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Vol, XXXI

No;22' .

,T

AUgUS1,16-31. 1983
\

->

Re,. 1

:8e!

Literacy among rural


women is being encouraged under the various
programmes
to help
them play a m~aningful
role in society.

Rural
women

ThOugh constituting half of . the rural population, rural women are yet to make
their rightful contribution to the amelioration of the rural society. Kept back
by

from

centuries

of

socia! taboos_, they

attending to household work

even today hm'e to attend

to helping their

menfolk

to various chores

in the farms.

The opportunities for their education were limited, that is why main thrust of
our rural development programmes has been io raise the standard of life of our
rural women.

Mahila mandals have


played a useful role in
inculcating
a
spirit
of
self-respect
and
initiative among rural
women.

, .-."
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-"i

.r.J:j}itiJriGI
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(India's Journal of rural development)

CONTENTS"
STEPPING UP'RURAL.W AREHOUSING

'.

of'import'of fo.odgrajnsduring
.
. the laSt two years has given rise to a. debate.
wh;ther we have really attained ~elf-~uffihiency in
foodgrains proouction. SOlfle'of the criticJ feer that .
'.after r~aping the fruits of, Green' Revolutio~ we have
. r~ached a level of stagnation 'i'n f~0d prod~>ticn and
something'ctIastic needs to be d<m:' if we have to
maintain a rate of growth in foodgrains proouction to
. THE

RESUMPTION

~atch the gro,"1h,of population.

.[.

N.' K. Gandhi'

. COMMAND AREA. DEVELOPMENT


ACHIEVEMEtWS"AND 'PERSP~E

R. S,- Sdkseno and D .. Tripathy .


SPECIAL' COMPONENT PLA,~ FOR
.
. SCHEDU~ED CASTES .

13

Vidya Rao

",

15

INDEBTEDNESS AMONG TIuBALS:'


A STUDY
Fahimuddin
THEY SHOW THE WAY ...

While ~ debate goes on, one cannot deny the fact


.'
.'
.
'..
. I .
that everi at t,/le present level of 'foodgrains pr04uc'tion we ar~ not omy' self'-suflicientbut s~rplus in
Io~grnius if we ,takeintd. consideration Ithe vast
quantity of
post-harvest foodgrairi losses
.
., in lhe coUn'
trY: Between"196o-lil and 1981-82 the foodgrains.
imp~ .have aver~ged 3.78 million tonnes p~r annum.
As again'st this miuimum eStimate. of pdst-harvest
foodgrain losses,is "round ten per~nt
of the to~l
production. In other word~if we were able :to reduce.
our post-harvest losses by about 50 per' cenl,
there
would be uo need to import' any foodgrai~s at any
.

tiIne.

I '

'

The losses during storage account. for most of' the'


.p~t-harvest lOsses. Th". a~~h.ge.. farmer. has no
EDITOR
kn'owledgeof the' scientific'nieihods of storiw; nor
(MRS.) RATNA JUNEJA
h~, he the facilities to. do 'so:.. The foodgrltins are
A$Srr. EDITOR' . stote<!'by.themtraditiollally' in.locallymall storage
N. N. SHARiI.~ , structures' which do not provide. complete protection
againSt' peSfs.and' rodents. The slocks proburedby
.. SUB-JIDITOR
'.
the publi~''agencies are
i;; godown~ whieh
.(MRS!)
PARAMJEET G.. SINGH
..
. .
,1. -.
I
reduce the losses to the minimum.. The .jevel of
COVER
'losses .in storage at the domestic level is m~ch mOTe
.
'.
\.
M. M. PARMAR
than the losses incurred as a result of storage in
. public god~.
If. the.fanllers !;ould be 'Ie~tended
. the fitcilities of paper. warehousing.in thenlral areas
'. at- ~ <-teasonable fee, :w~~coitId
shve"millions ~f tnnues
. EDqnIri i'egarding Su~ptIo00,
,\pad .; tit.,
offbodgrairi;
from
destfuctio~.':
'
.
BusbieS! .Manager, .PublleatiODs Di.,:w~,

.-'.

sio~"d

Pliliilla

...
...
:.
;._.
.

L:

.'.

.'

.nN.w

D.IhI.HUGOI
'.TeI: 387983

Ellilorfal Office: 'Kri.hiBhavan,


1'1. Dellli-HOOOI
_.T.I~P~i>n :3~li88& 382406.

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Vol. XXXI
No. 22
.August 16, 1983
Sravana 25, 1905'

l!ditor','R ld.nce: 615920

..

.
....
.. '.
.
In tJ:iisissue we carry. a,higliIy informative article on
stePping up. warehousmg {acJ'lities:in our rotal :ire~s.
It js h0Pe4o~
.. "
',',read~~swill. find',it
....,. useful. I
'

"

The views expressed by the authors "lIonot necessarily reflect the


evwsof the GoverQrqent-~itor
. -- <..'
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....,

N. K. GANDlll
Consultant, National P~ductiviry Council, ~ew Delhi

'T HEproductioI)
ADVENT
OF moden;t technolOgyin agricultural
has brought about a 6reakthrough in .
farm technology in India.
This has necessitated the
optimum utilisation. of limited fesources and the occurrence of .uncertain' factor associated with the' traditional Indian agriculture. Wiili the development in_
fann technology and consequent increase in agricul.tural production, marketed surpluses increased and
the storage facilities created to meet the need for sub..
sistence ianning have' not- simultaneously adopted the
change br~ught about by -the commercialized .Imming_

In spite of aU this, it has not been sufficient to feed


our masses and we liad. to .resort to imports year
after year, Excepting four- years since 1960-61, we
have been iinportID.gfoodgrains varying from about
0.45 millionton;,es (0.35 percenuo total production)
in 1980'81 to 10.31 million tmines (14.26 percent
of total production)
in 1965-66 -(see Table 1), Bet-ween 1960-61 and 1981-82, the foodgrains imports
have 'averaged to a level of 3,7.8 million tonnes' per
annum.
.

Efficient storage plays a prominent role in not ouly


sustaining -and stimulating production but also minimising.the jnter-teI)lporal 'and inter-spatial disparities_ Efficiency in storage eliminates wastes and
helps in conserving nationiU resources_' To enable
. us to share the gains of increased agricul\urai produc.
.tion and productivity, we ought to have an efficient. 1
'storage system whIch can prolong. the _shelf.lIfe of
our perishable' coinmodities' and can preserve food.
grains from spoilage. In a situafion, where/he agricuituraI production has stagnated over a period of
time and the population is increasing at a_steady rate,
it becomes imperativ~ to examine the complete.system
. of agricultural pro-duction: stortge and n;i~rketing_

Extent of losseS

,
-'
-.HE'PRODUCTION
OF foodgrains in the counfry has
"

,
'observed a significant increase over the last 30
T
years.' It ;has reached a production level' of~133.

million tonnes in 1981-82 as against 52 million tonnes


in 1950-51.
.
.'
The iIicrease. in production is likely to -maint'ain
this -pace in futu~e too due' to substantia! increase. in
irrigation facilities, enhanced -:useof fertilizers; availa- -bility of improved' quality seedS, credit facilities -etc. '

..

TABLE 1:

_ Yearwise AvaiiabilityofFoodgrains

..

,
Production

Year

1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967"68
1968.69
1969-70
1970m
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74
1974-75
_1975-76.
197,6-77
1977-78
1978-79
1979-80
.. '1981l-1l1
1981~82

82 -0.
82-7
80-2
80-6
8,9-4
72-3
74--2
95-1
94-q
99'5
108-4
105 -2
97-0
.140-7
99-8
'121-0
111-2
126-4 '
131-9
109 '7
129 ,6
33-1

Imports

.3.49
3 :63
4-54
6-25
7-<\4
10-31
8 :66
5-67
3-82
3-55
2-0\
-(O-~O)
3 -59
5'-16
7-54
6.92
0-99
-0,63
-0-86
-O'~5 _
0..45
1 -48

4'-26
4-39
- 5 -66
7.75
8,32
14-26
11 -67
5-98
4-06
~ 3-57
1-85

3-70
4'93
755 ~
5--72 .
0-89

8 -35:
1.11

-83,16

Total
"Source:

Imports as
perctgnt_age of""
Production

Economic Survey"198~-83

,~

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KuRUKSHETR.(

Au~t
\

16. -198,

-.

P"

.-

While - the production has maintained an upward trend; the_facilities- for storage, processing Rna marketing have not kept 'pace -with it. -Proper _ storage
and handling of foodgrains is of utmost _ importance
in .view of the -substantial losses of food arising from,
defective methods of storing the -sanie. The U. -N.
Developm~nt Projects' Action stated thail- in India
over 10 million tonnes of grains are lost each year
through spoilage by pests and moisture, and that these
losses were so stupendous that they could- make up _
for the entire annual world shortage. _
CCORDJ1olG
TOthe Commonwealth Secretariat, it was
estimate'llthat the post-harvest losses vary from 10
to _over 25 percent. _ The storage losses comprise more
then two-third of the total -in most of the countries.
-In general, it is said that 10 to 15 percent of the foodgrains are -lost during _storage in tropical and - subtropical countries. According to a report on 10sse1;of foodgrains in India by Birl;I Institute of Economic Research, at least 10 percent of the foodgrains are
lost every year in'storage alone.
,-

~ Whereas -Panse Committee estimated_a p'ercentage


loss of 9.33 in foodgrains during all post-harvest
stages. The .losses during_storage are reported to be
at 6.58 percent level. Even at this level, India has
lost 146.6 million tonnes of foodgrains due to storage alone since 1961. The total post-harvest losses
account for 207.9 millii:m tonnes dnring the period
(Table 2). As -against this: country imported 83_16
million tonnes of foodgrains during -the same period
which is about 56 percent of the losses occurring dur. ing_storage alone. Hence if we can avert GO percent
I of the storage losses, the country -will not only- be
able to wipe out deficit but will become a net exporter. This underlies the need and -the importance for
I an. appropriate storage system which can reduce the
losses.-

2
----~_._'1970-71
1971-72
1972,73
1973-74
1974-75
1975-76 1976-77
1977-78
1978-79
1979-80
1981l-81
1981-82

10-11

I-

9-81
-9-05
9-77
9.31
11 -29
10-37

-11-79

Total

7 .1~
6 -12
6-38
6.89
6.57
7.96
7 -32
8-32
8-68
7-22 8 -53
8-76

12-31
10.23
12-09
12 -42

207-9

I. 146-7

!
f

The existing system consists of _about 7(l percent foodgrains production being retained at the farm level for domestic consumption and seed purposek and the
balance"which consists of marketable surplus~s, moves, to consuming centres through various Government
agencies as well as private trade channels. The grains
retained-.- at farm level are stored in indigenohsly-made
.
I
storage structures such as K/uUhis, Bukharies, Bharo.
rozaS, etc. which can hardly protect the gfaiI)s from
-_insects, pests androdenlS_ - The stocks procured by
the public agencies are stored in godowns pwned -by
these agencies or hired by them from private parties.
- Similarly stocks purchased by the traders 1"re either
kept in warehouses of public agencies .or in!their ewn
godowns. The grains stored at the farm'level suffer
the !Jlaxirnumlosses.'
-:
I_

How

to

I
avoid loss~s

o AVOIDTHJ;SELOSSES,one_can think.; of three

-alternatives; The altern.ativesalong with their imp.


licatious are given below:
.

