 h, measure the height in centimeters
of the gas column that collected in each test
tube. See Figure 2.

Name

Date

Class

Hands-On Activities

Laboratory Activity 2 (continued)


The graph below shows the amount of oxygen given off by a plant during a 24-h time period.

Amount of oxygen given off (mL)

60

40

20

12

18

24

Time (h)

4. a. How many hours did the plant receive light?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

b. How many hours was the plant in the dark?


c. How many milliliters of oxygen were given off between hours 18 and 24?
5. Explain what change may have taken place in the light during hours 1824 that would have
decreased the amount of oxygen given off when compared with hours 011.

6. Which graph below best shows the total amount of oxygen produced if light were shined on a
plant for 24 continuous hours?
B

Amount
of Gas

Time
Cell Processes

13

Name

Date

Class

Laboratory Activity 2 (continued)


slowly moved farther and farther away from the plant during a 24-h period?
B

Amount
of Gas

Time

8. From this activity, what are the requirements for photosynthesis to occur?
9. Write the equation for photosynthesis.
10. What are the products of photosynthesis?
11. What would happen if there were no green plants?

12. How does the equation for photosynthesis compare with the equation for respiration?

13. Where is chlorophyll found in plants?


14. In respiration, what food is most easily broken down by cells?

Strategy Check
Can you measure the amount of oxygen that a plant in light and a plant in dark produce?
Can you compare the amount of photosynthesis that takes place in each plant?

14 Cell Processes

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Hands-On Activities

7. Which graph below best shows the total amount of oxygen produced if a light source were

Name

Date

Class

Hands-On Activities

Cell Processes

Directions: Use this page to label your Foldable at the beginning of the chapter.

mixture
organic compound
enzyme
inorganic compound
passive transport
diffusion

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

equilibrium
osmosis
active transport
endocytosis
exocytosis
metabolism
photosynthesis
respiration
fermentation
Cell Processes

15

Meeting Individual Needs

Meeting Individual
Needs

16 Cell Processes

Name

Date

Directed Reading for


Content Mastery

Class

Overview
Cell Processes

Directions: Complete the concept map using the terms in the list below.

elements

are composed of

2.

inorganic

combine
chemically
to form

organic

1.

of which those
that contain
no carbon are
usually

compounds

which are
composed
of

molecules

Meeting Individual Needs

atoms

of which
those that
contain carbon
and hydrogen
are

3.

4.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Directions: Circle the term in parentheses that makes each statement correct.
5. (Matter/Energy) is anything that has mass and takes up space.
6. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acid are (inorganic/organic)
compounds.
7. A cells (nucleus/membrane) controls which molecules pass in and out of
the cell.
8. Diffusion stops when molecules reach (endocytosis/equilibrium).
9. (Enzymes/Lipids) cause molecules to change, but are not themselves changed.
10. Plants use (photosynthesis/fermentation) to make food.

Cell Processes

17

Name

Date

Directed Reading for


Content Mastery

Section 1
Section 2

Class

Chemistry of Life
Moving Cellular Materials

Directions: Use the words in the lists to fill in the blanks in the paragraphs below.
compounds
carbon

inorganic
elements

organic

proteins
molecules

atoms
water

All matter is made up of 1. ____________________. 2. ____________________ are


made up of only one kind of atom. These atoms may bond together
form 4. ____________________. Living things and their products are
5. ____________________ compounds. They all contain 6. ____________________
and hydrogen. 7. ____________________ called enzymes are organic compounds
that help regulate chemical reactions in cells. 8. ____________________ compounds
are made from elements other than carbon. One of the most important inorganic
compounds for living things is 9. ____________________.
endocytosis
diffusion

passive

active
exocytosis

permeable
osmosis

Cells have selectively 10. ____________________ membranes. Some molecules


can pass through, but others cant. Movement through a cell membrane without
using energy is 11. ____________________ transport. 12. ____________________ is
passive transport that moves particles away from areas with more particles into
areas with fewer particles in order to spread them out. Diffusion of water in and out
of cells is called 13. ____________________. Large particles may need to use energy
to pass through cell membranes. This is called 14. ____________________
transport. 15. ____________________ uses energy to take particles into a cell.
16. ____________________ releases particles out of a cell.

