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Student Visas Af

Notes
Surveillance is deterring foreign students from entering the US, and theres two
ways to solve this
1) There is a generic solvency advocate that is like, the USFG should substantially
curtail surveillance on foreign students in the US. The solvency evidence for that is
very generic.
2) A more specific solvency mechanism would be to curtail SEVIS. SEVIS is a
surveillance program and it stands for Student and Exchange Visitor Information
System. SEVIS is a computerized system that surveils foreign students in US. The
Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) implements SEVIS.

***Case***

Plan
The United States Federal Government should repeal the
Student & Exchange Visitor Information System.

1AC

Innovation
Advantage One: Innovation
Current surveillance policy deters international students from
coming to the United States
Ciment and Radzilowski 15, James Ciment, highly experienced writer, editor, producer, and
publisher of print books, ebooks, databases, and digital content with an extensive list of critically acclaimed
publications., John Radzilowski, history teacher, American Immigration: An Encyclopedia of Political, Social, and
Cultural Exchange, Routledge, Mar 17, 2015

Government actions after the 9/11 attacks had a negative impact on those living in
the United States as immigrants or noncitizens. During the first year after 9/11. the expanded
definitions of "terrorist" and -immigrant" under the USA PATRIOT Act created new restrictions on student visas.

As a
result, the United States became less attractive to international students, which, in
turn, had a bearing on the U.S. labor market, higher education system, and
economy, as persons who might have contributed needed skills and talents to the
U.S. economy and education system were either denied entry or became too
discouraged to apply for entry . The Office of the Attorney General stripped the
Board of Immigration Appeals (a part of the Department of Justice) of its power, rendering
review of immigration cases essentially nonexistent and immigration judges
obsolete. Similarly, the US. Supreme Courts review of the anti-immigration laws of
1996 came to a halt, and stronger enforcement of those laws became a central
focus of the DHS. Muslim, Arab, and Middle Eastern immigrants were severely
affected by these immigration policy changes after 9/11. The federal government
detained and interviewed hundreds of Middle Eastern men based on their
immigration status and country of origin. Post-9/11 immigration policies were aimed
at maintaining strict vigilance with regard to immigration-both legal and illegal -to
the United States. Of the estimated 12 million undocumented foreign nationals residing
in the United States in 2012, a majority are of Latin American descent. Since 9/11,
they have been subject to enhanced enforcement of immigration laws, including
workplace raids, detention, and, for those who have overstayed their visas,
deportation for minor visa violations.
Foreign matriculation at American universities declined alter 9/11, as students had difficulty obtaining visas.

In particular the Student and Exchange Information system has


shifted US policy on international students from recruitment to
determent triggering the biggest enrollment drop in 30 years.
***FYI, IE stands for International Education

Trilokekar 15,

Roopa Desai Trilokekar, has worked in the U.S., India and Canada in various capacities
facilitating international academic exchanges, FROM SOFT POWER TO ECONOMIC DIPLOMACY? A Comparison Of
The Changing Rationales And Roles Of The U. S. And Canadian Federal Governments In International Education,
CSHE, 2/9/15,
http://www.cshe.berkeley.edu/sites/default/files/shared/publications/docs/ROPS.CSHE_.2.15.DesaiTrilokekar.SoftPowe
rEconDeplomacy.2.9.2015.pdf

This presidential level support for IE , even if mostly rhetorical, was dramatically challenged
with the catastrophic events of September 11, 2001. With 9/11, IE posed a risk to the nations
security. Recoiling back to restrictive immigration policy processes initiated as a
response to the Iranian crisis and the world trade center bombings, a new tracking
system for international students was introduced by the Bush (Jr.) administration (2001-9). The
passage of the US Patriot Act, the Enhance Border Security Act, the Homeland

Security Act, and the Visa Entry Reform Act facilitated the federal governments
restrictive immigration policies and the implementation in 2003 of the controversial
Student and Exchange Visitors Information System (SEVIS), administered by the new Department of Homeland
Security (operations were still DS responsibility).83 As Witt states, the entire landscape of
international education in the US shifted dramatically from a posture of
recruitment to one of determent , from receptive to suspicious, from
hospitable to hostile .84 The global war on terrorism replaced the cold war as
the national security meta narrative.85 This was a time of crisis in IE with the
U.S. experiencing its first substantial drop in foreign students for the first
time in over 30 years. Such a drop was not experienced even during the cold
war. This drop severely impacted U.S. universities who were both dependent
on foreign graduate students for advanced research in the STEM fields as well as on
revenues from international student fees. The advocacy groups urged the
government to strike an appropriate balance between the conflicting demands of
strengthening homeland security and maintaining openness to the world. 86
International programs, they suggested were an investment in the nations security . Powerful
industrialists/business figures like Bill Gates supported the need for America to
welcome foreign students to strengthen its innovation capacity and global
competitiveness. Both national security and global economic competition were
identified as important rationales and the secure borders, open doors campaign
came to dominate the IE policy discourse. I E faced a uniquely challenging and
paradoxical environment 87 because there was bipartisan political support for IE and in spite of the
federal perspective of IE as a risk to national security, in May 2002, the Bush administration announced legislation
to significantly increase funding for exchange programs. The Cultural Bridges Act of 2002 authorized $95
million/year from 2003-7 for new and expanded IE programs with the Islamic world. As Campbell cogently states,
mutual understanding ha[d] come back into the [federal] frame but with a harder edge, lined primarily with the
notion of global competence and Americas need to CSHE Research & Occasional Paper Series TRILOKEKAR: From
Soft Power to Economic Diplomacy 9 communicate and relate in a multi-cultural globalized, political and economic

Capitalizing on the why do they hate us? sentiment 89, a spotlight was
created on the need and role of public diplomacy in fighting terrorism. Karen Hughes as
environment.88

the new Under Secretary of State for public diplomacy became one of the most visible advocate[s] for exchanges
supporting a budget of $430 million (from $74 million) in 2006 for the DS public diplomacy initiatives. Described as
a period of public diplomacy renaissance 90 it was reminiscent of the Reagan administration support for
exchanges. Powerful dignitaries such as Secretary of States, Colin Powell and Condoleza Rice spoke of IE as the
governments soft power tool. Several new initiatives and policy priorities developed during this current era; public
diplomacy, an investment in academic exchanges, particularly with the Islamic world, investment in study abroad
for American students (2005 Commission on Abraham Lincoln Study Abroad Fellowship Program and the Senator
Paul Simon Study Abroad Foundation Act) and concern with improving the market share of international students
(2009, government accountability office (GAO) study on challenges and best practices in attracting IS to the US).

Perhaps, most importantly, the critical need for a national IE strategy was
supported by the joint policy document issued by the A lliance for
International Education and Cultural Exchange and NAFSA. 91

This drop in enrollment is especially devastating for STEM and


US leadership in education and technology
Redden 13

(Elizabeth Redden, Correspondent at Inside Higher Ed, covering the


internationalization of higher education, Foreign Student Dependence, July 12 th,
2013, Inside Higher Ed, https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2013/07/12/newreport-shows-dependence-us-graduate-programs-foreign-students, JAS)
International students play a critical role in sustaining quality science, technology,
engineering and mathematics (STEM) graduate programs at U.S. universities, a new

report from the National Foundation for American Policy (NFAP) argues . It will come as no
surprise to observers of graduate education that the report documents the fact that foreign students make
up the majority of enrollments in U.S. graduate programs in many STEM fields,
accounting for 70.3 percent of all full-time graduate students in electrical
engineering, 63.2 percent in computer science, 60.4 percent in industrial
engineering, and more than 50 percent in chemical, materials and mechanical
engineering, as well as in economics (a non-STEM field). However, the report, which analyzes National Science
Foundation enrollment data from 2010 by field and institution, also shows that these striking averages mask even

36 graduate programs in
electrical engineering where the proportion of international students exceeds 80
percent, including seven where it exceeds 90. (The analysis is limited to those programs with at
higher proportions at many individual universities. For example, there are

least 30 full-time students.)International students help many universities have enough graduate students to
support research programs that help attract top faculty and that also thereby help U.S. students by having a higherquality program than they otherwise would have, said Stuart Anderson, NFAPs executive director and author of the

Without them, he said, youd see a shrinking across the board


where youd have just certain schools that are able to support good
programs. That would lead to a shrinking of U.S. leadership in education
and technology if you have many fewer programs with high-quality
research and top-level professors. To some extent this reflects some of whats going on in our

report.

society within the U.S. in terms of trying to push for more interest in STEM fields, said Jonathan Bredow, professor
and chair of the electrical engineering department at the University of Texas at Arlington, a program with more than
90 percent international enrollment. Domestic

students tend to be more interested in going


out and getting a job right after a bachelors degree. Some see a value of getting a
masters degree but in terms of the Ph.D., I think its largely seen as unnecessary.
Theres a relatively small number of high-quality domestic students who can be
accepted into our masters and Ph.D. programs , said Leonid Tsybeskov, professor and chair of the
electrical and computer engineering department at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. He added that those
domestic students who are strong candidates typically apply to higher-ranked programs than NJITs. Indeed, said
Anderson, You talk to the professors, they say, O.K., if we were MIT or Stanford we could get all the top U.S.

At
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the proportion of international students
in graduate electrical engineering programs is 52.5 percent and, in computer
science, 35.3 percent. At Stanford, 56 percent of graduate electrical engineering students and 43.7 percent
of graduate computer science students are international. The report also emphasizes the value that
international students can bring to the U.S. economy after graduation as
researchers and entrepreneurs. Measures that would make it easier for STEM
graduate students to obtain visas to work in the U.S. after graduation measures
that many in higher education see as crucial to the U.S. maintaining its edge in
attracting international graduate students -- are pending in Congress (and are included in the
students,' but by definition there are only a few of those schools. Obviously everyone cant be MIT or Stanford."

comprehensive immigration bill recently passed by the Senate). "This report is very well-timed, said Julia Kent,
director of communications and advancement for the Council of Graduate Schools. Obviously, for the policy
reasons -- the pending legislation about STEM visas -- and second because there is data out there right now which

we have some cause for concern in this country about the flow of
international graduate students to the United States which we have always counted
on. There is now more competition for international graduate students . Other countries are
suggests that

developing policies to promote the influx of foreign students to their shores, and there are also ways in which the
current economy in the United States has reduced funding support for graduate students, which makes it more
difficult to attract students to U.S. programs with attractive funding packages. CGS data on applications to U.S.
graduate schools released in April show that total international applications grew by a meager 1 percent this year
and that there were actually drops in applications from certain key sending countries, including China (-5 percent),
South Korea (-13 percent) and Taiwan (-13 percent). On the plus side, applications from India increased 20 percent.
"It's too soon to know how this data will actually affect enrollments, but the preliminary data show that there is
some cause for concern, Kent said.

The STEM crisis is real. Best studies answer negative


arguments to the contrary
Rosen 13
(Linda Rosen, CEO @ change the equation, The Truth Hurts: The STEM Crisis Is Not
a Myth, September 11th, 2013, Huffington Post,
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/linda-rosen/the-truth-hurts-the-stem_b_3900575.html, JAS)
Here we go again. Social media sites are buzzing with claims that there is no shortage of
U.S. workers in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM). Last time this

happened, they were responding to a report from the Economic Policy Institute (EPI), which has since been soundly
refuted. This time, it's an article in IEEE's Spectrum Magazine by Robert Charette, who proclaims that "the STEM

Like EPI, Charette is simply wrong. Charette suggests that people who
have a STEM background are down on their luck -- unable to find stable jobs,
making do with flat wages, or bailing out of STEM entirely . The STEM shortage "myth," he
crisis is a myth."

writes, was manufactured by a cabal of special interests who "cherry pick" data to keep themselves in business and

Yet Charette does a fair bit of cherry picking himself while missing
the big picture. He argues from anecdotes and a handful of studies that support his
point but leaves aside the mountain of data that demonstrate a shortage. More
important, he unwittingly points to one of the biggest causes of this shortage: Demand for STEM skills has
intensified across the entire economy. Not just crying wolf Charette limits his attention to
the demand for people to fill jobs in traditional STEM fields like technology or
healthcare. But even in those fields, demand is strong and growing. Rising demand
for STEM workers is in fact nothing new. A sidebar to Charette's article quotes 80
years' worth of warnings that a looming STEM crisis will hobble U.S. economic
growth. The clear implication of the sidebar is that the education and business leaders who have been making
depress STEM wages.

these warnings have been crying wolf since before the Second World War. But were their fears of a STEM shortage
really much ado about nothing? Hardly. The National Science Foundation ( NSF)

reports that S&E


workforce grew from some 182,000 to about 5.4 million people between 1950 and
2009, almost 15 times faster than the U.S. population and nearly four times faster
than the total U.S. workforce. Surely all those worried education and business
leaders were on to something. They foresaw a steep rise in demand for STEM talent as
the U.S. economy made the transition from an industrial economy to an economy
focused more squarely on technological innovation. We can count ourselves lucky that the GI Bill,
the national response to Sputnik, the race to put someone on the moon, and a host of other seminal events helped

Economists have argued that the


technology those STEM workers helped create has accounted for nearly half of the
nation's economic growth in the second half of the twentieth century . Now is no
time to rest on our laurels. While the rate of growth in STEM jobs may have slowed through our two 21stfuel the growth of the STEM workforce to meet this demand.

century recessions, it remains robust. NSF puts it at 20 percent between 2000 and 2010, a period during which the
overall workforce experienced little growth. And that robust growth will probably continue. Georgetown's Center on
Education and the Workforce predicts that the total number of STEM jobs will grow 26 percent between 2010 and

The Georgetown Center also projects that professional and technical jobs in
healthcare, which it doesn't include in its STEM numbers, will grow by 31 percent,
far faster than the workforce as a whole. (Charette criticizes a previous projection Georgetown
2020.

released in 2011 for not foreseeing the depth and duration of the recession, but he neglects to mention this more
recent projection, which appeared in June of this year.) It's nice to be in demand Even in recent years of slower

Yes, as Charette notes, some STEM employees


have been laid off or unable to find jobs, which is an important reminder that
nothing in life is a sure bet. But such anecdotes don't stack up against the bulk of
the data, which tell a dramatically different story : A Change the Equation study found that,
even in the sluggish years between 2009 and 2012, there were nearly two STEM-focused job postings
for every unemployed STEM professional. During those same years, unemployment in
growth, it has been good to be a STEM worker.

STEM stood at just over 4 percent, well less than the 9.3 percent unemployment
rates for non-STEM workers. People in STEM jobs benefit from being in such high
demand. Study after study confirms that STEM professionals get paid more than non-STEM
professionals -- often much more -- even when you control for their education and
other factors. Contrary to Charette's claim that STEM wages have stagnated, reports
from Georgetown, the Commerce Department, and the Information Technology
Innovation Foundation show that they have risen faster than non-STEM wages, even
in recent years. That is a sign that employers are feeling the pinch. Of course, not every STEM
degree is a ticket to success. Charette is right to point out that people with PhDs in some sciences can have a tough
time finding a job that matches their degrees. But such jobs represent only a very small sliver of the STEM job

The fact that STEM jobs have fared so well even through the recession is
telling. If anything, demand will only intensify as the economy picks up. Don't forget
the STEM technicians! Charette does not address the high demand for a large category of STEM workers:
market.

those who have two-year degrees or certificates rather than bachelor's degrees or higher. In fact, he barely
acknowledges that such workers exist. "Of the 7.6 million STEM workers counted by the Commerce Department,
only 3.3 million possess STEM degrees," he writes. "If many STEM jobs can be filled by people who don't have a
STEM degree, then why the big push to get more students to pursue STEM?" Charette does not mention that, by

Commerce Department
report clearly indicates that the large majority of STEM workers who lack a
bachelor's degree in STEM actually lack a bachelor's degree in any subject. Instead,
most have 2-year degrees or certificates and do jobs that require nothing higher
than that. In fact, Jonathan Roswell of the Brookings Institution feels that studies like Commerce Department
report dramatically undercount such STEM jobs. By his reckoning, STEM workers with an associate's
degree or less account for 10 percent of the entire U.S. workforce . And don't
imagine for a moment that the jobs they do require only low skills. Roswell finds
that those jobs demand a "high level of knowledge" in STEM, and employers are
quick to pay a premium for that knowledge. He estimates that, on average, STEM
jobs that don't require a four-year degree pay 10 percent more than non-STEM jobs
with similar education requirements. Indeed, when business leaders in Change the Equation's
coalition talk about the STEM worker shortage, they are often referring to the
trouble they have finding qualified STEM workers below the bachelor's level. The
evidence is on their side. It's not just about "STEM Jobs" Anymore One major flaw in Charette's argument is
that he overlooks the growing demand for STEM skills beyond traditional STEM jobs . In
fact, what Charette sees as a sign of anemic demand for STEM professionals is quite
the opposite. He observes that people with STEM credentials are not staying in
STEM jobs, but that is only because they have strong job prospects well beyond the
traditional STEM fields. That does not mean that their STEM skills are going to waste. According to NSF,
two thirds of people with degrees in Science and Engineering who end up in jobs
outside of those fields report that their jobs are "closely or somewhat related" to
their degrees. Georgetown's 2011 report on STEM found that STEM professionals are hot
commodities in high-paying fields like finance and management, leaving many more
employers to compete for people in a limited pool of STEM talent . Again, employers are
willing to pay for that talent. People with STEM degrees who go into non-STEM jobs earn 12
percent more than those don't hold degrees in STEM. That wage premium drives
home the point that even non-STEM employers value STEM skills. STEM for all After making
"STEM degrees," he means bachelor's or advanced degrees in STEM. Yet the

such a spirited attack on claims of a STEM shortage, Charette devotes a scant concluding paragraph to what he
calls another "STEM crisis": "the fact that today's students are not receiving a solid grounding in science, math and

We need to make all young people STEM literate


to help them cope with the broader challenges of life and citizenship in the twentyfirst century. Yet that crisis is at the heart of the STEM worker shortage. Employers
of all stripes are looking for people with strong STEM knowledge and skills, but the
U.S. talent pool is currently too shallow to meet their needs . The consequences of this
engineering." On that point, at least, we agree.

shortage are not merely economically devastating. They are devastating to the prospects of millions of low-income

and minority youth who have not received a solid grounding in STEM and therefore have almost no chance to enjoy
the benefits of a STEM career. For those youth in particular, the STEM crisis is unfortunately all too real.

4 scenarios-Scenario one is Warming


American scientific leadership on global warming is critical to
solving global warming
Meltzer and Langley 14
(Joshua Meltzer and Claire Langley, fellow in Global Economy and Development at
the Brookings Institution and an adjunct professor at the Johns Hopkins School for
Advanced International Studies, Research Associate, Global Economy and
Development, Better Science and a Worse Outlook: The Need for U.S. Leadership
on Climate Change, May 6th, 2014, Brookings,
http://www.brookings.edu/blogs/planetpolicy/posts/2014/05/06-us-leadershipclimate-change-meltzer-langley, JAS)

Last month saw a flurry of activity and media focused on climate change, following the release of two major reports
on impacts and action by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Headlines around the world
reflected two main messages. First, climate change impacts are happening now on every continent, posing risks

in order to stabilize temperatures at 2 degrees


Celsius above pre-industrial levels, large-scale changes in the global energy mix are
required, changes that must be combined with deep and fast emissions cuts .
that are increasing in severity. And second,

Recognizing the Danger The reports are the second and third installments from the IPCCs Fifth Assessment Report,
a major collaborative effort by over 1,200 international experts and scientists with approval from 194 governments
that outlines the latest scientific findings on climate change since the last assessment report in 2007. An earlier
installment released in September 2013 on the science of climate change was the first time the IPCC stated
unequivocally that climate change is happening and is caused by anthropogenic, or man-made, activities. According
to the IPCC, if the world continues along its current emissions path, temperatures will increase by up to 4.8 C by
2100. To put it another way, the recent United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) emissions gap report states
that the world needs to reduce up to 8 to 12 gigatons of carbon dioxide-equivalent from the atmosphere in order to
have a good chance of remaining below a 2 degrees Celsius temperature increase above pre-industrial levelsthe
goal agreed to in the U.N. climate change negotiations. This is approximately equivalent to removing the annual
emissions of the United States once and a half over from the atmosphere. And the consequences for the world of
failing to do so are grim, with predicted widespread crop failures, water shortages, loss of biodiversity and increased

U.S.
government released its third National Climate Assessment today, presenting the
latest scientific evidence on climate change impacts in the United States. The report
indicates the effects global climate change is already having on the country,
highlighting severe weather events and the scale of the economic impact. According
to the report, temperatures have already increased 1.3 to 1.9 degrees Fahrenheit
since 1895 (most of it since 1970) , and in most areas of the United States
temperatures are projected to rise by another 2 to 4 degrees Fahrenheit over the
next few decades, or under a high emissions scenario potentially increasing by 5 to
10 degrees Fahrenheit. US Government Action Governments are moving to reduce
emissions and U.S. action remains key, not only because it is the second
largest emitter, but because U.S. leadership is a precondition to ambitious
action by large developing countries such as China . In June 2013 the White House
released a climate action plan, which contains provisions for both adaptation and
mitigation measures at the domestic level. The plan includes over 60 policy proposals
designed to support the U.S. international target of reducing greenhouse gas
emissions by approximately 17 percent below 2005 levels by 2020. The White House
conflict over access to diminishing resources. That action is necessary is not in doubt. Adding to this, the

climate action plan, however, has no ambitions for pricing carbonthe most economically efficient way of getting
producers and consumers to take into account the costs for the climate of CO2 emissions. Unfortunately, this
reflects political reality in the United States. In 2009, following the election of President Obama, Congress sought to

pass a cap and trade bill that would price carbon by capping CO2 emissions. While the House of Representatives
passed the bill, the inability of the Senate to act buried the prospect of cap and trade and possibly all efforts to
price carbon in the United States, at least in the near term. The absence of any realistic prospect that Congress will
act constructively on climate change anytime soon means that federal government action to reduce U.S. CO2

In particular, this means using


Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) authority to reduce CO2 emissions from the
power sector and tighten fuel efficiency standards for existing cars and trucks
representing 31 percent and 27 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions
respectively. These efforts are significant and have the potential to bend the
trajectory of U.S. emissions. Indeed, according to some estimates, new EPA
regulation of emissions from the power sector will reduce total U.S. greenhouse gas
emissions up to 700 million tons of carbon per year in 2020, and new standards to
improve the fuel economy of vehicles could reduce annual emissions by a further 50
million tons of carbon in 2035or a combined 11 percent of current U.S. emission s.
emissions has had to rely increasingly on executive action.

However, these EPA regulations are being challenged in the courts and the extent to which they will be successfully

White House plan also requires federal


agencies to consume 20 percent of their electricity from renewable sources by 2020
and to increase their energy efficiency, which are additional to the tighter energy
efficiency standards for appliances developed by the Department of Energy. In
parallel to federal action on climate change are a range of state-level responses . The
implemented and over what time remains unclear. The

most potentially significant is Californias cap and trade bill which aims to reduce the states CO2 emissions to 1990
levels by 2020representing approximately a 30 percent reduction in the states emissions. This is important
because California is itself the worlds 8th largest economy and 19th largest emitter and has traditionally been a
leader in addressing environmental challenges that have subsequently been adopted federally. Hawaii and
Minnesota have also established economy-wide emissions reduction targets, and several U.S. and Canadian states
and provinces have banded together to create regional climate cap and trade initiatives including the Regional
Greenhouse Gas Initiative and the Western Climate Initiative. In addition, 35 states have renewable energy targets

While all this action is encouraging, it


remains the case that more is needed to stabilize temperatures at 2 degrees Celsius
above preindustrial levels. In this regard, what the United States is prepared to
do post-2020 will determine whether this leads the world onto a more
sustainable emissions trajectory .
and more than 25 states have energy efficiency targets.

Warming is real, anthropogenic, and causes extinction


Richard Schifman 13, environmental writer @ The Atlantic citing the Fifth

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, What Leading Scientists Want You to


Know About Today's Frightening Climate Report, The Atlantic, 9/27,
http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/09/leading-scientists-weigh-inon-the-mother-of-all-climate-reports/280045/
The polar icecaps are melting faster than we thought they would; seas are rising
faster than we thought they would; extreme weather events are increasing. Have a nice
day! Thats a less than scientifically rigorous summary of the findings of the Fifth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC) report released this morning in Stockholm. Appearing exhausted after a nearly two sleepless days fine-tuning
the language of the report, co-chair Thomas Stocker called climate change the greatest
challenge of our time," adding that each of the last three decades has been
successively warmer than the past, and that this trend is likely to continue into
the foreseeable future. Pledging further action to cut carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry said, "This
isnt a run of the mill report to be dumped in a filing cabinet. This isnt a political document produced by
politicians... Its science." And that science needs to be communicated to the public, loudly and clearly. I canvassed leading climate
researchers for their take on the findings of the vastly influential IPCC report. What headline would they put on the news? What do they hope people hear

Mann, the Director of the Earth Systems Science


Center at Penn State (a former IPCC author himself) suggested: "Jury In: Climate Change Real,
about this report? When I asked him for his headline, Michael

Caused by Us, and a Threat We Must Deal With." Ted Scambos, a glaciologist and head scientist of
the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) based in Boulder would lead with: "IPCC 2013, Similar Forecasts, Better Certainty." While the
report, which is issued every six to seven years, offers no radically new or alarming news, Scambos told me, it puts an exclamation
point on what we already know, and refines our evolving understanding of global
warming. The IPCC, the indisputable rock star of UN documents, serves as the basis for global climate negotiations, like the ones that
took place in Kyoto, Rio, and, more recently, Copenhagen. (The next big international climate meeting is scheduled for 2015 in Paris.) It is also arguably
the most elaborately vetted and exhaustively researched scientific paper
in existence. Founded in 1988 by the United Nations and the World Meteorological Organization, the IPCC represents the
distilled wisdom of over 600 climate researchers in 32 countries on changes in the Earths
atmosphere, ice and seas. It endeavors to answer the late New York mayor Ed Kochs famous question How am I doing? for all of us. The answer, which

It is now 95 percent likely


that human spewed heat-trapping gases rather than natural variability are the
main cause of climate change, according to todays report. In 2007 the IPCCs confidence level was 90 percent, and in 2001 it
was 66 percent, and just over 50 percent in 1995. Whats more, things are getting worse more quickly than
almost anyone thought would happen a few years back. If you look at the early IPCC predictions back
wont surprise anyone who has been following the climate change story, is not very well at all.

from 1990 and what has taken place since, climate change is proceeding faster than we expected, Mann told me by email. Mann helped develop the
famous hockey-stick graph, which Al Gore used in his film An Inconvenient Truth to dramatize the sharp rise in temperatures in recent times. Mann

Given the current trajectory, we're on track for ice-free


summer conditions in the Arctic in a matter of a decade or two ... There is a similar story with the
cites the decline of Arctic sea ice to explain :

continental ice sheets, which are losing ice and contributing to sea level rise at a faster rate than the [earlier IPCC] models had predicted. But there
is a lot that we still dont understand. Reuters noted in a sneak preview of IPCC draft which was leaked in August that, while the broad global trends are
clear, climate scientists were finding it harder than expected to predict the impact in specific regions in coming decades. From year to year, the worlds

hotspots are not consistent, but move erratically around the globe . The same has been true of heat waves,
mega-storms and catastrophic floods, like the recent ones that ravaged the Colorado Front Range. There is broad agreement that
climate change is increasing the severity of extreme weather events, but were not yet able to
predict where and when these will show up. It is like watching a pot boil, Danish astrophysicist and climate scientist Peter
Thejll told me. We understand why it boils but cannot predict where the next bubble will be. There is also
uncertainty about an apparent slowdown over the last decade in the rate of air temperature increase. While some critics claim that
global warming has stalled, others point out that, when rising ocean temperatures are
factored in, the Earth is actually gaining heat faster than previously
anticipated . Temperatures measured over the short term are just one parameter, said Dr Tim
Barnett of the Scripps Institute of Oceanography in an interview. There are far more critical things going on; the
acidification of the ocean is happening a lot faster than anybody thought that it
would, its sucking up more CO2, plankton, the basic food chain of the planet ,
are dying, its such a hugely important signal . Why arent people using that as a measure of what is going on?
Barnett thinks that recent increases in volcanic activity , which spews smog-forming aerosols into the air that deflect solar radiation
and cool the atmosphere, might help account for the temporary slowing of global temperature
rise. But he says we shouldnt let short term fluctuations cause us to lose sight of the big picture. The dispute over temperatures underscores just
how formidable the IPCCs task of modeling the complexity of climate change is. Issued in three parts (the next two installments are due out in the spring),
the full version of the IPCC will end up several times the length of Leo Tolstoys epic War and Peace. Yet every last word of the U.N. document needs to be

I do not know of any other area of any complexity and importance at all
where there is unanimous agreement ... and the statements so strong , Mike
signed off on by all of the nations on earth.

MacCracken, Chief Scientist for Climate Change Programs, Climate Institute in Washington, D.C. told me in an email. What IPCC has achieved is

the IPCCs conclusions tend to be


conservative by design, Ken Caldeira, an atmospheric scientist with the Carnegie Institutions Department of Global Ecology
told me: The IPCC is not supposed to represent the controversial forefront of climate
science. It is supposed to represents what nearly all scientists agree on, and it does
that quite effectively. Nevertheless, even these understated findings are inevitably controversial. Roger Pielke Jr., the Director of the
remarkable (and why it merited the Nobel Peace Prize granted in 2007). Not surprisingly,

Center for Science and Technology Policy Research at the University of Colorado, Boulder suggested a headline that focuses on the cat fight that todays
report is sure to revive: "Fresh Red Meat Offered Up in the Climate Debate, Activists and Skeptics Continue Fighting Over It." Pielke should know. A critic of
Al Gore, who has called his own detractors "climate McCarthyists," Pielke has been a lightning rod for the political controversy which continues to swirl
around the question of global warming, and what, if anything, we should do about it. The publics skepticism of climate change took a dive after
Hurricane Sandy. Fifty-four percent of Americans are now saying that the effects of global warming have already begun. But 41 percent surveyed in the
same Gallup poll believe news about global warming is generally exaggerated, and there is a smaller but highly passionate minority that continues to
believe the whole thing is a hoax.

For

most

climate experts, however, the battle is long over at least

when it comes to the science. What remains in dispute is not whether climate change is happening, but how fast things are going
to get worse. There are some possibilities that are deliberately left out of the IPCC projections, because we simply dont have enough data yet to model

The scary elephant in the


closet is terrestrial and oceanic methane release triggered by warming. The IPCC projections dont include the
them. Jason Box, a visiting scholar at the Byrd Polar Research Center told me in an email interview that:

possibility some scientists say likelihood that huge quantities of methane (a greenhouse gas thirty times as potent as CO2) will eventually be

the threshhold when humans lose


control of potential management of the problem, may be sooner than expected. Box,
whose work has been instrumental in documenting the rapid deterioration of the Greenland ice sheet, also believes that the latest IPCC
predictions (of a maximum just under three foot ocean rise by the end of the century) may turn out to be wildly
optimistic, if the Greenland ice sheet breaks up. We are heading into uncharted territory he said. We
are creating a diferent climate than the Earth has ever seen. The head of the IPCC,
Rajendra Pachauri, speaks for the scientific consensus when he says that time is fast running out to avoid the
catastrophic collapse of the natural systems on which human life depends.
What he recently told a group of climate scientist could be the most chilling headline of all for the U.N. report: "We have five
minutes before midnight."
released from thawing permafrost and undersea methane hydrate reserves. Box said that

Scenario two is competitiveness


Lack of STEM retention hurts American Competitiveness
Gordon and Bock 12
(Bart Gordon and Larry Bock, former Democratic Member of the House from
Tennessee and executive director of the USA Science & Engineering Festival,
Gordon, Bock: STEM Education Is Key to a Competitive America, April 27 th, 2012,
Rollcall, http://www.rollcall.com/news/Gordon-Bock-STEM-Education-Is-Key-to-aCompetitive-America-214160-1.html, JAS)
America is facing a crisis of competitiveness on the global stage . Our nation is
not developing a generation of students pursuing science careers or retaining the
talents of the non-U.S. citizens who now earn more than two-thirds of Ph.D. degrees
awarded by American colleges and universities. Fewer young Americans are entering fields of
science, technology, engineering and mathematics, putting the nations status as an innovative
world leader in severe jeopardy. Each year since 2008, the majority of patents issued by the U.S. Patent

and Trademark Office have been awarded to international owners. Inspiring young Americans to study STEM fields is
critical to reversing this trend and creating a new generation of innovative entrepreneurs. That is why the USA
Science and Engineering Festival the nations largest celebration of science and engineering, to be held April 2829 at the Walter E. Washington Convention Center was created. This weekend, hundreds of thousands of
participants will gather at the Washington Convention Center for what promises to be Americas largest celebration
of science. In his 2010 State of the Union address, President Barack Obama said, The

first step in winning


the future is encouraging American innovation. Discussing the inaugural USA Science and
Engineering Festival, House Science, Space and Technology Chairman Ralph Hall (R-Texas), said that
inspiring our children to become more interested in the STEM fields and in careers
through endeavors such as this is the key to unlocking our future economic and
innovative potential. More than 120 Members of Congress from both sides of the aisle have supported the
festival by joining its Honorary Congressional Host Committee. The commitment from Americas technology
companies to support the festivals expo and other events has been equally remarkable. At their highest executive
levels, these companies know that their futures also hang in the balance. This issue is one which transcends party
and geographical boundaries and will shape our nation for generations to come. This years festival brings together
a unique assortment of the countrys leading high-technology companies, colleges and universities, federal
agencies and professional societies to provide an array of thousands of interactive, hands-on exhibits, stage shows
and other activities. Participants will meet science celebrities and innovators who provide real-life role models in
STEM fields and be able to learn about internships, mentorships and scholarship opportunities from colleges,

With our nations global


competitiveness on the line, now is the time to make celebrating science
a priority and create a new generation of inventors and explorers who will

universities and companies focused on scientific innovation.

solve the challenges of the future and continue Americas tradition of


being a world leader in innovation.