,
I

TABLE2 : Post~Harvest Cosses of Foodgrain during 196()"61 to ;


'1981-82

..

Total Losses
Losses
@9 .33-% . due to .
IneffiCient storage
@6-58%
2

3_

_7.70
7-72
7 :48
7-52
8-34
6-75
6-92
8'87
8 -'/7 _
. 9 -28

5-39
5-44
5-28
5-30
5-88
4-76
4;86_
6-28
6-18
6.55

1
~ -1960'61
1961-62
1962-61
1963-64
1964-65
_ -1965-66
1966-67
1967'68
1968-69
1969-70

.
. ..
.
I
Since _the 65-70 ,percent of the foodgrains areretained by the farmers; they should be- ttained in
_the' scientific storage practices to enable: them - to
minimise the losses. Government of Iudia has al.
ready launch,d a Save Grain Campaign u~der w~icli .
the trainiug is imparted and demonstraiions artl
given. But 'conSidering'the number of fatmers and
their
spread,
ihe task is so huge
that thd existence
.
,
'r
of a few 'agencies c,annot serve the purpose.

...:Year ...

KURUKSHETJl.A August 16; 1983

..

'-

Other facto~s whichjnhi~it t~e farmer! io make'


use of 'scientific- methods ef preserving Ithe food,~ains incJurle the unsuitabiijty of storage struc-.t]Ires for: chemical treatment -of grains stored in them, 'non-availability of cheinicals ai '~ght -time,
lack
. of kn-"wloogeabout
. , the use of such'chemicals
r'
,and socio-economic aud cultural enVironrent. i

2
Faodgrainsbe procured: from the farmers and stored
by public agencies in scientific storage strUctures.
This system has its in-built limitation because it is
only 30-40 percent of' the foodgraJns praducti~n
which is, the marketable surplus and is disposed off
by 'the farmers immediately after harvest and is
available' far procurement by 'public' agencies. Even
the storage' 'capacity available with' these agencies
is na~sufficient to stock the marketable surplus .of
'the farmers, a"large proponion.of which is concernc.j by the traders and .finds its storage in unscientific
starage structures tao. . .

The system is also plagued by the inability of .our


tailwaysystem
to handle, . large-scale foodgrains
"f transportation during the' season. According to the'
Sixth Five Year Plan to, the Food Corporation of
India and 'other' public agencies are required to
handle only th" marketable surpluses... The. storage capacity available With them, for alI kinds of
materials at the start of this plan was 138.78 lakh
tonnes. It was envisaged 'to add 86.60 lakh tonnes
of storage capacity in Sixth. Plan. Besides' this, '
,cooperative sector had about 47 'lill lonnes of
. capacity for rn.eeting their ag"icultural' input storing,
requirements. 'They have 'also planned to create
- about 35 lakh tonnes of 'additional storage 'capaclty
duri~g th~ Sixth Plan periad.

3
In view 6f high foodgrains losses in on-the-farm-.
storage and 'Drganised sector bypassing the rural
areas, there is an urgent need to create facilities
in rural are.as which .can meet the' economic requirements of the farmers .alld ca'n reduce the unwanted losses too.

mak;

will not ocly


more food avmlable fof' human consumption hut will, ah;o offer
t1)e following advantages :'
,
HIS S~STEM'

1. It will demonstrate the, utility of scientific storage techniques to' the farmers.
'
2. It will save them from the clutches of the money- '
. lende.rsby extending credit fa,ilities against' hypothe<Oatio~of their stocks. ,
,
.
3. It will ensure farmers to get the benefit of remunerative prices by storing their produce till favourableprices could 'be' obtained ..
4. It will prevent distress' sale of agricultural produce immediately after' harvest when: the prevailing
prices are at their lowest
.
5. It will'reduce pressure on storage space with
existing public agencies.
6. It will reduCe pressure ,on transport facilitiesiri
post-harvest .periods of peak demand for transport.
,
7. This will also make ,available agricultural inputs
required for growing crops ana increasing production.
To make such a system' viable, it is considered as
necessary to assess the ,actual requirement of .the area
:-based on the' existing storage capacity, agricultural
production 'potential; inpU!t ocequirements and other
distribution needs befor~ the creation of such a rural
warehousing facility.
It shonld be manned by an agency-Gram p'auchayat, Cooperative Organisation, Market Committee,
State Warehousing Corporation etc. in whom its clients
have full faith.
''
,
'Farmers must' be educated and motivated regarding
the availability and utility of rural warehousing facili- "
ties through various e-xten~ionand other agencies in
the cOl,mtryconcerned with farmers' welfare.

Emphasis on small farmers

must be manlled .' by a Govern-'


. mcntal agency and should be within the reach 'of
small and marginal farmers. A small farmer should '
be ill a .position to deposit o-rdraw his stocks of small
qua'ntities,as 'and when necessary, This has been obser.ved in a survey,onducied by the National Pradu,"
_.
-. tivity Council, that the farmers would like, to stock
, . foodgrains m~ant far their ,own 'consumptionin any
facility created .by any Governmental agency provided
it is wit4in thei~.reach.
.
UCH A SYSTEM

-..

KURUKsHETRAAu~st

,.
(

16, 1983;

"-

ee

Command area
'developnlent:
achievements and
perspectivy

hectarc, the actual yield was around 1.7 tannes only.


The principal reasons for this shortfall werc :( a) inadequate irrigation or over-irrigation due to absence
of prbper distribution system; (b j heavy- waterlogging.
conditions in thf; qbsencc of proper drainage systems
leading to increase in water table in the command areas
and soil salinity in large areas; (c) some areas included'

in the culturable command areas not getting water 'for


irrigation; and (d) inadequate use.of strategic agricu1, 'tural inputs in the absence of proper' ,water' control
structures,

R. S. SAKSENA and D. TRIPATHY'

The C.A.D, pro'gramme'

is a vital need for agricultural


production where rainfall is deficient to meet the
water requirements of crops, When p~operly utilised,
it helps.in stabilising food and agriculturalprcduclion
and their prices. Since about 43 per cent of the
national income is ~erived from agriculture in India,
stabilization, of its production illld price plays, a vital
role in stabilising the general price leveL'
'
RRIGATION

WATER

Upto 1979-80, the total irrigatio'n potential created'


in Indiawas 56,6 million hectares ami tlie total utiliza. "
tion was 52.6 millkm hectares leaving a gap of 4 million
hectares, Various Committees and Commissions imd
expert bodies from time to time have expressed grave
concern about the under-utilization of irrigation paten:
tial created with hea,:,y investments.

Tlie Planning Commission pOints out: "the return


from the, investment both in terms of yield as well as,
finance are very disappointing". The principal reasons
for these 'are delay in COmpletionof projects and undcrutiiization of. the potentia!' already created. 'Again,
the latter was due to (a) delay in construction, of field
channels and water courses and levelling arid 'shaping
of lands; and (b) deficiency in carial systems, .

So far as (a) is ooncerned, it was product of the


past decision of the Government, i,e. leaving the
responsibility of the, construction of field channels a~d
water courses below the outlet of 30-40 hectares capacity to the .cultivators in the command, Due to
various constraints,

the cultivators

in the command

could not construCt the field channels and water courses


and could not level their land' to make them' suitable
fat getting water from the canal supplied for irrigatbn
purposes.

On the other hand,' irrigation, wherevor available


. did not yield'the desired results, Le., increased produc"'Hon as .enYlsaged in the ~irrigation prograrinpes. As
against. potential, of 4 to 5 tbnnes' of foodgrains per
*The vi~wS"expressed are-;ntirely those of the authors and not"ofthe "~i?istry of Irrigation to which"they belong.

~,

KuiWKSHE'TRA

August 16, 1983

HE

'

COMMAND

AREA

DEVELOPMENT

PROGRAMME

was introduced during the Fifth Plan as a centrally


spOnsored scheme. By J 980-81, 76 major and medium
projects covering an ultimate irrigati&npctential of 15
million hectares in 16 State~ and one Union Territory'
are benefitting from the C.A.D., Programme, Fortyfive
C.A.D, Authorities 'had been set up by 1980-81 covet-'
ing 71 irrigation projects; 5"pmjects falling in the
States of Assam, Manipur and Tamil Nadu are not
,'~overed by the CAD. AuthoriJies.
The principal objective of the programme was to
iricrease the utilization of the irrigation potential below
the 'outlet command thereby increasing prcductivity per
unit of land and water. This was to be achieved
.throllgh an. integrated system of eff.edive water distribution and efficie"nt soil-crop-water managem"ent practices. As the principal prerequisites of an effectiv'i'"
water distribution system, emphasis was to re giver! to
the construction of field channels and land levelling,
wherever nece'Ssary, after takinK into account. the SQil

characteristics. It was also to lay ,emphasis on the


construction of prop~r drains and recycling of drain
water to theco"romand

area wl)erever necessary

feasible. To, be specific, theprograinme


covers the following: '

and;-

broadly

L On farm development works comprising (a) field.,'


,irrigation channels, (b) field drains, (c) land levelling/shaping operations and (d) consolidation of
land holdings/realignment cf f,e1d boundaries wher.
ever nec~ssa(y,

~.