18 Cell Processes

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Meeting Individual Needs

to form 3. ____________________. Two or more kinds of atoms

Name

Date

Directed Reading for


Content Mastery

Section 3

Class

Energy for Life

Directions: Use the information below to identify the terms that match the descriptions that follow. Use the
terms to complete the puzzle. The letters in the vertical box should spell out a word related to the study of
chemical reactions.

Meeting Individual Needs

Metabolism is the total of all chemical reactions in an organism. Organisms can


be producers or consumers. Some producers use photosynthesis to make their
food. Photosynthesis requires carbon dioxide, water, sunlight, and chlorophyll.
Consumers eat the food made by producers. Both consumers and producers
can release energy through respiration. Respiration takes place in the
mitochondria. Some yeasts use fermentation to release energy.
1

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. organisms that eat producers


2. Respiration takes place here.

7. the process that some producers use


to make food

3. an energy-releasing process that takes


place in some yeasts and bacteria

8. a gas that is important in


photosynthesis

4. the total of all chemical reactions in


an organism

9. the green pigment found in


chloroplasts

5. This energy-releasing process takes


place in the mitochondria.

The word in the vertical box is:


_______________________________

6. organisms that make their own food


Cell Processes

19

Name

Date

Directed Reading for


Content Mastery

Class

Key Terms
Cell Processes

Directions: Draw a line connecting each definition to the correct term.


enzymes

2. process that many producers use to


change light energy into chemical
energy

diffusion

3. proteins that help regulate chemical


reactions in cells
4. includes diffusion, osmosis, and
facilitated diffusion
5. solutions and suspensions
6. molecules randomly move from areas
where there are more of them to areas
where there are fewer
7. used by cells to release energy when
there is not enough oxygen
8. diffusion of water through a membrane
9. process of vesicles releasing their
contents outside the cell
10. process that releases energy, uses
oxygen, and occurs in the mitochondria

20 Cell Processes

mixtures

exocytosis

fermentation

metabolism

osmosis

photosynthesis

respiration

passive transport

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Meeting Individual Needs

1. all of the chemical reactions in an


organism

Nombre

Fecha

Clase

Sinopsis
Los procesos celulares

Lectura dirigida para


Dominio del contenido

Instrucciones: Completa el mapa de conceptos usando los siquientes trminos.

Los elementos

inorgnico
se combinan qumicamente
para formar

estn compuestos de

2.

orgnico

1.

de los cuales, los


que no contienen
carbono son por
lo general,

los cuales
constan de

compuestos

molculas

Satisface las necesidades individuales

tomos

de los cuales los


que contienen
carbono y
oxgeno son

3.

4.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Instrucciones: Haz un crculo alrededor del trmino en parntesis que hace verdadero cada enunciado.
5. La (materia/energa) es cualquier cuerpo que tiene masa y ocupa espacio.
6. Los carbohidratos, los lpidos, las protenas y el cido nucleico son
procesos (inorgnicos/orgnicos).
7. La(El) (ncleo/membrana) celular controla qu molculas entran y salen de una
clula.
8. La difusin cesa cuando las molculas alcanzan (la endocitosis/el equilibrio).
9. Las(Los) (enzimas/lpidos) causan cambios en las molculas, pero sin sufrir
cambio ellos mismos.
10. Las plantas usan (fotosntesis/fermentacin) para hacer alimentos.

Los procesos celulares

21

Nombre

Fecha

Lectura dirigida para


Dominio del contenido

Seccin 1
Seccin 2

Clase

La qumica de la vida
Transporte del
material celular

Instrucciones: Usa las siguientes palabras para llenar los espacios en blanco de los prrafos.
compuestos
inorgnicos
protenas
tomos
carbono
elementos
orgnicos
molculas
agua
Toda la materia est formada por 1. ____________________. Los(Las)
mos pueden enlazarse y formar 3. ____________________. Dos o ms tipos de
tomos forman 4. ____________________. Los compuestos de los seres vivos y sus
productos son compuestos 5. ____________________. Todos contienen
6. ____________________ e hidrgeno. Ciertos(as) 7. ____________________
llamadas enzimas son compuestos orgnicos que regulan las reacciones en las clulas. Los compuestos 8. ____________________ no contienen carbono. Uno de los
compuestos inorgnicos ms importantes para los seres vivos es el(la)
9. ____________________.
endocitosis
difusin