Competitiveness is vital to hegemony and conflict suppression


Hubbard, Open Society Foundations program assistant, 2010
(Jesse, Hegemonic Stability Theory: An Empirical Analysis, 5-28,
http://isrj.wordpress.com/2010/05/28/hegemonic-stability-theory/)
Regression analysis of this data shows that Pearsons r-value is -.836. In the case of
American hegemony, economic strength is a better predictor of violent conflict than even
overall national power, which had an r-value of -.819. The data is also well within the realm of statistical significance,
with a p-value of .0014. While the data for British hegemony was not as striking, the same overall pattern holds true in both cases.
During both periods of hegemony, hegemonic strength was negatively related with violent conflict, and yet use of force by the
hegemon was positively correlated with violent conflict in both cases. Finally, in both cases, economic power was more closely
associated with conflict levels than military power. Statistical analysis created a more complicated picture of the hegemons role in
fostering stability than initially anticipated. VI. Conclusions and Implications for Theory and Policy To elucidate some answers
regarding the complexities my analysis unearthed, I turned first to the existing theoretical literature on hegemonic stability theory.
The existing literature provides some potential frameworks for understanding these results. Since economic strength proved to be of
such crucial importance, reexamining the literature that focuses on hegemonic stability theorys economic implications was the
logical first step. As explained above, the literature on hegemonic stability theory can be broadly divided into two camps that
which focuses on the international economic system, and that which focuses on armed conflict and instability. This research falls
squarely into the second camp, but insights from the first camp are still of relevance. Even Kindlebergers early work on this

economic instability between the First and


Second World Wars could be attributed to the lack of an economic hegemon
question is of relevance. Kindleberger posited that the

(Kindleberger 1973). But economic instability obviously has spillover effects into the international political arena. Keynes, writing
after WWI, warned in his seminal tract The Economic Consequences of the Peace that Germanys economic humiliation could have a
radicalizing effect on the nations political culture (Keynes 1919). Given later events, his warning seems prescient. In the years since
the Second World War, however, the European continent has not relapsed into armed conflict. What was different after the second
global conflagration? Crucially, the United States was in a far more powerful position than Britain was after WWI. As the tables above
show, Britains economic strength after the First World War was about 13% of the total in strength in the international system. In
contrast, the United States possessed about 53% of relative economic power in the international system in the years immediately
following WWII. The U.S. helped rebuild Europes economic strength with billions of dollars in investment through the Marshall Plan,
assistance that was never available to the defeated powers after the First World War (Kindleberger 1973). The interwar years were
also marked by a series of debilitating trade wars that likely worsened the Great Depression (Ibid.). In contrast, when Britain was
more powerful, it was able to facilitate greater free trade, and after World War II, the United States played a leading role in creating
institutions like the GATT that had an essential role in facilitating global trade (Organski 1958). The possibility that economic stability
is an important factor in the overall security environment should not be discounted, especially given the results of my statistical

Another theory that could provide insight into the patterns observed in this
research is that of preponderance of power. Gilpin theorized that when a state has
the preponderance of power in the international system, rivals are more
likely to resolve their disagreements without resorting to armed conflict
(Gilpin 1983). The logic behind this claim is simple it makes more sense to challenge a weaker hegemon than a stronger
analysis.

one. This simple yet powerful theory can help explain the puzzlingly strong positive correlation between military conflicts engaged in
by the hegemon and conflict overall. It is not necessarily that military involvement by the hegemon instigates further conflict in the
international system. Rather, this military involvement could be a function of the hegemons weaker position, which is the true
cause of the higher levels of conflict in the international system.

Additionally, it is important to note that


military power is, in the long run, dependent on economic strength. Thus, it is possible
that as hegemons lose relative economic power, other nations are tempted
to challenge them even if their short-term military capabilities are still strong. This would help explain

some of the variation found between the economic and military data. The results of this analysis are of clear importance beyond the
realm of theory. As the debate rages over the role of the United States in the world, hegemonic stability theory has some useful
insights to bring to the table. What this research makes clear is that a strong hegemon can exert a positive influence on stability in
the international system. However, this should not give policymakers a justification to engage in conflict or escalate military budgets

If anything, this research points to the central


importance of economic influence in fostering international stability. To misconstrue
these findings to justify anything else would be a grave error indeed. Hegemons
may play a stabilizing role in the international system, but this role is complicated. It
is economic strength, not military dominance that is the true test of hegemony. A weak state with a
strong military is a paper tiger it may appear fearsome, but it is vulnerable to even a
short blast of wind.
purely for the sake of international stability.

Collapse of unipolarity causes nuclear great power war and


turns every geopolitical hotspot
Andrea E. Varisco 13, Ph.D. candidate at the Post-War Reconstruction and
Development Unit of the University of York, holds a Master in International Affairs,
Peace and Conflict Studies specialisation from the Australian National University and
the International Peace Research Institute, Oslo and a Master in Politics and
Comparative Institutions from the University of Milano, 6/3/13, Towards a MultiPolar International System: Which Prospects for Global Peace?, http://www.eir.info/2013/06/03/towards-a-multi-polar-international-system-which-prospects-forglobal-peace/
The prospects of a great power rivalry are particularly strong in East Asia, a region
characterized by weak regional alliances and institutions, in which the economic rise of some actors could indeed

The decline of the US and the rise of


China could for example undermine the Asian balance of power and bring to light the old rivalry
represent a serious source of instability in the near future.

between China and Japan (Shambaugh). A strong rising China armed with middle range missiles could be perceived
as threatening by Japan, worried that its historical American ally could not defend it because of US high involvement

stability of the region appears even more difficult to achieve


considering that the concept of balance of power requires shared common values and
similar cultural understanding, requisites that are not present between the two
major powers of the Asia Pacific region, China and Japan (Friedberg). India has been portrayed as the
third pole of the multi-polar world in 2050 (Virmani; Gupta). Yet its constant rise could undermine Asian
stability and, for example, worsen Indian relations with its neighbor Pakistan. Moreover, the
scarcity of natural resources in a world that is consuming and demanding a high quantity of them could
have several implications on global security and stability (Dannreuther; Kenny; Laverett and
Bader). In this framework, the rise of Russia, a country which exports large quantities of oil and gas, controls
the European provisions of energy and has had high increases in military expenditure in the last decade could
represent another potential source of instability for the future world order. Russia has
in other corners of the globe. The

increased military spending by 16 per cent in real terms since 2008, including a 9.3 per cent increase in 2011
(Background Paper on Military Expenditures 5). Before 2008, it had increased its military expenditure by 160 per
cent in a decade, (SIPRI, SIPRI Yearbook 2008 199), accounting for 86 per cent of the total increase of 162 per cent
in military expenditure of Eastern Europe, the region of the world with the highest increment in military expenditure
from 1998 to 2007 (SIPRI, SIPRI Yearbook 2008 177). Moreover, the control of the gas prices in Europe and the
enlargement of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in Central and Western Europe have already been causes of

possibility to exploit and supply a large amount of natural


resources, the growth of its military power and divergences with the US in some foreign
policy issues, such as the Iranian nuclear program or the status of Kosovo, indicate that the stability of the
future multi-polar world could be seriously undermined by a resurgent Russia (Arbatov;
Goldman; Trenin; Wallander). A return to multi-polarity will therefore imply more instability
among great powers . But great power rivalry will not be the only source of possible instability for the future
multi-polar world. The current distribution of power allows not only great powers but also middle, small
powers and non-state actors to have military capabilities that could threaten the
global security. In particular, the presence of nuclear weapons constitutes a further reason of
concern and implies that the future world could carry not only the potential instability of
multi-polarity and great powers rivalry, but also the dangers entailed in nuclear
proliferation. The future multi-polar world will thus be potentially more unstable than all
the other multi-polar periods history has experienced until nowadays: for the first time in
history, the world could become both multi-polar and nuclear . While some scholars argue
tension between Russia and the West. The

that nuclear deterrence could reduce the war-proneness of the coming multi-polar system (Layne, 44-45), the

consider the presence of nuclear weapons as a source of instability (McNamara;


regional powers and states that are not great powers armed with nuclear
capabilities could represent a cause of concern for global security . A nuclear Iran
could for example attack or be attacked by Israel and easily involve in this war the
majority of them

Rosen; Allison). In particular,

rest of the world (Sultan; Huntley). A war between Pakistan and India, both nuclear states,
could result in an Armageddon for the whole Asia. An attack from the Democratic Peoples Republic
of Korea (DPRK) on Japan or South Korea will trigger an immediate reaction from the US and a
nuclear proliferation domino effect in East Asia (Huntley, 725). Terrorists armed with nuclear
weapons could wreak havoc and target the heart of the most powerful countries of the world (Bunn and
Wier). Iran, Pakistan, DPRK, terrorist groups will rarely be great powers or poles in a future multi-polar world.

effects of their actions could easily reverberate all over the globe and
the stability of the future
world will therefore depend not only on the unpredictable effects of the rivalry among great
powers, but also on the dangerous potential of middle and small powers and non-state actors
armed with nuclear weapons.
Nevertheless, the

represent another cause of potential instability. For the first time in history,

Scenario 3 is aerospace
Declining STEM is hurting the Aerospace industry, and the
timeframe for the impact is now because of retirements.
Blakey 14 (Marion Blakey, President and CEO Aerospace Institute Association,
THE U.S. AVIATION INDUSTRY AND JOBS: KEEPING AMERICAN MANUFACTURING
COMPETITIVE, March 13th, 2014, Aerospace Institute Association, http://www.aiaaerospace.org/news/the_us_aviation_industry_and_jobs_keeping_american_manufac
turing_competitiv/, JAS)
American aerospace workers are among the most highly productive and skilled workers in the world. With a
global market that is growing rapidly, we must maintain an adequate supply of
workers with degrees in science, technology, engineering and math
(STEM) disciplines and specific manufacturing skills for U. S. industry to
continue to dominate and benefit from the aerospace export market . And
for aviation markets to meet the forecasted demand, we will need to recruit and
train hundreds of thousands of new pilots and maintenance technicians , as a recent
Boeing study has verified. We want to sell those aircraft, train those pilots, and hire those mechanics.
Unfortunately, today America is simply not producing enough workers with the right
technical skills. The U. S. graduates around 300,000 students a year with bachelors or associate degrees in
STEM fields. The February 2012 report of the Presidents Council of Advisors on Science
and Technology (PCAST) recommended that this be raised by one-third to meet our
economic needs. One startling fact is that less than 40% of students who start
college intending to earn a STEM degree actually complete the degree
requirements. We need to turn that around, and AIA and our member companies are working to do just that.

We are collaborating with other stakeholders to increase retention rates in engineering programs by putting in place
policies and practices, such as internships and mentoring, which encourage and support the success of qualified
students. And this is not just about four year degrees. Community colleges and career technical education play an
equally important role in meeting our workforce needs. In fact, today one third of our current STEM employees

aerospace companies have experienced


challenges in filling certain manufacturing and other technical positions. Customized
credentialing programs that prepare students with the specifically required skills are
playing an important role in addressing the existing STEM skills gap and constitute
another key element of our industry's workforce efforts . Our STEM workforce challenge is
exacerbated by the fact that the aerospace industry is graying. In 2007, we found that almost 60 percent of
the U.S. aerospace workforce was age 45 or older. Today, 9.6 percent of our industry
is eligible to retire, and projections are that by 2017 -- just three years from now -18.5% of the entire industry will be eligible to retire . At our largest corporations (those
begin their education in community colleges. For years,

employing 100,000 or more), the percentage retirement eligible is already 18.6 percent. We are

experiencing

a shortage of STEM workers today, but the problem

Strong aerospace key to deter hegemony warsespecially in a


world where Russia and China are definite challengers
Work 15, Bob Work, Deputy Secretary of Defense, RAND Corporation, China Aerospace Studies Institute,
US department of Defense, June 22, 2015, http://www.defense.gov/Speeches/Speech.aspx?SpeechID=1952
Now let's face it, in my view,

world.

we are at an extremely pivotal moment in the post-Cold War

The last 25 years has represented a remarkable period in our nation's history, if not the entire Westphalian

the United States reigned unchallenged as the world's only world great
power, and the sole military superpower. That was a singularly unique, beautiful
moment, which as you now know, is coming to an end. While the U nited States will
maintain enormous absolute power as far into the future as we can see,
unquestionably, our relative power will decline as we enter a more multi-colored
world, and a world in which our leadership will be increasingly challenged . Now, the
most significant challenge to U.S. global leadership, and the one in my view that promises to be
the most difficult to manage, primarily because we have forgotten about how to do it, is the possible
reemergence of great power competitions. Now, there are many interpretations of the term
"great power," but as a national security executive, I subscribe to John Mearsheimer's definition, which is a
state having sufficient military assets to put up a serious fight in a conventional war
against the most powerful state in the world and which possesses a nuclear
deterrent that can survive a nuclear strike against it. By that narrow definition, if Russia
and China are not great powers now, they certainly have the potential to be. And
under any circumstances, they are going to provide us with an enduring and very
difficult military challenge, which will stress us. Now, the first part, after factions in
Crimea and Eastern Ukraine, its nuclear saber rattling, and its provocative and
aggressively -- overtly aggressive actions from the Baltic states all the way to our
airspace in our far north, Russia represents a clear and present danger . This
era. Throughout,

development is largely unexpected, coming after 25 years of working very, very hard to include Russia within the
European community and cooperate with it on a wide variety of subjects and global issues. And we still seek both of

after modernizing both its nuclear and its conventional military


capabilities, and updating its warfighting doctrine, it is actively seeking to
undermine NATO. It's actively seeking to dominate the Arctic. And it's actively trying
to challenge many of America's broader global aims . As a result of this, as you know, we're
working closely with NATO to block further Russian aggression in Ukraine and to
deter future Russian intimidation or military action against its neighbors and our
NATO. This will require an expenditure of resources we quite frankly were not expecting to make, and in a
constrained top line that makes it even more difficult. But let's turn our attention to China, which is the
subject of this institute, and also the subject of today's conference. It's a rising power and a growing
economy and impressive weight in military technical capabilities. And it's going to
present a more significant and perhaps enduring strategic challenge to our nation
over the next 25 years, if not beyond, and one the DOD has to be particularly
focused on. This does not mean to suggest I think that we are doomed to have an
overtly hostile relationship. Indeed, our future relationship, the way we see it, will
have elements of cooperation and competition and not open hostility. Accordingly, DOD
these outcomes. However,

continues to pursue military-to-military cooperation, confidence-building measures with China. In order to increase
transparency on both of our sides, expand our dialog on a wide variety of security issues, to improve crisis stability,

But at the same time, DOD cannot


overlook the competitive aspects of our relationship, especially in the realm of
military capabilities: an area which China continues to improve at a very impressive
rate. We must also be aware of historic precedents. A Harvard study has shown that in 15 cases
and reduce the risk of military miscalculation in the Western Pacific.

where a rising power interacts with the established power, 10 have ended in war .
Now, China itself is very keenly aware of this historical dynamic. In its new military
strategy, it states "international competition for the redistribution of power, rights,
and interests is tending to intensify." DOD must therefore hedge against this
international competition turning more heated. Now, for the longest time we've
always felt that the best way to hedge against an overt military competition or even
unexpected clashes with any large state power, is for the U nited States to have a strong
nuclear and conventional deterrent posture. And this posture demands three things: first, we
have to overmatch any potential competitor in the military technical realm. Second,
we have to maintain the ability to project power across transoceanic distances and
defeat any competitor's attempt to project power over intra or inter-theater ranges.
And third, we have to routinely demonstrate both our technical capabilities, as well
as our operational capabilities. Now, without these three fundamental things,
our conventional deterrence posture will be less efective, our overseas
alliances and partnerships will be weakened, and crisis stability will be
undermined.

Unquestionably, after the last 25 years, we need to spend more time thinking about strengthening each of these three pillars of our conventional deterrence posture. Let's take it one by one.

Since the end of World War II we have relied upon our technological superiority. Why? To provide a conventional overmatch to overcome an adversary's advantages in time, space, and size of forces, because generally we are moving
across oceans to meet them. This was particularly true in the last 25 years, when the United States enjoyed remarkable and unparalleled conventional dominance across the spectrum. It was truly a delight-some spot for the
Department of Defense and our military services. We could generally count on unimpeded access on the land, in the air, and in the sea. We were probably most impeded in the aerospace domain. But generally, we could overcome
those type of defenses by virtue of our well-trained all volunteer force, and because we were first and early and aggressive mover on the guided munitions battle network regime, we enjoyed a substantial technical, operational, and
tactical overmatch against all potential regional adversaries. Our global command and control network was without peer, deep, and largely unthreatened. Our space assets, which underwrote our global command and control (C2)

, all of this is changing. And the


margin of technological superiority upon which we have become so accustomed to
is steadily eroding. This is something that Secretary Carter, myself, and Frank Kendall, our Under Secretary
also provided us with the ability to set up theater-wide guided munitions battle networks operating in a virtual sanctuary. Now however

of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (AT&L), have been talking about consistently. Now, this erosion
results from a combination of two factors: the first is the last 14 years, we've been rightly focused on our operations
in the Middle East. And now, our post-war budget cuts are limited in the amount of investments that we can make

Russia and China are pursuing levels of


advanced weapons development that we haven't seen since the mid-1980s, near
the peak of Soviet Union surge in Cold War defense spending. So addressing this particular
in both material and research and development. Meanwhile,

problem in my view, as the Chief Operating Officer (COO) of the Department and the one who spends the most time
trying to contemplate the character of our defense portfolio, this is one of the most important strategic tasks and

if we allow our technical superiority to erode too


much, again, it will undermine our conventional deterrence . It will greatly raise the
cost -- the potential cost of any intervention overseas, and will contribute to crisis
instability.
risks that are facing our Department. Because

Now, to restore this, you've probably heard that we are starting a new Long-Range Research and Development Planning Program, or LRRDPP. It's under the direction of Under Secretary of Defense Frank

Kendall. Now this follows a solution model based loosely on the LRDPP that we established in the 1970s. And after a serious amount of work, it concluded that the combination of guided conventional munitions, informationalized
battle networks, and stealth would be able to off-set the Soviets' advantage in numerical forces. Now this next iteration of the LRDPP, in the same way aims to identify promising technologies that can be moved into development
within the next five years, as well as long-range science and technology investments that we can make now and have a big payoff in 10 to 20 years. The initial results of these efforts, this will be a continuing effort, but the initial
results are going to be reported to the Secretary of Defense Carter next month. And they will be used to provide me and the vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff strategic guidance on how to approach the strategic portfolio in
the FY17 budget preparation and submission. Now, the LRDPP is a longer-range view. We also have the Strategic Capabilities Office (SCO), which was set up by Secretary Carter, that is looking at weapons and systems and platforms
that are either in production now, or in the field now, or programmed now, and how to use them in a different way than they were intended to provide us with an unexpected operational or tactical advantage. So the LRDPP again, a
continuing program, as well as the SCO, both seek to restore a comfortable margin of technological superiority. I want to make sure that everyone understands we are not trying to reduplicate the margin of technical superiority we

we want to have a margin of technological


superiority that provides us confidence when we employ our forces that we will
have a technological advantage and be able to defeat, again, power projection,
an adversary's power projection across intra or inter-theater ranges.
enjoyed in 1995. That would be unreasonable under any number of circumstances. But

Now this has long been a strong suit of our

joint force, but as guided munitions and battle networking technologies have proliferated globally, fighting such away games are going to be vastly more difficult. You hear this term all the time, A2/AD, anti-access and area denial.
They will use these weapons first to deny us access into a theater, and then if we are successful in getting into a theater, will use these things to deny us freedom of maneuver and action in all domains once there. All of our global
command and control and space capabilities are under increasing threat. And in an unclassified environment, I can't speak too deeply about this, but let me just say that it is very concerning. Our potential adversaries are pursuing a
wide range of cyber and kinetic attack capabilities, and we are going to have to expend a lot of effort to maintain our C2 network and our space capabilities in any future fight. And that is why we are exploring offset strategies: new
combinations of technologies, operational concepts, organizational constructs that will maintain our ability to project combat power into a theater in a place and time of our own choosing. Such new strategies will require us to
leverage commercial innovation, which quite frankly is leading -- is in the leading edge of the types of technologies that we need to consider, and to greatly accelerate the refresh cycle of our new weapons and systems. This is a
much more competitive world than we had in the 1970s, and that is moving much faster. And we have a wider range of potential competitors. And we have a wider range of commercial technologies that can be used in interesting
ways that will surprise us. In fact, the next 25 years, one of the things we must be prepared for is technological surprise. Now, the Air Force's Rapid Capabilities Office, or RCO, is a good organizational example of the type of
innovation and speed to market that we need to sustain and advance our military superiority. It has a streamlined chain of command. It focuses on stable requirements and funding stability and early and prominent involvement of
warfighters. And the combination of all of these things truly reduces cycle times. It demonstrates the magic that occurs when we marry up the operational and acquisition personnel and turn them on to a problem and tell them to
solve it quickly. That's why I'm encouraging all of the other services to set up their own RCO-type organizations. Hopefully, we'll be able to convince the Navy to stand up theirs soon, and then the Army soon thereafter. Now

regardless of the ofset strategy that ultimately we elect to pursue, one


thing is absolutely certain. It's going to invest heavily and rely heavily on
strong aerospace capabilities. All of our previous offset strategies have done so,
and there's no reason to think that the future will be any different. Aerospace power
has always been and will always be fundamental to our ability to project power
across trans-oceanic distances, to conduct theater entry operations, and to mount

joint combined arms operations. And because of its rapid global mobility , air power
will likely be the first on the scene in any unexpected crisis in the future.

Airpower is necessary to prevent Iran from closing the strait of


Hormuz
Boynton 9 (Colin- LCDR in US Navy, OPERATIONS TO DEFEAT IRANIAN MARITIME TRADE INTERDICTION,
Naval War College, 4/5/09, DTIC, www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA502907)

if Iran begins attacking oil tankers in the


Strait of Hormuz. It (the US) should simply utilize its most advantageous military
strength to first substantially decrease Irans sea denial capabilities before attempting to
gain even the temporary sea control in the Strait of Hormuz required for convoy escort. This strength is
massive airpower. Iran has very little to counter this, as it is lacking credible fighter
aircraft and surface to air defenses (by western standards).33 The U.S. should keep its warships
outside the reach of the synergistic coastal Iranian threat and instead utilize airpower and economic effects
to defeat the Iranian strategy of drawing the U.S. into a littoral fight . It may seem that the
This is not to say that the U.S. military should do nothing

patience required by this proposed operational design could become unhinged by the pressure of public opinion, in
that the United States could be seen to be shying away from a fight while civilians died in droves. The reality would
likely be somewhat different. VLCCs are in some critical ways far less susceptible to the damage mechanisms
utilized by the Iranians than are warships. It is likely the Iranians could carry out attacks on VLCCs at will; but in
practice, such attacks are unlikely to prevent the tankers from completing their transits. VLCCs are huge vessels
that displace 200,000 to 325,000 tons; they have thick double hulls and modern fire suppression systems and when
laden are filled with a compartmentalized and relatively inert, buoyant substance. 34 This can be compared to an
aircraft carriers 97,000 tons of displacement or a cruisers 9,600 tons of displacement and the generally single hull
construction of warships. 35 Of the 239 tankers attacked 16 during the tanker wars, only 55 (23 percent) were
lost, and these were mostly much smaller vessels than VLCCs and single hulled. 36 Due to economic factors, the
U.S. seems to have time on its side. For the Iranian gambit to work, it must force the U.S. Navy to attempt to
penetrate an intact Iranian sea denial effort with warships before the maritime trade interruption reduces the
Iranian economy to shambles. The United States does not need to immediately respond with warships in the Strait
and national interests are best served if it does not. CONCLUSIONS The Strait of Hormuz is the perfect physical
environment for the execution of sea denial. Its confined waters allow for even relatively short-range weapons
systems to reach the entirety of area being denied. The shallow and relatively calm waters allow for great mine
lethality and the unfettered use of FIAC. The geo-strategic position Iran enjoys along the length of the Strait of

The world is
dependent on the oil which tankers carry through the Strait of Hormuz. Irans economy
Hormuz provides it with a variety of options for surveillance, fires, and the basing of forces.

depends not only on revenues from oil exports but all of its imported goods and resources. If Iran were to interdict
the Strait, the United States must recognize that economically Iran cannot sustain this action for long without
untenable national trade and industry disruption. Irans entire economy and even the morale of its populace are
heavily dependent on maritime trade passing through the Strait. America and much of the world has short-term
strategic options to reduce the economic effects of a Straits of Hormuz closure. Iran does not. These effects could
17 be hastened through the destruction of resource stockpiles and certain key industrial facilities such as refineries.

Tehran has developed a potent littoral force tailor made for sea denial in a chokepoint. A large
number of FAC and FIAC combined with mines and ASCMs provide them a survivable force which possesses
numerous advantages in confined waters over the warships of a blue water navy.
Iran does not, however, have any means of challenging the U.S. for air superiority.
This is Irans critical vulnerability and should be exploited to destroy those systems
conducting sea denial.

Iran closing the strait incites a US-Iran conflict that goes


nuclear
Glaser 13 (Charles-Professor of Political Science and International Affairs and

Director of the Institute for Security and Conflict Studies at the Elliott School of
International Affairs, at George Washington University, How Oil Influences U.S.
National Security, 2013, International Security, Vol. 38, No. 2, EBSCO)
Strait of hormuz Given the geographical distribution of oil, a disruption large enough to
warrant U.S. military intervention, if one exists at all, is most likely to occur in the

Persian Gulf. During 2011, the daily flow of oil through the Strait of Hormuz was 17 million barrels, which was
the vast majority of Persian Gulf oil and almost 20 percent of global production .38 The greatest
danger is now posed by Iran, which in 2011 threatened to close the Strait of Hormuz in retaliation for U.S.
and European sanctions designed to severely reduce Irans oil revenue;39 the sanctions are intended to convince
Iran to forgo its nuclear weapons program. Although concerns about Iran possibly closing the strait are longstanding, estimating the probability that it would actually do this is difcult. Analysts have offered reasons for
expecting the probability to be low: Iran would lose the oil revenue from its own exports; and Iran would likely be
deterred by the probable costs of U.S. intervention, which could include the destruction of key military bases and
occupation of some of its territory.

There are, however, plausible scenarios in which Iran blocks the

strait, for example, as retaliation for an attack against its nuclear weapons program or as a coercive measure if it
were losing a conventional war.40 And, of course, if sanctions are highly effective at cutting Irans oil revenue, Iran
has less to lose by disrupting the flow of oil. Because so much oil flows through the strait,

the United States,

at least given its current policies , would almost certainly respond to keep it open. In early 2012,
the United States communicated to Iran that closing the strait is a red line that would provoke an American
response, and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Martin Dempsey publicly stated that the United States
would take action and reopen the strait.41 Careful analysis suggests that the United States would succeed in
reopening the strait, but that a successful campaign could take many weeks or more, and that oil prices would
increase significantly during this period.42 Iran would likely be unable to entirely close the strait, among other
reasons because exporters would adapt, employing tactics that would enable them to continue to transit the strait.
One estimate suggests that reducing the flow by one-third would likely be beyond Irans reach.43 Nevertheless,
reductions of this size would be significant, and uncertainty in the oil market, which would add to price increases,
would be even larger. Although a war to regain control of the strait would require substantial U.S. naval and air
forces, the fighting costs of this conventional war would likely not be large (at least compared to recent U.S. ground
wars), because the U.S. military would be able to dominate the fighting and would not need to employ ground

future Iranian acquisition of nuclear weapons would increase the risk


of this scenario in two basic ways. First, Iran might believe that its ability to escalate to the
use of nuclear weapons would deter the United States from responding, making Iran
more willing to interrupt tanker traffic44this is the basic emboldenment logic of
nuclear proliferation. The United States might nevertheless intervene, questioning
Irans willingness to escalate to nuclear use because Americas far more capable
nuclear forces would pose a formidable retaliatory threa t. In addition, the United States might
troops. In contrast,

intervene because it believed that this would help to preserve its ability to deter other emerging nuclear powers.45

conventional operations, which would likely involve sustained attacks


against land-based Iranian forces,46 could increase the probability nuclear war. A
number of paths are possible, including accidental Iranian attacks fueled by concern about
the survivability of Irans forces, U.S. attacks fueled by concern that Iran was preparing to
use nuclear weapons,47 and inadvertent Iran escalation fueled by U.S. attacks
against its command and control systems .48
Second, U.S.

Scenario 4 Economy--foreign students are key to the US economythey contribute


billions of dollars
IIE 15, Institute of International Education, "Economic Impact of International Students," Nov 7, 2015,
http://www.iie.org/Research-and-Publications/Open-Doors/Data/Economic-Impact-of-International-Students

the continued growth in international students coming to the U.S. for higher
education had a significant positive economic impact on the United States.
International students contributed more than $27 billion to the U.S. economy,
according to the U.S. Department of Commerce. Primary source of funding for
international students Open Doors 2014 reports that about 74 percent of all
international students receive the majority of their funds from sources outside of the
United States, including personal and family sources as well as assistance from their
home country governments or universities. Students from around the world who
study in the United States also contribute to America's scientific and technical research
and bring international perspectives into U.S. classrooms, helping prepare American
In 2014,

undergraduates for global careers, and often lead to longer-term business


relationships and economic benefits. Additional breakdowns of economic impact by state and
Congressional District, calculated using Open Doors enrollment figures, are available on the NAFSA International
Student Economic Value Tool website.