."

4, Introduction of rotational system of water distribution within the outlet command, (warabandi).
3. Adoption of suitable cropping ,pattern and rostering system of irrigation,
4. Strengthening of agricultural elf tension service,.
5. ,Provision of adequate drai;;age network in the
c6ifmand

areas' and modernization of existing irriga-

, tlOn system,' .

6. Devei~pment of ground water for copjunctive use,


7, ' Arr'ang.ment, and supply of agricultural' inputs
":Jndextension services ,including short-te-rm credits.

0-

'.

8. 'Development of necessary infrastructure in the


shape of roads, markets and warehousing facilities
within the command area.
.

Pattern of Central. Assistance


I

1974-79, Go,,';,rriment of India


provided centraL assistance to the State Governments on.matching
basis for the' establishment 6f
C.A.D .. organisations both at the State and project
.Ievel; for carrying out soil and topographiCal surveys,
planning, design and supervision of on-farm developmcnt (OFD) works; crop com,pensation to farmers who
have to forego a rabi crop during the execution of OFD.
works, equity capital suppprt. for. establishing land
development corporati-:ms, Farmers .ServiceS0cieties,
.etc. It also met 100 per cenC expenditure incurred ..
fot providing subsidies to small and marginal farmers
for execution of OFD works. and groundwater development as per pattern. applicable. in SFD,A/MYAL
Schemes. Goverinnent of jndia also provided loans
to the State Governments for construction of field
channels and for purposes of equipment and machinery
for land and .groundwater development in the command
areas.. It participated,in the setting up of Special Loan'
Account (S.L.A.) with Agricultural Refinance and
'Development Corporation (ARDC, now NABARD)
for financing ineligible farmers; alongwith the .Statc
Governments and. the ARDC in ~he ration 0(2: .1 : 1.

URING.THE

P.ERIOD

. Pattern "of Central assistance has b~cn changed dUJ:_


ing Sixth Five-Ycar.PIa!, (from 197;J-80) in aCCord-.
ance with the directive of National Development
Council's decision of providing central assistance. to
the States on ma1thing basis. The revi~d financing
pattern eff.;{,tive since 1979-80 envisages:
1. Grallts to. St~te Gover1lmeilts 0)" matchillg
baSis:

'"

(a) for establishment of C~D. Authorities bOth


at the State and Proi.cct level;
_
(b) for carrying out soil and topographical sur. veys, planning,. design and -Supervision of
OPD worKS; .

(c) for preparation. and' enforcement of turn


schedule (warabandi) OJI outlct c.ommand
ba~is;
(d) subsidy to' small ~nd marginal farmcrsa.
.per approved pattern for groundwater developm~nt, field drains, land levcllhag and
shaping;
(e) for construct jon of field channels, 25 per
cent of c,:st?;
(f) for conducting adaptivc trials, training . programmes and establishment of de~nstra-.
tion .farm and training centres;'.
(g) crop compensation to f;rmers who lose a
. crop during' rabi for ~xecution- of OFD
workS.

2. Loans to Slate Govemmelits 011 matJ;hing


basis :
(a) for "taking up construction of field channels;
, 25 per cent of cost;
(b for purchase of cquipment and machinery
for' land an~ groundy;ater development;
(c) fOLpJ:oviding equitY' support 'to .land deve-lopment .corporations, farmers' service'societie.s etc,; .
.
(d) participation in creation of special loan fund
.
for financing. the' ineligible farmers for' the
.the execution of OFD works' on matching'
basis .with the State Governments.

