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Why we choose CBLT Teaching Method

The reasons why our group is choosing CBLT as the guidance/method of our
teaching will be discussed below, and we will divide our explanation of our
reasons systematically as follow:

CBLT as the Theory of Language and Learning

Competency-Based Language Teaching (CBLT) Syllabus Design
Learning Activities suggested by CBLT
Eight Key Features of CBLT
Role of Teacher In CBLT
Role of Learner In CBLT
Materials suggested by CBLT
Teaching Procedures in CBLT
Reasons of using Competency-Based Language Teaching (CBLT)

Now, Please allow us begin from the first part of our explanations of using
CBLT the method of our Language Teaching.
1. CBLT as the Theory of Language and Learning
a. Competency-Based Language Teaching (CBLT) is the functional and
interactional perspective on the nature of language (Richards &
Rodgers, 2001, p. 143) which means that language learning always
needs to be connected to the social context it is used in.
b. In Competency-Based Language Teaching (CBLT) Language is seen
as a medium of interaction and communication between people
who want to achieve specific goals and purposes (Richards &
Rodgers, 2001, p.143).
c. Competency-Based Language Teaching (CBLT) especially applies to
situations in which the learner has to fulfill a particular role with
language skills which can be predicted or determined for the
relevant context (Richards & Rodgers, 2001, p.143).
d. Competency-Based Language Teaching (CBLT)



behaviorist view of learning that certain life encounters call for

certain kinds of language (Richards & Rodgers, 2001, p.143).
e. In Competency-Based Language Teaching (CBLT) also is also
considering another key aspect of both language and learning
theory is the so called mosaic approach to language learning

(Richards & Rodgers, 2001, p.143), which assumes that language

can be divided into appropriate parts and subparts. Communicative
competence is then constructed from these subparts put together in
the correct order (Richards & Rodgers, 2001, p.143).
f. CBLT is in some respects similar to Communicative Language
Teaching (Richards & Rodgers, 2001, p.143).
2. Competency-Based Language Teaching (CBLT) Syllabus Design
a. Competency-based Language Teaching is designed not around the
notion of subject knowledge but around the notion of competency
(Richards & Rodgers, 2001, p.144). The focus of CBLT syllabus is on
how the students can use the language instead of their knowledge
about the language.
b. Schenck (1978) points out that the teacher provides a list of
competencies which the course is going to deal with, and these are
typically required of students in life role situations.
c. CBLT is an outcome-based approach also influences the syllabus,
especially the kind of assessment which is used. In contrast to
norm-referenced assessment (Docking, 1994, p.16), which is used
in many other teaching approaches and methods, criterion-based
assessment (Docking, 1994, p.16) is essential for CBLT.
d. The competencies tested consist of a description of the essential
skills, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors required for effective
performance of a real-world task or activity (Richards & Rodgers,
2001, p.144). These performance-criteria form the basis for the
Therefore, the syllabus design should be consisted as follow:
a. Designed not around the notion of subject knowledge but around
the notion of focuses on what students can do with language not
what they know about language.
b. Instead of norm-referenced assessment, criterion-based assessment
procedures are used in which learners are assessed according to

how well they can perform on specific learning tasks. (tells us how
well students are performing on specific course or standards rather
than just telling how their performance compare to

group of

c. Competency consists of knowledge attitudes, behaviors, for reals
tasks and activities competency
d. Syllabus consists of functional topics which have subparts.
e. Not






f. Assessment is done through student demonstration.
3. Learning Activities suggested by CBLT
a. Competency-Based Language Teaching (CBLT) activities are realworld tasks which may be related to any domain of life (Richards
& Rodgers, 2001, p.144) but especially to survival-oriented and
work-related situations in a new environment (Richards & Rodgers,
2001, p.144)
b. Typical areas, for which such competency-based activities have
been developed, are for example Job Application, Job Interview, or
Work Schedules (Mrowicki, 1986).
c. All these areas can be described as a collection of units of
competencies which consist of specific knowledge, thinking
processes, attitudes, and perceptual and physical skills (Docking,
1994, p.11).
In short we can say that learning activities suggested by CompetencyBased Language Teaching (CBLT) are:
a) Systematically designed activities
b) Real-world task activity linked to the field of work and to social

c) Work Schedule examples

Job application
Job interview
4. Eight Key Features of Competency-Based Language Teaching