Making the US appealing to foreign students is vital


international students bring in intellectual talent that spurs
the economy
Michael R. Traven, 2006, he focuses his practice on commercial and business related transactions and
litigation. , Capital University Law Review 34 Cap. U.L. Rev. 693 LENGTH: 22989 words COMMENT: RESTRICTING
INNOVATION: HOW RESTRICTIVE U.S. VISA POLICIES HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO DEPLETE OUR INNOVATIVE ECONOMY

Visa delays, in general, have already cost this nation dearly over the recent years.
n224 Some of the hardest hit industries have been tourism, n225 foreign investment, n226 and multinational

the most pressing economic threat to the U.S. is the


potential loss of intellectual capital.
businesses. n227 Nevertheless,

Consider the following example: James Gimzewski, a citizen of the United Kingdom and a nanotechnology expert, was recruited

several years ago to establish the California NanoSystems Institute, a venture created by UCLA and UC Santa Barbara. n228 Nanotechnology is "the science of making products smaller, lighter and more powerful," and many U.S.
firms believe that it could have the impact on industrial development that the Internet had on [*727] communications. n229 In 2004, Gimzewski left the U.S. and on his attempted return he was denied access to the U.S. for over a
month while his visa was being processed for renewal. n230 The processing time would have been longer but Gimzewski was able to purchase an $ 8,000 one-way ticket from Switzerland, to Quebec, and then to Los Angeles, where
his immigration attorney convinced a U.S. consular official to speed up the process. n231 Assume that he had not been so fortunate and that he had been stranded for so long that he decided to accept employment with another
nanotechnology firm in the U.K. Also assume that nanotechnology became immensely profitable, and Gimzewski's innovations were vital to its success. Under our new set of circumstances, the U.K.'s economy would be collecting the

d. AnnaLee Saxenian, Dean


of the School of Information Management and Systems at the University of
California, Berkley, conducted research about foreign contribution to the companies
in the Silicon Valley. n232 She focused on 12,000 start- up, immigrant-run, companies
from 1980 to 1998. n233 Saxenian found that Chinese and Indian engineers were
heading almost 30% of the area's companies in the 1990s, which represented a
13% increased from the 1980s. n234 Additionally, she estimated (conservatively) that these firms
contributed nearly $ 20 billion in sales to the economy and more than 70,000 jobs in
2000. n235 Individual examples of innovative foreigners support the data compiled by Saxenian. China
native David Lam had worked for Hewlett-Packard until 1979 when he decided to
leave and start his own business. n236 His new company, called Lam Research Co.,
which specializes in semiconductor equipment manufacturing, is a publicly-traded
company [*728] that had over $ 1.5 billion in sales in fiscal year 2001. n237 Suhas Patil
of India founded Cirrus Logic n238 (a globally-recognized expert in analogue, mixed-signal, and DSP
technologies), n239 which had over $ 400 million in net sales for Fiscal Year 2002. n240 K.Y.
Han attended school in Taiwan in the 1970s and then decided to come to the U.S. to
obtain a master's degree in solid state physics from the University of California at
Santa Barbara. n241 After working at several Silicon Valley semiconductor companies, he
and former classmate, Jimmy Lee (also of Taiwan) formed Integrated Silicon Solutions, Inc.
(ISSI). n242 Initially, they recruited a large number of mostly Chinese engineers to focus
on research and development, product design, and sales strategies of their static
random access memory chips (SRAMS). n243 By 1995, ISSI was listed on NASDAQ, and
their 2004 net sales topped $ 180 million. n244 " [Innovative foreigners] are people
whose creative genius has affected the trajectory of entire industries; their
breakthroughs and business acumen have helped set in motion . . . the 'gales of
creative destruction' that create new companies and industries and
completely remake existing ones. " n245 Again, what if any of these foreign innovators had gone
to another country due to U.S. visa difficulties? The U.S. obviously would have lost out on a great
deal of technologic and economic benefits, including not only cash revenues, but
also employment opportunities. The loss of foreign innovators presents a
particularly pressing problem considering the impending talent gap that the U.S.
will face in the coming [*729] years. n246 According to a recent National Association of Manufacturers
report, skilled workers that had come from the "'baby boom generation'" will be out of
the workforce due to retirement in the next 15 to 20 years. n247 Currently, there are
revenues from Gimzewski's innovation instead of the U.S. economy. This would not have occurred but for the visa delays. This hypothetical is not too far-fetche

76 million baby boomers in the workforce and only 46 million "Gen[eration] Xers"
available to fill those positions. n248 While current and future labor-saving technologies will help close
that gap, the report estimates that by 2010 there will be a skilled labor shortage of about 5 million people. n249

the number of science and engineering


positions has increased four times faster than the overall employment growth rate.
Another reason for the impending talent gap is that

n250 The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that by 2010, an additional 2.2 million jobs will be available in the
areas of science and engineering. n251 Further, the Educational Testing Service estimates that between 2010 and

To
help curb this looming worker deficit, the U.S. must be able to attract foreign talent
with the success it had in the past. With more and more skilled positions likely to be
available in the near future, there will be plenty of positions to offer to foreign
workers. Thus, the U.S. will need to make sure that it can continue to make
the nation an appealing place to come to study and work. Changes must be
made to account for the increased global competition for these individuals and to
curb the current visa policies that are driving important foreign intellectual capital
away.
2020, the number of jobs that will require some form of post- secondary skills will surpass 10 million. n252

economic decline causes nuclear warhistory proves


Hutchinson 14 (Martin, Business and Economics Editor at United Press International, MBA from Harvard
Business School, former international merchant banker, 1-3-14, The chilling echoes of 1914, a century on Wall
Street Journal) http://online.wsj.com/articles/william-galston-secular-stagnation-may-be-for-real-1409095263,

The years before 1914 saw the formation of trade blocs separated by high tariff barriers. Back

then, the world was dominated by several roughly equivalent powers, albeit with different strengths and
weaknesses. Today, the world is similarly multi-polar. The United States is in a position of clear leadership, but China
is coming up fast. Europe is weaker than it was, but is still a force to be reckoned with. Japan, Russia, Brazil, India
are also too powerful to ignore. A hundred years ago, big international infrastructure projects such as the BerlinBaghdad Railway, and before it the Suez Canal, were built to protect favored trading. Todays equivalent may be the
bilateral mining partnerships forged between, for instance, China and mineral-rich African states. Today, the World
Trade Organization offers some defence against tariffs. But protectionism could be become entrenched if prolonged
economic stagnation leads countries to pursue their own narrow interests. Germany, Austria, Russia and France lost
between 20 and 35 percent of national output between 1913 and 1918, according to Angus Maddisons data used in
Stephen Broadberrys The Economics of World War One: A Comparative Analysis. British GDP declined in 1914
and 1915, but grew 15 percent over the four years, as did the U.S. economy. The 37 million military and civilian

if history were to repeat itself, the global conflict


could be both more universal and more destructive. Nuclear weapons proliferate. Warped
diplomatic anger could lead to the deployment of chemical and biological devices.
Electromagnetic pulses could wipe out our fragile electronic networks. Like the assassination of
casualties may tell a more accurate story but

Archduke Ferdinand that sparked World War One, the catalyst for cataclysm might be something quite surprising. A
global run on bank and other investment assets or an outbreak of hyperinflation, maybe? These threats get more

If global wealth
evaporates, or is proven to be an illusion, todays largely cordial global entente could be
smashed with precipitous speed.
serious the more policymakers pump up equity, bond, property and banking bubbles.

ISIS
Advantage Two: ISIS
The fight against ISIS is about winning hearts and minds, not
hard lining
Mirza 3/16/15, Waqas Mirza has an MA in social anthropology from SOAS, University of London. Winning
Hearts and Minds< https://www.jacobinmag.com/2015/03/terrorism-america-isis-obama/>//ak

supposed threats from al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) and the
Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (IS) to the Taliban in Pakistan (TTP). It mentioned deadly
attacks in Ottawa, Sydney, Paris, and Copenhagen and concluded that the
campaign to prevent people around the world from being radicalized to violence is
ultimately a battle for hearts and minds. In his speech, Obama suggested that Muslim leaders also
Obamas op-ed highlighted

needed to play their prescribed roles in this battle for hearts and minds by doing more to discredit the notion that
our nations are determined to suppress Islam. The fierce criticism of the summit hasnt just come from the Right. A
joint statement by a coalition that includes the American Civil Liberties Union, the American-Arab AntiDiscrimination Committee, the Council on American Islamic Relations CAIR, DRUMSouth Asian Organizing Center,

the stigmatization
of American Muslim communities under CVE, which sets them apart as inherently
suspect and falls under a long line of programs that defines relationships with
American Muslim communities based on a security lens, without meaningfully
addressing civil and human rights problems. The nearly exclusive focus on Muslim
communities under CVE, the signatories argue, has also enabled hate crime by private
actors. Other objections include a reliance on flawed models of radicalization, the creation
of a climate of fear through community surveillance over the beliefs and expressive or associational
activities of other Muslims, the law enforcements deeply troubling record of
engagement with American Muslim communities , and the governments prerogative of picking
and others represents the most comprehensive critique of these. The signatories object to

specific religious and community partners to fund and collaborate with. Such critiques are important in their own
right. There certainly is a need to explicate the effects of government programs on their intended targets and as
such, the joint statement along with other similar critiques

plays a critical role in resisting the

scapegoating of Muslim communities.

Educational exchanges are key to foreign relations


development- but discrimination against middle-eastern
students plummets goodwill
Zeman, March, and Adrian 05 Janice Zeman, PhD, Associate Professor of Psychology,
University of Maine, Noel March, Chief of Police, Director of Public Safety, University of Maine, Molly Adrian, BS,
University of Maine, The Effect of Post 9-11 Policy on Foreign Students: A Critical Analysis, 2/20/05, <
http://www.stetson.edu/law/conferences/highered/archive/2005/Effectof911.pdf>//ak

Educational exchanges between American and foreign scholars at all levels of


education are an important means by which foreign relations are developed. Foreign
students bring many positive aspects to schools and universities. They introduce a diversity of thought and
attitudes to the college campus that provides American students with opportunities to interact in a close manner
with people of other nations. Foreign students help to fill under-enrolled science classes and provide support for
teaching and research, particularly in the sciences. They benefit graduate education and add important financial
resources to the university economy (Johnson, 2003). For example, according to the Institute of International
Education, more than 70% of undergraduate foreign students pay full tuition with foreign students and their

Most importantly,
educating foreign students is a crucial step in foreign relations
development (e.g., people-to-people diplomacy) given that many current foreign leaders
(e.g., Kofi Annan, Hamid Karzai) have been educated in the U.S. and presumably, many
future leaders will also spend some of their formative years in the U.S. Having a
dependents spending $12 billion in our economy each year (p. 1, Johnson, 2003).

positive experience with their furlough in the U.S., international students take their
understanding and appreciation of our culture and their feelings of goodwill back to
their homeland. Future collaborative efforts between American academics and foreign students serve to
strengthen these positive images and connections. Thus, the foreign student on a university
campus is a precious commodity who needs to be protected and the relationship
fostered. Unfortunately, there is ample evidence to suggest that the opposite
may be occurring . That is, individuals of Middle Eastern descent not being protected
but are actively discriminated against through formal international policy and
informally through the attitudes of American citizens. The policies instituted by the government
and legal venues after the events of September 11, 2001 (hence, termed post 9-11) raise questions about the
future direction of American relationships with foreign students, scientists, and faculty.

Repealing SEVIS both attracts new Middle-Eastern students


and ensures current students carry positive sentiments home
Zeman, March, and Adrian 05 Janice Zeman, PhD, Associate Professor of Psychology,
University of Maine, Noel March, Chief of Police, Director of Public Safety, University of Maine, Molly Adrian, BS,
University of Maine, The Effect of Post 9-11 Policy on Foreign Students: A Critical Analysis, 2/20/05, <
http://www.stetson.edu/law/conferences/highered/archive/2005/Effectof911.pdf>//ak

Perhaps the policy that has had the greatest impact on university students is the Student
and Exchange Visitor Information System that was proposed by the Department of Homeland Security and
implemented by the Department of Justice and the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) on January 30, 2003. SEVIS is the
implementation of Section 641 of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 with the Enhanced Border
Security and Visa Entry Reform Act of 2002 providing additional clarification concerning the need to collect information on students
with the goal of protecting national security. SEVIS was instituted in order to tighten and improve tracking procedures for the one
million foreign students and exchange visitors residing in the U.S. each year. This internet-based system maintains a database of
current information on nonimmigrant students, exchange visitors, and their dependents until they graduate. As such, SEVIS requires
that students and their host universities report: (a) when the student arrives on campus, (b) failure of a student to enroll, (c) fulltime enrollment, (d) when a student drops below a full course load without prior authorization from INS, (e) any failure to maintain
status or complete the program, (f) change in name or address within 10 days, (g) start date of each term, (h) a students transfer to
another program, (i) program extensions, (j) off campus employment, and (k) any other major changes to the students program of

Although the SEVIS system is well-intentioned in its goals, its implementation


has resulted in numerous problems, some with serious consequences for
international students. Reportedly, the system does not work smoothly partly because it was not tested prior to
implementation (Johnson, 2003). Thus, long delays ensue when the system is down or a new glitch is being repaired.
Further, a detain first and ask questions later approach (Johnson, 2003) has resulted in many students being
detained for innocuous reasons such as not taking a full course load even with
advisor permission and thus, missing classes, increasing their stress level, incurring
legal costs in an attempt to clear their status, etc. Thus, as the system gets debugged,
international students and visitors suffer the consequences with their basic human
rights in risk of violation. Further, the reputation of the U.S. as a host country that
detains innocent students does little to attract other international students and
scholars to further their education in this country as well as places an additional
negative impact on foreign relations.
studies.

ISISs unchecked influence threatens Middle East stability and


enables large-scale terror attacks
Morell 5/14/15 Michael Morell is the former deputy director of the CIA and has twice served as acting
director. He is the author of The Great War of Our Time: The CIA's Fight Against Terrorism From al Qa'ida to ISIS.
ISIS Is a Danger on U.S. Soil, < http://time.com/author/michael-morell-2/>//ak
In the aftermath of the attempted terrorist attack on May 4 in Garland, Texasfor which ISIS claimed responsibility

whether or not ISIS is a real threat. The


answer is yes. A very serious one. Extremists inspired by Osama bin Laden's
ideology consider themselves to be at war with the U.S .; they want to attack us.
It is important to never forget thatno matter how long it has been since 9/11. ISIS is just the latest
we find ourselves again considering the question of

manifestation of bin Laden's design. The group has grown faster than any terrorist
group we can remember, and the threat it poses to us is as wide-ranging as any we
have seen. What ISIS has that al-Qaeda doesn't is a Madison Avenue level of sophisticated messaging and social
media. ISIS has a multilingual propaganda arm known as al-Hayat, which uses GoPros and
cameras mounted on drones to make videos that appeal to its followers. And ISIS uses just about every
tool in the platform boxfrom Twitter to YouTube to Instagramto great effect, attracting
fighters and funding. Digital media are one of the group's most significant strengths; they have helped ISIS
become an organization that poses four significant threats to the U.S. First , it is a threat to the
stability of the entire Middle East. ISIS is putting the territorial integrity
of both Iraq and Syria at risk. And a further collapse of either or both of
these states could easily spread throughout the region, bringing with it
sectarian and religious strife, humanitarian crises and the violent
redrawing of borders, all in a part of the world that remains critical to U.S.
national interests . ISIS now controls more territoryin Iraq and Syriathan any other
terrorist group anywhere in the world. When al-Qaeda in Iraq joined the fight in Syria, the group
changed its name to ISIS. ISIS added Syrians and foreign fighters to its ranks, built its supply of arms and money
and gained significant battlefield experience fighting Bashar Assad's regime. Together with the security vacuum in
Iraq and Nouri al-Maliki's alienation of the Sunnis, this culminated in ISIS's successful blitzkrieg across western Iraq
in the spring and summer of 2014, when it seized large amounts of territory. ISIS is not the first extremist group to
take and hold territory. Al-Shabab in Somalia did so a number of years ago and still holds territory there, al-Qaeda in
the Islamic Maghreb did so in Mali in 2012, and al-Qaeda in Yemen did so there at roughly the same time. I fully
expect extremist groups to attempt to takeand sometimes be successful in takingterritory in the years ahead.

ISIS is attracting young


men and women to travel to Syria and Iraq to join its cause. At this writing, at least 20,000
foreign nationals from roughly 90 countries have gone to Syria and Iraq to join the fight. Most have
joined ISIS. This flow of foreigners has outstripped the flow of such fighters into Iraq during the war there a
But no other group has taken so much territory so quickly as ISIS has. Second,

decade ago. And there are more foreign fighters in Syria and Iraq today than there were in Afghanistan in the 1980s
working to drive the Soviet Union out of that country. These foreign nationals are getting experience on the
battlefield, and they are becoming increasingly radicalized to ISIS's cause. There is a particular subset of these
fighters to worry about. Somewhere between 3,500 and 5,000 jihadist wannabes have traveled to Syria and Iraq

They all have easy access to the U.S.


homeland, which presents two major concerns: that these fighters will leave the
Middle East and either conduct an attack on their own or conduct an attack at the
direction of the ISIS leadership. The former has already happened in Europe. It has not
happened yet in the U.S.but it will . In spring 2014, Mehdi Nemmouche, a young Frenchman
from Western Europe, Canada, Australia and the U.S.

who went to fight in Syria, returned to Europe and shot three people at the Jewish Museum of Belgium in Brussels.
The third threat is that

ISIS is building a following among other extremist groups around

the world. The allied exaltation is happening at a faster pace than al-Qaeda ever enjoyed. It has occurred in
Algeria, Libya, Egypt and Afghanistan. More will follow. These groups, which are already dangerous,
will become even more so. They will increasingly target ISIS's enemies (including us), and
they will increasingly take on ISIS's brutality. We saw the targeting play out in early 2015 when an ISIS-associated
group in Libya killed an American in an attack on a hotel in Tripoli frequented by diplomats and international

we saw the extreme violence play out just a few weeks after that when
another ISIS-affiliated group in Libya beheaded 21 Egyptian Coptic Christians . And
businesspeople. And

fourth, perhaps most insidiously, ISIS's message is radicalizing young men and women around the globe who have
never traveled to Syria or Iraq but who want to commit an attack to demonstrate their solidarity with ISIS. These are

lone wolves. Even before May 4, such an ISIS-inspired attack had already occurred in the U.S.: an
individual with sympathies for ISIS attacked two New York City police officers with a
hatchet. Al-Qaeda has inspired such U.S. attacksthe Fort Hood shootings in late 2009 that killed 13
and the Boston Marathon bombing in spring 2013 that killed five and injured nearly 300. The attempted
attack in Texas is just the latest of these. We can expect more of these kinds of attacks in the U. S. Attacks
by ISIS-inspired individuals are occurring at a rapid pace around the world roughly 10 since ISIS
the so-called

took control of so much territory. Two such attacks have occurred in Canada, including the October 2014 attack on
the Parliament building. And another occurred in Sydney, in December 2014. Many planning such attacksin

Australia, Western Europe and the U.S.have been arrested before they could carry out their terrorist plans. Today

ISIS's
capabilities will grow. This is what a long-term safe haven in Iraq and Syria would give ISIS, and it is
exactly what the group is planning to do. They have announced their intentionsjust like bin Laden
an ISIS-directed attack in the U. S. would be relatively unsophisticated (small-scale), but over time

did in the years prior to 9/11.

ISIS will shut down the U.S. national grid itll independently
kill 9 out of 10 Americans
Bedard 9/3/14 Paul, columnist at the Washington Examiner, New ISIS threat:
America's electric grid; blackout could kill 9 of 10
http://washingtonexaminer.com/new-isis-threat-americas-electric-grid-blackoutcould-kill-9-of-10/article/2552766
Former top government officials who have been warning Washington about the vulnerability of
the nations largely unprotected electric grid are raising new fears that troops from
the jihadist I slamic S tate are poised to attack the system , leading to a power crisis
that could kill millions . Inadequate grid security, a porous U.S.-Mexico border, and
fragile transmission systems make the electric grid a target for ISIS , said Peter Pry,
one of the nations leading experts on the grid . Others joining Pry at a press conference later
Wednesday to draw attention to the potential threat said that if just a handful of the nations high
voltage transformers were knocked out, b lackouts would occur across the
country. By one estimate, should the power go out and stay out for over a year, nine out of 10
Americans would likely perish , said Frank Gaffney, founder and president of the Center
for Security Policy in Washington. At the afternoon press conference, Gaffney dubbed the potential crisis the
"grid jihad." A lack of electricity would shut off water systems, impact city transportation
services and shutdown hospitals and other big facilities. Fresh and frozen foods also would be
impacted as would banks, financial institutions and utilities. Pry provided details of recent
attacks on electricity systems and said that ISIS could easily team with Mexican drug
cartels to ravage America. He told Secrets, for example, that the Knights Templar drug
gang blacked out the electric grid of the Mexican state of Michoacan in 2013 to provide
cover for killing those fighting the drug trade . The Knights Templars and other criminal
gangs in Mexico will do anything for money, and ISIS , the richest terrorist
organization in history, has hundreds of millions of dollars at its disposal , said
Pry. ISIS could hire one of the Mexican cartels, or one of their criminal gangs already in the
U.S., or activate jihadist terror cells already in the U.S., and inflict a multi-state
blackout immediately , within days or weeks . Perhaps even a nationwide
blackout , Pry explained to Secrets. I am not saying it is likely they will do so. But given the capabilities
and objectives of ISIS and our obvious vulnerabilities, it would be foolish to ignore the threat to
the grid, to regard the threat as unlikely. Our planning should be based on imminent
asymmetrical threats , and not assume that another 9/11 large-scale attack is years away, he added.

Attack on the grid risks nuclear war.


Andres and Breetz 11 (Richard Andres, Professor of National Security Strategy at the

National War College and a Senior Fellow and Energy and Environmental Security and Policy Chair in
the Center for Strategic Research, Institute for National Strategic Studies, at the National Defense
University, and Hanna Breetz, doctoral candidate in the Department of Political Science at The
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Small Nuclear Reactorsfor Military Installations:Capabilities,
Costs, andTechnological Implications, www.ndu.edu/press/lib/pdf/StrForum/SF-262.pdf)

DOD is unable to provide its bases with electricity when the civilian
electrical grid is offline for an extended period of time. Currently, domestic military installations
Grid Vulnerability.

receive 99 percent of their electricity from the civilian power grid . As explained in a recent
study from the Defense Science Board: DODs key problem with electricity is that critical missions, such as national
strategic awareness and national command authorities, are almost entirely dependent on the national transmission
grid . . . [which] is fragile, vulnerable, near its capacity limit, and outside of DOD control. In most cases, neither the
grid nor on-base backup power provides www.ndu.edu/inss SF No. 262 3 sufficient reliability to ensure continuity of
critical national priority functions and oversight of strategic missions in the face of a long term (several months)
outage. 7 The grids fragility was demonstrated during the 2003 Northeast blackout in which 50 million people in
the United States and Canada lost power, some for up to a week, when one Ohio utility failed to properly trim trees.
The blackout created cascading disruptions in sewage systems, gas station pumping, cellular communications,
border check systems, and so forth, and demonstrated the interdependence of modern infrastructural systems. 8

the grid is also vulnerable to purposive attacks. A


report sponsored by the Department of Homeland Security suggests that a coordinated cyberattack on
the grid could result in a third of the country losing power for a period of weeks or months. 9
More recently, awareness has been growing that

Cyberattacks on critical infrastructure are not well understood. It is not clear, for instance, whether existing terrorist

It is likely, however, that some


are working on developing the ability to take down the U.S.
grid. In the event of a war with one of these states, it is possible, if not likely, that parts of the civilian grid
would cease to function, taking with them military bases located in affected regions.
groups might be able to develop the capability to conduct this type of attack.
nation-states either have or

Government and private organizations are currently working to secure the grid against attacks; however, it is not
clear that they will be successful. Most military bases currently have backup power that allows them to function for
a period of hours or, at most, a few days on their own. If power were not restored after this amount of time, the
results could be disastrous. First, military assets taken offline by the crisis would not be available to help with

during an extended blackout, global military operations could be


seriously compromised; this disruption would be particularly serious if the blackout was induced during
disaster relief. Second,

major combat operations. During the Cold War, this type of event was far less likely because the making bases
more resilient to civilian power outages would reduce the incentive for an opponent to attack the grid United States
and Soviet Union shared the common understanding that

blinding an opponent with a grid blackout

could escalate to nuclear war. Americas current opponents, however, may not share this fear or be
deterred by this possibility.

Solvency

Generic
Surveillance deters international studentsmakes the US less
attractive to them
Ciment and Radzilowski 15, James Ciment, highly experienced writer, editor, producer, and
publisher of print books, ebooks, databases, and digital content with an extensive list of critically acclaimed
publications., John Radzilowski, history teacher, American Immigration: An Encyclopedia of Political, Social, and
Cultural Exchange, Routledge, Mar 17, 2015

Government actions after the 9/11 attacks had a negative impact on those living in
the United States as immigrants or noncitizens. During the first year after 9/11. the expanded
definitions of "terrorist" and -immigrant" under the USA PATRIOT Act created new restrictions on student visas.

As a
result, the United States became less attractive to international students, which, in
turn, had a bearing on the U.S. labor market, higher education system, and
economy, as persons who might have contributed needed skills and talents to the
U.S. economy and education system were either denied entry or became too
discouraged to apply for entry. The Office of the Attorney General stripped the
Board of Immigration Appeals (a part of the Department of Justice) of its power, rendering
review of immigration cases essentially nonexistent and immigration judges
obsolete. Similarly, the US. Supreme Courts review of the anti-immigration laws of
1996 came to a halt, and stronger enforcement of those laws became a central
focus of the DHS. Muslim, Arab, and Middle Eastern immigrants were severely
affected by these immigration policy changes after 9/11. The federal government
detained and interviewed hundreds of Middle Eastern men based on their
immigration status and country of origin. Post-9/11 immigration policies were aimed
at maintaining strict vigilance with regard to immigration-both legal and illegal -to
the United States. Of the estimated 12 million undocumented foreign nationals residing
in the United States in 2012, a majority are of Latin American descent. Since 9/11,
they have been subject to enhanced enforcement of immigration laws, including
workplace raids, detention, and, for those who have overstayed their visas,
deportation for minor visa violations.
Foreign matriculation at American universities declined alter 9/11, as students had difficulty obtaining visas.

International students coming now, but local backlash means


levels will fall
Jordan 15, Miriam Jordan is a senior special writer in the Los Angeles bureau of
The Wall Street Journal. She mainly writes political, business and human-interest
stories about immigrants and Latinos from a grass-roots perspective. She also
writes about education, health and poverty issues. International Students Stream
into US Colleges, 3/24/15, <http://www.wsj.com/articles/international-studentsstream-into-u-s-colleges-1427248801>
But the perception that foreign students, in addition to out-of-state Americans, displace state
residents has fueled a backlash in some states. The University of California system
recently announced it will cap the percentage of out-of-state and foreign undergraduate
students at the Los Angeles and Berkeley campuses at the current level, 22%. University of Iowa regents last
year adopted a plan to tie state funding of public universities to the number of in-state students enrolled. Brenda
Nard of Salem, Ore., said she encountered many out-of-state and foreign students during her daughters recent
college search. You wrestle with it because you want your kids to have the most opportunity, she said .

I
understand the state needs the money yet I also wonder if it eliminates
opportunities for some Oregonians. Tina Orwall, a Washington state legislator, in 2012
introduced an amendment to a tuition bill that allowed the University of Washington to

increase enrollment as long as the number of in-state residents remained at a


minimum level. The amendment, prompted by an influx of both foreign and out-ofstate students, passed. I was hearing from constituents that their sons and daughters were being denied
admission into our state institutions despite being very strong academic students, she said. The growth in
international students also has caused tensions on some campuses. At Michigan State University, where the
Chinese undergraduate population has risen eightfold in nine years to nearly 4,000, staff and students have been
promoting dialogue since luxury cars owned by Chinese students were vandalized in 2012.

Surveillance disincentives international students from


studying in the US
Toutant 09 Dr. Ligia Toutant received her Ph.D. in Social Sciences and Comparative Education from UCLA in
2009. She has an eclectic background in economics, human communication, sociology, and sustainability. As an
active member of the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES), in 2010 Dr. Toutant created a special
interest group, Education for Sustainable Development, that functions under the auspices of this society.
International Graduate Students, the F-l Visa Process, and the Dark Side of Globalization in Post 9/11 American
Society, ProQuest Database, //ak

Visa restrictions and changes in the U.S. Immigration process after 9/11 terrorist attacks are
gruesome, discouraging, sometimes downright humiliating, and negatively affect the
numbers of students coming to study in the United States. International students contribute
greatly to the U.S. economy and culture. However, there is very little research about their challenges in obtaining
visas to enter the U.S. and the policies that control their ability to exit and reenter the country. Further, there is
scarce research that investigates how international students are welcomed in the U.S. post 9/11 and how they
overcome visa obstacles and challenges, how they cognitively negotiate and co-create categories of self and

explore the challenges that


international students have in obtaining an F-l visas and their experiences in negotiating the
meaning in the new environment. The goal of my research is to

concept of self and making meaning while being immersed in campus culture and living in post 9/11 American

The threat of terrorism brought about new laws and policies that triggered debates
The USA Patriot 5 Act, the Enhanced Border
Security Act, and the Homeland Security Act have affected individuals, processes and
technologies associated with entering and exiting the U.S. through increased surveillance , biometric
identification, and tracking of visitors. According to Doumani, the higher learning institution, post
9/11, has been subjected "to an increasingly sophisticated infrastructure of
surveillance, intervention, and control by government agencies a nd private advocacy"
society.

on the consequences of these new implementations.

(2006, 11). Hence, this dissertation examines the transformation of American society post 9/11, and my hypothesis
is that international

students from the Middle East and certain countries in Asia have a
greater chance of being scrutinized and have greater challenges in obtaining visas
to study in the U.S. than students from other geographical regions, including Europe.

SEVIS
The implementation of SEVIS has drastically reduced the
number of foreign studentsthis reduction was the largest one
in thirty yearsproves SEVIS was the key cause
***FYI, IE stands for International Education

Trilokekar 15,

Roopa Desai Trilokekar, has worked in the U.S., India and Canada in various capacities
facilitating international academic exchanges, FROM SOFT POWER TO ECONOMIC DIPLOMACY? A Comparison Of
The Changing Rationales And Roles Of The U. S. And Canadian Federal Governments In International Education,
CSHE, 2/9/15,
http://www.cshe.berkeley.edu/sites/default/files/shared/publications/docs/ROPS.CSHE_.2.15.DesaiTrilokekar.SoftPowe
rEconDeplomacy.2.9.2015.pdf

This presidential level support for IE , even if mostly rhetorical, was dramatically challenged
with the catastrophic events of September 11, 2001. With 9/11, IE posed a risk to the nations
security. Recoiling back to restrictive immigration policy processes initiated as a
response to the Iranian crisis and the world trade center bombings, a new tracking
system for international students was introduced by the Bush (Jr.) administration (2001-9). The
passage of the US Patriot Act, the Enhance Border Security Act, the Homeland
Security Act, and the Visa Entry Reform Act facilitated the federal governments
restrictive immigration policies and the implementation in 2003 of the controversial
Student and Exchange Visitors Information System (SEVIS), administered by the new Department of Homeland
Security (operations were still DS responsibility).83 As Witt states, the entire landscape of
international education in the US shifted dramatically from a posture of recruitment
to one of determent, from receptive to suspicious, from hospitable to hostile .84 The
global war on terrorism replaced the cold war as the national security meta
narrative.85 This was a time of crisis in IE with the U.S. experiencing its first
substantial drop in foreign students for the first time in over 30 years. Such a drop
was not experienced even during the cold war. This drop severely impacted U.S.
universities who were both dependent on foreign graduate students for advanced
research in the STEM fields as well as on revenues from international student fees.
The advocacy groups urged the government to strike an appropriate balance
between the conflicting demands of strengthening homeland security and
maintaining openness to the world.86 International programs, they suggested were an investment in
the nations security. Powerful industrialists/business figures like Bill Gates supported the
need for America to welcome foreign students to strengthen its innovation capacity
and global competitiveness. Both national security and global economic competition
were identified as important rationales and the secure borders, open doors
campaign came to dominate the IE policy discourse. I E faced a uniquely
challenging and paradoxical environment 87 because there was bipartisan political support for IE
and in spite of the federal perspective of IE as a risk to national security, in May 2002, the Bush administration
announced legislation to significantly increase funding for exchange programs. The Cultural Bridges Act of 2002
authorized $95 million/year from 2003-7 for new and expanded IE programs with the Islamic world. As Campbell
cogently states, mutual understanding ha[d] come back into the [federal] frame but with a harder edge, lined
primarily with the notion of global competence and Americas need to CSHE Research & Occasional Paper Series
TRILOKEKAR: From Soft Power to Economic Diplomacy 9 communicate and relate in a multi-cultural globalized,

Capitalizing on the why do they hate us? sentiment


a spotlight was created on the need and role of public diplomacy in fighting
terrorism. Karen Hughes as the new Under Secretary of State for public diplomacy became one of the most
political and economic environment.88
89,

visible advocate[s] for exchanges supporting a budget of $430 million (from $74 million) in 2006 for the DS public
diplomacy initiatives. Described as a period of public diplomacy renaissance 90 it was reminiscent of the Reagan
administration support for exchanges. Powerful dignitaries such as Secretary of States, Colin Powell and Condoleza
Rice spoke of IE as the governments soft power tool. Several new initiatives and policy priorities developed during
this current era; public diplomacy, an investment in academic exchanges, particularly with the Islamic world,

investment in study abroad for American students (2005 Commission on Abraham Lincoln Study Abroad Fellowship
Program and the Senator Paul Simon Study Abroad Foundation Act) and concern with improving the market share of
international students (2009, government accountability office (GAO) study on challenges and best practices in

Perhaps, most importantly, the critical need for a national


IE strategy was supported by the joint policy document issued by the
Alliance for International Education and Cultural Exchange and NAFSA. 91

attracting IS to the US).