Since April 1982, the pattern of financing is as


feHows::-:
. . ,'tt

~~~m

;4. Grant,s

.. ;

(i) Half of the cost of all establiShment .required


for project prcparation, planning, implementation,
supervision and monitoring of CADp in the States/
Union Territories, including esiablishment of- cAD
- Authorities 'iJ1d Training Centres. .
.
Gii) Half cif the cost of expenditure incurred for
topographical, soil and other surveys required for
preparation of CAD project reports, desigriing and
planning of. work of field . channels, Jinjng of field
.ch,annels, bnd levelling and shaping, reali~ent
of
field drains, farm roads and warabandi efc.
(iii) Half of the cost' of design, planning and enforcement of warabandi system in outlet commandS
. including rostering of irrigation channels.. .
.(Iv) Half of the crop cotnpens'ation to be paid to
fajmers {or 2/3rd value of standing crops/rabi crops
. _to be foregone for doing Iqnd leveiling fn unavoidable cases.
(v) Half of the cost incurred for Adaptive .trials,.
Demonstration and Training on the schemes to be gOt pre-approved from Government of India.
'
(vi) Half of the cost for giving' subsidy to be adjusted against loans' to small .and marginal farmers,
coop'cratives and community \vorks -on the IRDp.
pattern in vogue'=-'on the. following ,~orks;
(a) Groundwater developments structures for.
conjll;nctive use.
'
(b) FieLj channels inclu<!ing lining and layi"ng
of underground. pipe .conveyance. system.
(c) Field-drains.
(d) -Land. levelling .and shaping.
(e) Sprinkler and drip irrigation.
(vii) Twentyfive. per cent ot" the cost of. cons~
truction of new field channels to carry irrigation.
water from Government outlet to individual farm
holdings. The construction
of field - channels
would inClude n~cessaTY-'and ,reql~red control and
,

KURVKSHETRA

,-

August 16, 1983

.~

. 'other structures and lining including laying Of


underground pipelines or overhead troughs on
pillars or arches, in satidy soil reaches or. he'avy ,
filling reaches,
(vili), Half of the cost of systematic evaluation
studies of on-going' CAD projects to ascertaiU the
merits and deficienciesof their implementation to
be entrusted to independent agencies (not private
consultancy firms) like State Planning or Evaluation DireCtorates" Institutes, already existng in
the States, if any, towards either getting up a new
Directorate of strengthening existing ones,
.
b'

B, Loans to the State Goyernments


basis i,e, 50 , 50,

On

"wtching'

construction and land levellings, These surveys have


been conducted in the areas before construction of field
channels and levelling and...shaping of lands,
Fully lined field channels, heldinimnimising losses
in channel ~onveyance, But the costs of construction
of fully lined channels' are very high, A decision
was therefore taken that earthen channels wonld be ,
constructed and depending upon the quality of the
soil, linirig work would be taken up upto 20 per cent
of the length of the earthen channels. The initi.a'~ tive taken ,by the comm.nd area authorities have initia-'
ted.in 0.84 million hectares of area getting facility of
, lined channels,

Irrigation projects should have a network o( proper


drainage systemto 'maintain desired level of water
1. Construction .of field 'channels ~25 percent of
required
by crpps in .the-field: The nmnber and size
cost).
)F~~lof drains per umt of area will depend upon the .topo-:
2, Purchase of equipment and, machinery for land
graphy of' the land: , 'The provision for the
main
and, groundwater development.
"drains' was,'the responsibility .of the earlier irrigation
3. Providing equity support to Land Development
projects. Development of. proper field drains conCorpor~tions, Farmers' Service Societies etc.
nected to the main drains comes under the purview of
4, Creatioil/of the Special Loan Account for financCAD Programme, It is heartening to note that the '
ing ineligible fan~ers for the exicution of' on-fami
steps taken under the programme have resulted in
,development.
.
'the provision of field drains in 0,83 million hectares
of cultivated land.
Physical achievemeIlts
implementation of the
AsCAD Programme 5,75the'million
hectares of cultiA ,CONSEQUENCE

OF

vated land tas got the facilil}' of getting irrigation


water tIirough field channels by March, 1983. The
cumulative achievement in respect of, levelling and
shaping of undulating 'land 'in the' command area -is
1.28 million hectares', UPtOMarch, 1983. This has
made the land more suitable for receiving flow i~igagation water from the system,' Topogl'i'phical and soil
surveys arc essential prerequisites .for field' channels .
, TABLE 1:

Data on cumulative achievements under various


items 'are presented in the Table 1 below, The interstate variations in achievements in respect of various
'items appear to 'be very wide., It is observed that
'Uttar Pradesh accounts fat 44 percent of the total
field chann~ls and 42 per cent of the field drains. _
Similarly, Karnatak" and Maharashtra, each account,
for 35 per cent of total achievementsunder land levelling: Variations - in r;,spect of other physical items
are also obs~rved.

Cumulativ~ Achievements 'under CAD Programme


(at the end of Marth 1983)
-

State

Field

Channel

Levelling

Andhra Pradesh.
Assam
Bihar
Goa

406.65
4'70
548.94

159 .45

Gujarat

394-17
. 7--45
18.77
'727 .51
0.28
207.59
519.33
59.75
261 '11
54.40
2519.36
12 '12'

1 -45
61'51 '

Haryana
Jammu & Kashmir
Karnataka
KeraIa
Madhya Pradesh
Maharaslitra
Manipur
Orissa
Rajasthan

Tamil Nadu
Uttar Pradesh

'Vest

.'

Bengal

l
-

. + For
Note:

- Warabandi

Fiekf*
dl~ains

116 -24

14 .33

'1'19

30 '28

0'37
1 .66

70 -19
13 -73
10.58
-458.52
0.80 .
29 '15
462 '43 '

55'22
.4'00
24 .88
1 '24
4-00
.13'72
26'02

Land

7.56
2'91

Total,
5742 .13
1279-47
--.,-'-';'ur;p;:;;t~o~D"ece='
m;;;;::be:r;C1;;9;Q8'2.-~---------~--_::::':-=-:':""---~~=::"_---"=-2'."----

(000

40.00

.4 .43
.3.67
6.67
25-63

386 '35
4,66
35 '00,
1.22

101 '50'

348 .36
0'07

417'40

832'42

Lining of

Field Channels '


0.93
1.23
16'Hl

~ /-

2-20
0'04
71'79
1.
12.79
22
2
196 '97 '
. 4 -97
0.51
510.42
I '27
840'52
";J'J'S'2

.
-

'-,

hal t1

the 'year 1982-83"


-The above data are provisional.

KURUKSHETRA
August 16' 1983
.

It. is' not proper to Compare the rhysical. achieve- _


ments as between the. States. as the variations. in. the
requirements of various items may.be very large. The
achievements 'a,re to be related to the .requirements.
If f~r exa~ple one goes by the necessity'of field channels, itis seen (Table 2) the States like Guja,at, Kar.
nataka Maharashtra and Utlar Pradesh have. provided
a 'sub~tantial portion of their command areas pnder
field channels' Raja~th;n, Jammu. and KaShmir,
Bihar Orissa Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh
have .'been m'aking concerted ~fforts f~r' construction
oj .field channels, .
.TABLE2 : P~rcentage
. Channels

o( Command Area' covered under Field


(000, hal

S'ale/U,r,

CCA

ecA covered
under field-'
Channels in
pe; cen/*

1. Andhra- Pradesh

t463 ,30

28

2. Assam

25,40

18

3. Bihar

2393.64

23

4. Goa

14 ,40 .

5: Gujarat

578.10

6. Haryana

443.87 ,

44'68

42

1362.78

. 5T

7. Jammu & Kas~1ii


. 8. Karnatak~
9. Kerala
10. Madhy", r'cadesh
1i. Maharashtra
~1.' Manipuf

13. Orissa
14. Rajasthan
15. Tamil Nadu
16. Uttar Pradesh 17. ~V.:st B,mJ;al
Total: :

60

134,83

805,46

~.25

1203.80

43

24.00
443.zJ

13

1450,00

18

546.22

10

2922.00

86

909' .OJJ
14765.06

.39

*(r~unded off figures):

Warahand;

'1-

MANAGERS
are responsible tor making
the irrigation water available \0 all potential users
according to. the requirement of crops under the plan-,
. ned cropping schedule. _They have to. ensure tlrat no
potential. user .group (grouped ~ccording.. to land.
situation~ land holding size: or social stratificatio~) is
discriminated aga.inst in_ their, attempt to get 1vater
from the irrigation system. IntrqductioI)- and, e:nf9rc.c~.
.ment of turn scheduling of .water In . the outlet commands wiIi go a long. way in achieving this objective.
RRIGATION

this system is commonly known as, 'WarahandP.


'W.arabandi'. is one of the.mostimportaht items of the
CPU) Prograntine, '
'Wara' means turn and 'bal1dr me~ns .fixation and
the term 'warabandi' means fixation of turns, The
term can, however, be more comprehensively di,fined
as a' planned. system of equitable distribution of lurns
specifying the day, the time and the. duration of sup- ply to each jrrigator in proportion to his area in the
outlet command, The irrigation schedule is worked
. out. in advance and is well publicised among the water- '
users. Assured and timely supply of~water and equity
. in .distribution are lhe essentiaICharacteristics of wara- .
oandi. Water"is p;.ovid~d to all c~tivators in an out-,
let once iIi each, rotation, the rotational iIiterval de~
..pendiIig upon the. watering interval required by the
crops for the ~oils on which' they are .grown.
. Warabandi has forma!1y been iIi practice for quite
a long period in the Northern States of Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh with minor variac
tiotis and ,in the form of 'shejpali' or-"bloc", systems.
in the Stat~s of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Ie essentially, is an intervention by the Government to ensure
water. to the largest number of beneficiaries in an out. let .command. In Tamil Nadu ana otheeStates"the
beneficiaries themselves have..this system of rotational
water distribution on 1/2 to 4. days basis for ,paddy.
crop~ and a longer -iIiterval fer .othei crops,
.

A complete Warabandi will, however, mean supply-.


ing of ,vater to .the. cultivators' iIi appropriate quanti .
ties' at appropriate times in accordance 'with crop
needs as also equitable distribution. of water among
the beneficiaries with due -adjustment, in turns, of
conveyance losses. and travel'time requirements upto
individual holdings in farm. distribution . Such an exercise has been .successfully carried .out in some areas
of the States of Andhra Pradesh, .Gujaratand Maharashtra in the recent past. These new experiments on
Warabandi which took iIito consideration .the water
availability, the croppiIig patterns, the crop water requirements, the soil cond,itions, and the farm distribu. tion efficiencies have evoked keen interest in the. users
as well as suppliers of water.. These pilot warabandi
projec[s have created confidence in the hearts of tail.
enders, weaker ones, and the '~~sma1Jand marginal
farmers, about dependability ot water sup~ly. The
results of these trials are highly encouraging. and, indicative of substantial benefit .and this inn(wation has
provided the farmers with an oppor[unityto use their_
shares .of ~ater more efficiently aiming at higlE~r re:'
turn. iIi'terms of crop yields per unit of area and water
applied, The farmers hitherto not adapted to night
irrigati~n have resorted to 24 hours a da( ..iL:rigation.
0/-

'1: .

'H,

.'"

"

KURtlKSHETRA
.

August
. 16, 1983
~

obtained from the PlaDnmg Commission also corroborate substantial increase in productivity due to the
execution oCt!Je projects.

They. have gone for suitable crops with sound management practices and use of inputs and have started
pre-planning of their agricultural activities in ,.jew of
reliability of water supply.

As would be expected, at lower productivity levels


the increase is observed to be high and at higher
prod~ctivity.levels, the' increase is low. It is expected that With better extension orgailization the productivity at lower levels will tend towards optimum.

The continuous emphasis,for enforceme"'t of War~bandi, by the Government of India, .has brought forth
substaritial achievement in its introduction and,enforcement. An area of about 4.17 hikh' hectares ,was