According to Auerbach (1986) there are eight key features which are essential
for Competency-Based Language Teaching:


Language functioning in society

Concrete tasks of Life skills (language forms/skills)
Performance-centered orientation.
Modularized instruction
Outcomes; Outcomes are public knowledge, known and agreed

upon by both learner and teacher

f. Continuous and ongoing assessment
g. Demonstrated mastery of performance
h. Individualized, student-centered instruction. (Richards & Rodgers,
2001, p.146).
5. Role of Teacher In Competency-Based Language Teaching
a. To provide positive and constructive feedback
b. To be aware of the learners needs
c. To make everybody feels welcome in class
d. To give clear orders and explanations
e. To make sure that every student understands the task
f. Not to push the students because the instructions are not timebased
g. To select learning activities
h. To design a syllabus according to the competency the students are
going to acquire. (Richards & Rodgers, 2001, p.146).
6. Role of Learner In Competency-Based Language Teaching
a. To be active in the classroom
b. To perform the skills taught (Richards & Rodgers, 2001, p.146).
c. To know the use of the competencies Appropriately & Purposely
d. To stay in the actual program until they improve.
e. To be moved into a more proficient group of students.
f. To be able to adapt and transfer knowledge from one setting to
another. (Richards & Rodgers, 2001, p.147).

7. Materials suggested by Competency-Based Language Teaching

a. Sample texts
b. Assessment tasks
c. Reading competencies
d. Writing competencies (Richards & Rodgers, 2001, p.147).
8. Teaching Procedures in Competency-Based Language Teaching
a. At the beginning of a course the students have to go through an
initial assessment.
b. Then the students are grouped on the basis of their current English
proficiency level, their learning pace, their needs, and their social
goals for learning English (Richards & Rodgers, 2001, p.147).
c. Furthermore, a course based on CBLT is divided into three stages,
which the students have to go through in order to successfully finish
the course (Richards & Rodgers, 2001, p.147).
At Stages 1 and 2 the learners deal with twelve competencies
which are related to general language development (Richards
& Rodgers, 2001, p.147).
At Stage 3 the students are grouped on the basis of their
learning goals and competencies are defined according to
the three syllabus strands of Further Study, Vocational
English, and Community Access (Richards & Rodgers, 2001,
9. Reasons of Using Competency-Based Language Teaching (CBLT)
Why our group is choosing CBLT to guide us to teach the students as
a. Because CBLT provides lists of competencies for every specific
b. Because CBLT covers many areas or certain competencies needed
c. Because CBLT describe an activity in terms of a set of different
d. Because CBLT focuses on the outcomes
e. Because CBLT can give the continuous feedback.
f. Because CBLT guides the teacher and student to the quality of

g. Because CBLT can point out that the business of improving learning
competencies and skills will remain one of the worlds fastest
growing industries and priorities in the future.
h. Because In CBLT language learning always connected to the social
i. Because in CBLT Language is seen as a medium of interaction and
communication between people.
j. Because CBLT can fulfill particular roles with language skills
k. Because Competency-Based Language Teaching (CBLT) shares the
behaviorist view of learning that certain life encounters call for
certain kinds of language
l. Because CBLT is gaining popularity in the whole world.

1. Auerbach, E. R. (1986). Competency-based ESL: One step
forward or two steps back? TESOL Quarterly 20(3): 411 415.
2. Docking, R. (1994). Competency-based curricula the big
picture. Prospect 9(2): 11 15.
3. Grognet, A. G., & Crandall, J. (1982). Competency-bases curricula
in adult ESL. ERIC/CLL New Bulletin 6: 3.
4. Hornby, A. S. (2000). Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of
Current English (Sixth Edition). Oxford: OUP.
5. Mrowicki, L. (1986). Project Work English Competency-Based
Curriculum. Portland, Oreg.: Northwest Educational Cooperative.
6. Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (2001). Approaches and Methods
in Language Teaching (Second Edition). Cambridge: CUP.
7. Rylatt, A., &Lohan, K. (1997). Creating Training Miracles. Sydney:
Prentice Hall.