SEVIS is the main problem of visa delayscomputerized


tracking systems of students is slow and delays visas
Michael R. Traven, 2006, he focuses his practice on commercial and business related transactions and
litigation. , Capital University Law Review 34 Cap. U.L. Rev. 693 LENGTH: 22989 words COMMENT: RESTRICTING
INNOVATION: HOW RESTRICTIVE U.S. VISA POLICIES HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO DEPLETE OUR INNOVATIVE ECONOMY
The

Act has affected the creative class primarily through its reestablishment of the
computerized tracking system of foreign students, [*718] named the Student Exchange and
Visitor Information System (SEVIS) n168 -a program that had initially been created through the Illegal Immigrant
Reform and Immigration Responsibility Act of 1996 n169 (IIRIRA). " SEVIS increases the ability of the
INS to maintain up-to-date information on foreign students and exchange visitors in
order to ensure that they arrive in the United States, show up and register at the
school or exchange program, and properly maintain their status during their stay ."
n170 The Patriot Act's establishment of SEVIS has directly afected the creative class
because the slow and inefective implementation of the tracking program
has led to unnecessary and costly visa delays. n171

SEVIS deters international studentsmultiple reasonsits


regulations are time-consuming to understand and it is a risky
intrusion to privacy
Shafiqa Ahmadi, 2011, Shafiqa Ahmadi, J.D. is an Assistant Professor of Clinical Education at the Rossier
School of Education at the University of Southern California. Rutgers Race and the Law Review 12 Rutgers Race & L.
Rev. 1 LENGTH: 21573 words. The Erosion of Civil Rights: Exploring the Effects of the Patriot Act on Muslims in
American Higher Education

When international students and scholars do successfully obtain [*14] visas, they
then must deal with the requirements of the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System
(SEVIS) enacted after 9/11. n61 SEVIS is an electronic database that is required for all
colleges and universities that accept international students and scholars. n62 SEVIS
"collects and maintains pertinent information on nonimmigrant students and
exchange visitors, [their spouses], and the schools and exchange visitor sponsors that
host these individuals in the United States." n63 International students and visiting
scholars are fingerprinted and their names are routinely checked against
sophisticated government databases for possible criminal or other information that
may disqualify them. n64 The federal government requires all male visa applicants
between the ages of 16-45 to fill out additional forms disclosing private information
about themselves, their families, and their activities. n65 Not only are SEVIS
requirements difficult to understand, time consuming, and an intrusion
into the private lives of international students and scholars, they also
jeopardize the safety and security of international students and scholars .
Despite claims that SEVIS is a secure database, in 2005, " a hacker broke into a University of Nevada
at Las Vegas online database for ... SEVIS and gained access to personal information
for about 5,000 current and former international students and scholars." n66 The
stolen information consisted of names, [*15] "birth dates, passport numbers, Social
Security numbers[,]" and other sensitive information about the international
students, their spouses, and families. n67 Other universities that have faced similar

problems include University of Kansas, B oston College, and California State


University at Chico. n68 2. Impact of Section 411 and SEVIS on International Students Denial of visas for
international students and scholars, coupled with issues related to SEVIS, is costing American
institutions of higher education not only in terms of tuition revenues, but also by
"disrupting the flow of the best talent to American universities ." n69 This flow of talent is
vital to international, intercultural, and inter-religious dialog directly related to intellectual engagement, ideological

that the United States has become


a less appealing destination for foreign scholars . n71 They are disinclined to teach,
conduct research, or attend conferences in the U nited States because they would
rather not undergo the exacting visa process that many feel is daunting and
demeaning. n72
exchange, and our long-term national security. n70 It has been reported

The existence of SEVIS reduces the number of foreign students


makes students feel unwelcome
David Treystser, Copyright (c) 2003, Treyster is an Attorney in Fort Lee, NJ, New York Law School New York
Law School Journal of International & Comparative Law 2003 22 N.Y.L. Sch. J. Int'l & Comp. L. 497 LENGTH: 15448
words NOTES & COMMENTS: FOREIGN STUDENTS V. NATIONAL SECURITY: WILL DENYING EDUCATION PREVENT
TERRORISM?

SEVIS will reduce the number of foreigners coming to study in the


United States. The idea of treating people as potential terrorists is not
welcoming. These students may chose to study in England or Australia or any
other country that wants them. The National Association of Foreign Student Advisors (NAFSA)
predicts that be-tween 15% and 30% of the English language program population
will choose other English-speaking countries (primar-ily Australia, Canada, and England) if
SEVIS moves forward. n231 The impending SEVIS regulations will have a disastrous
effect by adding complexity to visa regulations and damaging U nited S tates'
competitiveness for foreign students . Other countries will gladly take the $ 12.3
billion that these students contribute to our economy. n232 The U.S. needs to act
and it needs to act now. However, implementation of SEVIS will be short-sighted at best. But under no
circumstances should the rights of foreign students be taken away. The U.S. cannot say no to
education and it cannot say no to international understanding. If U.S. allows the
September 11th attacks to shut the doors of the nation to international educational
and cultural exchange, it will pay immeasura-bly in the loss of friendship, goodwill,
and understanding around the world. n233 The U.S. must determine our immigra-tion policy by the
Statue of Liberty and not by the ruins of Lower Manhattan. The continued commitment of the U.S.
to support international educational and cultural exchange is essential in order to
secure long-term victory in the war on terrorism . n234
The implementation of

The simplification of SEVIS will make it easier for foreign


students to come study in the US and stay in the US to teach
this solves the J-1 visa issues, which is the crux of the problem
Teich 14, Albert H. Teich (ateich@gwu.edu) is research professor of science, technology, and international
affairs at the Elliott School of International Affairs at George Washington University, Washington, DC. Notes and
acknowledgements are available at http://alteich.com/ visas/Notes.htm., Streamlining the Visa and Immigration
Systems for Scientists and Engineers, CISTP, 2014, https://cistp.elliott.gwu.edu/sites/cistp.elliott.gwu.edu/files/Teich
%20-%20Streamlining%20the%20Visa%20%26%20Immigration%20System%20(Fall%202014)%20Single
%20Page.pdf

The J-1
visa is the most widely used type for visitors coming temporarily to the U nited States
to conduct research or teach at U.S. institutions. Their stays may be as brief as a few weeks or as
long as five years. The regulations governing the J-1 visa and its various subcategories,
Simplify complex J-1 exchange visitor visa regulations and remove impediments to bona fide exchange.

however, are complex and often pose significant problems for universities, research
laboratories, and the scientific community, as illustrated by the following examples.
A young German researcher, having earned a Ph.D. in civil and environmental
engineering in his home country, accepted an invitation to spend 17 months as a
postdoctoral associate in J-1 Research Scholar status at a prestigious U.S. research
university. He subsequently returned to Germany. A year later, he applied for and
was awarded a two-year fellowship from the German government to further his
research. Although he had a U.S. university eager to host him for the postdoctoral
fellowship, a stipulation in the J-1 exchange visitor regulations that disallows returns
within 24 months prevented the university from bringing him back in the Research
Scholar category. There was no other visa for such a stay, and the researcher
ultimately took his talent and his fellowship elsewhere. A tenured professor
in an Asian country was granted a nine-month sabbatical, which he spent at a U.S.
university, facilitated by a J-1 visa in the Professor category. He subsequently returned to
his country of residence, his family, and his position. An outstanding scholar,
described by a colleague as a future Nobel laureate, he was appointed a permanent
visiting professor at the U.S. university the following year. Because of the J-1
regulations, however, unless he comes for periods of six months or less when he visits, he cannot
return on the J-1 exchange visitor visa. And if he does return for six months or less
multiple times, he must seek a new J-1 program document, be assigned a new ID
number in the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS), pay a $180 SEVIS fee, and
seek a new entry visa at a U.S. consulate before each individual visit. The current J-1
regulations also stipulate that he must be entering the U nited States for a new
purpose each time, which could pose additional problems
. The J-1 is one of three visa categories used by most STEM students

and professional visitors in scientific and engineering fields coming to the United States: F-1 (nonimmigrant student), J-1 (cultural or educational exchange visitor), or H-1B (temporary worker in a specialty occupation). B1/ B2 visas
(visits for business, including conferences, or pleasure or a combination of the two) are also used in some instances. Each of these categories applies to a broad range of applicants. The F-1 visa, for example, is required not just for
STEM students but for full-time university and college students in all fields, elementary and secondary school students, seminary students, and students in a conservatory, as well as in a language school (but not a vocational school).
Similarly, the J-1 covers exchange visitors ranging from au pairs, corporate trainees, student interns, and camp counselors to physicians and teachers as well as professors and research scholars. Another J-1 category is for college
and university students who are financed by the United States or their own governments or those participating in true exchange programs. The J-1 exchange visitor visa for research scholars and professors is, however, entangled

In 2006, the maximum period of participation for J-1


exchange visitors in the Professor and Researcher categories was raised from three
years to five years. That regulatory change was welcomed by the research
community, in which grant funding for a research project or a foreign fellowship might exceed three years, but
there was formerly no way to extend the J-1 visa of the researcher. However, the new regulations
simultaneously instituted new prohibitions on repeat exchange visitor program
participation. In particular, the regulations prohibit an exchange visitor student who
came to the United States to do research toward a Ph.D. (and any member of his family
who accompanied him) from going home and then returning to the U nited States for
postdoctoral training or other teaching or research in the Professor or Research
Scholar category until 12 months have passed since the end of the previous J
program.
in a maze of rules and regulations that impede rather than facilitate exchange.

A 24-month bar prohibits a former Professor or Researcher (and any member of her family who accompanied her) from engaging in another program in the Professor or Researcher category until 24 months

have passed since the end date of the J-1 program. The exception to the bars is for professors or researchers who are hosted by their J program sponsor in the Short-Term Scholar category. This category has a limit of six months with
no possibility of extension. The regulations governing this category indicate that such a visitor cannot participate in another stay as a Short-Term Scholar unless it is for a different purpose than the previous visit. However, as written,
the current regulations have had the effect of imposing the 24-month bar on visitors in the Professor and Researcher categories who have spent any period of participation (one month, seven months, or two years), most far shorter
than the five-year maximum. Unless such a visitor is brought in under the Short-Term Scholar category (the category exempt from the bars) for six months or less only, the 24-month bar applies. Similarly, spouses of former J-1
exchange visitors in the Professor or Researcher categories who are also researchers in their own right and have There are valid reasons for rules and regulations intended to prevent exchange visitors from completing one program
and immediately applying for another. In other words, the rules should ensure that exchanges are really exchanges and not just a mechanism for the recruitment of temporary or permanent workers. It appears that the regulation was
initially conceived to count J-1 program participation toward spent any period as a J-2 dependent while accompanying a J-1 spouse are also barred from returning to the United States to engage in their own J-1 program as a
Professor or Researcher until 24 months have passed. This applies whether or not that person worked while in the United States as a J-2. In addition, spouses subject to the two-year home residency requirement (a different, statutory

U.S. universities
are increasingly engaging in longer-term international research projects with
dedicated resources from foreign governments, private industry, and international
consortia, and are helping to build capacity at foreign universities, innovation
centers, and tech hubs around the world. International researchers travel to the
United States to consult, conduct research, observe, and teach the next generation of
STEM students. The concept of exchange, born in the shadow of the Cold War,
must be expanded to include the contemporary realities of worldwide collaboration
and facilitate rather than inhibit frequent and repeat stays for varying periods. In
bar based on a reciprocal agreement between the United States and foreign governments) cannot change to J-1 status inside the United States or seek a future J-1 program on their own.

this means rationalizing and simplifying J-1 exchange visitor regulations.


Although an immigration reform bill developed in the Senate (S.744) makes several
changes in the J-1 program that are primarily aimed at reducing abuses by
employers who bring in international students for summer jobs, it does not address
issues affecting research scholars or professors. It may be possible , however, to make
the needed changes by administrative means. In December 2008, the Department
of State released a draft of revised regulations governing the J-1 exchange visitor
visa with a request for comment. Included in the draft rule were changes to program
administration, insurance requirements, SEVIS reporting requirements, and other
proposed modifications. Although many comments were submitted, until recently there did not appear to
practice,

be any movement on the provisions of most concern to the research community. However, the department is

may prove
to be a particularly opportune time to craft a regulatory fix to the
impediments
reported to have taken up the issue again, and a new version of the regulations is anticipated. This

SEVIS is strong in the squotheyre surveilling foreign


students status
Kalhan 14, Anil Kalhan, associate Professor of Law, Drexel University, Maryland Law Review, IMMIGRATION
SURVEILLANCE, 2014

Congress also has mandated more extensive ongoing monitoring of international


students and exchange visitors, requiring educational institutions to share
enrollment status and other personal information on these individuals and their
dependents with DHS and expanding the FBI's ability to obtain student records that
otherwise would be protected from disclosure. n192 To implement these mandates,
DHS has developed the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System ("SEVIS"), a database
system through which schools must regularly report personal info rmation about
international students - including their enrollment status, class attendance, changes
in majors, disciplinary action, or early graduation - and their dependents. n193 DHS
officials use SEVIS not only to monitor and identify international students who may
have fallen out of lawful nonimmigrant status but also to "identify patterns of
criminal activity, including terrorism" and to "identify trends and patterns to assist
in planning and analyzing risks." n194

SEVIS causes a massive decrease in foreign students-Jaeger and Burnett 03 Paul T. Jaeger is Senior Research Associate and EBSCO Fellow at the
Information Use Management and Policy Institute and is a doctoral student at Florida State Universitys School of
Information Studies. He has earned a Juris Doctor and masters degrees in information studies and education. His
research focuses on legal and policy issues related to information and education. Gary Burnett holds a Ph.D. in
English from Princeton University and is an Assistant Professor at the School of Information Studies at Florida State
University, where he teaches courses in the development and organization of online information resources, 9/1/03,
Curtailing online education in the name of homeland security: The USA PATRIOT Act, SEVIS, and international
students in the United States< http://www.firstmonday.dk/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/1073/993>//ak
As a result of the passage of the USA PATRIOT Act and subsequent laws and regulations, SEVIS will monitor
international students studying the United States (P.L. 107-56, 416). Following the passage of the USA PATRIOT
Act, the expansive role for SEVIS was reinforced by the passage of the Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry
Reform Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-173), which legislated the enhancement of SEVIS in line with the requirements of USA

The intent of the SEVIS program is to computerize the monitoring of


students studying in the United States under three classes of visas, F, J, and M, which includes
virtually every international student attending a college, university, professional
school, or vocational school in the United States. Nearly 550,000 international students
are affected by SEVIS (Otto, 2002). SEVIS is Internet-based, allowing schools to electronically file all the
required information for students. The information collected by SEVIS includes name,
address, enrollment, courses taken, degree program, field of study, and any
PATRIOT Act.

disciplinary actions taken against the student. The duties of the Immigration and Naturalization
Service have been folded into the new Department of Homeland Security, with SEVIS and the oversight of
international students now being a function of the Bureau of Immigration and Customs, a law enforcement agency
(Arnone, 2003b). The regulations regarding the monitoring of international students that have been promulgated
following the USA PATRIOT Act and the Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act create Byzantine
requirements and restrictions for international students studying in the United States (see U.S. Department of
Justice/Immigration and Naturalization Service, 2003). The requirements include very specific dictates on what
information must be provided and when, how many course hours must be taken, and how those hours must be
completed. These restrictions are a change in U.S. policy, as many universities previously treated international
students as similar to out-of-state students (Altbach, 2000). David Ward ,

President of the American


Council on Education, noted that the new educational requirements from the USA PATRIOT Act
and related regulations may permanently damage the United States reputation as the
"destination of choice " for international students (Michael, 2003). Although the U.S. Department
of State agreed in June 2003 to begin giving priority to students, professors, and researchers in visa interviews

these individuals will still face extensive questioning about their beliefs
before they can have a chance to travel to the United States. Though stricter standards for
(Arnone, 2003c),

any visitor to the United States to get a visa will affect many industries and areas of society (CNN, 2003a),

institutions of higher education seem likely face significant impacts from the new
policies. The National Association of Foreign Student Advisors estimates that 15-30 percent of
international students who would have come to the United States will choose to
study in Australia, Canada, or the United Kingdom as a result of SEVIS (Treyster, 2003).
Colleges and universities in the United States have already seen "a massive decrease in
the number of students from Muslim states, scores of foreign faculty
being unable to teach courses, [and] scientific research projects becoming
delayed or derailed " [7]. In the summer of 2003, enrollment by international students in
language programs in the United States had dropped 30.5 percent from pre-USA PATRIOT Act
levels (Young, 2003). Universities in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the Middle East
have seen an increase of up to five times as many applicants as pre-2001 levels, while some
Australian universities are marketing themselves internationally as an alternative to
the strict and unforgiving requirements that international students now face in the
United States (Paden and Singer, 2003).

SEVIS II will not solve because its not being implemented in


the squoupdates are occurring, but vulnerabilities still
remain
Farrell 14, Louis M. Farrell, Director of the Student and Exchange Visitor Program, SEVIS Release 6.17,
Homeland Security Investigations, July 2014, Volume 4, Issue 2, http://www.ice.gov/doclib/sevis/pdf/July-2014-SEVPSpotlight.pdf

the costs to schools for deployment of the


upcoming SEVIS enhancements will require as much funding from schools as
originally envisioned for SEVIS II, as some schools may have set aside funds for this deployment. We
reviewed all of the planned releases over the next 18 months, giving us 35 new functionalities within
the current system closing many of the remaining national security vulnerabilities.
We are confident that the cost to schools to implement those releases will be far
less than that of the full SEVIS II deployment in fact, we feel these enhancements will cost about
half. However, even after deployment of the 35 functionalities, some important
vulnerabilities will remain which cannot be closed within the current system without
a major overhaul of SEVIS at great cost. Over the next year, Immigration and Customs Enforcement
SEVP has received questions asking whether

(ICE) is conducting an independent Analysis of Alternatives (AOA) to evaluate the options and costs to close
remaining vulnerabilities. Depending on which alternative ICE chooses will determine if additional costs will be
incurred by the schools.

AT: Obamas XO
Obamas change doesnt helpno actual proofthis is from
their own evidence
Shanmugham 15, Sangeetha Shanmugham, World Education Services, International STEM Students
Will Benefit from Obamas Executive Action, Wesstudentadvisor, Jan 14, 2015,
http://www.wesstudentadvisor.org/2015/01/international-stem-students-will.html#.dpuf
What does this mean for international students who wish to work in the U.S.? STEM students will likely see an

They should hope for the best, while


understanding that no actual timelines have been established for the key
immigration changes aimed at helping foreign skilled workers .
extension in the length of their work visa in the near future.

Add-ons

Education
Foreign students are key to support the economics universities
by paying tuitionthis makes scholarships more available to
American students
Flavia R. da Silva-Benson, 2004, an attorney in Medfield, MA, 38 New Eng. L.
Rev. 807 LENGTH: 20465 words NOTE: NEW UNITED STATES IMMIGRATION POLICIES
AND HOW THE CURTAILMENT OF STUDENT VISAS WILL AFFECT THE INTERESTS OF
DIVERSITY IN AMERICAN SOCIETY
International students are a form of trade that is quite valuable and necessary for
colleges and universities. Unfortunately, the new immigration policies restrict this
valuable form of trade. n236 International students contribute billions of dollars to the
national economy each year. In 2002-2003, for example, the Association of International
Educators reported that foreign students contributed $ 12.85 billion to the U nited
States economy. n237 While this is a large contribution, this amount reflects only a
one-percent increase from the previous academic year. n238 This one-percent increase has
been the "smallest increase" since the 1995-1996 academic year. n239 Clearly, disallowing
international students into the United States has a negative economic impact. This
government funded survey boasts how the American economy did not suffer from
the post September 11 policies; however, if one takes into account the amount of
students that should have been studying in the United States but were denied visas,
the economic numbers for 2002-2003 would have been much higher . n240 Therefore, this
favorable economic influx is already suffering a decline. Even a small drop in foreign students can
adversely affect the economics of colleges and universities. In public institutions, for
example, foreign students pay up to four times the fee that in-state students pay.
n241 In private institutions, they pay full tuition and are not eligible for any financial
aid. n242 Colleges and universities rely on foreign students to pay these
tuitions. n243 There is a direct correlation between the payment of full tuition and
scholarships - the more full tuition is received, the more scholarships become
available to American students. n244 In this way, "the economic costs of limiting
immigration are too high; too many components of [*831] American economic
prosperity are dependent on such flows." n245

Foreign students are key for US citizens education.


Passos 15 [06/02/15 Sabrina Passos, journalist, How international students are subsidizing U.S. universities,
http://fusion.net/story/142895/how-international-students-are-subsidizing-u-s-universities/ DA July 11, 15]

being a foreign student in the U.S. usually means paying full tuition. And
Tuition for international students can sometimes be even more expensive,
because of foreign exchange rates and higher price tiers for out-of-country
applicants. The situation has created a financial structure where foreign students particularly
those from China are subsidizing financial aid for U.S. students by paying the full
boat themselves, and sometimes at inflated prices, admissions experts say. Michigan State, for
That means that
thats not all.

example, had over 1,000 students from China in the entering class. All of these students were full-payers. Only a
very small group of schools in the U.S. provide need-based aid for international students, says Parke Muth, former
Dean of Admissions and Director of International Admission at the University of Virginia. They reserve money for
U.S. citizens first. The United States last year had more than 886,000 international students enrolled in colleges
across the country, according to Open Doors Report, from Institute of International Education. Thats almost double
the number of international students studying in the United States 20 years ago.

2AC Innovation

Warming

STEM K2 Science Leadership


Foreign students are key to US STEM leadership.
Press Trust of India 15 [05/28/15 Press Trust of India, 90,000 Indian Students Apply for US Visa, 4,000
Make the Cut, http://www.ndtv.com/india-news/90-000-indian-students-apply-for-us-visa-4-000-make-the-cut-766734?pfrom=homelateststories DA July 11, 15]

number of student visa applications for the United States has registered a 60 per
cent increase this year with a whopping 90,000 applicants, of whom only about
4,000 could make the cut. According to an official statement, around 4,000 students managed to get
The

student visa which saw over 90,000 applicants, a number which doubled at the US embassy and consulates,
especially in Mumbai and Hyderabad, over the last 12 months. "The US Embassy in Delhi, and Consulates General
in Chennai, Hyderabad, Kolkata, and Mumbai, opened their doors on today to over 4,000 Indian students who

The students will join a growing


league of their counterparts in the US, which stands at nearly 103,000 at present,
making them the second largest group of foreign students in the country after
China. "Student visa applications across India increased 60 per cent last year.
Consular officers approve the vast majority of student visa applications. 78 per cent
of Indian students opt to study Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics
(STEM) fields," the US Embassy said. According to the embassy, in terms of
popularity of study disciplines among the applicants, engineering tops the chart,
followed by computer science. "Last year Indian students in the United States
contributed USD 3.3 billion to the US economy," it said. Congratulating the successful applicants,
US Ambassador to India Richard Verma said, "Indian students are a great asset to
United States universities and colleges. Both countries benefit greatly when our
students study and learn together." On the occasion, celebrated as Student Visa Day, the embassy and
applied for visas to pursue education in the United States," it said.

the consulates treated the applicants to an informative morning in a festive, collegiate atmosphere, with the
consulates playing music ranging from college songs to pop music. "It

has been an honour to meet


India's future leaders today at Student Visa Day. I am continually impressed by the
calibre of Indian students that I meet, and amazed by what they contribute to both
India and the world," Ambassador Verma remarked after talking with the applicants
here.

! Warming
Global Warming causes mass species extinction
Zielinski 15
(Sarah Zielinski, award-winning science writer and editor, Climate Change Will
Accelerate Earth's Sixth Mass Extinction, April 30 th, 2015, Smithsonian,
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/climate-change-will-accelerateearths-sixth-mass-extinction-180955138/?no-ist, JAS)
Climate change is accelerating species loss on Earth , and by the end of this century,
as many as one in six species could be at risk of extinction. But while these effects are being
seen around the world, the threat is much higher in certain sensitive regions, according to
two new comprehensive studies. The planet is experiencing a new wave of die-offs
driven by factors such as habitat loss, the introduction of exotic invaders and rapid
changes to our climate. Some people have called the phenomenon the sixth mass
extinction, on par with the catastrophic demise of the large dinosaurs 65 million
years ago. To try and combat the declines, scientists have been racing to make predictions about which species
are most likely to go extinct, along with when and where it will happen, sometimes with widely varying results.
Depending on which study you look at, you can come away with a rosy or gloomy view of climate change
extinctions, notes Mark Urban of the University of Connecticut. Thats because each study focuses on different
species [and] regions of the world and makes different assumptions about climate change and species responses.

one of the two new studies published today in Science, Urban compensated for all
those differences by combining 131 previously published studies into one big
prediction. If greenhouse gas emissions continue unabated, he calculates, 16
percent of species will be threatened with extinction due to climate change by the
end of the century. Perhaps most surprising is that extinction risk does not just
increase with temperature rise, but accelerates , curving upward as the Earth
warms, Urban says. If greenhouse gases were capped and temperatures rose a couple
degrees less, then the extinction threat would be nearly halved, he found. Urbans
In

analysis focused on major land areas (minus Antarctica) and found that the risk of die-offs was not equal around the

South America, Australia and New Zealand will experience the most
extinctions, probably because these regions have many species that are endemic
and found nowhere else in the world, and they rely on habitats that are not found
anywhere else. Ocean areas predicted to be at high risk of extinction (red) are
overlaid with areas most impacted by humans (black outline) and regions
experiencing a high rate of climate change (crosshatch) . (Finnegan et al, Science.) In the
world.

second study, Seth Finnegan of the University of California, Berkeley and colleagues drew from the fossil record to
make predictions about modern extinction risk in the worlds coastal areas. Extinction

is a process that
often plays out on very long timescalesthousands of years or more. But our direct
observations of modern species span, in even the best cases, only a few hundred
years, notes Finnegan. Fossils allow us to examine the entire histories of different groups, from their first

appearance until their final extinction. Finnegans group used the fossil histories of six groups of marine animals
bivalves, gastropods, sea urchins, sharks, mammals and stony coralsto determine which kinds of animals were
inherently more likely to disappear, or the intrinsic risk of extinction. Similar groups of species tend to have similar
patterns of extinction, Finnegan notes, which makes fossil studies such as this one possible. They team also
analyzed the geographic locations where such extinctions were more likely to occur. The researchers then overlaid
their map of intrinsic extinctions with data on today's human impacts and climate change to determine probable

They found that coastal species will be especially at risk near the
tropics, including the Indo-Pacific, the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. The
implications of these broad-scale patterns for the future of coastal marine
ecosystems will depend on how intrinsic risk and current threats interact to
determine future extinction risk, the researchers note. In some places, such as the
hotspots of species loss.

North Atlantic, anthropogenic impacts may dwarf intrinsic risk effects and leave a
distinctly human fingerprint on future extinctions.

Competitiveness

Intl student K2 STEM


International students are key to STEM
Redden 13 (Elizabeth Redden, Correspondent at Inside Higher Ed, covering the
internationalization of higher education, Foreign Student Dependence, July 12 th,
2013, Inside Higher Ed, https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2013/07/12/newreport-shows-dependence-us-graduate-programs-foreign-students, JAS)
International students play a critical role in sustaining quality science, technology,
engineering and mathematics (STEM) graduate programs at U.S. universities, a new
report from the National Foundation for American Policy (NFAP) argues . It will come as no
surprise to observers of graduate education that the report documents the fact that foreign students make
up the majority of enrollments in U.S. graduate programs in many STEM fields,
accounting for 70.3 percent of all full-time graduate students in electrical
engineering, 63.2 percent in computer science, 60.4 percent in industrial
engineering, and more than 50 percent in chemical, materials and mechanical
engineering, as well as in economics (a non-STEM field). However, the report, which analyzes National Science
Foundation enrollment data from 2010 by field and institution, also shows that these striking averages mask even

36 graduate programs in
electrical engineering where the proportion of international students exceeds 80
percent, including seven where it exceeds 90. (The analysis is limited to those programs with at
higher proportions at many individual universities. For example, there are

least 30 full-time students.)International students help many universities have enough graduate students to
support research programs that help attract top faculty and that also thereby help U.S. students by having a higherquality program than they otherwise would have, said Stuart Anderson, NFAPs executive director and author of the

Without them, he said, youd see a shrinking across the board


where youd have just certain schools that are able to support good
programs. That would lead to a shrinking of U.S. leadership in education
and technology if you have many fewer programs with high-quality
research and top-level professors. To some extent this reflects some of whats going on in our

report.

society within the U.S. in terms of trying to push for more interest in STEM fields, said Jonathan Bredow, professor
and chair of the electrical engineering department at the University of Texas at Arlington, a program with more than
90 percent international enrollment. Domestic

students tend to be more interested in going


out and getting a job right after a bachelors degree. Some see a value of getting a
masters degree but in terms of the Ph.D., I think its largely seen as unnecessary.
Theres a relatively small number of high-quality domestic students who can be
accepted into our masters and Ph.D. programs , said Leonid Tsybeskov, professor and chair of the
electrical and computer engineering department at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. He added that those
domestic students who are strong candidates typically apply to higher-ranked programs than NJITs. Indeed, said
Anderson, You talk to the professors, they say, O.K., if we were MIT or Stanford we could get all the top U.S.

At
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the proportion of international students
in graduate electrical engineering programs is 52.5 percent and, in computer
science, 35.3 percent. At Stanford, 56 percent of graduate electrical engineering students and 43.7 percent
of graduate computer science students are international. The report also emphasizes the value that
international students can bring to the U.S. economy after graduation as
researchers and entrepreneurs. Measures that would make it easier for STEM
graduate students to obtain visas to work in the U.S. after graduation measures
that many in higher education see as crucial to the U.S. maintaining its edge in
attracting international graduate students -- are pending in Congress (and are included in the
students,' but by definition there are only a few of those schools. Obviously everyone cant be MIT or Stanford."

comprehensive immigration bill recently passed by the Senate). "This report is very well-timed, said Julia Kent,
director of communications and advancement for the Council of Graduate Schools. Obviously, for the policy
reasons -- the pending legislation about STEM visas -- and second because there is data out there right now which

we have some cause for concern in this country about the flow of
international graduate students to the United States which we have always counted
on. There is now more competition for international graduate students . Other countries are
suggests that

developing policies to promote the influx of foreign students to their shores, and there are also ways in which the
current economy in the United States has reduced funding support for graduate students, which makes it more
difficult to attract students to U.S. programs with attractive funding packages. CGS data on applications to U.S.
graduate schools released in April show that total international applications grew by a meager 1 percent this year
and that there were actually drops in applications from certain key sending countries, including China (-5 percent),
South Korea (-13 percent) and Taiwan (-13 percent). On the plus side, applications from India increased 20 percent.
"It's too soon to know how this data will actually affect enrollments, but the preliminary data show that there is
some cause for concern, Kent said.

International students are vital to American STEM


Ung 15

(Jenny Ung, student at Arizona State University, International students earn more
than half of advanced STEM degrees in the U.S., July 8 th, 2015, USA today,
http://college.usatoday.com/2015/07/08/international-students-stem-degrees/, JAS)
For Yashwanth Kumar, studying in America has always been his dream. After receiving his undergraduate degree at
Anna University in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, he is now a graduate student at Arizona State University pursuing a

International students make up more than


half of science, technology, engineering and mathematics ( STEM) advanced degrees
earned at American colleges and universities, according to a study released by the
Pew Research Center on June 18, 2015. Mohammed Baoum, a graduate student at Arizona State
Masters in Biomedical Engineering. YashwanthKumar

University, also noticed that most of classmates were international students himself in his studies in pursuit of a
Masters in industrial engineering. RELATED: Philly organization brings STEM students out of the classroom, into the

Though international student graduates earned only 11.6% of all doctoral


degrees in the U.S., foreign students earn 57% of all engineering doctoral degrees,
53% of all computer and information sciences doctoral degrees and 50% of
mathematics and statistics doctoral degrees, according to the National Center for
Education Statistics. Screen Shot 2015-07-05 at 11.33.21 PM Via: Pew Research Center Baoum says that the
real world

job market plays a big role in these percentage rates. Companies and governments pay millions of dollars for
engineering research and solutions, which motivate the most talented people to see degrees in engineering, he

study also noted that schools


often use commissioned agents to recruit foreign students , which was formally
endorsed by the National Association for College Admission Counseling in 2013 . While
says. Also, the culture encourages and supports such a direction. The

Baoum was not approached by a commissioned agent, he had heard of students who had. In Saudi Arabia, I heard
many times about university fairs where students could meet with American university representatives to learn
more about their universities, Baoum says. RELATED: Study Women preferred over men for STEM asst.

Compared to U.S. college students as a whole, international students are


more concentrated in STEM fields, the study said. While business was the most
popular field of study with 188,179 students, engineering was next at 160,128 and
computer and information sciences at 65,291. Engineering and business are the two biggest
professorships

draws for international students, Kumar says. Especially students from India who make up a majority of the
population in any university next to China come here for engineering. Baoum explains that families often try to
encourage their children to study careers in STEM fields, especially engineering, while in America. I also think

many international students choose to study in America since they believe it is the
leading country to the world economy, he says. Also many of them have been
exposed to the American culture through movies so they would like to reach that
place where they used to see on TV. Its a cultural trend back in India that either we should be an
engineer or a doctor, Kumar says. We end up choosing engineering in the undergraduate studies, some by
passion, some without any choice and we pursue that goal.