pasivo

activo
exocitosis

permeable
smosis

Las clulas tienen membranas selectivamente 10. ____________________, que


slo algunas molculas pueden atravesarlas. El movimiento a travs de las membranas que no usa energa se llama transporte 11. ____________________. El(La)
12. ____________________ es transporte pasivo que saca molculas de donde
hay ms concentracin y las lleva hacia reas en donde hay menos concentracin
para distribuirlas. La difusin del agua hacia adentro y hacia afuera de la clula se
llama 13. ____________________. Las partculas grandes pueden requerir
energa para atravesar las membranas celulares. Esto se llama transporte
14. ____________________. El(La) 15. ____________________ usa energa para
introducir partculas a la clula. El(La) 16. ____________________ saca las
partculas fuera de la clula.
22 Los procesos celulares

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Satisface las necesidades individuales

2. ____________________ estn formados por un slo tipo de tomo. Estos to-

Nombre

Fecha

Seccin 3

Lectura dirigida para

Clase

Energa para la vida

Instrucciones: Usa la siguiente informacin para identificar los trminos que corresponden a las descripciones.
Completa el crucigrama. Las letras de las cajas verticales oscuras te dirn una palabra relacionada con el estudio
de las reacciones qumicas.
El metabolismo es el total de las reacciones qumicas de un organismo. Los
organismos pueden ser productores o consumidores. Los productores usan fotosntesis para elaborar su propio alimento. La fotosntesis requiere dixido de carbono, agua, luz solar y clorofila. Los consumidores ingieren el alimento hecho
por los productores. Tanto los productores como los consumidores producen
energa por medio de la respiracin. La respiracin se lleva a cabo en las mitocondrias. Algunas levaduras utilizan la fermentacin para hacer energa.
1

2
3
4

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

S
5
6
7
8
9

1. Aqu ocurre la respiracin.

6. El pigmento verde de las plantas.

2. Gas que es importante para la


fotosntesis.

7. Organismos que hacen su propio


alimento

3. El total de todas las reacciones


qumicas del cuerpo.

8. Proceso usado por los productores


para hacer alimento

4. Organismos que se alimentan de los


productores.

9. Proceso productor de energa que


usan algunas levaduras y bacterias

5. Este proceso productor de energa


ocurre en las mitocondrias.
Los procesos celulares

23

Satisface las necesidades individuales

Dominio del contenido

Nombre

Fecha

Lectura dirigida para


Dominio del contenido

Clase

Trminos claves
Los procesos celulares

Instrucciones: Traza una lnea que conecte cada definicin con el trmino correcto.
enzimas

2. proceso que usan muchos productores


para transformar la energa luminosa en
energa qumica

difusin

3. protenas que regulan las reacciones


qumicas de la clula
4. incluye la difusin, la smosis y la
difusin facilitada
5. soluciones y suspensiones
6. las molculas se mueven al azar desde
reas en donde de mayor concentracin
hacia reas de menor concentracin
7. las clulas la usan para liberar energa
cuando no hay suficiente oxgeno
disponible
8. la difusin del agua a travs de un
membrana
9. proceso por el cual las vesculas liberan
su contenido fuera de las clulas
10. proceso que libera energa, usa oxgeno
y ocurre en las mitocondrias

24 Los procesos celulares

mezclas

exocitosis

fermentacin

metabolismo

smosis

fotosntesis

respiracin

transporte pasivo

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Satisface las necesidades individuales

1. todas las reacciones qumicas de un


organismo

Name

Date

Class

Chemistry of Life

Reinforcement

Directions: Answer the following questions on the lines provided.


1. What are atoms?

2. Is water (H2O) an element or a compound?


Why?

Meeting Individual Needs

3. What is the difference between a compound and a mixture?

Directions: Label the following diagram of an atom using the words electron, proton, neutron.
2
2

5.

20
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4.

6.