brO~ght under Warabandi during 1982c83,duc to the
efforts made in the 'Productivity Year'

Benefits
could be. assesT sed by folloWingthe'withprogramme
and Without' principles.
HE

BENEFITS'

OF

The direct gross benefits of the programme ,'are the


additional output produced over arid above the output
produced without the pnigramme, the lat~er serving.
as a controL
.

'One, of. the major objectives of 'irrigation d~velopment . is to see 'that both
inter and, intra-regional
.
.
~.
var,iabilityin productivity is reduced to the minimum.
In other words, the farm management practices should
be s)lch that,the crops most suitable for 'respective
region or sub-region are taken up in such areas. 'ThiS
in tum, will lead to maximization of output per unit
of area. An analysis 'ofthe variability, of intercregional .productivity of crops like .kharif paddy, kharif jowar and,
,wheat, is made by comparing the co-eflicients of variations' in pre-project and .post-project productivity.

The analysis of the yield data of principal crops in


.the sele<;ted'command areas reveals a: substantial inIt is observed' from 'Ihe following.table that the
creases in the productivity due to the execution of , inter-regional co-eflicients,of 'variation in productivity .
the programme.' Additional increase of kharif paddy
have almost remained the same for kharif ~rops like
per hectare V'!Iies from 24,60 quintals ,in Nagarjunapaddy and jowar. But so far as wheat; a rabi crop
.sagar (left bank) to 2 quintals in Kadana command
,Is concerned, the co-eflicient of variation \has been
(qujarat) _ It is rnore than ) 0 quintals per hectare
reduced from nearly 36' to 25 percent.
,
,iit 4 commands and more' than 5 quintals in 5 commands. Out of the actual 10 commands from which .
.TABLE'3 : Co-efficient of variations fra productivity
" data were' collected, the range of increase in per-'
centage varies from 10 in 'Kadana to 121 in Nagarc
Crops
Before
. After
junasagar (left bank)', On an average;' (unweightPaddy (Kharif)
34.87
34"66
ed) the increaSe is about 8 quintals per hectare which
can. be considered as a substantial increase. Out of
Jowar (Kharif)
6t .93
59.80
3 projects for which data for summer paddy are avail-,
Wheat (rahi)
35.57
25.03
able, 'there is ~ubstantial increase -in case of two projects, In one caSe the increase is only marginal..
HIS INDICARES THAT, on farm development in the
- The increase in 'productivity in case of other foodirrigation commands can help. reducing the intcrgrains like kharif. hajra, jowar, .maize, is also quite
regional variability in productivity, during rabi seaSoil.
high both in' temis of physical quantity and 'percentage.. '
Becal\se of many other factors illcluding rainfan, iLls
The percentage increase ill case of kharif bajni varies
difficult to have very effective water and crop managefrom 13.5 to 181, incase ofjowat from 11 to 45 and. ' . ment during the kharif season. As such the intermaize, from 17E-71.6: It is heartening to observe.
.regional variabilityis likely to be high. However, with
that in one project (Siiramsagar) the productivity of
,sustained efforts it could be possible to reduce thdiiterthaize has gone up by .12 quintals in kharif 'and 15.
regional variability of 'produCtivity even for the kharif
quintals in rabi.
crop~,.to a s~~stanti~I.:xtent.

~-.

DATA on groundnut,' sunflower and


pulses,are available from one State i.e. 'Karuataka.
The groundnilt .has .registered an increase of about 3"
to 5 quintals, sunflower from 2 to 4. quinials ' and
pulses from 2 to 8.6 quintals, per hect~rc. By, any
standard of measurement, .this increase seems to be
quite satisfactory. .'
'
OMPARATIVE

The comparative data on productIvity of different


crops in the soil and water management project areas

KURUKSHETRA August 16, 1983


.

Tjtough the increases in production and productivity.


'assume significance from. social point of view" it is the
itet return from different..cropsover an agricultural year
that the farmers are interested in. The motivation.for .'
taking up a particular ;;rop co~es from. the net return
on the money invested in the production of that crop.
. 'A fariner usually tries to maximize his net return on
the investment made On different crops ,during aT.
agricultural year.

I.

11

Data oil additional benefits of the CAD that accrue


to the farmers in each of the command areas in India
are Il'"t available. ."Stepsare being taken at present to
get.these data through specific studies to be undertaken
by specialized iristitutions. Till such' data 'are available, one has to rely on whatever data. available through
~d-hoc. studies und~rtaken In anyco;Umand (or come.
mands) where CAD Programme is being executed.'
. One such study was undertaken in the Command
area of Andhra Pradesh. It provides' the information
on expenditure and returns per bectare. of crop area
.under different' crops both in the ar~as where .land
development has taken place and where jt has not
been in operation.

The net additional benefit per hectare of paddy culti.


vation in the project areas varies from Rs. 501 in
Pochampad to Rs. 857 in Tungabhadra. In case of .
maize the net allditional benefit appears to be very
high i.e. Rs. 1987, for .Pochainpad .Project. It is also
seen that the net additional benefit in case' of. another
. cereal crop, iowar, is as high as that of paddy. .The
net additional benefit of bajra cultivation in.the project
area appears to be negligible.
.
So far as cash .crops are concerned, data are available
. for two crops' I.e. cotton and chillies. It is observed
that both the project areas and in" the areas where
OFD work 'was not taken, cotton cultivation leads'
to loss. It. is not possible to conclude anything with. out looking into the data on agroclimatic conditions,
input use, crop management practices etc., regarding
the suitability of this c~op in the project command
areas.
Cultivation of chillies in.the command areas Of right"
bank canal of Nagarjunsagar where CFD works have'
not een taken up leads'to loss of Rs. 1727 per hectare
whereas in the CAD ProjeCt areas th~ net benefit per
hectare of chillies cultivation is~about Rs. 2000. It
_ is hoped that data on the farin budgets of different ,
holding size group of farinersfrom different commands
will provide better insight into the benefits of the CAD
Programme in future.'
.

CAD and water revolution


to note'that ir:igatio~ and farm'
I. teclinology were gtven
the top pnonty mthe New
T WAS H~ART-ENIl{G.

20-Point Programme
announced by the
. .
. Prime
. .Minis-

.ter. Irrigation management was to playa very important rQle in increasing the production and productivity
in the. "productivity year" and thereafter. Consistent.
with .the efforts of.the CAD authorities, the achieve" menis under field channels for better utilisation' of
irrigation potential during 1982~83 was 11.33 lakh
hectares as against a target of the 9 Inkh hectares .fixed
by the Planning COInrnission.Similarly . fOr more
equitable distribution and effective utilisation of water,
warabandi was executed in 4.17. laKh hectares of orrea.
As thought by many. CAD J:'rogramme is not an
. engineering solution to the. problem of effective water
'utiliiation. It is a~ integrated approach to effective
water uti1ization through engineering improvements'
and adoption of higher technology through appropriate
organizational restructuring with the involvement of the
'beneficiarycultivators. Inadequate appreciation of the
above had wrongly led many to the belief that CAD
offers an engineering solution to the problem. The confusion, it is felt, a~isesdue to improper identification of
different aspects of the programme at various stages
" of development. . The confusion lies in distinguishinl';
the necessary.conditions from the sufficient conditions.
The construction of field channels and land levelling
and shapi~g are the Decessarycoriditions to supply
water, field'drains, warabandi, extension and organiza" tion required for. effective supply of inputs, marketing
of the products etc. are the sufficient"conditions for
successful implementation of tlie programme.
The benefits of the CAD. Programme will increase
further as the farmers get used. to .the new system
. thi~ugh greater involvement. .It holds out the pnssi_.
bility of a better future through .substantial increase in
agricultural productivity. Since the Indian economy
is sensitive to the agricultural productivity. stability
in its' growth will ensure stability in other sectors of
the
economy.and pave
.
. way for better economic .order.
.

The revolution that "had a ~odest start in the Fifth '"


Five Year Plan has consolidated its position in the
'productivity year'. It. is expected that ccncerted
efforts in the years ahead will help in 'water revolution'
.for higher productivity, more equitable distribution of
the benefits and better quality of life.

PLAN YOUR FAMILY


DELAY THE FIRST
SPACE THE SECOND
,
.

STOP THE THIRD


,
-,

"

",

'12.

--'-__

.:......:_.......;..,_...:.-

-'---J ..'
KURUKSHE'fRA Agust 1'6, 198.3

cSpeciiJC com~nen(p/iln
''for ~checlUledcostes
.

.'.-

.
,
.
VIDYA
RAO
Reader, Deplt. of Social Welfare AdminiStration, T.I.S.s., Bombay

's

CHEDULED
,.CASTE POPULATIO!'i'
constitutes about
15 per cent of the total population in India; of
which 90 per Ce'ntreside in .the rural areas. With a
view to reducing the inequality between them and the
.rest of the population and to bring them on par with
the rest of the population, many S!rdl1'gieshave been
adopted by the Government. They have mainly been
resid\Jai in nature.
.
,
In the absence of special directive to spend a certain
portion of the resources from the general sector prOgrammes, the implementing aut1).oritieshave generally
neglected to identify the scheme that directly benefit the
SCs and to quantify in financial and physic31terms the
.targets for .each of the general sector programmes. They .
have also heen under the ;impression iliat only'special
provisions need to be expended as the SCs are a con-,
stitutionaliy recognized special group.'
Further the
so-called integrated approaches have been little more
than arithmatic total, of the sectoral scheme as far as
the SCs, are concerned. Tpe' tendency of the implementing authoritie~ to concentrate on those S9> who
are ready to avail these benefits have left majority of
the SCs falling below tlie poverty line'without' coverage. ThUs the government's efforts in the 'paSt have
contributed little to the development of the ,weaker
sections amo:ggthe SCs and has only perpetrated new
patterns of inequalities among' the SCs.. Despite. the
sizable expe!lditure for their social and' economia
development, their 'Position has not only ~emained unchanged, but is also not' commensurate with' the
expenditure.
HAS THEREFORE,
been a seaoch' for alterTHERE
'native approach
to ensure adequate flow of
(1)

-.

funds from geneail sector programmes (2) toremov"e'j .


reduce stigmatization '(3~to uplift the SCs falling below
KURUKSHETRA AugusU6,

1983

the poverty line. In the case of Schednled Tribes,


a new approach called the tribal sub-plan was introduced in 1974 to reduce the gap in the levels of development between the tribal communities and others,'.,
.to reduce their isolation and to improve the quality.
of their life: The Tribal Sub-Plan was mainly an
area development approach. As the tribals are generally concentrated iIi certaiD geographic areas, it has
been relatively easy to achieve the change from resi~
dual mcdel to institutional mode1 within the- tribal
areas.. In these areas everysector has to allocate and
spend money' specifically for the tribal beneficiaries.
Although .the Sub-Plan is yet to be evaluated; from