Recruiting foreign students boosts overall STEM research


Lu 09, Meng Lu received her J.D. from Harvard Law School and is currently an assistant fellow at Harvard
University. Not Part of the Family: U.S. Immigration Policy and Foreign Students, Spring 2009, 34 T. Marshall L. Rev.
343, LexisNexis Academic//ak

Foreign students are considered technical brainpower, who often enroll in academic
programs in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics [*346] ( STEM). n11 Scholars and educators found
that among the major developed countries and the newly industrialized countries , the United States ranks
near the bottom in mathematics and science achievement among eighth graders .
n12 Therefore recruiting foreign students improves the overall quality of new
science and engineering Ph.D.s by drawing on a wider range of talented students
who become the key contributors in driving the knowledge-based economy . n13
According to a report by the Institute of International Education (IIE), more than one-third of Nobel
laureates from the United States are immigrants. n14 A study conducted by Chellaraj, Maskus,
and Mattoo highlighted that foreign graduate students are significant inputs into developing new technologies Page

their impacts are


particularly pronounced within the universities but also have spill-over
efects to non-university patenting . n16 Economic benefits, especially to the universities,
also arise because foreign students, "while enrolled in schools, are an important part of the
workforce at those institutions, particularly at large research universities ." n17 They
usually work as research assistants providing skilled assistance or research labor in the
scientific labs, or as teaching assistants to help faculty grade undergraduates' homework and sometimes teach
234 T. Marshall L. Rev. 343, *346 in the American economy. n15 They found that

undergraduate classes. n18 According to Borjas, these students [*347] play the same role in staffing the research
labs of American universities that Mexican illegal workers play in staffing the vast agricultural fields of California.

enter the country, substantially increase the supply of workers, but


lower wages in their respective occupations, and increase the profits and economic resources
of the companies that hire them. n19 For those students who have to finance their
studies in the United States, they pay full tuition and the higher education sector has become increasingly
Both groups of workers

dependent on the high tuition fees paid by foreign students. n20 According to a 2005 study conducted by the
Institute of International Education, there were 565,039 international students studying in the United States, and

the net contribution of foreign students to the national economy is


approximately $ 13.3 billion just through their tuition expenditure and
living expenses. n21 These numbers show the important role played by international students in
supporting the higher education institutions

AT: STEM Low


The STEM crisis is real: this card answers a majority of their
warrants, and specifically refutes their Charette card
Rosen 13

(Linda Rosen, CEO @ change the equation, The Truth Hurts: The STEM Crisis Is Not
a Myth, September 11th, 2013, Huffington Post,
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/linda-rosen/the-truth-hurts-the-stem_b_3900575.html, JAS)
Here we go again. Social media sites are buzzing with claims that there is no shortage of
U.S. workers in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM). Last time this
happened, they were responding to a report from the Economic Policy Institute (EPI), which has since been soundly
refuted. This time, it's an article in IEEE's Spectrum Magazine by Robert Charette, who proclaims that "the STEM

Like EPI, Charette is simply wrong. Charette suggests that people who
have a STEM background are down on their luck -- unable to find stable jobs,
making do with flat wages, or bailing out of STEM entirely . The STEM shortage "myth," he
crisis is a myth."

writes, was manufactured by a cabal of special interests who "cherry pick" data to keep themselves in business and

Yet Charette does a fair bit of cherry picking himself while missing
the big picture. He argues from anecdotes and a handful of studies that support his
point but leaves aside the mountain of data that demonstrate a shortage. More
important, he unwittingly points to one of the biggest causes of this shortage: Demand for STEM skills has
intensified across the entire economy. Not just crying wolf Charette limits his attention to
the demand for people to fill jobs in traditional STEM fields like technology or
healthcare. But even in those fields, demand is strong and growing. Rising demand
for STEM workers is in fact nothing new. A sidebar to Charette's article quotes 80
years' worth of warnings that a looming STEM crisis will hobble U.S. economic
growth. The clear implication of the sidebar is that the education and business leaders who have been making
depress STEM wages.

these warnings have been crying wolf since before the Second World War. But were their fears of a STEM shortage
really much ado about nothing? Hardly. The National Science Foundation ( NSF)

reports that S&E


workforce grew from some 182,000 to about 5.4 million people between 1950 and
2009, almost 15 times faster than the U.S. population and nearly four times faster
than the total U.S. workforce. Surely all those worried education and business
leaders were on to something. They foresaw a steep rise in demand for STEM talent as
the U.S. economy made the transition from an industrial economy to an economy
focused more squarely on technological innovation. We can count ourselves lucky that the GI Bill,
the national response to Sputnik, the race to put someone on the moon, and a host of other seminal events helped

Economists have argued that the


technology those STEM workers helped create has accounted for nearly half of the
nation's economic growth in the second half of the twentieth century . Now is no
time to rest on our laurels. While the rate of growth in STEM jobs may have slowed through our two 21stfuel the growth of the STEM workforce to meet this demand.

century recessions, it remains robust. NSF puts it at 20 percent between 2000 and 2010, a period during which the
overall workforce experienced little growth. And that robust growth will probably continue. Georgetown's Center on
Education and the Workforce predicts that the total number of STEM jobs will grow 26 percent between 2010 and

The Georgetown Center also projects that professional and technical jobs in
healthcare, which it doesn't include in its STEM numbers, will grow by 31 percent,
far faster than the workforce as a whole. (Charette criticizes a previous projection Georgetown
2020.

released in 2011 for not foreseeing the depth and duration of the recession, but he neglects to mention this more
recent projection, which appeared in June of this year.) It's nice to be in demand Even in recent years of slower

Yes, as Charette notes, some STEM employees


have been laid off or unable to find jobs, which is an important reminder that
nothing in life is a sure bet. But such anecdotes don't stack up against the bulk of
growth, it has been good to be a STEM worker.

the data, which tell a dramatically different story : A Change the Equation study found that,
even in the sluggish years between 2009 and 2012, there were nearly two STEM-focused job postings
for every unemployed STEM professional. During those same years, unemployment in
STEM stood at just over 4 percent, well less than the 9.3 percent unemployment
rates for non-STEM workers. People in STEM jobs benefit from being in such high
demand. Study after study confirms that STEM professionals get paid more than non-STEM
professionals -- often much more -- even when you control for their education and
other factors. Contrary to Charette's claim that STEM wages have stagnated, reports
from Georgetown, the Commerce Department, and the Information Technology
Innovation Foundation show that they have risen faster than non-STEM wages, even
in recent years. That is a sign that employers are feeling the pinch. Of course, not every STEM
degree is a ticket to success. Charette is right to point out that people with PhDs in some sciences can have a tough
time finding a job that matches their degrees. But such jobs represent only a very small sliver of the STEM job

The fact that STEM jobs have fared so well even through the recession is
telling. If anything, demand will only intensify as the economy picks up. Don't forget
the STEM technicians! Charette does not address the high demand for a large category of STEM workers:
market.

those who have two-year degrees or certificates rather than bachelor's degrees or higher. In fact, he barely
acknowledges that such workers exist. "Of the 7.6 million STEM workers counted by the Commerce Department,
only 3.3 million possess STEM degrees," he writes. "If many STEM jobs can be filled by people who don't have a
STEM degree, then why the big push to get more students to pursue STEM?" Charette does not mention that, by

Commerce Department
report clearly indicates that the large majority of STEM workers who lack a
bachelor's degree in STEM actually lack a bachelor's degree in any subject. Instead,
most have 2-year degrees or certificates and do jobs that require nothing higher
than that. In fact, Jonathan Roswell of the Brookings Institution feels that studies like Commerce Department
report dramatically undercount such STEM jobs. By his reckoning, STEM workers with an associate's
degree or less account for 10 percent of the entire U.S. workforce . And don't
imagine for a moment that the jobs they do require only low skills. Roswell finds
that those jobs demand a "high level of knowledge" in STEM, and employers are
quick to pay a premium for that knowledge. He estimates that, on average, STEM
jobs that don't require a four-year degree pay 10 percent more than non-STEM jobs
with similar education requirements. Indeed, when business leaders in Change the Equation's
coalition talk about the STEM worker shortage, they are often referring to the
trouble they have finding qualified STEM workers below the bachelor's level. The
evidence is on their side. It's not just about "STEM Jobs" Anymore One major flaw in Charette's argument is
that he overlooks the growing demand for STEM skills beyond traditional STEM jobs . In
fact, what Charette sees as a sign of anemic demand for STEM professionals is quite
the opposite. He observes that people with STEM credentials are not staying in
STEM jobs, but that is only because they have strong job prospects well beyond the
traditional STEM fields. That does not mean that their STEM skills are going to waste. According to NSF,
two thirds of people with degrees in Science and Engineering who end up in jobs
outside of those fields report that their jobs are "closely or somewhat related" to
their degrees. Georgetown's 2011 report on STEM found that STEM professionals are hot
commodities in high-paying fields like finance and management, leaving many more
employers to compete for people in a limited pool of STEM talent . Again, employers are
willing to pay for that talent. People with STEM degrees who go into non-STEM jobs earn 12
percent more than those don't hold degrees in STEM. That wage premium drives
home the point that even non-STEM employers value STEM skills. STEM for all After making
"STEM degrees," he means bachelor's or advanced degrees in STEM. Yet the

such a spirited attack on claims of a STEM shortage, Charette devotes a scant concluding paragraph to what he
calls another "STEM crisis": "the fact that today's students are not receiving a solid grounding in science, math and

We need to make all young people STEM literate


to help them cope with the broader challenges of life and citizenship in the twentyengineering." On that point, at least, we agree.

first century. Yet that crisis is at the heart of the STEM worker shortage. Employers
of all stripes are looking for people with strong STEM knowledge and skills, but the
U.S. talent pool is currently too shallow to meet their needs . The consequences of this
shortage are not merely economically devastating. They are devastating to the prospects of millions of low-income
and minority youth who have not received a solid grounding in STEM and therefore have almost no chance to enjoy
the benefits of a STEM career. For those youth in particular, the STEM crisis is unfortunately all too real.

Foreign students are deciding to get education in other


countries other than the US, and that kills US intellectual
predominancestats prove
Freeman 05, Richard B. Freeman, Economics at Harvard University., NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES,
DOES GLOBALIZATION OF THE SCIENTIFIC/ENGINEERING WORKFORCE THREATEN U.S. ECONOMIC LEADERSHIP?,
Working Paper 11457, NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, http://www.nber.org/papers/w11457, June
2005

Data on publications and citations by country of investigator show that the US


predominance has already begun to drop in many areas. In spring 2004, the front page
of The New York Times reported a fall in the U.S. share of papers in physics journals
while Nature reported a rise in the share of papers in China .20 The NSF records a
drop in the US share of scientific papers from 38% in 1988 to 31% in 2001 and a
drop in the US share of citations from 52 percent in 1992 to 44 percent .21 The share
of papers counted in the Chemical Abstract Service fell from 73% in 1980 to 40% in
2003.22 While attention has focused on the increased scientific capability of China ,23
Latin American countries have also increased their share of science publications.24 One
aspect of the fall in the US share that has attracted attention is that it has been associated with a decline in
publications in some disciplines from US-based scientists and engineers (Hicks, 2004 ).

As the US share of
the worlds S&E specialists falls, it is inevitable that the US share of papers will fall,
but there is no reason for numbers of papers to fall, given the increased numbers of journals.25 Similarly, as the
supply of S&E graduates has increased overseas, many high-tech
companies have begun to locate major research installations outside the
U.S. In 2004, the CEO of Cisco declared that Cisco is a Chinese company when he
announced that the firm was setting up its newest R&D facility in China. 26 One of
Microsofts major research facilities is in Beijing . OECD data shows a large increase
in U.S. outward R&D investment from 1994 to 2000. A 2004 survey of corporate
executives by the Intelligence Unit of The Economist found that the five top 9
countries in which firms intended to increase R&D outside of their home country
were China, the U.S., India, the UK, and Germany. The three most critically important factors
cited by executives when selecting R&D locales were local R&D expertise in your industry, followed by
availability of R&D scientists with appropriate skills, and cost of labour of R&D.27 As of mid 2004, the Chinese
government registered over 600 multinational research facilities in the country, many from large US
multinationals.28 By contrast, in 1997 China registered less than 50 multinational corporation research centers.

STEM K2 Comp
STEM directly links to US economy.
Pham and Triantis 15 [05/19/15 Nam D. Pham and Alexis J. Triantis, PhD in economics, Reaching the Full
Potential of STEM for Women and the U.S. Economy, http://www.uschamberfoundation.org/reports/reaching-full-potential-stemwomen-and-us-economy DA July 13, 15]

The United States has been a leader in science and


technology over the past 50 years. The United States accounts for 40% of
worldwide research and development investment and employs nearly one-third of
the worlds scientists and engineers. Furthermore, American universities and
colleges attract the most accomplished and promising young students across the
globe. Innovation and economic growth are inextricably linked to one another.
Innovation has drastically transformed the American economy since the Industrial
Revolution by increasing productivity, connecting companies to a wider range of
customers, and raising the standard of living. A strong innovation pipeline is
essential to continue introducing technologically new and creative products and
services into the market.2 There are women in key leadership positions, but we are missing women in
STEM, Innovation, and Economic Growth

important middle management roles. That is the test bed; that is where you create new leaders. To populate that,
you need to have more women as new employees. There is no question that women are starting to enter
engineering programs at a much higher rate. If you are increasing the pool of new graduates who are women, that
will filter up. I think it is important to speed up the process a little bit.3 Gwynne Shotwell, President and Chief

The impact of innovation and related skill sets on economic


growth has been a key focus of public policy initiatives in recent years. Studies have
found strong evidence to support the linkages of higher levels of education,
training, skills, and innovation to the economic performance of companies,
industries, and countries. A primary focus of these studies is the relationship
between R&D and innovation, documenting the extent to which scientific research
has been the dominant driver of innovation.4 While innovation is still heavily reliant
on basic scientific research, it is more broadly influenced by disciplines such as
social science, health care, and sales.5 STEM workers are crucial drivers of longterm sustainable economic growth, and their expertise is needed beyond
technology companies and research firms. In fact, STEM employees are found
across all industries including agriculture, mining, utilities, manufacturing,
wholesalers, and services. Moreover, 13 Reaching the Full Potential of STEM for Women and the U.S.
Economy employees with STEM backgrounds are working across different
occupational functions, for example, R&D personnel, managers, educators, and
technical salespeople. STEM employees create innovative ideas and commercialize
new products and services. Introducing these new products into the market, in turn,
creates more jobs and boosts the overall workforce and economy. STEM is
important for two reasons. First, the solutions to many of the important challenges
facing the world rely on knowledge, skills, and advancements in STEM fields.
Second, the economic future of the U.S. and the world increasingly depends on
producing enough graduates in some STEM areas, particularly in fields related to
information technology and computer science. Maria Klawe, President, Harvey Mudd College
Operating Officer, SpaceX

While occupations are inherently dynamic and job responsibilities change over time, a major focus is placed on

STEM education as a means to increase innovation. Colleges and other post graduate
institutions are essential producers of skilled workers. Students from around the world travel to
the United States to attain a world-class education and training in STEM fields. An
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) study shows that
a strong relationship exists between human capital development and higher
education institutions, and that innovation clusters in regions highly concentrated

with skilled and creative workers.6 A formal STEM education leads to a higher degree
of critical thinking and an improvement in problem-solving skills.7 STEM education
helps instill an innovative mind-set that leads to creative new ventures and
increased economic growth. While women represent more than half of postsecondary enrollment and
graduates, they continue to be underrepresented in STEM education and STEM
occupations. This leaves an unfortunate gap that prevents the U.S. economy from reaching its full potential.
Public policies as well as private initiatives are needed more than ever to encourage women to enroll in STEM
education fields, and to ensure that they have the appropriate opportunities to pursue, and remain in, STEM
occupations.

STEM occupations are projected to grow at a faster rate than non-STEM


jobs over the next decade and will contribute directly to our economic growth
through greater innovation and increased competitiveness.

STEM is key to US competitiveness.


Han et. Al 15 [03/1/15 Xueying Han, scholar at nanotechnology, Will They Stay or Will They Go? International
Graduate Students and Their Decisions to Stay or Leave the U.S. upon Graduation,
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4356591/ DA July 13, 15]

U.S. currently enjoys a position among the worlds foremost innovative and
scientifically advanced economies but the emergence of new economic
powerhouses like China and India threatens to disrupt the global distribution of
innovation and economic competitiveness . Among U.S. policy makers, the promotion of
advanced education, particularly in the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and
Mathematics) fields, has become a key strategy for ensuring the U.S.s position as
an innovative economic leader. Since approximately one third of science and engineering post-graduate
students in the U.S. are foreign born, the future of the U.S. STEM educational system is
intimately tied to issues of global competitiveness and American immigration policy. This study
utilizes a combination of national education data, a survey of foreign-born STEM graduate
students, and in-depth interviews of a sub-set of those students to explain how a
combination of scientists and engineers educational decisions, as well as their
experience in school, can predict a students career path and geographical location,
which can affect the long-term innovation environment in their home and
destination country. This study highlights the fact that the increasing global
competitiveness in STEM education and the complex, restrictive nature of U.S.
immigration policies are contributing to an environment where the American STEM
system may no longer be able to comfortably remain the premier destination for the
worlds top international students.
The

Lack of STEM retention hurts American Competitiveness


Gordon and Bock 12

(Bart Gordon and Larry Bock, former Democratic Member of the House from
Tennessee and executive director of the USA Science & Engineering Festival,
Gordon, Bock: STEM Education Is Key to a Competitive America, April 27 th, 2012,
Rollcall, http://www.rollcall.com/news/Gordon-Bock-STEM-Education-Is-Key-to-aCompetitive-America-214160-1.html, JAS)
America is facing a crisis of competitiveness on the global stage . Our nation is
not developing a generation of students pursuing science careers or retaining the
talents of the non-U.S. citizens who now earn more than two-thirds of Ph.D. degrees
awarded by American colleges and universities. Fewer young Americans are entering fields of
science, technology, engineering and mathematics, putting the nations status as an innovative
world leader in severe jeopardy. Each year since 2008, the majority of patents issued by the U.S. Patent
and Trademark Office have been awarded to international owners. Inspiring young Americans to study STEM fields is
critical to reversing this trend and creating a new generation of innovative entrepreneurs. That is why the USA
Science and Engineering Festival the nations largest celebration of science and engineering, to be held April 28-

29 at the Walter E. Washington Convention Center was created. This weekend, hundreds of thousands of
participants will gather at the Washington Convention Center for what promises to be Americas largest celebration
of science. In his 2010 State of the Union address, President Barack Obama said, The

first step in winning


the future is encouraging American innovation. Discussing the inaugural USA Science and
Engineering Festival, House Science, Space and Technology Chairman Ralph Hall (R-Texas), said that
inspiring our children to become more interested in the STEM fields and in careers
through endeavors such as this is the key to unlocking our future economic and
innovative potential. More than 120 Members of Congress from both sides of the aisle have supported the
festival by joining its Honorary Congressional Host Committee. The commitment from Americas technology
companies to support the festivals expo and other events has been equally remarkable. At their highest executive
levels, these companies know that their futures also hang in the balance. This issue is one which transcends party
and geographical boundaries and will shape our nation for generations to come. This years festival brings together
a unique assortment of the countrys leading high-technology companies, colleges and universities, federal
agencies and professional societies to provide an array of thousands of interactive, hands-on exhibits, stage shows
and other activities. Participants will meet science celebrities and innovators who provide real-life role models in
STEM fields and be able to learn about internships, mentorships and scholarship opportunities from colleges,

With our nations global


competitiveness on the line, now is the time to make celebrating science
a priority and create a new generation of inventors and explorers who will
solve the challenges of the future and continue Americas tradition of
being a world leader in innovation.

universities and companies focused on scientific innovation.

Surveillance pushes possible students elsewhere- especially in


STEM fieldsweakens economic competitiveness
Toutant 09 Dr. Ligia Toutant received her Ph.D. in Social Sciences and Comparative Education from UCLA in
2009. She has an eclectic background in economics, human communication, sociology, and sustainability. As an
active member of the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES), in 2010 Dr. Toutant created a special
interest group, Education for Sustainable Development, that functions under the auspices of this society.
International Graduate Students, the F-l Visa Process, and the Dark Side of Globalization in Post 9/11 American
Society, ProQuest Database, //ak

Education and society mutually influence each other . United States education is an important
policy arena, and educational policy is shaped by the U.S. federal government. The educational system is
decentralized, and power and authority are shared among three levels: federal, state, and local (Wong 2005).
Immigration law is governed by federal regulations and policies that need to be scrutinized and critically understood
at all times. I started this research with some facts: 1 .

the number of international students


attending American colleges has declined post 9/11; 2. changes in U.S. immigration
regulations and policies have negatively affected international students, creating
the misperception that they are not welcome in this country . This situation has
favored other 25 countries in attracting international students especially in the
technical and scientific fields, and consequently has the potential to weaken
America's competitiveness in the global market; 3. there is tradition, aura, and prestige
associated with American universities, but the competition is high as key countries such as
China and India that used to send students to be educated outside their borders are improving their
higher education programs in order to keep the "smart brains" at home.

! China
Specifically, US decline in economic competitiveness triggers
US-Sino hegemony warits the tipping pointdeterrence
solves conflict now, but US power is slipping through various
conflicts
Lampton 15 (David M. Lampton, Hyman Professor and Director of SAIS-China and China Studies at the
Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies, A Tipping Point in U.S.-China Relations is Upon Us, USChina Perception Monitor, 11 May 2015, http://www.uscnpm.org/blog/2015/05/11/a-tipping-point-in-u-s-chinarelations-is-upon-us-part-i/

The trend in domestic discourse in both China and the United States over the last fifteen years
has been from engagement, to a light hedge, to a heavy hedge, and increasingly toward deterrence.
Deterrence vocabulary leads to discussions of threat, will, capability, second-strike, and credibility. This is a far
different vocabulary than the one that generally was employed during the last forty years. What worries me greatly

is the gradual migration of the center of gravity of elite and popular discussion in
both nations toward more extreme analyses and policy recommendations that
simply feed one another. Past policy has not collapsed, but it is weakening. Underlying
Causes of these Policy Tendencies So, what are the underlying causes of these phenomena? First, the diffuse
(though never universally shared) sense in America since 1978 that China generally was
going in a positive direction in terms of societal and governance trends, economic
policy, and international citizenship is seriously eroding in the U nited States, not least
among policy elites. Confidence that a growing middle class, exposure to the world, and
integration with it would produce growing value and/or interest convergence over
time is challenged by the PRCs perceived domestic political tightening and
muscularity abroad. In the security realm, waning confidence that China is going in
a positive direction means that the hope that economic interdependence
would produce tolerable security cooperation increasingly is questioned,
despite some recent progress in military-to-military ties and other important issues. In the last few years an almost
imperceptible tipping point nearly has been reached with respect to U.S. assessments of Chinas internal and
external policy direction. I should say, certain domestic economic initiatives seem quite positive. Another

tipping point consideration is power. Until the new millennium the United States

was relatively secure in its position as the sole economic and military superpower.
This sense of security has gradually eroded under the combined weight of 9/11, the
Iraq and Afghanistan Wars, the 2008 global financial crisis, partisan gridlock at
home, and Chinese activities and responses in Northeast, East, and Southeast Asia
since 2010. Meanwhile, the PRC has had its post-WTO entry growth spurt,
weathered the 2008 global financial crisis in relatively good shape, and has become
the leading trade partner of nearly every country in Asiasurpassing Japan as the
worlds second largest economy. Chinese leaders and citizens alike, it seems to me,
rapidly came to expect that their mounting comprehensive national power would
give them new-found status and influence in the international system and provide
Beijing added leverage to achieve more favorable outcomes on core issues, as well
as give China a bigger say in the institutions of global governance such as the IMF.
When others, such as Japan, Vietnam, and Philippines were perceived to have taken actions jeopardizing Chinese

The U.S. pivot (rebalance) reinforced


Beijing in its belief that a declining America sought to deputize Japan and others to
join a coalition to hem-in the PRC.
claims, Beijing pushed for a new, more favorable status quo.

Aerospace

Intl student K2 STEM


International students are key to STEM
Redden 13 (Elizabeth Redden, Correspondent at Inside Higher Ed, covering the
internationalization of higher education, Foreign Student Dependence, July 12 th,
2013, Inside Higher Ed, https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2013/07/12/newreport-shows-dependence-us-graduate-programs-foreign-students, JAS)
International students play a critical role in sustaining quality science, technology,
engineering and mathematics (STEM) graduate programs at U.S. universities, a new
report from the National Foundation for American Policy (NFAP) argues . It will come as no
surprise to observers of graduate education that the report documents the fact that foreign students make
up the majority of enrollments in U.S. graduate programs in many STEM fields,
accounting for 70.3 percent of all full-time graduate students in electrical
engineering, 63.2 percent in computer science, 60.4 percent in industrial
engineering, and more than 50 percent in chemical, materials and mechanical
engineering, as well as in economics (a non-STEM field). However, the report, which analyzes National Science
Foundation enrollment data from 2010 by field and institution, also shows that these striking averages mask even

36 graduate programs in
electrical engineering where the proportion of international students exceeds 80
percent, including seven where it exceeds 90. (The analysis is limited to those programs with at
higher proportions at many individual universities. For example, there are

least 30 full-time students.)International students help many universities have enough graduate students to
support research programs that help attract top faculty and that also thereby help U.S. students by having a higherquality program than they otherwise would have, said Stuart Anderson, NFAPs executive director and author of the

Without them, he said, youd see a shrinking across the board


where youd have just certain schools that are able to support good
programs. That would lead to a shrinking of U.S. leadership in education
and technology if you have many fewer programs with high-quality
research and top-level professors. To some extent this reflects some of whats going on in our

report.

society within the U.S. in terms of trying to push for more interest in STEM fields, said Jonathan Bredow, professor
and chair of the electrical engineering department at the University of Texas at Arlington, a program with more than
90 percent international enrollment. Domestic

students tend to be more interested in going


out and getting a job right after a bachelors degree. Some see a value of getting a
masters degree but in terms of the Ph.D., I think its largely seen as unnecessary.
Theres a relatively small number of high-quality domestic students who can be
accepted into our masters and Ph.D. programs , said Leonid Tsybeskov, professor and chair of the
electrical and computer engineering department at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. He added that those
domestic students who are strong candidates typically apply to higher-ranked programs than NJITs. Indeed, said
Anderson, You talk to the professors, they say, O.K., if we were MIT or Stanford we could get all the top U.S.

At
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the proportion of international students
in graduate electrical engineering programs is 52.5 percent and, in computer
science, 35.3 percent. At Stanford, 56 percent of graduate electrical engineering students and 43.7 percent
of graduate computer science students are international. The report also emphasizes the value that
international students can bring to the U.S. economy after graduation as
researchers and entrepreneurs. Measures that would make it easier for STEM
graduate students to obtain visas to work in the U.S. after graduation measures
that many in higher education see as crucial to the U.S. maintaining its edge in
attracting international graduate students -- are pending in Congress (and are included in the
students,' but by definition there are only a few of those schools. Obviously everyone cant be MIT or Stanford."

comprehensive immigration bill recently passed by the Senate). "This report is very well-timed, said Julia Kent,
director of communications and advancement for the Council of Graduate Schools. Obviously, for the policy
reasons -- the pending legislation about STEM visas -- and second because there is data out there right now which

we have some cause for concern in this country about the flow of
international graduate students to the United States which we have always counted
on. There is now more competition for international graduate students . Other countries are
suggests that

developing policies to promote the influx of foreign students to their shores, and there are also ways in which the
current economy in the United States has reduced funding support for graduate students, which makes it more
difficult to attract students to U.S. programs with attractive funding packages. CGS data on applications to U.S.
graduate schools released in April show that total international applications grew by a meager 1 percent this year
and that there were actually drops in applications from certain key sending countries, including China (-5 percent),
South Korea (-13 percent) and Taiwan (-13 percent). On the plus side, applications from India increased 20 percent.
"It's too soon to know how this data will actually affect enrollments, but the preliminary data show that there is
some cause for concern, Kent said.

International students are vital to American STEM


Ung 15

(Jenny Ung, student at Arizona State University, International students earn more
than half of advanced STEM degrees in the U.S., July 8 th, 2015, USA today,
http://college.usatoday.com/2015/07/08/international-students-stem-degrees/, JAS)
For Yashwanth Kumar, studying in America has always been his dream. After receiving his undergraduate degree at
Anna University in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, he is now a graduate student at Arizona State University pursuing a

International students make up more than


half of science, technology, engineering and mathematics ( STEM) advanced degrees
earned at American colleges and universities, according to a study released by the
Pew Research Center on June 18, 2015. Mohammed Baoum, a graduate student at Arizona State
Masters in Biomedical Engineering. YashwanthKumar

University, also noticed that most of classmates were international students himself in his studies in pursuit of a
Masters in industrial engineering. RELATED: Philly organization brings STEM students out of the classroom, into the

Though international student graduates earned only 11.6% of all doctoral


degrees in the U.S., foreign students earn 57% of all engineering doctoral degrees,
53% of all computer and information sciences doctoral degrees and 50% of
mathematics and statistics doctoral degrees, according to the National Center for
Education Statistics. Screen Shot 2015-07-05 at 11.33.21 PM Via: Pew Research Center Baoum says that the
real world

job market plays a big role in these percentage rates. Companies and governments pay millions of dollars for
engineering research and solutions, which motivate the most talented people to see degrees in engineering, he

study also noted that schools


often use commissioned agents to recruit foreign students , which was formally
endorsed by the National Association for College Admission Counseling in 2013 . While
says. Also, the culture encourages and supports such a direction. The

Baoum was not approached by a commissioned agent, he had heard of students who had. In Saudi Arabia, I heard
many times about university fairs where students could meet with American university representatives to learn
more about their universities, Baoum says. RELATED: Study Women preferred over men for STEM asst.

Compared to U.S. college students as a whole, international students are


more concentrated in STEM fields, the study said. While business was the most
popular field of study with 188,179 students, engineering was next at 160,128 and
computer and information sciences at 65,291. Engineering and business are the two biggest
professorships

draws for international students, Kumar says. Especially students from India who make up a majority of the
population in any university next to China come here for engineering. Baoum explains that families often try to
encourage their children to study careers in STEM fields, especially engineering, while in America. I also think

many international students choose to study in America since they believe it is the
leading country to the world economy, he says. Also many of them have been
exposed to the American culture through movies so they would like to reach that
place where they used to see on TV. Its a cultural trend back in India that either we should be an
engineer or a doctor, Kumar says. We end up choosing engineering in the undergraduate studies, some by
passion, some without any choice and we pursue that goal.