Directions: Study the following graph. Then answer the questions.


Elements That Make Up the Human Body
Nitrogen 3%
Calcium 2%
Other 1%

Hydrogen
10%

Carbon
19%

Oxygen
65%

7. Oxygen and carbon together make up almost what percent of the elements in the human body?
(Circle the correct answer.)
a. 50%
b. 84%
c. 30%
d. 10%
8. What two elements do organic compounds always contain?

Cell Processes

25

Name

Date

Reinforcement

Class

Moving Cellular Materials

Directions: Answer the following questions on the lines provided.


1. What is osmosis?
2. How does osmosis explain the fact that a watery syrup forms when you put sugar on strawberries?

b. What type of transport is this?


4. a. What are vesicles?

b. What happens to a vesicle in exocytosis?


5. What is a selectively permeable membrane?

Directions: Label the diagrams of cells with the terms diffusion, active transport, osmosis, equilibrium,
facilitated diffusion. The arrows show the direction of transport.
high
carbon dioxide
levels

low
carbon dioxide
levels

6.

25 glucose
molecules

8 water
molecules
2 water
molecules

7.

8.
10 water
molecules

high
mineral levels

9.

26 Cell Processes

10 water
molecules

low
mineral levels

10.

5 glucose
molecules

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Meeting Individual Needs

3. a. How are glucose molecules moved into a cell?

Name

Date

Reinforcement

Class

Energy for Life

Directions: Answer the following questions on the lines provided.


1. How do producers make their own food?
2. Fill in the following equation for photosynthesis.
_____________+ water + carbon dioxide + chlorophyll _____________ + _____________

Meeting Individual Needs

3. What are the end products of respiration?


4. How does yeast cause bread to rise?

5. How do your muscles continue to get energy during high levels of activity when there is not
enough oxygen?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Directions: For each of the following, write the letter of the term that best completes each statement.
6. Fermentation releases energy without using ______.
a. oxygen
b. glucose
c. energy

d. carbon dioxide

7. What process occurs in the mitochondria?


a. fermentation
b. photosynthesis c. respiration

d. metabolism

8. During respiration some energy is released as ______.


a. chemical energy
c. heat
b. light energy
d. carbon dioxide
9. When muscles are overworked, soreness is caused by a buildup of ______.
a. glucose
b. carbon dioxide c. lactic acid
d. energy
10. The green plant pigment that traps light energy from the Sun is called ______.
a. glucose
b. chlorophyll
c. oxygen
d. water
11. During photosynthesis, plants produce glucose and release ______.
a. carbon dioxide b. energy
c. oxygen
d. water
12. The energy used by all living things starts with ______.
a. producers
b. consumers
c. respiration

d. sunlight

13. The total of all chemical reactions in an organism is called ______.


a. metabolism
b. respiration
c. enzymes
d. photosynthesis

Cell Processes

27

Name

Date

Enrichment

Class

The Effect of Temperature


on Solubility
The substance that is to be dissolved is called
the solute, and the substance that it is dissolved
in is called the solvent. In the example given,
sugar is the solute and hot tea water is the
solvent. When no more solute will dissolve at a
given temperature, we say that the solution is
saturated.

Materials
table salt
stirring rod
measuring spoons and measuring cups

thermometer
a shallow pan

Procedure

Data and Observations


Temperature (C)

Teaspoons of salt (volume)

Volume of salt (tsp.)

Conclude and Apply


1. The salt seems to disappear as it goes into solution. How do we know it hasnt actually
disappeared, other than taste?

2. If you were to use a heat source to make the water even hotter, hypothesize how the solubility
of salt would be affected.
28 Cell Processes

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. Pour 1/2 cup cold tap water into a measuring cup. Measure the temperature. Add salt, 1 level
teaspoon at a time, while stirring. Repeat until the solution is saturated.
2. Record the number of teaspoons used and the temperature. Discard the solution.
3. Repeat the procedure using tap water that is about room temperature.
4. Repeat, using very hot tap water. WARNING: Always be careful when handling hot objects. After
recording the data, pour the solution into the pan and allow the water to evaporate overnight. Plot
your data on the graph below.