the experience gained so far, the major problem has
been the lack of appropriate manpower for implementing the- Sub-Plan.

Special component plan


APPROACH
wonld not be suit;'
A. REAableDEVELOPMENT
m the case of the SCs because they are'
geographically scattered. and are not found to be resia-o
. mg in geographically remote inaccessible area~.. They' .
usually live in isolated pockets or specifically demar.eated areas within the large settlements.

To reduce stigma anq/or' segregation, the programmes for promoting the welfare of .tbe SCs are universalIzed. That is, every department and every sector
. within the divisible' pool of d~velopmcnt programme
is requiTed to set apart a certain portion' of funds
from their normal budgets specifically for the SCs. In
this way, ''liO additional fnnds are required. The
diversion of these funds for other weaker sections 'Or
purposes is disallowed and these' funds are non-IapsabIe; iil the sense, the unspent ~alance can
carried

be

13

over from year to ,year but they have to be used only


to promote the welfare of the SCs. By this method
of institutionalizing the norms for spending the Special Component Plan (SCP) strives' to achieve functional efficiency. The SCp, ensUres adequate flow of
funds and strives to remove stigmatization simultaneously. The, SCP also strives in this way to reduce'
the chances of the SO; being treated as "special
groups' in the negative sense. By the favourable
treatment of the unequals in a favourably unequal
, _ manner, the SCP expects to guarantee freedom and
equality within the democratic framework.
Thus,
this strategy is based on the principles of. positive
discrimination.

TheSCP was introduced in 1979-80 by the Government of India with a' View to reaching at least 50
. , percent of the SCs falling beneath the poverty, line.
For this, the SCP espouses a sectoral and targetgroup approaches' in combinatjon. Within each of
'the sectors, resources and benefits are guaranteed in
finanl:ial and physical terms. Among the SCs, the
landless labourers, rural artisans, marginalismali farmers, the educated unemployed youtb, the handicap. ped and others failling below the poverty
line
are to receive pre(erential.- treatIr!ent over 'the rest.
Those programmes which lend themselves to quantification and the labour intensive programmes in the
. Social and Community 'Services, Agriculture and Allied services, Water and Power Development and
Transport and Communication sectors ;"e given hig-, '
her illlocations so that the' benefits can directly reach
the target groups. In this' manner, while being in-'
elusive of the SCs as a group, the SCP is sele.etive of
the' poorer 'Ieft~outs among the SCs.
The SCP clearly identifies and a~'sesses the sociocultural barriers to change and development, the spe, cial' needs of the poorer among the SCs, ,and their"
orgaiiisational potential. It is a preventive 'step in
tliat it aspires to prevent cornering of beoefits by the
beher-off among the SCs, to prevent further ,ieduc- , tion in the starus of the poorer SCs and any serious
social disruption that may arise out of their feeling
of deprivation.
'

Ensuring perfect. implementation


TN

the SCP is' no mdre than a .program1.. me ,of monitoring and' coordination of sectoral .
programmes within the govef!}ment departments Since
the SCP is a c""scious effort to ensure that the
SCs get their fair, share, the 'Outlays are carved out
of the diovisablepool of the developmen't budg~t. The
responsibility. of implementing these schemes will be
shared' by the central, state and local governments ..
In addition, specific autonomous bodies like the Back- ,
waru Class Development Corporations
have. also
PRACTICE,

b"een identified to carry out these programmes. P~ogrammes of economic assistance, educational opporrunities, housing, health and 'other s-"cial services are
being extended to the SCs. SCP provides basic guidelines to identify the sectors and the schemes 'for making the resources available. The ,administrative setup has. been designed to monitor and coordinate the
implementation of the 'welfare, programmes for ,the
SCs. However;' much freedom for _operationalizing the
SCP has been, provided to the state governments ..
High Power Steering Communities at the ministerial
level in the state, SCP cells at the secretariat, divisio"ualand' district levels have been set up in the
states to bring about functional. co-ordination among
the different tiers so'that right quantity of sources arc
made available at the right time and place. But the
membership 'composition of these coordinating bodies,
has been, left to the' stales and there are considerable
variations. It is not clear how the non-officials have
been given the opportunity, to represent the' interests
of the SCs and. to participate in the SCPo , In some
states, the . social welfare committee of the Zilla
'.Parishad has been considered as the SCP cell at the
'district level. The powers and procedures for control
'and accountab,lity of these cells are ambiguous at
present.
monitoring side! a district officer, preferably
a social welfare officer (Class I) under the leadership of the collector has been entrusted with the work.
He is, in charge of collecting 'progress' reports from
different departments periodically and preparing a
consolidated report to be sent to tbe SCP Divisional
Cell for necessary action. Coordinathn and rational
alignment of various departmental programmes in the
district entails, a complex and elab0.rate process. co.ordination would be impossible- without monitoring
inf<Jrmation on the progress made. Hence, ,monitoring is a crucial function. It' is therefore, imperative .
that appropriate responsibili1ies with sufficient powers
be dilineated at this level. Specific ruJes and prO-:'
cedures .for 'control and accountability should be
, clearly spelled out. Crucial, as ,it is, even under the
leadership of the collector, it is doubtful if the distri'Cl
level officer enjoys sufficient status and auihority required for tlce job.
'.
N THE

The' question .of monitoring and coordination, apart


from being bogged down with the starus_authority
-nexus, is also likely to be affected by (i) the degree
of inter. departmental dependency (2) the exent of
awareness of the necessity Of such a dependency and
, the necessity of the development of the SC as being
important to the development of the society as a whole,
and (3) the exent of uniformity and standardizatiOn
of the tasks to facilitate inter-departmental co-ordination. FinallY' the nature of coordlnation alsc tcnds
. ~

(Colltd. on p'. 18)

'

'.~

14

KURUKSHETRA

August 16, 1983

To ciassily the -deht 'according to tJ;ie purpose. of


credit. .

.Indebtedness
\
..

To

examine the problems of repayments and 'overdues.

among.tribals:

a study

To suggest policy measures to deal with the pfoblem of indebtedness:

'-

'.

FAHIMUDDIN
.
Giri Institute of De\'elopmcnt Studi~, Lucknow (D. P.)

Methodology

KAlAN' village which is located 3 kms


from the Khatima block, district Nainital,
Uttar Pradesh was purpose!)' selected for this study
on account of the 'following reasons ~ '

mHEm;IRU'

IE._.

--------

__

:!J

1.' away

PROBLEM 'oF indebtedness of the rural poor.


of the country has been cause of much cdncern
(i). The village is located in that part of Nainital
since decades. The natur~ of the problem assumes
.' district where land is plain and. prodnctive and this'
serious dimensio'ns when reviewed -in' the' context of
area is famous for paddy cultivation.
.
tribal economy where agriculture as' the only source
.
'of livelihood, is characterised by the traditional tech(ii) The agricultural development after mid.siXties
niques and practices: The credit procured even. for
economic .activities' like agriculture .becomcs debt behas' affected the tribal people of this area in particular
cause of the low yield of agriculture which further
.and so their sOCia-economicconditions are belter-off
in' comparison to the tribal connminities living in
compels the tribal people' to procure arid '\P,nt the
otl)er
P'~s or' Uttar, Pradesh.
.
'borrowings for unproductive' .uses: Th process of
continuous failure of repayment of loans, makes the.
tribal society to fall in the irap' of vicious circle of/ow
/Oii) The village is mostly inhabited by the Tharu
earnings,,poverty and indebtedness. Although due to "
tribes which. is' the. largest tribal, caste in U.P.. 'The
the interve'!tion in the rural credit market by the'insti- '"
sampling design of ~e study was stratified with Umru
tutiona! 'agencies,-the RrofesS'ionalmoney.-lenders and
KaIan' village' as' 'primary unit of sampling and tribal
landlords who were the major sources of rural credit
households of the village as the ultimate 'unit of in. in~be past, h~ve lost their _grip even in.tribal ~ono-my.
vestigation, . 'Thus data were collected through the
but the [position has not'improvedaPl1recia.bly'. The
petsonal interviews from" the fifty households by "a
purpose of .the present study is to assess the indebtedprestructured questiOlmaire The year of. ,the study
ness in tribal community of Uinru Kalan Village,'
. was 1981c82.
.'
KhatimaHock, district Nainital, ,Uttar Pradesh.

il~

Objectives. of the"study

_T., as under:'

HE MAIN OBJpCTIVES

of the study a~e etiu~erated


.
.'

1
To estimate the extent, and distribution of credit.
in different,farm size groups.'

2
,

.. To examine the structural changes in tribal 'credit


marke.! and assess the role of institutional agencies
in providing credit to different farm sizes.
KURUKSHE!RA August 16,' 1983

.Findings of the_study
Pattern of Illdebiedlless.-The .extent and distribu.
tion" of. credit shows 'that magnitude 'oi iridebtedness . is very high in tribal econoniy as ~ixty
per cent of the total' households. arc under
debt.
The position of
landless
agricultural
labourers,' margina! 'lUld sinall farmers is very dismal
"as lipto 66.67 per cent of their households are under
'deht. . The percentage. of indebted medium and large
"farm size .households are lesser but the. average
amount. ofdeot.
per indebted. h':lUsehold and per,'
.
/

. 1'5 '

h6tis,ehold, is quite higher as is dear/orm

.the following table:'

Distribution of Indebtedness of hou'je~olds

Farm

Size Group

Total'
No. of

Total No.
of indebted

ilOuseholds

households

P.ercentage
Average AmOllil! of I!-ebt (M
of households ~----'------.under debt-'
Per inaebted . Per househoUsehold -

-S

71 -43

520 ,00

..

66.67

1000 .00

. 666.67

60 '00'

1368.00

. '8:1.0.80

14

57 ,14

2668'75

1525110

'7880 '00

4p7-18

3695'13

2217 .08

Landless
1 ba.)

Marginal (upto
Smitll (1-~

ba.)

Medium (2-10

ha.)

hold

371 .43

,.

!Mge (10,ha.
and above)

TOTAL

18

10

55,56

50

30

.. 60 110

. The reasons for hign. indebtedneSs' of .agricultural


'It appears froin this 'table that the share of
labour households are lower wages and'largeunemfinancial institutions, i.e. conun:ercial banks, regional
ployed days ina year which is further, a product of ~ .!liral' ganks 'and cooperative 'societies' in ihe .total'
the backward agriculture and undiversified economy,
.credit was 82,90 pel;. cent,'While the share of nonThe higher average 'amount of debt, per. iudebted
financial iustitutions i.e: .professional mon~y-lenders,
households and per household of medium and large
landlords and relative-cum-friends was 17,10 per ,cent.
farmers, is the r~ult of the . existing agrarian and
credit system in which'land as a base, has enabled
The large share of the finaricial'institutio;;" in the total
the large. farmers t9 get the larger proportion of 'avail~redit implies that financial institutions' have been sucable credit.' Siuce the returus from agriculture are.