Recruiting foreign students boosts overall STEM research


Lu 09, Meng Lu received her J.D. from Harvard Law School and is currently an assistant fellow at Harvard
University. Not Part of the Family: U.S. Immigration Policy and Foreign Students, Spring 2009, 34 T. Marshall L. Rev.
343, LexisNexis Academic//ak

Foreign students are considered technical brainpower, who often enroll in academic
programs in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics [*346] ( STEM). n11 Scholars and educators found
that among the major developed countries and the newly industrialized countries , the United States ranks
near the bottom in mathematics and science achievement among eighth graders .
n12 Therefore recruiting foreign students improves the overall quality of new
science and engineering Ph.D.s by drawing on a wider range of talented students
who become the key contributors in driving the knowledge-based economy . n13
According to a report by the Institute of International Education (IIE), more than one-third of Nobel
laureates from the United States are immigrants. n14 A study conducted by Chellaraj, Maskus,
and Mattoo highlighted that foreign graduate students are significant inputs into developing new technologies Page

their impacts are


particularly pronounced within the universities but also have spill-over
efects to non-university patenting . n16 Economic benefits, especially to the universities,
also arise because foreign students, "while enrolled in schools, are an important part of the
workforce at those institutions, particularly at large research universities ." n17 They
usually work as research assistants providing skilled assistance or research labor in the
scientific labs, or as teaching assistants to help faculty grade undergraduates' homework and sometimes teach
234 T. Marshall L. Rev. 343, *346 in the American economy. n15 They found that

undergraduate classes. n18 According to Borjas, these students [*347] play the same role in staffing the research
labs of American universities that Mexican illegal workers play in staffing the vast agricultural fields of California.

enter the country, substantially increase the supply of workers, but


lower wages in their respective occupations, and increase the profits and economic resources
of the companies that hire them. n19 For those students who have to finance their
studies in the United States, they pay full tuition and the higher education sector has become increasingly
Both groups of workers

dependent on the high tuition fees paid by foreign students. n20 According to a 2005 study conducted by the
Institute of International Education, there were 565,039 international students studying in the United States, and

the net contribution of foreign students to the national economy is


approximately $ 13.3 billion just through their tuition expenditure and
living expenses. n21 These numbers show the important role played by international students in
supporting the higher education institutions

AT: STEM Low


The STEM crisis is real: this card answers a majority of their
warrants, and specifically refutes their Charette card
Rosen 13

(Linda Rosen, CEO @ change the equation, The Truth Hurts: The STEM Crisis Is Not
a Myth, September 11th, 2013, Huffington Post,
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/linda-rosen/the-truth-hurts-the-stem_b_3900575.html, JAS)
Here we go again. Social media sites are buzzing with claims that there is no shortage of
U.S. workers in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM). Last time this
happened, they were responding to a report from the Economic Policy Institute (EPI), which has since been soundly
refuted. This time, it's an article in IEEE's Spectrum Magazine by Robert Charette, who proclaims that "the STEM

Like EPI, Charette is simply wrong. Charette suggests that people who
have a STEM background are down on their luck -- unable to find stable jobs,
making do with flat wages, or bailing out of STEM entirely . The STEM shortage "myth," he
crisis is a myth."

writes, was manufactured by a cabal of special interests who "cherry pick" data to keep themselves in business and

Yet Charette does a fair bit of cherry picking himself while missing
the big picture. He argues from anecdotes and a handful of studies that support his
point but leaves aside the mountain of data that demonstrate a shortage. More
important, he unwittingly points to one of the biggest causes of this shortage: Demand for STEM skills has
intensified across the entire economy. Not just crying wolf Charette limits his attention to
the demand for people to fill jobs in traditional STEM fields like technology or
healthcare. But even in those fields, demand is strong and growing. Rising demand
for STEM workers is in fact nothing new. A sidebar to Charette's article quotes 80
years' worth of warnings that a looming STEM crisis will hobble U.S. economic
growth. The clear implication of the sidebar is that the education and business leaders who have been making
depress STEM wages.

these warnings have been crying wolf since before the Second World War. But were their fears of a STEM shortage
really much ado about nothing? Hardly. The National Science Foundation ( NSF)

reports that S&E


workforce grew from some 182,000 to about 5.4 million people between 1950 and
2009, almost 15 times faster than the U.S. population and nearly four times faster
than the total U.S. workforce. Surely all those worried education and business
leaders were on to something. They foresaw a steep rise in demand for STEM talent as
the U.S. economy made the transition from an industrial economy to an economy
focused more squarely on technological innovation. We can count ourselves lucky that the GI Bill,
the national response to Sputnik, the race to put someone on the moon, and a host of other seminal events helped

Economists have argued that the


technology those STEM workers helped create has accounted for nearly half of the
nation's economic growth in the second half of the twentieth century . Now is no
time to rest on our laurels. While the rate of growth in STEM jobs may have slowed through our two 21stfuel the growth of the STEM workforce to meet this demand.

century recessions, it remains robust. NSF puts it at 20 percent between 2000 and 2010, a period during which the
overall workforce experienced little growth. And that robust growth will probably continue. Georgetown's Center on
Education and the Workforce predicts that the total number of STEM jobs will grow 26 percent between 2010 and

The Georgetown Center also projects that professional and technical jobs in
healthcare, which it doesn't include in its STEM numbers, will grow by 31 percent,
far faster than the workforce as a whole. (Charette criticizes a previous projection Georgetown
2020.

released in 2011 for not foreseeing the depth and duration of the recession, but he neglects to mention this more
recent projection, which appeared in June of this year.) It's nice to be in demand Even in recent years of slower

Yes, as Charette notes, some STEM employees


have been laid off or unable to find jobs, which is an important reminder that
nothing in life is a sure bet. But such anecdotes don't stack up against the bulk of
growth, it has been good to be a STEM worker.

the data, which tell a dramatically different story : A Change the Equation study found that,
even in the sluggish years between 2009 and 2012, there were nearly two STEM-focused job postings
for every unemployed STEM professional. During those same years, unemployment in
STEM stood at just over 4 percent, well less than the 9.3 percent unemployment
rates for non-STEM workers. People in STEM jobs benefit from being in such high
demand. Study after study confirms that STEM professionals get paid more than non-STEM
professionals -- often much more -- even when you control for their education and
other factors. Contrary to Charette's claim that STEM wages have stagnated, reports
from Georgetown, the Commerce Department, and the Information Technology
Innovation Foundation show that they have risen faster than non-STEM wages, even
in recent years. That is a sign that employers are feeling the pinch. Of course, not every STEM
degree is a ticket to success. Charette is right to point out that people with PhDs in some sciences can have a tough
time finding a job that matches their degrees. But such jobs represent only a very small sliver of the STEM job

The fact that STEM jobs have fared so well even through the recession is
telling. If anything, demand will only intensify as the economy picks up. Don't forget
the STEM technicians! Charette does not address the high demand for a large category of STEM workers:
market.

those who have two-year degrees or certificates rather than bachelor's degrees or higher. In fact, he barely
acknowledges that such workers exist. "Of the 7.6 million STEM workers counted by the Commerce Department,
only 3.3 million possess STEM degrees," he writes. "If many STEM jobs can be filled by people who don't have a
STEM degree, then why the big push to get more students to pursue STEM?" Charette does not mention that, by

Commerce Department
report clearly indicates that the large majority of STEM workers who lack a
bachelor's degree in STEM actually lack a bachelor's degree in any subject. Instead,
most have 2-year degrees or certificates and do jobs that require nothing higher
than that. In fact, Jonathan Roswell of the Brookings Institution feels that studies like Commerce Department
report dramatically undercount such STEM jobs. By his reckoning, STEM workers with an associate's
degree or less account for 10 percent of the entire U.S. workforce . And don't
imagine for a moment that the jobs they do require only low skills. Roswell finds
that those jobs demand a "high level of knowledge" in STEM, and employers are
quick to pay a premium for that knowledge. He estimates that, on average, STEM
jobs that don't require a four-year degree pay 10 percent more than non-STEM jobs
with similar education requirements. Indeed, when business leaders in Change the Equation's
coalition talk about the STEM worker shortage, they are often referring to the
trouble they have finding qualified STEM workers below the bachelor's level. The
evidence is on their side. It's not just about "STEM Jobs" Anymore One major flaw in Charette's argument is
that he overlooks the growing demand for STEM skills beyond traditional STEM jobs . In
fact, what Charette sees as a sign of anemic demand for STEM professionals is quite
the opposite. He observes that people with STEM credentials are not staying in
STEM jobs, but that is only because they have strong job prospects well beyond the
traditional STEM fields. That does not mean that their STEM skills are going to waste. According to NSF,
two thirds of people with degrees in Science and Engineering who end up in jobs
outside of those fields report that their jobs are "closely or somewhat related" to
their degrees. Georgetown's 2011 report on STEM found that STEM professionals are hot
commodities in high-paying fields like finance and management, leaving many more
employers to compete for people in a limited pool of STEM talent . Again, employers are
willing to pay for that talent. People with STEM degrees who go into non-STEM jobs earn 12
percent more than those don't hold degrees in STEM. That wage premium drives
home the point that even non-STEM employers value STEM skills. STEM for all After making
"STEM degrees," he means bachelor's or advanced degrees in STEM. Yet the

such a spirited attack on claims of a STEM shortage, Charette devotes a scant concluding paragraph to what he
calls another "STEM crisis": "the fact that today's students are not receiving a solid grounding in science, math and

We need to make all young people STEM literate


to help them cope with the broader challenges of life and citizenship in the twentyengineering." On that point, at least, we agree.

first century. Yet that crisis is at the heart of the STEM worker shortage. Employers
of all stripes are looking for people with strong STEM knowledge and skills, but the
U.S. talent pool is currently too shallow to meet their needs . The consequences of this
shortage are not merely economically devastating. They are devastating to the prospects of millions of low-income
and minority youth who have not received a solid grounding in STEM and therefore have almost no chance to enjoy
the benefits of a STEM career. For those youth in particular, the STEM crisis is unfortunately all too real.

Foreign students are deciding to get education in other


countries other than the US, and that kills US intellectual
predominancestats prove
Freeman 05, Richard B. Freeman, Economics at Harvard University., NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES,
DOES GLOBALIZATION OF THE SCIENTIFIC/ENGINEERING WORKFORCE THREATEN U.S. ECONOMIC LEADERSHIP?,
Working Paper 11457, NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, http://www.nber.org/papers/w11457, June
2005

Data on publications and citations by country of investigator show that the US


predominance has already begun to drop in many areas. In spring 2004, the front page
of The New York Times reported a fall in the U.S. share of papers in physics journals
while Nature reported a rise in the share of papers in China .20 The NSF records a
drop in the US share of scientific papers from 38% in 1988 to 31% in 2001 and a
drop in the US share of citations from 52 percent in 1992 to 44 percent .21 The share
of papers counted in the Chemical Abstract Service fell from 73% in 1980 to 40% in
2003.22 While attention has focused on the increased scientific capability of China ,23
Latin American countries have also increased their share of science publications.24 One
aspect of the fall in the US share that has attracted attention is that it has been associated with a decline in
publications in some disciplines from US-based scientists and engineers (Hicks, 2004 ).

As the US share of
the worlds S&E specialists falls, it is inevitable that the US share of papers will fall,
but there is no reason for numbers of papers to fall, given the increased numbers of journals.25 Similarly, as the
supply of S&E graduates has increased overseas, many high-tech
companies have begun to locate major research installations outside the
U.S. In 2004, the CEO of Cisco declared that Cisco is a Chinese company when he
announced that the firm was setting up its newest R&D facility in China. 26 One of
Microsofts major research facilities is in Beijing . OECD data shows a large increase
in U.S. outward R&D investment from 1994 to 2000. A 2004 survey of corporate
executives by the Intelligence Unit of The Economist found that the five top 9
countries in which firms intended to increase R&D outside of their home country
were China, the U.S., India, the UK, and Germany. The three most critically important factors
cited by executives when selecting R&D locales were local R&D expertise in your industry, followed by
availability of R&D scientists with appropriate skills, and cost of labour of R&D.27 As of mid 2004, the Chinese
government registered over 600 multinational research facilities in the country, many from large US
multinationals.28 By contrast, in 1997 China registered less than 50 multinational corporation research centers.

STEM K2 Aerospace
Increased STEM is critical to the Aerospace industry
Smith 14
(Ernie Smith, social media journalist for Associations Now, THE AEROSPACE
INDUSTRY'S BIG CHALLENGE: ATTRACTING YOUNG PEOPLE, September 17 th, 2014,
associations now, http://associationsnow.com/2014/09/aerospace-industrys-bigchallenge-attracting-young-people/?utm_source=AN%2BDaily
%2BNews&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=20140918%2BThursday, JAS)
In recent comments by its leader, the Aerospace Industries Association admits that its
struggling to encourage diversity in its field, on top of getting younger generations
interested in the first place. Its not without ideas, however, as its annual contest proves. Youd think the

aerospace industrythe field that literally designs aircraft and rockets, among other thingswould sell itself to kids
in the U.S. But its not proving quite so easy, according to the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA), which is

The problem, in a nutshell: In short, older employees are


nearing retirement age, but there arent younger generations of employees to
replace them. In comments during the Reuters Aerospace and Defense Summit last week, AIA President and
CEO Marion Blakey said the root of the problem is that the U.S. is falling behind on science,
technology, engineering and math (STEM) education. She also suggested the industry itself was
failing to make the field attractive to graduates. We do not have a robust pipeline of young
people with the right skills and training coming into the workforce , she said at the event.
working on the problem. Details:

While foreign workers tend to be skilled enough to join the American workforce, the current rules require that much
of the design work done for U.S. military systems be done by U.S. citizens.

Economy

Intl student K2 econ


Plan solvesIncreasing student Visas leads to increased
innovation
DeCapua 13

(Joe DeCapua, contributor at voice of America, Foreign Students Boost US


Innovation, November 5th, 2013, Voice of America,
http://www.voanews.com/content/us-foreign-students-5nov13/1783943.html, JAS)
Foreign students earning their doctoral degrees in the United States can help revitalize innovation and economic

the U.S. should make it easier for such students to enter


and remain in the country . Listen to De Capua report on foreign students Three economists gathered

growth. A new study says

data on the contributions made by foreign students. The team was led by Keith Maskus, professor of economics at
the University of Colorado in Boulder. My interest was piqued quite a long time ago after September 11th, 2001.

United States decided for a period of about two or


three years to make it much more difficult for students from particular regions of
the world to enter the United States and study graduate programs, especially in
science and engineering. He said, at the time, many in Washington and at universities warned that
policy would hinder scientific development and innovation . And I thought, well, thats very
One of the reactions to that was that the

interesting, but do we really know if thats true? So Maskus, along with Ahmed Mushfiq Mobarak of Yale and Eric
Stuen of the University of Idaho, gathered data a lot of data. So what we did is got very detailed individual-level
data on quite a large number of students over 750,00 students, in fact who had come to get Ph.Ds in the 100
top science and engineering universities in the United States from the late 1970s to the late 1990s. And we had
information about where they came from, [including] what their visa status was, what area they wrote their

The research indicated that diversity a


mix of American and foreign students -- can make a difference in productivity and
efficiency. It seems to have something to do with the fact that networks and
laboratory sciences [are] really a function of how the graduate students and the
post- doctoral students and everyone else can specialize in some element of
science and also the fact that their undergraduate training and possibly some
graduate training in whatever it is mathematics or bench science or laboratory
science gives them different approaches to thinking about problems . And when these
dissertations in and, of course, at which university, he said.

people can get together and bounce ideas off each other the sort of outcome of that is more dynamic intellectual
process. And you get more ideas with having some diversity like that, he said. To get a U.S. visa, he said, students
must demonstrate that either they or their family has enough money to pay for a substantial portion of their
education. Thats even if the students education is paid for by a scholarship .

He says the current


philosophy is: youre welcome to come and study in the U.S., but when youre done
you have to go home. We think that particular need to demonstrate this kind of
income based ability to come to the United States is a little bit short-sighted. Our
results show that you really ought to be more open to the highest quality students,
regardless of their wealth or income back in their home countries . So thats one thing. We
would urge modification of American visa policy because of that , said Maskus.
Another recommended change concerns permanent residence or green cards . He said,
If you look at policy in other major importing countries, like Western Europe, Canada, Australia these
countries have gone down the road of dramatically increasing the access of what we
call green cards -- they call permanent residence to international students who do
get Ph.Ds in science, technology and engineering fields, whether in their universities
in those countries or maybe in the United States or in some of these other countries .
For example, if you get a Ph.D in the United States, it becomes that much easier to
become a permanent resident in Canada. Maskus and his colleagues say it would help the
U.S. compete in the world if doctoral students had an easier time getting green
cards. They say, currently, if those students want to remain in the U.S. , they must

find a local employer, wholl work on their behalf to get a temporary visa . That does
have the effect, were convinced, of pushing too many of these innovative people back
outside the borders of the United States . So we argue for increasing the number of
those visas and focusing on these students -- or even better -- just offering a very
quick and straightforward process to permanent residence , he said. In their article in the
journal Science, the authors say any innovation and economic growth gains would far
outweigh any diminished job prospects for American workers .

US economy depends on foreign studentstheyre key to US


metro economies
Courtin 14, Allison Courtin, Communications Assistant, Foreign Students Are Growing Economic Force in
U.S. with Huge Potential to Increase Jobs and Investment , Metropolitican Policy Program, 2014,
http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Research/Files/Reports/2014/08/foreign-students/Foreign-Students-PressRelease-Final.pdf?la=en

foreign students contributed $21.8 billion in tuition


and $12.8 billion in living costs to 118 metro areas that are each home to at least
1,500 students. Just 45 percent of these students, however, extended their visas after graduation and got
Over the five-year period of 2008 to 2012,

jobs, under the optional practical training (OPT) program, in the regions where they studied. OPT allows foreign
students on F-1 visas to work between 12 and 29 months after they graduate from a U.S. higher educational
institution. New York and Honolulu had the highest percentage (75 percent) of graduates working for a local
employer. Seattle, Miami and Las Vegas also ranked high for students who remained in their areas to work after
graduating. The metro areas with the fewest students who stayed in the area are Erie, PA; Binghamton, NY and
Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX. Foreign

students are a significant source of earnings for U.S.


metro economies in several ways, added Ruiz. First, they open up markets in their
home cities which facilitates trade, foreign direct investment and knowledge
transfer. In addition, they infuse revenue into local communities, and they help fill
demand for jobs requiring specific skills in local labor markets. Our business and
community leaders need to develop better strategies that retain their talents after
they graduate.

Today, foreign students contribute greatly to the US economy


billions of dollars
IIE 15, Institute of International Education, "Economic Impact of International Students," Nov 7, 2015,
http://www.iie.org/Research-and-Publications/Open-Doors/Data/Economic-Impact-of-International-Students

the continued growth in international students coming to the U.S. for higher
education had a significant positive economic impact on the United States.
International students contributed more than $27 billion to the U.S. economy,
according to the U.S. Department of Commerce. Primary source of funding for
international students Open Doors 2014 reports that about 74 percent of all
international students receive the majority of their funds from sources outside of the
United States, including personal and family sources as well as assistance from their
home country governments or universities. Students from around the world who
study in the United States also contribute to America's scientific and technical research
and bring international perspectives into U.S. classrooms, helping prepare American
undergraduates for global careers, and often lead to longer-term business
relationships and economic benefits. Additional breakdowns of economic impact by state and
In 2014,

Congressional District, calculated using Open Doors enrollment figures, are available on the NAFSA International
Student Economic Value Tool website.

Chinese students alone contributed 8 million to the US


economy.
Fieldstone 15 [04/16/15 Ronald R. Fieldstone, security counsel, Chinese Students In US On The Rise And Bring
Billions To The Economy, http://eb5arnstein.com/chinese-students-in-u-s-on-the-rise-and-bring-billions-to-the-economy/ DA July 13,
15]

As reported by a recent article in Time Magazine, "The Big Test for Chinese
Students, the total number of Chinese students in the U.S. reached more than
270,000 in 2013-14, up 16.5% year on year. Chinese students now account for 31%
of foreign students in the U.S. - the largest group by far. Even Chinas President Xi
Jinpings daughter attended Harvard. A broader applicant pool gives admissions
officers more choice and schools more diversity. And international students tend to
pay higher tuition than their American counterparts. Chinese students in U.S.
colleges and universities contributed about $8 billion to the U.S. economy last year,
according to the U.S. Department of Commerce. Though the article mostly focuses
on the admissions process and test score issues that Chinese students encounter
when coming to the U.S., it clearly offers some other enlightening facts and
statistics.
International students are key to US education.

Indiana University 14

[2014, Indiana University, The International Student Economic Value Tool,


h t tp : / / w w w. n a fs a. or g/ E xp lor e_ In t e r n at io n al _E du c a ti on / I m p ac t / D a t a_ An d_ S t a ti s t ic s / T h e_ In t e r n at i o n a
l _S t u d e n t _E c o n o m ic _Val u e_ Too l/ DA July 11, 15]

The 886,052 international students and their families at universities and colleges
across the country supported 340,000 jobs and contributed $26.8 billion to
the U.S. economy during the 2013-2014 academic year, according to 2014 NAFSA
findings. This is a 8.5% increase in job support and creation, and a nearly 12%
increase in dollars contributed to the economy from the previous academic year.
Each year, NAFSA produces a detailed regional, state-by-state, and congressional
district analysis on the economic benefits of spending by international students and
their dependents to the U.S. economy. International students not only contribute
economic value, they build bridges between the United States and other
countries; bring global perspectives into U.S. classrooms and research labs;
support U.S. innovation through science and engineering coursework, making it
possible for U.S. colleges and universities to offer these courses to U.S. students;
and support programming and services on campus for all students by
paying out-of-state tuition, funded largely by non-U.S. sources . Use the tool below
to explore detailed breakdowns of the data and analysis, including new data on the
number of jobs created/supported.

Econ low now


US economy is weakdebt and labor force
Citizenwells 15, news source on politics and economics, US Economy on verge of collapse?, Workers
not buying labor markets recovery, Forget unemployment rate, Record low labor force participation rates, WV drops
below 50 percent, National debt exceeds GDP, Wordpress, 1/15/15, http://citizenwells.com/2015/01/15/useconomy-on-verge-of-collapse-workers-not-buying-labor-markets-recovery-forget-unemployment-rate-record-lowlabor-force-participation-rates-wv-drops-below-50-percent-national-debt-exc/
The realist in me, the mathemetician, the businesman and the person paying close attention to facts, is very

the US debt, which exceeds the GDP, is a


concern. We are at best case scenario debt interest rates now and we are not
paying down the debt and instead are rapidly adding to it. The interest service on
this debt will increasingly be a burden on our budgets and economy. The
employment situation in this country is scary. Record numbers have dropped out of
the labor force and consequently record number are receiving government
assistance. Forget the unemployment rate. If you remove enough people from the labor
force you will achieve full employment and a low unemployment rate. We have that
scenario now. In fact one state, West Virginia, has a labor force participation rate
below 50 percent yet the unemployment rate is 6.3 percent.
concerned about the US Economy. For starters,

AT: Innovation Turn


The drop in innovation isnt unique to STEM, infact STEM
increases critical thinking (Indicts Zakaria)
Lindsay 15

(Tom Lindsay, covers Higher education and culture for forbes, To STEM Or Not To
STEM? That Is Not The Question, April 30th, 2015, Forbes,
http://www.forbes.com/sites/tomlindsay/2015/04/30/to-stem-or-not-to-stem-that-isnot-the-question/2/, JAS)
Fareed Zakaria, a writer for the Washington Post as well as a CNN host, believes that
America has an unhealthy obsession with STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and
Mathematics) education. Americas last bipartisan cause is this, he writes, A liberal education is irrelevant, and
technical training is the new path forward. It is the only way, we are told, to ensure that Americans survive in an
age defined by technology and shaped by global competition. Without denying that science and technology are
crucial components of education, Zakaria warns nonetheless, This dismissal of broad-based learning, however,
comes from a fundamental misreading of the factsand puts America on a dangerously narrow path for the future.

According to Zakaria, the STEM-surge will destroy the kind of teaching that
has helped this country lead the world in economic dynamism, innovation and
entrepreneurship. What kind of teaching? A broad general education, which helps foster critical thinking
Why?

and creativity. Such an education, he urges, along with an optimistic outlook, helps Americans go on to
outperform the rest of the world economically despite the fact that our students score relatively poorly compared to

For
these reasons, he warns us against try[ing] to mimic Asian educational systems,
which are oriented around memorization and test-taking. Japan may have students
with stronger math and science skills, but you still need to know how to learn,
think, and even write, because, in the final count, critical thinking is the only way
to protect American jobs. I agree fully with Zakarias assertion of the primacy of
critical thinking. But does he prove his case that an increasing emphasis on STEM
education will undermine students critical faculty? Lloyd Bentsen IV, of the Dallas-based
other OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) nations in math, science, and reading.

National Center for Policy Analysis, thinks not. In a recent piece, he argues that, if Fareed Zakaria has his way, the
United States education system will continue to fail our children. Bentsen is more concerned than is Zakaria with
American students low scores in international comparisons. In 2012, Bentsen reports, American students ranked
36th among developed countries in mathematics; in science, U.S. students scored below the average. Moreover,
citing U.S. Commerce Department statistics, Bentsen informs us that STEM-job creation has outpaced non-STEM
jobs by a rate of 3-to-1 over the past ten years. STEM jobs abound todaythere are 277,000 job vacancies, and it
is estimated that there could be 2.4 million vacancies by 2018. These factors, Bentsen concludes, explain why the
growing STEM movement had been called the answer to poverty, gender discrimination and unemployment. For
him, then, encouraging our children to pursue STEM fields seems like a no-brainer. Whos right? While there is
no contesting Bentsens statistics, neither should we doubt Zakarias emphasis on the importance of critical
thinking. But in trying to address Zakarias fear that an increased focus on STEM fields will undermine critical
thinking, we need first to ask how effectively American higher education promotes critical thinking now. For the
answer, we have the landmark national study of collegiate learning, Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on

Published in 2011, Adrift reports the results of its tracking of 2300


college students from across the country, in public as well as private colleges, from
the time they enrolled in 2005 through 2009. Employing the Collegiate Learning
Assessment (CLA), Adrift tested students capacities for critical thinking, complex
reasoning, and clear writing in their first and fourth years in college. The results are
nothing less than shocking. Adrift finds that American students show little-to-no
substantive increase in critical thinking after four years invested in college . Zakaria
believes that STEM-obsession puts critical thinking in danger, but the truth is that this danger already
has arrivedand long before the STEM-surge . This point alone does not answer
Zakarias concerns. That is, we wouldnt want to lower our students critical-thinking
capacities still further through an obsession with STEM studies. However, other results
College Campuses.

from the Adrift study call Zakarias thesis into question. Adrift finds that Students

majoring in
traditional liberal-arts fields, including social science, humanities, natural
science, and mathematics, demonstrated significantly higher gains in
critical thinking, complex reasoning, and writing skills over time than
students in other fields of study (emphasis added). It is not the sciences and
mathematics that undermine critical thinking, as Zakaria fears. Far from it. Instead,
Adrift finds that Students majoring in business, education, social work, and
communications had the lowest measurable gains. For anyone familiar with the late Allan
Blooms 1987 blockbusterThe Closing of the American Mind: How Higher Education Has Failed Democracy and
Impoverished the Souls of Todays Studentsperhaps

it comes as no surprise that the


humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and mathematics fare best on the
CLAs measurement of gains achieved in critical-thinking skills over four years. The
natural sciences and mathematics have proven themselves least resistant to grade
inflation. Regarding the humanities and social sciences, the questions and concerns they address, as well as the
amount of reading, writing, and study time they require, render them more conducive to growth in critical thinking

Given that nearly every


university mission statement cites critical thinking as an essential goal (and rightly
so), it appears reasonable that requiring more of such courses for all students,
regardless of their chosen majorsSTEM or non-STEMwould best advance the
goal Zakaria envisions.
than do business, education, communications, and social work generally.

! China
Specifically, US economic decline triggers US-Sino hegemony
warits the tipping pointdeterrence solves conflict now, but
US power is slipping through various conflicts
Lampton 15 (David M. Lampton, Hyman Professor and Director of SAIS-China and China Studies at the
Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies, A Tipping Point in U.S.-China Relations is Upon Us, USChina Perception Monitor, 11 May 2015, http://www.uscnpm.org/blog/2015/05/11/a-tipping-point-in-u-s-chinarelations-is-upon-us-part-i/

The trend in domestic discourse in both China and the United States over the last fifteen years
has been from engagement, to a light hedge, to a heavy hedge, and increasingly toward deterrence.
Deterrence vocabulary leads to discussions of threat, will, capability, second-strike, and credibility. This is a far
different vocabulary than the one that generally was employed during the last forty years. What worries me greatly

is the gradual migration of the center of gravity of elite and popular discussion in
both nations toward more extreme analyses and policy recommendations that
simply feed one another. Past policy has not collapsed, but it is weakening. Underlying
Causes of these Policy Tendencies So, what are the underlying causes of these phenomena? First, the diffuse
(though never universally shared) sense in America since 1978 that China generally was
going in a positive direction in terms of societal and governance trends, economic
policy, and international citizenship is seriously eroding in the U nited States, not least
among policy elites. Confidence that a growing middle class, exposure to the world, and
integration with it would produce growing value and/or interest convergence over
time is challenged by the PRCs perceived domestic political tightening and
muscularity abroad. In the security realm, waning confidence that China is going in
a positive direction means that the hope that economic interdependence
would produce tolerable security cooperation increasingly is questioned,
despite some recent progress in military-to-military ties and other important issues. In the last few years an almost
imperceptible tipping point nearly has been reached with respect to U.S. assessments of Chinas internal and
external policy direction. I should say, certain domestic economic initiatives seem quite positive. Another

tipping point consideration is power. Until the new millennium the United States

was relatively secure in its position as the sole economic and military superpower.
This sense of security has gradually eroded under the combined weight of 9/11, the
Iraq and Afghanistan Wars, the 2008 global financial crisis, partisan gridlock at
home, and Chinese activities and responses in Northeast, East, and Southeast Asia
since 2010. Meanwhile, the PRC has had its post-WTO entry growth spurt,
weathered the 2008 global financial crisis in relatively good shape, and has become
the leading trade partner of nearly every country in Asiasurpassing Japan as the
worlds second largest economy. Chinese leaders and citizens alike, it seems to me,
rapidly came to expect that their mounting comprehensive national power would
give them new-found status and influence in the international system and provide
Beijing added leverage to achieve more favorable outcomes on core issues, as well
as give China a bigger say in the institutions of global governance such as the IMF.
When others, such as Japan, Vietnam, and Philippines were perceived to have taken actions jeopardizing Chinese

The U.S. pivot (rebalance) reinforced


Beijing in its belief that a declining America sought to deputize Japan and others to
join a coalition to hem-in the PRC.
claims, Beijing pushed for a new, more favorable status quo.

2AC ISIS

SEVIS K2 discrimination
US policy just re-enforces Islamophobia
Ahmadi 11, Shafiqa Ahmadi, J.D., is an Assistant Professor of Clinical Education at the Rossier School of
Education at the University of Southern California. The Erosion of Civil Rights: Exploring the Effects of the Patriot
Act on Muslims in American Higher Education", 12 Rutgers Race & L. Rev. 1, 2011,
<https://www.academia.edu/475628/The_Erosion_of_Civil_Rights_Exploring_the_Effects_of_the_Patriot_Act_on_
Muslims_in_American_Higher_Education> //ak

Anti-Muslim and Islamophobic acts are also occurring on college campuses -

communities whose members one might assume would reject the abject Islamophobic racialization of Muslims as

a University of Texas college student's decision to wear hijab


resulted in stares, double takes, and whispers. n257 College campuses are not immune to attacks
on the civil rights of individual Muslims or groups. Further, the question of whether academic [*48]
freedom should permit controversial sentiment is again germane in the context of a recent
commentary on the Fort Hood shooting. n258 NYU professor Tunku Varadarajan proposed that
the Fort Hood shooting may represent an emergence of a new phenomena called
"going Muslim," akin to the violent rage of a former worker often referred to as "going postal." n259 The
terrorists. For example, in 2009,

professor asserted that Islam "is founded on bellicose conquest, contempt for infidels ..." and implied American
Muslims are imminently violent, but merely attempting to camouflage into American society. n260 Varadarajan's
controversial editorial has sparked an intense backlash, but was not unique in espousing anti-Muslim sentiments in

These recent events give prominence to the


racialization of Muslims, and perhaps Islam by proxy. This racialization likely
influences how the Patriot Act is enforced and who becomes the focal point of its
application. The Patriot Act is facially neutral, in that it does not specifically [*49] state that provisions apply to
the wake of the Fort Hood shooting. n261

Muslims and people of Middle Eastern descent generally, or to Muslims in institutions of higher education. n262
However, critics of the Patriot Act argue that Muslims and people of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian descent are

the
Patriot Act, in the name of national security, enforces discrimination based on
ethnicity and religious beliefs and relieves the American people of any sense of
responsibility for their Islamophobic acts. n264 In large part, the Patriot Act has begun redefining
its target and that the Patriot Act justifies their maltreatment. n263 More importantly, critics argue that

patriotism post 9/11. n265 There are four sections of the Patriot Act that are of particular interest in examining the
effects on Muslims. Not because the Patriot Act specifically targets Muslims, but because it has a disparate impact
on Muslims generally and on Muslims within institutions of higher education specifically. Outlined in detail in Part I,
the four sections of the Patriot Act that have a disparate impact on Muslims in American higher education are: 1)
Section 217, 2) Section 411, 3) Section 505, and 4) Section 507. Complications resulting from adherence to these
sections have led to the following three problems within American higher education institutions: 1) anti-Muslim and
Islamophobic acts, 2) increased searches and seizures, and 3) bias and [*50] discrimination in educational
policymaking.