Temperature (C)

Meeting Individual Needs

When a solid is dissolved in a liquid, the


molecules of the solid mix with the molecules
of the liquid. When you dissolve sugar in a
cup of tea, you know it is there because of the
taste, but you cant see the sugar.
In this experiment, you will see the effect of
temperature on solubility. Solubility is the
amount of a substance that dissolves in a
solvent at a given temperature.

Name

Enrichment

Class

Keeping a Balance

Water travels in and out of cells through the


cell membrane. Inside the cells, it is part of the
intracellular fluid. Outside the cells, water is
part of the extracellular fluid. This extracellular
fluid is found around cells in tissues and in
blood. Cells keep in balance with their environment by controlling what enters and leaves the
cell through passive and active transport. Passive
transport is the diffusion of molecules from a
place where their concentration is higher to a
place where it is lower, until the concentration is
equal on both sides of the membrane.

Body fluids contain many different dissolved substances such as sodium, potassium,
calcium, and magnesium. When the fluid outside a cell has the same concentration of these
dissolved substances as is present inside the
cell, the fluid is isotonic.
A fluid or solution that is referred to as
hypertonic has more of these dissolved substances than are inside the cell.
A solution that has less of these dissolved
substances is hypotonic.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Directions: The red blood cells diagrammed below are in different solutions. Label the diagrams of red blood
cells, indicating whether the solution is isotonic, hypertonic, or hypotonic.

A
Shrunken cells

B
Disk-shaped cells

C
Spherical cells

A. ____________

B. _____________

C. ____________

Directions: Answer the following questions on the lines provided.


1. What is happening in solution C?

2. Red blood cells are usually disk-shaped. What does the shape of the cells in solution A tell you
about the extracellular fluid?
3. Why does the cell change its shape?

Cell Processes

29

Meeting Individual Needs

Date

Name

Date

Enrichment

Class

Studying Photosynthesis

During photosynthesis, light energy is used to make glucose from carbon dioxide and water.
The glucose is stored in the leaves and other plant parts in the form of starch, another carbohydrate. The following experiment will show whether starch is being made and stored when photosynthesis is interrupted. Iodine will be used as an indicator for the presence of starch. An indicator shows
the presence of a certain substance.

Materials

Procedure
1. Using paper clips, attach a strip of black
paper to the upper surface of 3 leaves on
the plant. Cover about 1/3 of the leaf.
2. Place the plant in a sunny window for 2 or
3 days.
3. Cut the partly covered leaves from the plant.
4. Remove the black paper and soak the leaves
overnight in the saucer of alcohol.

5. Remove the leaves from the alcohol. With


the medicine dropper, place a drop of
iodine on parts of the leaves that were covered and on parts that were not covered.
6. Add a few drops of iodine to the cornstarch
solution.

Data and Observations


Color
Leaf

covered

uncovered

cornstarch

1
2
3

Conclude and Apply


1. Iodine is used as an indicator solution in this experiment. What change do you see in the color
of iodine when it is added to cornstarch?
2. Why do the uncovered parts of the leaves turn a different color than the covered parts?

30 Cell Processes

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Meeting Individual Needs

living green plant


piece of black paper
paper clips
saucer with rubbing alcohol
saucer with cornstarch solution
medicine dropper
tincture of iodine

Name

Date

Note-taking
Worksheet
Section 1

Class

Cell Processes

Chemistry of Life

A. Everything around you is made of ___________ and ___________.


1. Matter is anything that has _________ and takes up _________.
2. Energy can hold ____________ together or break it apart.
3. Matter is made of ___________.

b. Outside the nucleus are _____________, which are involved in ____________________.