cessful in replacing the' traditional sources of rural
not sufficient to repay the loanS',,the problem o( iucredit even, in the tribal economy. .But despite the
.~ debtedness i~ .also serious iu large .farm P;r01lpS.
.
success of the financial iustitutionsin, the tribal c,redit
Financial lnstitutiolls.-!n
a traditional
tribal
market,' the credit 'requirements of the mass of the
'~ociety, with agriculture a; the oniy mC'ans of liveli~
community, i.e. landless agricultural labourers, margi'hood, the major sources of rural credit were profesn~l and small farmers, are still met by the non-Mansional money-lenders, landlords and relative;Cllm"'
cial iustitntions:' The inadequate' access to. iustiwfriends: With the intervention of financial institutions
iu the niral' credit market,. the traditional sources I
tional credit is. ,. far more, critical deprivation
?~m t~ hav~ losiug ground as is clear from the' fole
to niargin~l and small"cultivators than before since it
lowing table:
"
denies the' benefits of techuological change to them.2,
. Percentage Share of Debt .of Different 'Agencie's
Thus, itseerus that although a bteakth~ough in the
traditional sources of credit hasheen. made by the'
!
Percentage
Percentage
Farm Size Group
instituti"nal
agencies,bnt the mass of the tribal comshare
of
non"
share of .
.finanqal
financial.
munity is still in the grip of non-institutional soiirces.,
"

jllStitutions

institution
1..Landless
2. Marginal
3. Small
4. MediunI
5. Large,

100.00
55.00
48;73

45.00
51 :27
89.93

10 -Q7

- 12,70

.87 .30
"

TOTAL

17 ,10.

82 :90'

.
.

.16
'

'

Nature of Borrowings.'-The
households borrow
, the money for different 'expenditure which ,is iudicative Q! !J:teir potential.for repaylllent. The purpose of .
the loans. across different households has been exa- l
mined' in tIle following. tables :
,i

.' KURUKSHETRA

August 16, 1?83

Composition of Bank and NOD~BSnk~redit Flow for Different Purposes


(Rs.)

-Fi-m-'n-, -S,-'z-e -G-,'o-u''P''s-''


,-.:---~---C--A-gr-'-.CI--A-/u~r<-~~D-oi-ry.----H.-o-us.-e-ho-h-I

--B-u-s-ill-is'-s- -C-o-n,-u-m-p-Uo-n---.r.-o/-o/-

1. Landless
(i)

(ii)

-.

Bank
Non-bank

2600

2600

2200

1800
2200

2000

2104
2000

2110

19200
2150 '

2., Marginal
"(i)
(ii)

Bank
Non-bank

-,
:

3. Small
(i)

-Oi)

Bank'
Non-bank

4. Medium
(i)
(ii)

Bank
Non-bank

19200

Bank
Non~bank

68792
6000,'

Bank,

91896

, 5. Large
(i)

Oi)

400'8,
I

TOTAL
,(i)

(ii)

Non-bank

68792
10008
91896

6000.

12958

18958

Ii does seem that the households of landless; n.urgi.


, The. period of default was longer, ranging from 2 .
nal and', small J'ann sizes -are taking loan most!y for
to more than. 3 years, in the case of landless agri.
consumption purposes ,md the ' source of credit is'
cultural labourers, marginal an.d small farmers. Poor.
non.banking institutions while ,he large farm bouse, recoveries impede recycling of funds. to the fullest
holds' are taking the credit for agricultural purposes.
extent which' is essential -for sustained growth in lend.
from ,capital formation in agriculture is ,'con.'
ing. This is very important in the sense that it has
centrating only in large farm households while the ..
been' clearly established that demand for loans .by
lnasses have been trapped in the vicious circle of,
. small farmers increases once economic growtn is
poverty' consequent!y their' purpose of credit' is "to
stimulated.' The apparent reason. of this stite of
.meet the requirements ofcons'tmlption. ,
. affairs is that this section of the niral community,
generally borrow money for consumption' purposes
Repayments and Overdues.- The repaymen~ capawhich' is the conSequence of traditional agriculture
city depends on the purpose for which the loan' has,
and non-existence ,of nOIJ-agriculturaloccupations.
been taken and 'al1 -analysis in this regard will reveal
th~ dimension of incfebtedness problem. The result
, showed' that overall percentage of defaulters I in the
village ,was 66.23 while the households with tio outstanding overdu"ll '.vas 27 per cent. The 61.53 per
cent household~ were, under debt for the periOd 'of 2,
years and above as. i. e'{ident ,from the following
,
table.:
,Percentage of defaulter~ according to ~~rlod of Overdues
Farm Size Group

Period of de/aulll

Two years

One year
and I~s

"

l
"

1.
2.
3.
4.

Landless
Marginal
Small
Medium

37.50
22.22

5. __La_r_ T_O,O_T_A_L_'
__

50.00 '
100.00
3'7 .50
33.33

19'23

~~

42,30

'Three'
years and
. above

, 100 .00
- 50.00
25'00
44 '45
__
,~ ,'38-47

Conclusion

,HE STl)DY
REVEALS
the high dimension of in'
" debtedness iri tribal economy as majority Of'the.
households are under debt. The average amount ,of
..debt ,per household and' ,per indebted hOusehold is
RS.,22'1-7.08 and Rs. 3695.13 respectivelv., The
indebtedness of the household is inversely related with
the sire of land holdings while the flow of credit is
.pc'sitively related with farm size. Consequently the
majOrity of' the households of Iandl~ss' agricultural
'labourers, marginal and smali farmers are tinder
,debt. The result showed that the institutional 'ageli.'
cies have changed the character of tI,e rural credit
market even in iribal economy but the revamped
institutional facilities have not made considerableheadway in the process of meeting the credit, require- .
.ments of the rural poor. Major. benefits have gone

KURUKSHETRA AUgU,t 16, 1983


17

fo medium ahd large farmers. The l~ck of assets


along with nnproductive uses also prevent the poor
to obtain in loans from institutional agenries,.
.
.The shift from agriculture-based credit 'policy to'
diversified and differentiated credit policy)n 'the form
of Integrated Rural Development Programme of the
government, is an encouraging step in removing this.
dilemm~ .because of two counts :

(i) The. agricultural based. credit" policy benefits


those who are large landholders and deprives those'

.. who do not pperate


piece. '

land or !lave quite

a. small

.. (ii) . Al.ricultural development alone can oIlot bring


rural development and prosperity unless other economie activities grow simultaneously in rural society .
The credit available for diversified. activities like
dairy, village industries e'le: will generate the addi.tional sources 'of income which lack i~ tribal society
and are mainly responsible for high degree of indebtedness.
. '. '
.

REFERENCES

Social Sdentist, vol. 8, July, 1980, No. 12.

.' 1. For details see, Swamy, Dilip S., "I:aJldand Credit Reform..~in India", Part Two,

2.-, Rao. V.G. and Malya Prakash, "Agricultura( Finance by Commercial


Banks'" Ashish Publishing
House, New Deihi.p.
21t.
'.
.
.
.

-.

3. Rajakutty, S.; "Small Fa,'!!ers : Problem

0/ Financing.: An Overview .The Eeonomic Tim.es,

'March. 3,1983, Ne\v Delhi._

/.

4. Mishra,"G.P., in "DynamICS of Rural Development in Village India", Ashish Publishi':lgHouse .New Delhi, 1982,~. 49.

(con/d, from p, 14)

,'

bi-

to be governed
ihe status enjoyed by these depart~
ments' on' the basis of their size, characteristics of
. their functions, their employees,. the: number and types
of Clients served, and the prestige they enjoy in the
community. Ther'efore, the system of organiZlltional '
stratification needs to be wel,l developed on the basis
of the consensus .. In the absence of that, the depart
.monts which enjoy high prestige .will Fe more evasive
and will not comply with the requir<i,rnentsof >,oordination. On the, other hand, entrusting the responsibility. either on rotation basi~ o~ 'on some other eri-,
tena to the individuals/departments will perhaps
be more effective. A, mere district ,functionary .in
this sense enjoys lowprestioge and may not be effective due to no fault of his.
.

,A word of caution

.
T
.'

,.

is not a new scheme but is a new ~trategy ~


with somewhat different philosophy. .Th,s 'strategy espouses macro-level conception' of the total need.
of .the SCs as a group in the nation witli a view to .
eventually liquidate their needs and ensure their join,ing the mainstream of life. It reaffirms the, belief
that the SCs have a potential to contribiIte to the'
. society given an opportunity; such contribution from
ihem will, be more than worthwhile even' though we
. may not reap, the benefits immediatdy and in a tangible manner. The SCP is thus intended to bring about
. an orderly change i~ the Governmeflt's elitist poliCies
and to make 'them more egalitarian in nature.

ments effectively are anticipated from the beginning


and are sorted out. Some of these bottlenecks are
likely to arise from multiple system of. control, role
ambiguity, role conflicts,' uneqUal status-po;itiolls,
.parochial' loyalties etc. - Within the liberal democratic
. framework, these problems' can be solv~d only to
some extent. From our pa'st' experi~nces .with regard'
tO'the problems of cOordinat'ion in the Panchayati
~aj administration, IRDP, I('1)S' etc., it is clear that
. we should not expect too much from the SCPoas far
as the upliftment of ihC SCs is concerned. We must
.remember that the larger social forces will not allow
major changes ,,~ihin ,a short span of time. But smaller
changes go almost unnoticed. Hence, lhe SCP .should
aim 'at bringing 'aOO\ltincremenla! changes ste~dily and
continuously over a period of time. And, selling
apart 'funds without the necessary orga'lization can-.
not be expected to do more.
-

HE SCP

It is imminent therefore that the major .bottleneckS


in operati6na1izing the coordin~fion between. depart-

REFERENCES

. Government of India:
1978-1979

Government of .
, Maharashtra

-,

Murdia, R.
"

Report . of
the
Commission.
for. . Scheduled
Castesand
Scheduled 'Tribes ..
Revised Draft-Special
Compo .
nent
Plan
for'
Sche4ulcd
Castes _ and ~ Neo-BuddhistsSixth Five -Year Plall 1980-85
and Annual PI(ln 1981-82,
.

'

Problems of
Coordination
in
Panchayati Raj, Indian. Journal
of Social Work, 'Vol. ~VI,
.No. 2, pp, 75.86

.Ia)Il.UKSHETRA August 1.6, 1983


18

,.

This feature is based all success stories viz. achievemellts gailled ill varioU3
. spheres of rural developlllellt by farmers, institutinns, experimenters and individuals. There is hardly an . argument over the fact that dedication and zeal to
put in hard work can achieve anything. And olle achievement impires and shaw~
Iheway to others/.
'...

. .
.
.

. 11. -

,.

'.

.
We hope our esteemed readers will send' us their. own experi~nces iii the
field so that" others can benefit by them to. usher in a better '/ife for our rural
people. (EDITOR)
... ...
. ,

20-pt.programme

helps the rural poor

Shri' Khushal Chand of Village Datarpur in the


same blOCkhas also benefited from the ZD-Pomt
"
Programme. He was earning' Rs.. 3/- per day only
OST OF
THE 43 .'families' living in village
tram his tonga (horse cart). He applied for a I~an
Karari of Talwara block in HoShiarpur District
of
Rs. 3,200/~ to purchase his own tonga and horse.
(Punjab) belong to the weaker section of the society.,
The
loan was given by the Central' 'Bank of India
They make baskets and other bamboo articles to earn
through
the efforts of the Rural Development Agency.
a living.. A Gram Sewak visiting their village in-,
.He
was
so anxious to retnrn the loan that he . used
formed them that with the announcement of the New _
to deposit Rs.. 15/ ~ to 25/- each day iIi the bank
20_Point PrO'gramme, they. could benet}t from the'
instead of waiiing to pay' the mO:ltb1y'instalment. He
lntegr",t~d Rural Development Programme (lRDP)
repaid
the whole loan within 7 months instead of
and. the National Rural Employment Programme
. ZO months that were agreed upon. Now lie has a
(NREPj. What they needed' moSt of all was funds!
net income of about Rs. 600/- per'. month, after
to pnrchase ~aw materials for the baskets: Soon each '