SEVIS jeopardizes the safety of international students


hackers prove
Ahmadi 11, Shafiqa Ahmadi, J.D., is an Assistant Professor of Clinical Education at the Rossier School of
Education at the University of Southern California. The Erosion of Civil Rights: Exploring the Effects of the Patriot
Act on Muslims in American Higher Education", 12 Rutgers Race & L. Rev. 1, 2011,
<https://www.academia.edu/475628/The_Erosion_of_Civil_Rights_Exploring_the_Effects_of_the_Patriot_Act_on_
Muslims_in_American_Higher_Education> //ak

When international students and scholars do successfully obtain [*14] visas, they then must
deal with the requirements of the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) enacted after 9/11. n61

SEVIS is an electronic database that is required for all colleges and universities that
accept international students and scholar s. n62 SEVIS "collects and maintains pertinent information
on nonimmigrant students and exchange visitors, [their spouses], and the schools and exchange visitor sponsors

n63 International students and visiting scholars


are fingerprinted and their names are routinely checked against sophisticated
government databases for possible criminal or other information that may disqualify
them. n64 The federal government requires all male visa applicants between the ages of 16-45 to fill out
that host these individuals in the United States."

additional forms disclosing private information about themselves, their families, and their activities. n65 Not only

SEVIS requirements difficult to understand, time consuming, and an intrusion into the private lives of
international students and scholars, they also jeopardize the safety and security of
international students and scholars. Despite claims that SEVIS is a secure database, in 2005, "a
hacker broke into a University of Nevada at Las Vegas online databas e for ... SEVIS and
gained access to personal information for about 5,000 current and former
international students and scholars." n66 The stolen information consisted of names, [*15] "birth
dates, passport numbers, Social Security numbers [,]" and other sensitive information about the
international students, their spouses, and families. n67 Other universities that have faced similar problems
include University of Kansas, Boston College, and California State University at
Chico. n68
are

Intl students K2 diplomacy


International students makes the world a safer placelearning
to work with people from other countries and cultures is key
Witherell and Calyton 14, Sharon Witherell, IIE, Elaine Clayton, ECA, Open Doors 2014:
International Students in the United States and Study Abroad by American Students are at All-Time High, IIE,
Institute of International Education, 11/17/14, http://www.iie.org/Who-We-Are/News-and-Events/Press-Center/PressReleases/2014/2014-11-17-Open-Doors-Data

International education is crucial to building relationships between people and


communities in the United States and around the world. It is through these
relationships that together we can solve global challenges like climate change, the
spread of pandemic disease, and combatting violent extremism, said Evan M.
Ryan, Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs. We also
need to expand access to international education for students from more diverse
backgrounds, in more diverse locations of study, getting more diverse types of
degrees. Only by engaging multiple perspectives within our societies can we all
reap the numerous benefits of international education - increased global
competence, self-awareness and resiliency, and the ability to compete in the 21st
century economy, Assistant Secretary Ryan remarked. International experience is
one of the most important components of a 21st century education, and study
abroad should be viewed as an essential element of a college degree, said IIEs
President Dr. Allan E. Goodman. Learning how to study and work with people from
other countries and cultures also prepares future leaders to contribute to making
the world a less dangerous place."

International students are key to US diplomatic powerthe US


can influence foreign leaders who were educated in the US, but
in the squo, relations are strained as world leaders question
US restrictions on visas
Flavia R. da Silva-Benson, 2004, an attorney in Medfield, MA, 38 New Eng. L.
Rev. 807 LENGTH: 20465 words NOTE: NEW UNITED STATES IMMIGRATION POLICIES
AND HOW THE CURTAILMENT OF STUDENT VISAS WILL AFFECT THE INTERESTS OF
DIVERSITY IN AMERICAN SOCIETY
One of America's strongest diplomatic assets is the ability to educate future leaders
of countries. n276 Former (and some current) presidents of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil , Costa
Rica, Ecuador, France, Ghana, Peru, Philippines, Taiwan, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe, just
to name a few, have been educated in American universities and colleges. n277 In
addition, many influential Middle Eastern leaders have been [*834] educated in this
country, such as: Atef Muhammad Muhammad Ebid, Prime Minister of Egypt;
Benjamin Netanyahu and Shimon Peres, former Prime Ministers of Israel; Abdullah
Bin Al-Hussein, King of Jordan; Benazir Bhutto, former President of Pakistan; and
Abdul-Aziz Abdul-Ghani, former Prime Minister of the Yemen Arab Republic. n278
When foreign students come to study in the U nited States, they get to experience the
freedom and opportunity that is the motto of the American way of life. They form
special bonds with American students and , in this way, become allies. n279 According
to Shalini Bhutani, Director of International Student and Scholar Services at
Pennsylvania State University, "they form bonds here and when they go back to
their countries, they are people who actually carry the message of American Life.
They know what America has to offer and they can help dispel those stereotypes

about life in America." n280 Mark D. Rentz, Associate Director of the American
Language and Culture Program at Arizona State University , has spent years researching
American-educated world leaders. n281 He wrote letters to American universities and foreign
embassies in order to obtain the names of their most "illustrious alumni." n282 After
obtaining three thousand names, Rentz wrote letters to those world leaders. n283 Since then,
many leaders have answered Rentz's request to recount their stories about studying
in the United States. n284 According to Rentz, "All acknowledged how useful their American
education has been to them. But what really stands out, what they remember most
fondly, are all the relationships and experiences they had with people. These
friendships left the greatest impression." n285 [*835] Aside from losing the opportunity
to educate future world leaders, the new immigration policies are putting a
strain on diplomatic relationships. In late December 2002, Deputy Prime Minister
Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi of Malaysia questioned the visa issuance
problems in a meeting with top United States officials in Washington D.C. n286 His
concern was about the many Malaysian students who had been accepted to
American universities but had not received visas. n287 The Patriot Act's impact will be more
noticeable in years to come when future leaders of the world will fail to comprehend the American way of life simply

When cultures are not


understood and friendships are not cultivated, the bonds that tie humanity together
may forever be severed. As United Nations Secretary-General, Kofi Annan, stated
while accepting the 2001 Fulbright Prize: Today, perhaps more than ever,
international understanding is essential to world peace ?understanding between
faiths, between nations, between cultures. Today, we know that just as no nation is
immune to conflict or suffering, no nation can defend itself alone. We need each
other . . . in our struggle to uphold common values, and to fulfill common needs.
n288
because an invitation to learn about its people and culture was not forthcoming.

Foreign students key to diplomacyproven by the Cold wars


Mielke et al 14,

Gretchen Mielke, Program of Study: Comparative and Regional Studies, Asia, Concentration: International Communication; Lauren Moloney-

Egnatios, Program of Study: International Communications, Concentration: International Education and Exchange and Intercultural Training, Julie Trinh, Program of Study: Comparative
and Regional Studies, East/Southeast Asia, Concentration: Foreign Policy and Security; Monika Young, Program of Study: Comparative and Regional Studies, Concentration: Europe
(regional concentration), Foreign Policy (topic concentration), The International Student Journey in the United States and The Netherlands: A Comparative Analysis , American
University School of International Service, May 5, 2014, https://www.american.edu/sis/practica/upload/Mueller-International-Student-House-Report.pdf

Helena Finns article, The Case for Cultural Diplomacy, indicated the importance
of international students in U.S. foreign policy during the Cold War era. Finn stated
that, [U.S] policymakers understood the link between engagement with foreign
audiences and victory over ideological enemie s and considered cultural diplomacy
vital to U.S. national security.17 Philip Altbach and Norman Uphoffs 1973 book, The
Student Internationals, described an era where the Soviet Union and the Un ited States
both valued international students as an important audience for public diplomacy
outreach efforts. Exchanges helped international students gain training and
experience to become future diplomats or government officials. 18 In addition,
international exchanges served to influence future elites of various countries. 19
While Finn indicated that U.S. officials no longer placed the same value on
international students in diplomacy and national security at the end of the Cold War ,
she advocated for their renewed role in fostering long-term, deeper understanding
and favorable opinions of the United States. 20
Yet the question remains as to when this resource for public diplomacy will be fully realized by the nation-state? City Diplomacy and International

Students While public diplomacy has historically been the exclusive domain of nation-states, authors such as Michele Acuto, Ana Rold, Richard Faber and Benjamin Barber track the emergence of the city as a key player in global affairs. In fact, Benjamin Barber argued that the twenty-first century is the century
of city diplomacy.21 In If Mayors Ruled the World, Barber suggested that nation-states thwart democracys globalization, inhibiting solidarity, creativity and cross-border collaboration.22 Barber looked to cities (such as Washington, D.C. or The Hague) because successful cities are ones that are open,
international, really promote tolerance and intercultural dialogue. Through this, they also promote creativity, promote opportunities to increase their exports, and have better chances to understand the culture of customers.23 Thus cities, which house more than 78% of the developing world, are conduits for
rewriting the social contract towards greater collaboration and pragmatism.24 Cities foster a strong, networked civil society with bottom-up citizenship.25 Cities can make decisions and take action when states cannot. 26 While cities cannot challenge the direct sovereignty of their nation state, their informal
power can flourish, inspiring neighborly affection, cross-border communication, trade, mobility and immigration, [which they rely on for] their vitality and survival.27 As a result, Barber stated, to say that mayors should rule the world is really to say that citizens should rule the world.28 Cities operate as

s. Evan Ryan, U.S. Assistant Secretary


of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs, concurred, stating that international
education promotes the relationship building and knowledge exchange between
another level in the diplomacy and foreign policy, moving citizens across borders, and engaging one another in sharing best practices needed to solve global problem

people and communities in the United States and around the world that are
necessary to solve global challenges.29

Diplomacy K2 Terror
Efective diplomacy in the Middle East key to isolate and
counter ISIS
Katulis, Lang, and Singh 14 Brian Katulis is a Senior Fellow at American Progress, where his
work focuses on U.S. national security policy in the Middle East and South Asia. Katulis has served as a consultant
to numerous U.S. government on projects in Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Yemen, and Egypt.From 1995 to 1998, he
lived and worked in the West Bank and Gaza Strip and Egypt for the National Democratic Institute for International
Affairs. Katulis received a masters degree from Princeton Universitys Woodrow Wilson School for Public and
International Affairs and a B.A. in history and Arab and Islamic Studies from Villanova University. Hardin Lang is a
Senior Fellow at American Progress, where he focuses on U.S. national security and multilateral affairs, Middle East
policy, and the role of Islamists in the region. He comes to American Progress with 18 years of experience in
peacekeeping, peacebuilding, and stabilization, including a 12-year career with the United Nations. Most recently,
Lang was a senior fellow in the international security program at the Center for Strategic and International Studies.
During his tenure at the United Nations, he has served as head of office for former President Bill Clinton in his role
as U.N. and managed peace operations in Afghanistan. Other foreign deployments include a tour as a senior adviser
to the U.N. special representative to Iraq. Lang has led teams of international observers to monitor elections in
Afghanistan and holds a masters degree in public policy from Princeton Universitys Woodrow Wilson School of
Public and International Affairs, and a masters degree in international history from the London School of Economics.
Vikram J. Singh is the Vice President for National Security and International Policy at American Progress. Previously,
he served as the deputy assistant secretary of defense for South and Southeast Asia at the Pentagon, where he
advised senior leadership on all policy matters pertaining to development and implementation of defense strategies
and plans for the region. Until November 2011, Singh was the deputy special representative for Afghanistan and
Pakistan at the U.S. Department of State. He has also served in the U.S. Department of Defense as a senior advisor
on Afghanistan and Pakistan, representing the department in National Security Council policy reviews of the region
and the war in Afghanistan, and as a senior advisor responsible for the departments post-2014 strategic approach
to South and Central Asia. From 2003 to 2007 Singh served in the Department of Defense. He holds degrees from
the University of California at Berkeley and Columbia University. Defeating ISIS: An Integrated Strategy to Advance
Middle East Stability, 9/10/14,
<https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/security/report/2014/09/10/96739/defeating-isis-an-integrated-strategyto-advance-middle-east-stability/>//ak

The United States should propose that states in the region commit to common
principles and specific, coordinated actions to help isolate and counter ISIS and
better respond to the humanitarian catastrophe. This will not be easy as the SunniShia sectarian divide in the region is now accompanied by growing tensions between
leading Sunni-majority states. In addition, key countries in the region lack some basic capacities needed for
operational impact, as demonstrated by the failure of regional efforts to support elements of the anti-Assad
opposition in Syria. While the United States and other countries may need to fill such capability gaps, regional

With partners in
the region, the United States can take the following steps: Create an ISIS-focused
intelligence fusion cell in the region. The United States has a wide range of networked relationships
partners should contribute financial and other resources to support a multinational effort.

with key Middle East intelligence services. Jordan is a close partner in counterterrorism efforts throughout the
Middle East and outside the region in places such as Afghanistan. Saudi intelligence services have been battling
certain Islamist extremist groups, such as ISIS and al-Nusra Frontthe Al Qaeda affiliate now dominating parts of
the battlefield. The Turkish National Intelligence Organization also has extensive intelligence contacts and

The United States


would need to provide the backbone for any regional intelligence fusion effort.
Establish a multi-agency and multinational ISIS threat finance cell to target the
economic base of ISIS. ISIS funds its activities from areas under its control through taxation, illicit
specialized knowledge of the various extremist groups operating in northern Syria.

economies such as oil smuggling and extortion, and external support, mainly from individuals in Gulf states. Some

To disrupt ISISs
finances, the United States should work with regional partners to target the criminal
networks that ISIS uses to sell goods or otherwise generate revenue; disrupt ISIS oil extraction,
estimates project ISIS will raise between $100 million and $200 million over the next year.

transport, and refining operations and prevent exchanges with buyers in foreign markets such as Iran, Turkey, and
the Kurdistan Regional Government, or KRG; and disrupt online and regional fundraising efforts. The United States
should create an interagency threat finance cell headed by either the U.S. Treasury Department or State
Department with military and intelligence personnel, and it should be based in the region to help coordinate the

Coordinate security assistance to


national and subnational actors fighting ISIS and al-Nusra Front on the ground in
collection and analysis of financial and economic intelligence.

Syria and Iraq. The United States has already stepped up its direct military assistance to Iraqi Kurdish forces
and has proposed an additional $500 million to support select members of the Syrian opposition. These efforts
should be incorporated into a regional plan. In many instances, the most capable security partners will likely be

U.S partners in the region will have deeper


ties and greater ability to provide support to such forces fighting ISIS. A joint State
Department and Defense Department team should coordinate these efforts. Airstrikes and surveillance in
support of regional forces and local ground forces fighting ISIS and al-Nusra Front . In
targeted instances, the United Statesand if possible, a broader coalition of alliesshould
conduct direct military airstrikes against ISIS and other radical groups operating in Syria and Iraq.
found at the subnational level, including tribes, and

These strikes should be conducted as part of a regional or international coalition under a multilateral framework
with congressional authorization and oversight.

Foreign students key to build up the goodwill necessary to


deter terrorism
NAFSA 03, NAFSA: Association of International Educators, In Americas Interest:
Welcoming International Students January 2001,
<http://www.nafsa.org/uploadedFiles/NAFSA_Home/
Resource_Library_Assets/Public_Policy/in_america_s_interest.pdf>

Secretary Powell has spoken eloquently of the foreign policy benefits that accrue to the United States from being
the destination of choice for the worlds internationally mobile students and, especially, from educating successive

By hosting international students, we generate an


appreciation of American political values and institutions, and we lay the foundation
for constructive relations based on mutual understanding and goodwill . The ties formed
at school between future American and future foreign leaders have facilitated innumerable foreign
policy relationships. The millions of people who have studied in the United States
over the years constitute a remarkable reservoir of goodwill for our country,
perhaps our most undervalued foreign policy asset . Is there a danger that terrorists will
generations of world leaders.

gain access to the United States by posing as students? Of course there is; that danger exists with respect to all
nonimmigrant visitors, of which students constitute only a minuscule two percent. All countries must confront a
central question of our age, which is how to reconcile global mobility with global terrorism .
Openness to mobility carries dangers; higher education wants to be a part of the greater attention to these dangers
that is now necessary, and of the more robust enforcement measures that are now required. In this context, the
task force fully supports appropriate screening and monitoring measures. Schools are collectively spending millions
of dollars and countless hours to implement the international student tracking system that became a federal
priority on September 11. They are working with the Department of State to protect the integrity of student visas
and to prevent their fraudulent use by those who seek access to the United States for illegitimate reasons. Research
institutions are wrestling with questions of access to sensitive scientific information and are doing their best to
strike the appropriate balance. In these and other ways, higher education is doing its part to help protect our

But to unduly restrict the access of future leadersand, indeed, the youth of
the worldto this country is to court a greater danger , which is to nurture the
isolationism, fundamentalism, and bigoted caricatures that drive antiWestern terrorism. After September 11, it seems clear that the more people who can
experience this country first-hand, breaking down the stereotypes they grow up with
and opening their minds to a world beyond their borders, the better it is for U.S.
security
country.

Government trust and partnerships with Sikhs, Arabs, and


Muslims are key to prevent terrorism they have the linguistic
tools and the cultural knowledge that the federal government
lacks
Ramirez and Woldenberg, 2005 (Deborah, professor at Northwestern University School of
Law. Stephanie, Northwestern School of Law, JD Expected 2006. 14 Temp. Pol. & Civ. Rts. L. Rev. 495 Lexis)

the Department of State, FBI, and other government agencies recognize


that their dearth of Arabic language skills creates a crucial gap in cross-cultural
communication and intelligence gathering. Again, the Arab and Muslim communities
can help provide the resources for this effort. The current backlog on translation of counterterrorism tapes
demonstrates a need for partnerships. 82 The United States could appeal to the "hearts and
minds" of a wider world audience by utilizing Arab and Muslim Americans as part of
the State Department Ambassador Program. 83 The State Department has recognized the lack of
language skills in their Junior Officer Program for the Foreign Service. 84 The United States Advisory
Moreover,

Commission on Public Diplomacy's March 2004 report cites that "junior officers now receive more than twenty-five
to thirty-three percent more training in "hard' and "superhard' languages." 85 The Report indicates the poor
linguistic record of Foreign Service officials filling "language-designated' positions abroad. 86 According to the
September 2003 Government Accountability Office ("GAO") report, "21 percent of the 332 Foreign Service officers ...

The 9/11 Commission


Report highlights some key gaps in law enforcement's intelligence gathering skills . In
this way the report demonstrates the need for partnerships, and provides some insights into how partnerships
can help law enforcement evaluate and gather intelligence within the Arab, Muslim
and Sikh communities. In February 2005, testimony before the Select Committee on [*509] Intelligence of
did not meet the foreign language speaking requirements of their positions." 87

the United States Senate, Robert Mueller, Director of the FBI, acknowledged these intelligence gaps, stating "I
remain very concerned about what we are not seeing." 88 Mueller further highlighted the FBI's need to obtain
useful leads to prevent terrorist attacks. 89 The fact remains that law enforcement has no information that any of

What is known is that


many of the known perpetrators of the September 11th attacks lived within and
obtained help and support from various unknowing and unwitting American and
Muslim communities in the months leading up to the attacks. In this way, the terrorists exploited
members of the Arab and Muslim communities posing as new members of their
community in need of help. For this reason alone partnering with these communities to
help determine what is out of place in their neighborhoods makes operational
sense. Some still believe that there are sleeper cells embedded within the Arab
and/or Muslim communities. 91 For example, Richard Clarke, former U.S. counterterrorism coordinator, discussed his understanding of Al-Qaeda
the help received by the September 11th terrorists was knowingly provided. 90

terrorists within the world's Muslim population in an interview with NPR. 92 Clark noted that some of the September 11th hijackers were in the United States for months. 93 Two of the
hijackers spent a considerable amount of time in the United States without speaking English, first in Southern California, and then in Virginia. 94 They had an apartment, bought food,
and went about their daily lives. Clearly, they would not have been able to survive without help. Clark's theory is that there were "facilitators supporting the couple of cells of hijackers."
95 We agree with Clarke that there was help given to these terrorists from members of the Muslim and Arab community. However, we find the implication that these helpers were
complicit co-conspirators unfounded. To our knowledge there is no actionable intelligence to prove that those who aided the terrorists in the months leading up to the September 11th
attacks knew that these people were terrorists. No one was ever indicted for aiding and abetting these terrorists. 96 To the contrary, The 9/11 Commission Report mentions a striking
example of an FBI informant who rented a room to two of the September 11th [*510] terrorists, Hazmi and Mihdhar, during 2000. 97 This FBI informant, who presumably would have
been trained to be aware and vigilant regarding out-of-place behavior, failed to notice anything remarkable about these two. 98 This informant is still in good standing with the FBI, 99
and therefore his help was clearly unwitting. This example bolsters our belief that behavioral profiling does not always work. One perspective on how to think about Al-Qaeda terrorists
and the people who help them is presented by Clark in an NPR interview. He states: Picture in your mind three concentric circles. The largest circle is all members of the Islamic world,
1.3 billion, 1.5 billion people. The second circle are those people who now identify with al-Qaeda and say they support bin-Laden's philosophy. That circle used to be relatively small. It's
now, however, probably several hundred million people. They don't fight, but they do support ... . And then an inner circle, a very small circle, in the core of this, and that is the group of
terrorists who actually go out and fight and die. And this may be 10,000, it may be 40,000. 100 Clarke's idea is that we need to decrease the size of this second circle which has grown
since the inception of war in Iraq. 101 The way he suggests doing this is to fight "a battle of ideas" within that second circle. 102 While Clarke's description of Al-Qaeda's extremist
philosophy being at the core of the larger Islamic "circle" is debatable, we do agree that there is a strong need to present a counterargument to Al-Qaeda propaganda. The battle of ideas
he is talking about is abroad. However, there is also an important battle of ideas to be fought at home. We see this "battle of ideas" as a battle for the "hearts and minds" of Muslims and
Arabs in the United States as well as abroad. We see the second circle, the place where the battle of ideas needs to be won, as comprised of people who do not support terrorism and do
not engage in terrorist activities. These people may dislike American foreign policy, but still strongly oppose terrorism. At all costs we need to keep these people out of the third inner

American Arabs and Muslims are crucial resources in this


battle of ideas. They are our best ambassadors because many of them speak
Arabic. They share cultural backgrounds, and have relatives living in the Muslim and
Arab world. At the same time, American Arabs and Muslims are also a part of U.S. culture
and U.S. political, and democratic structures. The vast and overwhelming majority
oppose terrorism. They are citizens and residents whose futures are tied to the United States, and therefore
circle where the real terrorist threat resides.

they have an incentive to help prevent future terrorist attacks on U.S. soil. Moreover, they are as likely to be the

In the fight against terrorism, this


community provides America with a unique resource and competitive
advantage. They can use their linguistic and cultural skills to prevent
future attacks by helping to identify what is "out-of-place" and they can also serve as
ambassadors who can help win the battle for hearts and minds at home and abroad.
For all of these reasons, the government should invest resources in building bridges
between law enforcement and Arab, Muslim, and Sikh American communities.
victims of the next terrorist attack as any other Americans. [*511]

Especially in the context of the Islamic State, diplomacy is


necessary to bridge divisions in the Middle East
Uzayr 4/16/15 Sufyan bin Uzayr is the founder and writer at the Political Periscope, a political science blog
focusing on Foreign Policy and Diplomacy. Can diplomacy solves the chaos in the Middle East?, 4/16/15, <
http://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/foreign-policy/238942-can-diplomacy-solves-the-chaos-in-the-middleeast> //ak

A big factor here is the rise of The Islamic State . Virtually every player in the region is
not fond of IS (accusations and conspiracy theories aside, IS surely does not have any open supporters per se).
In fact, the recent nuclear deal might just have happened as an outcome of the fact
that USA needs Iran to fight against IS in Iraq and possibly in Syria. Recently, at the
Turkish-Iranian summit, Iran gave a warm reception to Turkish President Erdogan. Even though both Turkey and Iran
do not see eye to eye on various issues, they still managed to agree to double their trade from $14bn to $30bn .

The same model should be implemented in case of Saudi Arabia and Iran as well.
Diplomacy is the way forward, war is not. Of course, such a summit seems unlikely as of now,

especially because the Islamic Middle East has multiple players in the picture: Turkey on one hand, the Saudi
Arabian party on the second, and Iran and its friends on the third. More importantly, the volatile borders in the
Middle East are surely not sensible, and a good number of them were drawn not by legitimate methods but as a by-

The divisions in the Middle East -- be it the case of Iraq, or Syria or Palestine or
are more artificial and less logical. But this is
precisely why diplomacy can be helpful. As a matter of fact, the best way forward
for the Arab World would be complete unification, in sync with the aspirations of the Arab people
and against the wishes of both Israel and oil-hungry West. Sadly, that seems unlikely as of now , and
whether you like it or not, Saudi Arabia is the de facto face of the Gulf. As such, any solution will have to
acknowledge the reality and focus on arriving at a conclusion thereafter . Similarly,
product of imperialism.

even Saudi Arabia and Iran themselves --

Iranian borders and desires may be questionable, but it does stand tall as a powerful Islamic entity, and can serve
as a legitimate check against Zionist aggression (something that the Arabian powers have failed to do so far). Right

the most plausible solution to the crisis in Yemen as well as Syria


would be a diplomatic arrangement between all the parties involved , sans the

now,

foreign detractors. Probably Turkey and Qatar can mediate, whereas Saudi Arabia, Iran and other relevant parties

Day dreaming? Might be, but it is still better than


engaging in dumb sectarian strife and offering additional leverage to NATO and
Israel. Both Saudi Arabia and Iran are currently involved in a race to the bottom, with each party declaring itself
can sit together and discuss the details.

to be the sole voice of sanity. In such a tug of war, there are no winners, and if the current trend continues, all of

For Middle East, unification is the cure, but since


that is not happening anytime soon, unity is what we should strive for.
Middle East will fight its way back to Stone Age.

UN Charter agreesdiplomacy is the most fundamental


instrument for cooperative eforts
Kiraz 14, Ilkim Ilayda Kiraz has a Master of Arts with Honours in Business Studies from The University of
Edinburgh and has served with the Republic of Turkey Ministry for EU Affairs and Turkish Embassy in London.
**Internally cites Fatma Ceren Yazgan, Deputy Director General for Security and Intelligence Affairs at the Turkish
Ministry of Foreign Affairs The Role of Diplomacy and Soft Power in Combatting Terrorism 12/12/14,
http://www.coedat.nato.int/publication/workshop_reports/04-Diplomacy_Soft_Power_Report.pdf//ak
Mrs. Fatma Ceren Yazgan, Deputy Director General for Security and Intelligence Affairs at the Turkish Ministry of

diplomacy and the criminal justice system have key roles in


combatting terrorism. The United Nations Charter and the Council of Europe
agreements which set the international legal framework for combatting terrorism
have been drawn up through negotiations carried out between various countries through diplomatic
channels. As every country has a different set of regulations, diplomacy is the most
fundamental instrument to ensure convergence between these regulations and International
cooperation is crucial in the fight against terrorism within this scope, an international legal
Foreign Affairs, expressed that

framework should be set up for this purpose, and Turkey maintains its close cooperation with its international
partners against every form and method of terrorism.

***Of-Case***

Topicality

Domestic

Within US Borders
Interpretation: Domestic means physically within the U.S.
borders.
DOD 82 (Department of Defense, regulation sets forth procedures governing the

activities of DoD intelligence components that affect United States persons,


PROCEDURES GOVERNING THE ACTIVITIES OF DOD INTELLIGENCE COMPONENTS
THAT AFFECT UNITED STATES PERSONS, December 1982,
https://fas.org/irp/doddir/dod/d5240_1_r.pdf)//ghs-VA
C10.2.1. Domestic activities refers to activities that take place within the U nited States
that do not involve a significant connection with a foreign power, organization or
person. C10.2.2. The term organization includes corporations and other commercial organizations, academic
institutions, clubs, professional societies, associations, and any other group whose existence is formalized in some

within the United States


means all organizations physically located within the geographical boundaries of the
United States whether or not they constitute a United States persons . Thus, a branch,
subsidiary, or office of an organization within the United States, which is physically
located outside the United States , is not considered as an organization within
the United States.
manner or otherwise functions on a continuing basis. C10.2.3. An organization

SEVIS is on US soilpart of US schools system


Kalhan 14, Anil Kalhan, associate Professor of Law, Drexel University, Maryland Law Review, IMMIGRATION
SURVEILLANCE, 2014
Congress also has mandated more extensive ongoing monitoring of international students and exchange visitors,
requiring educational institutions to share enrollment status and other personal information on these individuals
and their dependents with DHS and expanding the FBI's ability to obtain student records that otherwise would be
protected from disclosure. n192 To implement these mandates, DHS has developed the Student and Exchange
Visitor Information System ("SEVIS"),

a database system through which schools must


regularly report personal information about international students - including their
enrollment status, class attendance, changes in majors, disciplinary action, or early
graduation - and their dependents. n193 DHS officials use SEVIS not only to monitor and identify
international students who may have fallen out of lawful nonimmigrant status but also to "identify patterns of
criminal activity, including terrorism" and to "identify trends and patterns to assist in planning and analyzing risks."
n194

Curtail

Elimination
We meet: the af reduces overall domestic surveillance, SEVIS
is just a program
Counter- Interpretation: Curtailing domestic surveillance
necessitates elimination.
Ackerman 14 (Spencer, national security editor for Guardian US. A former senior
writer for Wired, Failure to pass US surveillance reform bill could still curtail NSA
powers, October 3rd, 2014, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/oct/03/usafreedom-act-house-surveillance-powers)//ghs-VA
Two members of the US House of Representatives are warning that a failure to pass landmark
surveillance reform will result in a far more drastic curtailment of US surveillance powers
one that will occur simply by the House doing nothing at all. As the clock ticks down on the 113th Congress, time
is running out for the USA Freedom Act, the first legislative attempt at reining in the National Security Agency

Unless the Senate passes the stalled bill in the brief session following
the NSA will keep all of its existing powers to collect
US phone records in bulk, despite support for the bill from the White House, the House of
during the 9/11 era.

Novembers midterm elections,

Representatives and, formally, the NSA itself. But supporters of the Freedom Act are warning that the intelligence
agencies and their congressional allies will find the reform bills legislative death to be a cold comfort. On 1 June
2015, Section 215 of the Patriot Act will expire. The loss of Section 215 will deprive the NSA of the legal pretext for
its bulk domestic phone records dragnet. But it will cut deeper than that: the Federal Bureau of Investigation will
lose its controversial post-9/11 powers to obtain vast amounts of business records relevant to terrorism or
espionage investigations. Those are investigative authorities the USA Freedom Act leaves largely untouched.
Section 215s expiration will occur through simple legislative inertia, a characteristic of the House of

the House has voted to sharply curtail


domestic dragnet surveillance , both by passing the Freedom Act in May and voting the following
month to ban the NSA from warrantlessly searching through its troves of
international communications for Americans identifying information. Legislators are warning that
Representatives in recent years. Already,

the next Congress, expected to be more Republican and more hostile to domestic spying, is unlikely to reauthorise
Section 215.

Surveillance

T-surveillance means general


SEVIS is continuous tracking and monitoring of a specific
population
ICE No Date, U.S. Immigrations and Customs Enforcement, subset of the Department of Homeland
Security, Student and Exchange Visitor Information System, < http://www.ice.gov/sevis/overview> (under SEVIS
History)//ak

the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Department of


State deployed SEVIS in January 2003. SEVIS is a web-based information system that tracks and
monitors F, M, and J nonimmigrants and dependents throughout the duration of approved participation
within the U.S. education system or designated exchange visitor program. SEVIS maintains records on
these nonimmigrants and receives updated information from schools and sponsors ,
To meet this mandate,

such as changes of domestic address and in program study. SEVIS also maintains information on the schools,
exchange visitor program sponsors, and their representatives (i.e., designated school officials, responsible officers,
and alternate responsible officers).

Surveillance is focused and systematic.


Richards 13 (NM Richards, Professor of Law, Washington University School of
Law, THE DANGERS OF SURVEILLANCE, 2013, http://harvardlawreview.org/wpcontent/uploads/pdfs/vol126_richards.pdf)//ghs-VA
Reviewing the vast surveillance studies literature, Professor David Lyon concludes that surveillance is
primarily about power, but it is also about personhood.8 Lyon offers a definition of surveillance as the
focused, systematic and routine attention to personal details for purposes of influence,
management, protection or direction.9 Four aspects of this definition are noteworthy, as they
expand our understanding of what surveillance is and what its purposes are. First, it is focused on
learning information about individuals. Second, surveillance is systematic; it is
intentional rather than random or arbitrary. Third, surveillance is routine a
part of the ordinary administrative apparatus that characterizes modern societies.10
Fourth, surveillance can have a wide variety of purposes rarely totalitarian
domination, but more typically subtler forms of influence or control.1

Domestic Surveillance
Domestic surveillance collects information of people within the
border.
Avilez et al 14 (Marie Avilez, Catherine Ciriello, Christophe Combemale, Latif

Elam, Michelle Kung, Emily LaRosa, Cameron Low, Madison Nagle, Rachel Ratzlaff
Shriver, Colin Shaffer; Senior Capstone Students, Ethics, History, and Public Policy,
December 10, 2014, http://www.cmu.edu/hss/ehpp/documents/2014-CitySurveillance-Policy.pdf)//ghs-VA
Domestic surveillance collection of information about the activities of
private individuals/organizations by a government entity within national borders;
this can be carried out by federal, state and/or local officials.