4. Elementsmade up of only ______ kind of _______
a. Cannot be _________________ into a simpler form by ordinary chemical reactions
b. Arranged in a chart called the ______________________ of elements
5. Compoundsmolecular and ionic
a. Made of two or more _______________ in exact proportions
b. Have different _______________ from the elements they are made of

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

c. The smallest part of a molecular compound is a ________________.


d. ______________a group of atoms held together by the energy of chemical bonds
e. Form when atoms share _______________
6. Ionic compounds
a. Ions_______________________ atoms, positive or negative
b. Ions of ______________ charges attract one another to form electrically
______________ compounds.
B. Mixturecombination of substances in which individual substances ____________________
1. Solutionmixture in which two or more substances are mixed ____________
2. Suspensionforms when a liquid or gas has another substance evenly ____________
throughout it
C. Organic compoundscontain ___________ and hydrogen and are usually associated with
living things or things that once were alive; four groups of organic compounds make up all
living things.
1. ___________________supply energy for cell processes
2. ___________store and release large amounts of energy
Cell Processes

31

Meeting Individual Needs

a. A nucleus contains ___________ and ____________.

Name

Date

Class

Note-taking Worksheet (continued)


3. ___________are the building blocks of many structures
a. _____________smaller molecules that make up proteins
b. _____________proteins that regulate nearly all chemical reactions in cells
4. ___________________store important coded information in cells
D. Inorganic compoundsusually made from elements other than _____________
E. Importance of water

survive.
2. All chemical reactions in living things take place in ____________________.
3. Most living things use water to _______________ materials through their bodies.

Section 2

Moving Cellular Materials

A. Cells have a selectively __________________ membrane that regulates what goes into or out
of the cell.
B. Passive transportthe movement of substances through a cell membrane ______________
the input of energy
1. Diffusionwhen molecules move away from areas where there are more of them into areas
where there are __________________ of them; stops when the molecules of one substance
are spread evenly throughout another substance and ___________________ occurs
2. Osmosisthe diffusion of __________ through a cell membrane.
3. In facilitated diffusion, _______________________ move substances into and out of the cell
C. Active transport requires ___________________ to move a substance through a cell membrane.
D. Endocytosis and exocytosis
1. Endocytosisthe process in which a substance is taken into a cell by surrounding it with
the ______________________, forming a sphere called a vesicle
2. Exocytosisthe process in which the membrane of the vesicle fuses with the cells
membrane and the vesicles contents are ________________________ the cell

32 Cell Processes

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Meeting Individual Needs

1. Living things are composed of more than ________________ water and depend on it to

Name

Date

Class

Note-taking Worksheet (continued)


Section 3

Energy for Life

A. Cells use chemical reactions to change the chemical ____________ stored in food into forms
needed to perform activities.
1. Metabolismthe total of all ________________________ in an organism
2. The chemical reactions of metabolism require ______________.

____________________ into chemical energy or sugars to be used as food.


1. _____________organisms that make their own food; ______________organisms that
cant make their own food
2. Chlorophyll and other pigments are used in photosynthesis to capture __________ which is
used to produce sugar and __________.
C. Respirationthe process in which chemical reactions break down food molecules into simpler
substances and ______________________
1. Respiration of carbohydrates begins in the ____________________.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

a. Carbohydrates are broken down into ____________________.


b. Each glucose molecule is broken down into two simpler molecules, releasing energy.
2. Respiration moves into the _________________.
a. The two simpler molecules are __________________ again, releasing much more energy.
b. This process uses ___________ and produces CO2 and water as wastes.
D. Fermentationcells that do not have enough oxygen for respiration use this process to release
some of the stored energy in ___________________ molecules.
1. Entire process occurs in the _______________.
2. Produces ____________, ___________, and carbon dioxide as wastes.
E. Photosynthesis and _______________almost the opposite of each other
1. Photosynthesis produces __________ and ___________, which are used in respiration
2. Respiration produces _______________ and __________, which are used in photosynthesis.

Cell Processes

33

Meeting Individual Needs

B. Photosynthesisthe process that plants and other organisms use to convert

Assessment
Assessment
34 Cell Processes

Name

Date

Class

Cell Processes

Chapter
Review

Part A. Vocabulary Review


Directions: Select the term from the following list that matches each description.
active transport
consumer
diffusion
matter

energy

enzyme
equilibrium
mixture
endocytosis

inorganic compound
metabolism
exocytosis
fermentation

passive transport
producer
organic compound
osmosis

1. movement of molecules without the input of energy


2. passive transport of water by diffusion
3. protein binds to a particle and uses energy to move through the
cell membrane
4. condition in which molecules of a substance are spread evenly
throughout a space
5. an organism that makes its own food
6. a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction
7. a process by which vesicles release their contents outside the cell