deducting the daily expenditure on the' horse and. tile
family was given.a loan of Rs. 1500/- by a nationali- ;
tonga."
. .
. .'
se(l bank at Talwara. These backward families not
Shri Harnam Das of village Siporian in the Tal..
ara
only repaid the whole amount iIi. 10 months but also f
b~ock is a blind man who ,nsed to beg for hislivelitrebled their monthly' income..
hood.' The Gram Sewak told him that he could'
They asked for yet .anbther loan. A sum of Rs.
get a monthly pension as a handicapped person who
\ 3000/- was. given this time to each ',amily through
did n';,t have any other'somce . of Iivlihood. Shri
;~the IRDP. (Qut of Rs. 3000/-, Rs. 1000/- was given
Harnam Das' was so relieved to reCeived the pension
as subsidy) This loan also has been 'repaid' and the
of, Rs. 50/- JJCrI]i0nth and that he gave up lieging.
I mcome of each family which was only Rs. 100/- per
Then he got a loan. of Rs. 1500/- from the New Bank
plOnth to begin with has become Rs. 500/- 'per month:
of India, Hajipur.. Through this m6~ey he purehased
,~ macliine for weaving ropes. Now, after' pay~g th",
Lat,er, four' families took yet another loan from a'
mstalments to the bank; heeatns about Rs. 00/bank with the help. of which they have set up gerieral'
per month by'selling the rope that he prodnces. He
, stores and tea shops, in 'addition to their regular
.has also. got married. He intends to acqnire. a
II' busjness' of basket weaving.
_'
buffalo after repaying the' full amount of the pre6ent

KURUKSHETRA August 16,'1983


/

I'

1 II-

"

."
\

The Government is determined 10 provide drinking


water -.to all the 400 problem villages of Sikkim, the,
Cindrella of the Hills, in the next t'Y0 years, During
the current financial year, it has been decided, to sup- '
, ply tap waler to' 40 villages under the Minimum Needs
---E'jP(J,Jullundur
Programme and' to another' 48. under the Accelerated
, Rural Water Supply Scheme. ' The Central Govern
Tap water for SikkiJ."11
villages
ment has sanctioned Rs. 2.27 crores for this purposealmost twice the amount of Rs. 1.23 crores allocated
OR Panchayat Presideut Choda Lepcha and others
by the Slate Govern~erit.
"
'
living in tp.e Naga viliage in North Sikkiin, it.
In addition to these efforts, a UNICEF-aided
was the end of centuries old-ordeal, They did not
scheme has .also been,started at Mangalbary in West
have to ,traverse long hilly terrain for several kiloSikkim to cover 30 villages with a toial population of
, , metres to fetch drinking water any longer. They had
7,000 people.
' '.
'
crystal clear water flowing from the taps in their

villagp.

In the Andaman and Nicobar Islands also, five


, more villages have been provided .with,drinking water
Naga is one of the 51 villages in, Sikkim whiCh
facility bringing the total number of villages covered
got tap water during the last financial year, The
under the Water Supply Programme to '11. The
achievement was '170 percent of the targ~t of provid~
'target
for the year is 35 villages.
iilg drinking water to 30 villages. This brings the
number of villages provided with drinking wate~'under
In the last fuiaucjal, year; 54,523 villages in the
. the Minimum Needs Programme and the Accelerated
country' were provided drinking water under the 20Rural Water Supply Scheme 'in Sikkim (0 165,
point Pr~gramme, which vias about 12,000 villages i
bank loa~. Basket weavers, horse cart drivers, blind
beggars imdnianJ more who subsist near'the poverty
line are, benefiting from lhe' new 'lO-Poinl Programme.

more thail the fixed target of 42,342. ' Fifteen States


in the eouniry achieved 100' percent or above the
allotted quota.
-Press' Informati()":i"Bur~au

The Cobbler's dream


obscure village lying 55 kms. east '
has a',popnlationof about.
Mof Bidar inanKarnataka
ADAKATTI,

2,400 'People of all communities, including backward


, , Manilhas and Kumbas live here. ,A middle school
located in the centre is the only outstariding building
in the village whi;:h is dotted by' huts, mostly dilapidated ..

The narrow mud-road leading to this village bas


not'seen many vehicles. For long, Poverty-stalked this
bamlet as the people lived off mostly as coolies as tbey
did not have anytbing better to do.
o

Kallappa w!)o is now 70, comes from a scheduled


caste. His living memory, running back to' tbe last.
half-a-cen'tury, recalls only painful images, of penury.
. A cobbler by birth, Kallappa's earning could not give
him means even for a modest liVing So he abandoned' cobbler's work and took to the work 'Of a' coolie.,
Yet bis daily earriing was Rs:. 2. Kallappa say~ that it
has been so far the last 15,years. His cobbler's instru, ments Were hopelessly worn ant. He could not buy
neW.instruments for want of money... It has all along
been one meal-a-day for him all these years,

Sikkimes~girls filling their,posts'at a tap in Naga village in"


North Sikkim ..

One fine morning a year ago, Kallappa was surprised t.o see a' white-eollared babu coming to his door~
steps. The stranger ~ked so many questionS about
,... \

20

r .

KURUK,SHETRA AUguSl16, 1983

(
'\

,
. Balakrishnan of Katpadiis .a shiDing ex~mple of
the emerging. new farmer in the afea. He used to ..
grow rainfed paddy and sugar-cane in his little farm. '
Vagaries of the weather stood in ihe way of steady
farining. He decided to try something new.

Kallappa's livelihood. He told Kallappa that he was'


from the State Bank of India. Then, as he was leaving,. he gave Kallappa a gnmd dream.

.Many an event took place thereafter.'" Kallappa


visited the Bhalki BrarlCh of the State Bank. of India .
With a loan of Rs. 3,000 from the local branch
where he was offered a loan of Rs. 400/- to re-start
of' the Indian Bank, he converted:'a park of his 'farm
his traditional~cobbler's profespion. Kallappa rushed
, into a mulbe~ry plantation to grow silk worms. ,In
'to Bhalki to buy leather. and other equipments.' To
,the first three months itself, he could sell 50 kg, The
his surprise, his daily earning started going
Very
famous. silk production centre, Arni, was
nearby.
soon Kallappa repaid the bank loan.
" Balakrishnan !ound hiS product to 'be in great de~
~and, Now he gets five crops " year. His repayNow Kallappa's dream started taking new roots.
ments are regular, and, he plans to' elttend further the
He ~anted to' expand his trade by increasing his outarea under ll\ulberry,
'put. . This needed: more money. The bank once

up.

, ag'lin gave him capItal loan assistance of Rs. 1,000,!-.


Kallappa was now poised' 'to manufacture more
chappalsa day; repair more slioes a day and. earn
more money. ,As if by magic, Kallappa had.'crossed
the povetty line.
-Pre~s In/ormation. Bureau

Assistance to small and marginal farmers

. AT
,

the initiative of. the Prime Minister,' the Gov.. ernment have 'launched during 1983-84:' a
,mass,,,e programine for assisting the small and marginalfarmers for increasing agricultural production.
This: is the biggest .single project ever taken up, involvmg a total' outlay of Rs. 150 crores in one year
to '1;Jeshared equally by the Centre and State.Governments. The allocation for each block is Rs. 5 lakhs
to be"'given as 'subsidies, on tl,e LR,D. 'pattern, on
wells and, pump-sets (Rs. 3,50 lakhs), plantation of
fuel and fruit trees (Rs. 0.5 lakhs), anll free distribution of minikits of seeds and fertilizers for pulses and'
oilse<:dsand for land development (Rs, Lo lakh)-,
States have shown encouraging n;sponse to this programme, I;letailed guidelines for its implementation
h'lve already been sent to the State Governments.'
Releases 'of funds for the first quarter' of the current
financial year amounting'to Rs. 30,14 crores, have'
been made to 17 States and 6 Union Territories who
have concurred in the implementation of this programme,

How IRDP changed a rural scenario


RURAL AREASin the .North Arcot District of
Tanul. Nadu are changmg fast due to .imauina- '
tive functioning of the Integrated Rural Develop~ent
Programme (IRl?P) aided by'the willingness of farmers to adopt new techniques 'and the co-operation
of nationalised banks.
'
THE

Kuppuswamy of Machnur village'was another beneficiary of a loan from the Indian Bank along with an
IRDP subsidy. He' dug an irrigation well and bought
,bullocks' with the money. Even th!J.ughKuppmr.vamy
}8- rio more, his family is thriving as their two acre,
irrigated farm 'is now a regular source, of .income:.
In Machnur villages' the bank financed
., under the
IRDP, 50, farmers ,to organize themselves into a' milk
producers'; co-operative society. Milch animals were
provided by the bank. The society proved to be. a
success. It could repay the loan' and yet distribute
handsome 'profits and bonus.
,
,

The weaker sections of the society.received special


attention under the IRDP,through, the banks, In the
schedule caste village of Shenbakkem, the Andhra'
Bank distributed Rs. 80,000 for the purchase of .'milch
animals. Government's subsidy met half of the cost
of the animals. About 32 families benefited from
the scheme and most of -them repaid their loans in record time.
.
,
Koteswaran of Nasel village in North Arcot is a
polio victim. With the help of the local panchayat
he got a loan and subsidy totalling, Rs, 2,666 under
IRDP, He purchased five cycles and 'started a cycle
hire business. Thanks to the IRDP and the bank
some 200 people of the village could start. various
such _small ventures and earn a living.
Sheep rearing is another 'new endeavour encouraged.

by ihe IRDP in the a~ea. Chinnaswamy of Machnur


village was a landless labourer with a big family to
feed. 'The Indian Bank. gave him a loan under .the
lRDP for a sheep unit. With his 20 sheep and one
ram acquired thus his .annual income increased by
, more .than a th:'lUsandrupees.
More people' are. n~w coming forward to start such
sheep' units.

-Farm

.f

KURUKSaETRA August-16, 1983

Progress, Modern

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August 16,1983'

.(

Training in various arts and crafts


and skills
has
helped the rural
women to
earn
additional income.

u'ral
women
The daily routine
of most of the
rural women is
quite tough and
includes working
in
the
fields
besides
doing
household chores.

A number of development programmes


have been devoted to the emancipation
and development of rural lVOmen and help them in improdng- their life not only
as indil'iduals but also as part oj the society
they live. Various programmes
oj women and child welfare, mahila mandals,
art and craft training centres,
adult education have been started lilith this end- in view. And these programmes
are slowly but steadily changing the shape of things in tlie cowttrysfde.

Regd. No. D(DN)/39


RN 702/57

(Li censed under U (DN)-54 to post without prepayment at Civil Lines Post Office, Delhi).
.

r
A smlll

family .is fasf b~co~in.ga "popular norm. in the, rural areas of ,tile coUntry ..

Rural WOlnen
.

The Sixth

Plan

pledges

to. continue tlze work

of

uplift in, a greater way.

Women

The main

emphasis in Sixth Plan will remain. to be on the economic upliftment of rural women through.'
greater opportlmities for .self and more employment. For this purpose three-fold strategy should
be adopted

consistilig

skills for at
ment

ventures

of' irflpartfng free

education

least one fema:e member in


and in getting

reasonable

to all rural women; provide necessary training

the family and help them in setting up self-employwages or prices for

their products .

. .

,'.T .

".
PUBLISHED

BY .'>THE~~,DiRECTOR,

AND ....PRINTED
BUSINESS

'BY

MANAGER:

PUBLICATImi~~ DIVISION,

:rHt'....-MA.NAGERJ
L.

R.

BATRA

GOVERNMENT
ASST.

OF

NEW -: DELID-llOOOl,

INDIA

DIRECTOR

PRESS,

(p) : K.

R.

FARIDABAD
KRISHNAN

d
~..