9. movement of molecules from an area of more molecules to an


area of less molecules
10. an organism that cant make its own food
11. compound containing carbon and hydrogen and is associated
with living things
12. process that releases energy without using oxygen
13. a substance made of elements other than carbon
14. process of taking substances into a cell by surrounding it with
the cell membrane
15. combination of substances in which each substance retains its
own properties
16. has mass and takes up space
17. the ability to cause change

Cell Processes

35

Assessment

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

8. all of the activities that occur within the cells of an organism

Name

Date

Class

Chapter Review (continued)


Part B. Concept Review
1. Explain the difference between compounds and mixtures.

Directions: Identify the following examples as a compound or a mixture.


2. glucose
3. blood
4. Explain the difference between organic and inorganic compounds.

Directions: Identify the following examples as organic or inorganic.


5. water

____________________

8. chlorophyll

6. cellulose

____________________

9. carbon dioxide

7. calcium

____________________ 10. DNA

Assessment

Directions: Identify the following as part of active transport or passive transport.


12. mineral movement into plant root
13. osmosis
14. carrier proteins
15. diffusion

Directions: Write P if the item describes photosynthesis or R if it describes respiration.


16. carbon dioxide is waste
17. occurs in mitochondria
18. oxygen given off
19. makes glucose from CO2
20. uses light energy
21. uses chlorophyll

36 Cell Processes

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

11. Explain the function of a selectively permeable membrane.

Transparency Activities

Transparency
Activities

Cell Processes

41

Name

Date

Section Focus
Transparency Activity

Class

Chemicals for Life

Transparency Activities

1. Of the objects above, which come from living things?


2. Which objects do not contain substances that were once alive?
3. Name three substances that your body needs to survive that do not
come from living things.
42 Cell Processes

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Every living thing is made of compounds containing carbon and


hydrogen. We consume many of these compounds for energy. However, some compounds that we consume do not contain the elements
carbon and hydrogen. These compounds are also necessary for life.

Name

Date

Section Focus
Transparency Activity

Class

Skin Deep

Transparency Activities

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Misting with water helps keep supermarket produce fresh. Not all
the water stays on the skin of these fruits and vegetables; most of it
seems to disappear. The trick is finding out where it went.

1. When the water on the fruits and vegetables disappears, where


does it go?
2. Create a simple test to explain what happens to the water when it
disappears.
3. How do you think the water keeps the produce fresh?
Cell Processes

43

Name

Date

Section Focus
Transparency Activity

Class

Whats for dinner?

Transparency Activities

1. Which things in the picture are producers? Consumers?


2. Explain whether you are a producer or consumer.
3. If all the plants died, what effect would it have on the animals?
44 Cell Processes

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Some organisms dont need anyone to survive, but others need help
to get by. In this picture, some of the living things shown can make
their own food. They are called producers. Other living things, called
consumers, depend on these producers for their survival.

Date

1
Teaching Transparency
Activity

Transparency Activities

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name
Class

Organic Compounds

Cell Processes

45

Name

Teaching Transparency Activity

Date

Class

(continued)

1. What type of compounds always contain carbon and hydrogen and are associated with living
things?
2. What substance supplies energy for cell processes?
3. What are the functions of lipids?

4. What substance helps build cell structures?

5. What two elements are contained in all organic compounds?

7. DNA and RNA are examples of what kind of organic compounds?

Transparency Activities
46 Cell Processes

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. List some examples of protein.

Name

Date

Assessment
Transparency Activity

Class

Cell Processes

Directions: Carefully review the diagrams and answer the following questions.

Salt

Membrane
1

Water

1. Which of the following questions would best be addressed by the


experiment shown above?
A Can salt float in water?
B What is the membranes permeability?
C Does salt dissolve in water?
D What compounds are found in salt?
Transparency Activities

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. This experiment probably relies on ___.


F osmosis
H friction
G endocytosis
J exocytosis
3. If the water and salt could cross the membrane equally, the water
would ___.
A increase on the left
C equalize
B increase on the right
D collapse the membrane
Cell Processes

47