Generic
SEVIS is surveillance
Toutant 09 Dr. Ligia Toutant received her Ph.D. in Social Sciences and Comparative Education from UCLA in
2009. She has an eclectic background in economics, human communication, sociology, and sustainability. As an
active member of the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES), in 2010 Dr. Toutant created a special
interest group, Education for Sustainable Development, that functions under the auspices of this society.
International Graduate Students, the F-l Visa Process, and the Dark Side of Globalization in Post 9/11 American
Society, ProQuest Database, //ak
In addition to the articles summarized above, I read many others just to get a feeling of what has been published
about international students, and I agree with Szelenyi's and Rhoads' statement. Indeed, there are many studies on
how international students encounter challenges due to the language barriers and psychological alienation.
Szelenyi and Rhoads argue that despite efforts to expedite visas for international students, many problems continue
to exist. They assert, "The

policies of visa restriction and 24 continued surveillance of


international students via SEVIS and Visa Mantis present serious difficulties" (45). Among the problems
Szelenyi and Rhoads mention are that some basic rights of international students are restricted, and they have
feelings of being unwanted.

CP

VISA CP
SEVIS is the main problem of visa delayscomputerized
tracking systems of students is slow and delays visas
Michael R. Traven, 2006, he focuses his practice on commercial and business related transactions and
litigation. , Capital University Law Review 34 Cap. U.L. Rev. 693 LENGTH: 22989 words COMMENT: RESTRICTING
INNOVATION: HOW RESTRICTIVE U.S. VISA POLICIES HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO DEPLETE OUR INNOVATIVE ECONOMY
The

Act has affected the creative class primarily through its reestablishment of the
computerized tracking system of foreign students, [*718] named the Student Exchange and
Visitor Information System (SEVIS) n168 -a program that had initially been created through the Illegal Immigrant
Reform and Immigration Responsibility Act of 1996 n169 (IIRIRA). " SEVIS increases the ability of the
INS to maintain up-to-date information on foreign students and exchange visitors in
order to ensure that they arrive in the United States, show up and register at the
school or exchange program, and properly maintain their status during their stay ."
n170 The Patriot Act's establishment of SEVIS has directly afected the creative class
because the slow and inefective implementation of the tracking program
has led to unnecessary and costly visa delays. n171

Visa cap not a problemforeigner who are at the top of their


field get the EB-1 visa, which allows them to stay despite of
the cap
Swenson 15, A Law office, EB-1 Visa: Extraordinary Ability, Swenson, Mar 23, 2015 ,
http://www.immigrationlegaladvice.com/citizenship-immigration-services/business-employment/employment-basedpreferences/eb-1-visa/

If you are at the top of your field and would like the opportunity to work in the U nited
States, you may qualify for the EB-1 Visa. This visa gives you first preference due to
the extraordinary ability or achievements that you have had, which will make you a
valuable asset to the US workforce. People in almost any field can qualify for this
type of visa. There are three main categories for this visa, each of which have different requirements.
Extraordinary Ability Those who can show that they have an extraordinary ability in art,
education, business, athletics, or other skill may qualify for this category. You will need to
either have achieved a significant award (Olympic Medal, Pulitzer Prize, Oscar, ect) or meet at least three criteria
listed below.

No employment offer is required

for this category. The following criteria for this category are pulled directly from the US Department of homeland

security: Evidence of receipt of lesser nationally or internationally recognized prizes or awards for excellence Evidence of your membership in associations in the field which demand outstanding achievement of their members
Evidence of published material about you in professional or major trade publications or other major media Evidence that you have been asked to judge the work of others, either individually or on a panel Evidence of your original
scientific, scholarly, artistic, athletic, or business-related contributions of major significance to the field Evidence of your authorship of scholarly articles in professional or major trade publications or other major media Evidence that
your work has been displayed at artistic exhibitions or showcases Evidence of your performance of a leading or critical role in distinguished organizations Evidence that you command a high salary or other significantly high

If you have international


recognition for your skills as a professor or researcher, you can apply for this type of
visa as well.
remuneration in relation to others in the field Evidence of your commercial successes in the performing arts Outstanding Professor and/or Researcher

You will need a minimum of three years of experience in the specific academic area to qualify. In addition, you need to have a minimum of two of the below listed criteria and an offer of employment

from a US employer. Evidence of receipt of major prizes or awards for outstanding achievement Evidence of membership in associations that require their members to demonstrate outstanding achievement Evidence of published
material in professional publications written by others about the aliens work in the academic field Evidence of participation, either on a panel or individually, as a judge of the work of others in the same or allied academic field
Evidence of original scientific or scholarly research contributions in the field Evidence of authorship of scholarly books or articles (in scholarly journals with international circulation) in the field Multinational Manager or Executive

For high-level leaders of multinational companies, this is an excellent option. In


order to qualify, you must have three years of experience in this type of role, and at
least one of those years must be with the company for which you will work for in the
US. You can be employed as an affiliate, a subsidiary, or directly for this company
abroad in order to qualify. You do not need to meet any other specific criteria for this
category.

Visa cap not a problemforeigner who prove that they are


active in the US industry get to apply for a 0-1 visa, which
allows them to stay despite of the cap
Bramme 14, Daniel Bramme, business developer in the U.S. and Scandinavia., O-1 Visa - What it's all
about, Danielbramme, December 17, 2014, http://www.danielbramme.com/blog/2014/7/27/o-1-visa-what-to-know

0-1 Visa is something to work for if you


want to be active in the entertainment industry in the U.S. I will try to fit it all in one blog post,
I will try to write some helpful information and explain why a

however it will be very basic information just to introduce you to the idea and to give a brief understanding of
whats required. The US 0-1 Visa for aliens of extraordinary ability is a legal minefield and there are some things
that you just cannot explain on paper. There are also some Industry links and procedures that I cant give away
because of different reasons. You are always welcome to connect if you need any help. Let's begin The

O-1
non-immigrant visa is for foreign nationals who possess extraordinary ability in the
sciences, arts, education, business, or athletics, or who have demonstrated a record
of extraordinary achievement in the motion picture or television industry and have
been recognized nationally or internationally for those achievements. O-1 visas require an
employer sponsor - a foreign national cannot petition for an O-1 visa on his or her own behalf. So the description of
the 0-1 Visa is pretty straight forward.

For this Visa, artists must be deemed to have

extraordinary ability. The reason Industry Hollywood recommend this particular type of working Visa is
because it is an umbrella Visa which allows the holder to take part in all kinds of media production rather than

Television. The Visa is an


agreement with the US Government that you can stay in the country and work in
your particular field, for the allotted time. It takes approximately 3-6 months (providing you have all
limiting yourself to just one field, for example: Commercial, Film and

the necessary paraphernalia) to be given an answer to your application. You will be given a Social Security number
(National Insurance number) and you will pay tax to the US Government on your earnings. The Visa typically lasts
for 3 years, the holder can then be based in the US.

Student visas dont spill over to citizenshipaccount for less


than 3% of adjustment cases
Lu 09, Meng Lu received her J.D. from Harvard Law School and is currently an assistant fellow at Harvard
University. Not Part of the Family: U.S. Immigration Policy and Foreign Students, Spring 2009, 34 T. Marshall L. Rev.
343, LexisNexis Academic//ak

Borjas' argument seems to presume that foreign students come to the United States
with the sole goal of immigration. n58 Since the United States immigration policy gives preference to
family-based criterion, foreign students will find this an easy and convenient avenue to immigration compared with
other immigration categories. n59 Nevertheless, the extent in which foreign students create a visa-abusing problem

The available data on the rate of foreign students' adjustment to


permanent resident status lacks direct support for Borjas' conclusion . n60 Table 1 in the
is debatable.

Appendix shows the percentage of foreign students (F-1) that adjusted their status to permanent residence status
from year 1994 to 2002. n61 In 1994, about 10.1 percent of foreign students who entered the United States with
student visas adjusted their temporary status to permanent residence status. n62 The number declined drastically

These numbers suggest that only a


small proportion of foreign students are actually able to change their temporary
status.Another way of examining whether foreign student programs created the serious problem of misusing the
non-immigrant visa system as a "back door" to immigration is to compare the volume of adjustment
status with other non-immigrant visa holders . In 2002, a total of 679.305 non-immigrant visa
in 1994 and dropped by more than fifty percent in 2002. n63

holders adjusted their status, "representing sixty-four percent of all "new" immigrants admitted that year." n64

persons who entered the United States as visitors for pleasure (B-2)
and temporary workers (H-1B) have the highest adjustment of status rates , which
accounts for one quarter of all the adjustment cases. n65 Foreign students accounted for less than
three percent of the adjustment cases in 2002. n66 This comparison suggests that claiming the
foreign student program provides students an opportunity to abuse the visa system
to achieve permanent residence is incomplete.
Among them, [*353]

STEM CP
Turnimmigrant workers help raise the wages of American
workersstats prove
India Panorma 15, SouthAsian English newspaper with print editions in New York City, the Tristate
area and now also as the first English Indian Newspaper from Dallas, printed weekly , H1B Visa The Conflicting
Perceptions, The Indian Panorma, June 28, 2015, http://www.theindianpanorama.com/featured/h1b-visa-theconflicting-perceptions-41760.html

In fact, Kerrs study suggested exactly the opposite that the growth of
immigrant workers helps younger American technical workers; more of
them are hired and at higher-paying jobs but has no noticeable
consequences, good or bad, on older workers. Kerr also said that in the short run, we
dont find really any adverse or super-positive effect on the employment of
Americans, adding that people take an extremely one-sided view of this stuff and
dismiss any evidence to the contrary. And yet another study conducted by
academics at the University of California at Berkeley found that over the span of a
decade in an urban area, a 1 percentage (of total employment) increase in foreign STEM
workers during a decade actually increased the wages of native-born American
college graduates by 4 percent to 6 percent, with small effect on their employment.

CP doesnt solvethe job market for scientists and engineers


is weak, so only foreign students would be willing to be part of
it
Freeman 05, Richard B. Freeman, Economics at Harvard University., NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES,
DOES GLOBALIZATION OF THE SCIENTIFIC/ENGINEERING WORKFORCE THREATEN U.S. ECONOMIC LEADERSHIP?,
Working Paper 11457, NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, http://www.nber.org/papers/w11457, June
2005

foreign born students and degree recipients are attracted to


science and engineering work in the US while many US citizens or
permanent residents do not find that work attractive is that the foreignborn have lower opportunity costs from other specialties than do
Americans. The higher average incomes in the US, particularly compared to
developing countries, and the greater dispersion of earnings in the US, particularly
compared to other high income countries, means that US students, particularly the
most able, have more lucrative non-S&E 16 options than do foreign-born students.
To many foreign-born students or workers, obtaining an S&E education or job is their
ticket to the US job market, a green card, and possible citizenship. Their
opportunities in their native country outside of science and engineering are far less
attractive than are the opportunities outside of science and engineering to
comparable Americans.
One reason that

DA

Crowdout DA
Foreign students dont steal US jobs because theres a
shortage in STEM without themin fact, the emergence of
foreign students actually raise US citizens wagesstats prove
India Panorma 15, SouthAsian English newspaper with print editions in New York City, the Tristate
area and now also as the first English Indian Newspaper from Dallas, printed weekly , H1B Visa The Conflicting
Perceptions, The Indian Panorma, June 28, 2015, http://www.theindianpanorama.com/featured/h1b-visa-theconflicting-perceptions-41760.html

Ian Hathaway, research director at Engine, an American economic


research outfit, has churned out numbers that show employers find it a whole lot
more difficult to find candidates in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)
fields, as well as computer and math sciences (CMS), than those in other fields.
Apparently, at the end of 2012, there were 2.4 CMS job openings for each unemployed
CMS worker, and 1.4 STEM openings for each unemployed STEM worker, versus four
unemployed workers per job opening in non-STEM and CMS fields. Whats more,
Hathaway showed that wage growth for STEM and CMS workers with at least a
bachelors degree was far more robust in the last 12 years, compared to other
fields. Not only did wages grow at the median for these fields while wages in all
other professions fell substantially; that growth also reached workers with a broader
set of income levels, Hathaway pointed out. In fact, it is irresponsible for
researchers to claim there is an oversupply of STEM workers , he added. If this isnt
conclusive enough, The New York Times pointed to another study conducted by William R
Kerr, a Harvard business professor, who found little empirical evidence amongst 300
American companies that pointed to American engineers being displaced by foreign
ones. In fact, Kerrs study suggested exactly the opposite that the growth of
immigrant workers helps younger American technical workers; more of
them are hired and at higher-paying jobs but has no noticeable
consequences, good or bad, on older workers. Kerr also said that in the short run, we
dont find really any adverse or super-positive effect on the employment of
Americans, adding that people take an extremely one-sided view of this stuff and
dismiss any evidence to the contrary. And yet another study conducted by
academics at the University of California at Berkeley found that over the span of a
decade in an urban area, a 1 percentage (of total employment) increase in foreign STEM
workers during a decade actually increased the wages of native-born American
college graduates by 4 percent to 6 percent, with small effect on their employment.
It turns out that

Foreign students dont lower US educationthey are just as


qualified as American students
Mamun 15, Rajib Al Mamun, writer, Immigration reform for foreign STEM graduate students, The Hill, feb
8, 2015, http://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/education/232021-immigration-reform-for-foreign-stem-graduatestudents

Foreign students reach the U.S. after satisfying the university admission and visa
requirements. They overcome all the culture shocks and become American little by
little. They usually pay more than twice in tuition than local students in public universities. Many of them
work as a graduate assistant (teaching or research). Some of their research funds
directly come from federal authorities including NSF, NASA, NOAA, USDA, USGS,
EPA, and so forth. Some of them have multiple degrees from U.S. universities. Most

of them finish their masters or doctorates. They publish papers in research journals.
Some of them work as a PI (Principal Investigator) in their projects. Many of them
obtain patents for their innovation. These students pay income taxes from their first
earnings. Local grocery stores to car dealers and credit card companies depend on
them to grow their business. After 5 years of staying, their tax status changes to tax-purpose residents
and they pay taxes (including social security tax and Medicare tax) equal to U.S. citizens. In the U.S., 11.57 percent
of the population above 25 years old have graduate or professional degrees [6, 7]. Therefore, foreign STEM

They build good/excellent credit


history and driving history. All these criteria are good enough to become eligible to
be a permanent resident (also known as lawful immigrant or Green Card holder). However, the current U.S.
graduate students stay in the top 12 percent based on education.

broken immigration law does not allow them to become permanent residents easily.

Brain Drain DA

UQ
Alt causes to Chinese economic decline means its inevitable
whether the plan occurs or notcorruption, pollution, and
immigration to countries other than the US also hinder Chinas
development
Kirby and McFarlan 15, William C. Kirby, Professor of China Studies at Harvard, F. Warren
McFarlan, a faculty member at Harvard Business Review, china-still-isnt-ready-to-be-a-true-global-leader, Harvard
Business Review, Jan 5, 2015, https://hbr.org/2015/01/china-still-isnt-ready-to-be-a-true-global-leader

We see substantial barriers to progress on the short- and medium-term horizons


that collectively suggest that while China has done easy economic repositioning work, there are
increasingly substantial obstacles standing in the way of further progress. Economic
dynamism is necessary for global leadership, but its not enough. Although Chinas growth has been
extraordinary, and its short-term prospects continue to be bright even in these
turbulent times, deep challenges lie ahead. They range from brain drain to civil
unease over pollution and corruption to hundreds of millions of migrant workers,
who, without hukou, or formal residency status, constitute an alienated army of
second-class citizens in every major Chinese city. Perhaps a greater sign of
challenge is to be found in the actions of Chinas elites. What does it mean when a
countrys leading citizens send their wealth and children abroad? What does it mean
when family and company funds are parked in American, Canadian, and British real
estate? What does it mean when Canada has had so many rich Chinese apply for
citizenship that it has recently attempted to limit their immigration?

No link
No linkUS policy changes wont drastically change the
immigration of Chinese studentsstudents are already
hesitant to stay abroadin fact, it motivates students to
improve education back at home
Luo 14, Chris Luo, 14 years of marketing, sales operations, and strategy experience for startup, mid-size, and
large companies in US and Asia-Pacific. US relaxation of visa scheme triggers fears over brain drain from China,
South China Morning Post, 17 November, 2014, http://www.scmp.com/news/china-insider/article/1642267/usrelaxation-visa-scheme-triggers-debate-fears-over-brain-drain

Jasmine Li, a director of Beijing-based overseas study consultancy Weshareedu, is


not optimistic that the policy change will lead to a surge in the numbers of Chinese
students studying overseas. This policy might serve as a catalyst if it was
introduced a decade ago, at a time when US visas were difficult to come by, but not
now, said Li, whose company advises Chinese students on applications for
entrance to US universities and for student visas. As the rejection rate has been
quite low in recent years, people dont worry too much about visa applications these
days, she said, adding that most students return to China at least once every year to
visit families, and not just to re-apply for their overseas visas. Those who are
hesitating are not likely to make up their minds about studying abroad as a result of
the announcement, she added. After all, studying abroad needs long-term planning,
and is a costly matter, Su Hao, a director specialising in Sino-US relations at the
China Foreign Affairs University in Beijing, said he expected the policy change to encourage more
people to travel to US, since it was aimed at attracting Chinese students in order to financially benefit US

he frowned on concerns over a potential brain drain. A


considerable number of positions in China are in the public sector. They will not be
easily swayed to go overseas merely because of a policy change , because theres
too much to lose, Su said. Su conceded inevitable there will be some loss of talent
during the process, but he pointed there are also growing opportunities in China as
the economy continues to develop. Looking on the bright side, the challenge itself
could also motivate China to improve its own academic environment, so it can
attract more talent from abroad, he said.
education institutions. But

Visa Policies are the root of the brain drain


Han 15

(Xueying Han, Postdoctoral Scholar at University of California, Santa Barbara,


STEMming reverse brain drain: what would make foreign students stay in the US?,
March 31st, 2015, the conversation, http://theconversation.com/stemming-reversebrain-drain-what-would-make-foreign-students-stay-in-the-us-39148, JAS)
Science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines in the US have come to heavily
rely on international students, who constitute about a third of all STEM graduate
students in the US. So what makes these individuals stay in the US upon
graduation? This has come to be an important question considering that for science
and engineering, 40% of US doctorates awarded today are to people from abroad .
Understanding why international students may or may not want to leave the US and where they choose to work
after they graduate is crucial for future immigration policies. As a postdoctoral fellow at the Center for
Nanotechnology in Society at the University of California, Santa Barbara, I am part of an interdisciplinary research

that
those interested in becoming entrepreneurs were most inclined to stay after
graduation. US still a magnet for the entrepreneurial Among multiple factors, the choice of
group headed by Richard Appelbaum that investigated international students' career choices and found

career plays a key role in students deciding to stay or leave the US upon graduation. Our study found those who
wanted to work with business groups, or start their own business, or work for a non-governmental organization had

US continues to be viewed as
a hub for innovation and research. However, for those wanting a career in academia
or a governmental agency, the choice is more complicated and depends on a
combination of social, professional and personal reasons. They come but they are
going back in higher numbers Perceived as a global leader in STEM innovation, the US remains the
most popular destination in the world for international students. International
students are also more likely to earn a doctorate in a STEM related field than their
American counterparts. From 2001 to 2011, 84% of doctorate degrees earned by international students
a 90% likelihood of wanting to stay in the US. This suggests to us that the

were in STEM compared to only 63% by US citizens and permanent residents. STEM areas are offering exciting

However, given the importance of


STEM research, increasingly many countries have come up with policies and
programs to encourage individuals who studied abroad to return to their home
countries. From technological advancements in fully autonomous vehicles to medical breakthroughs in targeted
possibilities of research. Scientist image via www.shutterstock.com

drug delivery, STEM disciplines offer exciting possibilities of research with significant economic and global impact. A
2011 study focusing only on foreign STEM doctoral recipients in the US has found that the percentage of individuals
who stay long-term after graduation has steadily decreased. At the same time, studies by Brookings, Harvard,
NAFSA: Association of International Educators, and the Institute of International Education have highlighted

that

international students are important contributors to the US economy and are


integral to the future economic success of the country. Immigration policies deter
many from staying on Our study also looked at current immigration policies and
whether they acted as a possible barrier in retaining the best talent. An Optional Practical
Training (OPT) period allows individuals to stay and work in the US in a job related to their field of study for 12
months following graduation. Qualified STEM degree holders are then eligible to apply for an additional 17-month

But to stay past their OPT period, international students must find a
business willing to sponsor them for an H-1B visa. Respondents in our study were
forthright on how frustrating they found the H-1B visa process. Students say visa
issues are a major deterrent For instance, a graduate student in electrical and
computer engineering said: The H-1B visa makes you get a sponsor for five years
or so and you are bound to that employer and that is not very attractive. If the US
wants to retain talent, people need freedom to pursue what they want to
research . Another graduate student in mechanical engineering voiced a similar sentiment: The fact that
you dont have a green card at the end of your PhD its a nightmare. For
international students, not having a green card - it impacts the job search
everything. For policymakers in the US, such a large pool of STEM students raises
crucial questions about the direction of future policies. Do we want to retain
international STEM graduates? And if so, how do we go about easing immigration
policies restrictions so as to encourage those most likely to contribute to the
American economy?
OPT extension.

China
Only a third of Chinese students have returned
The Economist 14 (The Economist is an acclaimed news magazine that focuses on the intersection of
economics, politics, and social issues. A matter of honors, 11/22/14
http://www.economist.com/news/china/21633865-china-trying-reverse-its-brain-drain-matter-honours)

Sending students abroad has been central to Chinas efforts to improve its
education since the late 1970s, when it began trying to repair the damage wrought by Maos destruction
of the countrys academic institutions. More than 3 million Chinese have gone overseas to
study. Chinese youths make up over a fifth of all international students in higher
education in the OECD, a club mostly of rich countries. More than a quarter of them are in
America. Every country sends out students. What makes China different is that most of these
bright minds have stayed away. Only a third have come back, according to the
Ministry of Education; fewer by some counts . A study this year by a scholar at Americas
Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education found that 85% of those who gained their
doctorate in America in 2006 were still there in 2011.

Even government incentives didnt draw students back


The Economist 14 (The Economist is an acclaimed news magazine that focuses on the intersection of
economics, politics, and social issues. A matter of honors, 11/22/14
http://www.economist.com/news/china/21633865-china-trying-reverse-its-brain-drain-matter-honours)

To lure experts to Chinese universities , the government has launched a series of


schemes since the mid-1990s. These have offered some combination of a one-off bonus
up to 1m yuan ($160,000), promotion, an assured salary and a housing allowance or even a

of

free apartment. Some of the best universities have built homes for academics to rent or buy at a discount. All are
promised top-notch facilities. Many campuses, which were once spartan, now have swanky buildings (one of
Tsinghuas is pictured above). The programmes have also targeted non-Chinese. A foreign expert thousand-talent
scheme, launched in 2011, has enticed around 200 people. Spending on universities has shot up, too: sixfold in
2001-11. The results have been striking. In 2005-2012 published research articles from higher-education institutions

But most universities still have far to go. Only


two Chinese institutions number in the top 100 in the Times Higher Education World
rose by 54%; patents granted went up eightfold.

University Rankings. Shanghais Jiao Tong University includes only 32 institutions from mainland China among the
worlds 500 best. The government frets about the failure of a Chinese scholar ever to win a Nobel prize in science
(although the country has a laureate for literature and anunwelcomewinner in 2010 of the Nobel peace prize,
Liu Xiaobo, an imprisoned dissident).Pulling

some star scholars back from abroad will not be


enough to turn China into an academic giant. Many of those who return do so on a
part-time basis. According to David Zweig of the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, nearly
75% of Chinese nationals who were lured by a thousand-talent programme l aunched
in 2008 did not give up tenure elsewhere. Such schemes have often bought reputation
rather than better research. They typically target full professors whose more productive, innovative years
may already be behind them. (They also favour experts in science, technology and management ; the
Communist Party is less interested in attracting scholars in more politically controversial fields.) Chinese
universities have great difficulty fostering talent at home. The premium on foreign experience
in China has created perverse incentives, says Cao Cong of Nottingham University in Britain. It sends the
message to todays best and brightest that they should still spend their most
productive years abroad. More than 300,000 students leave each year.

Two alt causes-First - overwhelming failure of start-ups


Ford 14 (Peter Ford is The Christian Science Monitors Beijing Bureau Chief. He
covers news and features throughout China and also makes reporting trips to Japan
and the Korean peninsula.Prior to his current posting, Peter served for six years as
the Monitors Chief European Correspondent. Chinas Fear of Failure
http://pulitzercenter.org/reporting/china-brain-drain-entrepreneurs-chinesescientists-wuxi-incentive-program)
As the city hosting one of Chinas best-known incentive programs to encourage Chinese entrepreneurs and scientists to come home,
Wuxi, near Shanghai, seemed a natural place for me to visit. The people who run the Wuxi 530 program said they were happy
enough to show me around and talk about their work, but they needed permission from the citys (Communist party controlled)
Foreign Affairs Office. And that, strangely, was not forthcoming. The Foreign Affairs Office, which oversees city officials contacts
with foreigners, told my would-be hosts that it is not suggested to arrange this planned visit in a sensitive moment. It was
strongly recommended that I change my schedule. The sensitive moment could only refer to the ruling Communist partys 18th
Party Congress, even though that meeting was not due to be held for at least a month after my planned visit, and in Beijing, 1,000
kilometers away from Wuxi. But I knew from experience that this was not the sort of ruling that you bother to challenge, even if it
made no apparent sense. I went to Wuxi anyway, of course. If a reporter in China did only what the authorities suggested he do he
would never write anything. I could not meet the people running the returnee program they would have got into trouble if they had
seen me but I could talk to independent businessmen who had benefited from it. And it was while I was talking to them that I got
an inkling of why, perhaps, city government officials had wanted to keep me out of Wuxi. Because it transpired tha t

a large
proportion of the companies that returnees have set up in Wuxi have failed. And if
there is one thing that Chinese officials hate to acknowledge, it is failure . No matter
that large proportions of start-up companies all over the world fail. As many as 40
percent of startups in the United States quickly go bankrupt, according to Harvard
Business School research. The big difference is that in America this is not a cause
for shame, but regarded as a natural result of the risks that small entrepreneurs
take. In China it is seen as a reflection and a poor one on the officials who
sponsored the entrepreneurs. I could not find out exactly how many of the businesses launched through the Wuxi

incentive program had gone bust. The program managers were not allowed to talk to me, and the city government refused to do so.

around half of their peers had given up


within a year or two. This is not surprising to anyone anywhere in the world familiar with the pitfalls of starting a small
business. But the official Chinese attitude is indicative of a deeper mindset that may prove an
obstacle in the long term to the countrys ambitions to boost innovation by tempting home people
with experience abroad. Cutting-edge scientists and hi-tech entrepreneurs in the U.S. and
Europe are accustomed to taking risks, and accustomed to shrugging off initial failure as par for the course.
Their funders and their investors share that outlook. In China, failure implies a
shameful loss of face; only in rare circumstances will an official risk it . And that may explain
The businessmen with whom I talked suggested, anecdotally, that

why the very best Chinese scientists, and the very brightest entrepreneurs, are not coming home.

Second- Research culture


Cao 13 Cong Cao received a Ph.D. in Sociology from Columbia University and is an Associate Professor and
Reader at the School of Contemporary Chinese Studies, University of Nottingham. Educated in both China and the
U.S. and in both the natural and social sciences, he has worked at the University of Oregon, the National University
of Singapore, and the State University of New York. Culture change needed to counter brain drain
<http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20130719150700309>

China's first-rate academics reluctant to return home to participate in the country's


China remains a society that revolves around personal
relations, or guanxi. After spending a long period overseas, academics are unlikely to
have maintained a strong set of personal business relationships, which in turn
reduces their access to sources of research funding. Since many Chinese scientists have no
experience of carrying out research in an international setting, returnees may experience another
culture shock: they struggle to find like-minded scholars with whom they can
collaborate. The Chinese research system favors instant results and does not
So, why are

expected rise to superpower status?

tolerate failure. Vision and strategic thinking, which are held in such high regard in the West, are
off the agenda. This situation is improving. A special amendment to the law on the progress of science and
technology was passed in late 2007, acknowledging that failure is part of the innovation process. Yet there
remains tremendous pressure on scientists, including returnees, for immediate results.
There is growing evidence that plagiarism, fraud and manipulation of data are
interwoven through China's research process. With the scientific community failing to take action, many
potential returnees are reluctant to enter this environment. Political obstacles also
act as deterrents. Certain types of social science research are deemed politically
unacceptable even though there is an understanding that China cannot afford to expand its economy without
the participation of social thinkers and public intellectuals. Most of the academic returnees are natural scientists;
social scientists (except economists) have not returned, and they are cautious about working even part-time in
China for fear of political reprisals. The success of government efforts to attract individuals capable of steering

China

along a path of sustainable development will be judged not on numbers of returnees, but on whether it can

create a new research culture in which every scientist, whether trained overseas or at home, has the
opportunity to demonstrate value. It's a pity, then, that the problems associated with initiatives like the Thousand

have dented China's ability to attract the brains the country


desperately needs to make its next stride forward.
Talents programme

No impactChinese economy still strong despite loss of


intellectual capitalits economy is based of of its
manufacturing
Guan 15, Ryan Guan, Official Contributor at Point of View, Educated Chinese Leaving China: Chinas brain
drain undermines its efforts to compete on world stage, Point of View, Feb 18, 2015, http://www.bbnpov.com/?
p=1868

Known for its production of everything from Apple products to American flags, China
has become the second largest economy in the world due to its manufacturing
prowess. However, despite this explosive economic growth, higher education in
China is still unappealing, and job prospects for the highly educated are grim.
Chinese universities do not match the academic strength of universities in other
nations, and the Chinese government actually encourages students to seek higher education overseas.
Ultimately, the majority of these workers never return to China a problem that the
Chinese government is trying to ameliorate with monetary incentives. However, this
problem is deep, and it cant be addressed by handing out some extra cash. In order
for China to lure back its highly educated workforce, its going to have to confront
the problems that exist within its work culture.

Russia
Russias innovation sector is growingnew reforms prove
Appell 15 (James Appell is a tech worker and journalist. The Short Life and Speedy Death of Russias Silicon
Valley 5/6/15, http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/05/06/the-short-life-and-speedy-death-of-russias-silicon-valleymedvedev-go-russia-skolkovo/)
Of the worlds major economies, Russias had fared the worst in the aftermath of the global downturn. GDP shrank
by 7.9 percent across 2009, including a record 10.9 percent in the second quarter. Unemployment hit a peak of 9.4
percent in February of that same year. Going into the crisis, oil and natural gas had accounted for some two-thirds

Russias dependence on commodities exports


was making it vulnerable, but Medvedev was the first Russian president to actively engage with the
problem. His solution was a set of reforms, sketched out in a 4,000-word treatise titled Go Russia! The
reforms were designed to harness technology in order to equip Russia for the 21st century ,
of exports. Many had already long recognized that

and they covered industries ranging from nuclear power to space technology to pharmaceuticals. Medvedevs
reforms called for, among other things, a 40 percent reduction in Russias energy consumption by 2020, and the

the portion of Go Russia! that


attracted the most attention, from domestic commentators as well as foreign analysts , focused on
information technology. Medvedev proposed a raft of measures to stimulate IT
innovation, from e-governance to education programs to the development of a
national grid of supercomputers, whose rollout would begin immediately. The jewel in the crown,
announced a few months later, was to be a $4 billion innovation center on a 600-acre plot in a suburb
called Skolkovo on the outskirts of Moscow something on the lines of Silicon Valley ,
as Medvedev himself put it, which by 2020 would house up to 50,000 researchers and
technologists. Skolkovo would serve as an incubator for Russias start-up community, offering grants,
commercial generation by 2050 of power by thermonuclear fusion. But

education, and office space. Little by little, Medvedev would make his country known mostly for oil and gas
production and the mining of minerals and heavy metals an attractive place for homegrown innovation and tech
entrepreneurs. Our country has always had an abundance of innovative, progressive, and talented people,
Medvedev said in his 2009 State of the Nation address, two months after the publication of Go Russia! They are
the pillar holding up the innovative world, and we need to do everything we can to make these specialists want to
work here in their own country. The program was met with some skepticism at home and abroad theEconomist,
for instance, called Medvedevs plans implausible. But Go Russia! appeared to get off to a good start. The
Medvedev government traveled abroad to champion its new favorite industry, negotiating a partnership between

Skolkovo and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and securing financial support from
Silicon Valley luminaries, including a $100 million investment from Cisco. Start-ups
began flocking to the campus: It grew from 332 resident companies in 2011, to 793
a year later, to more than a thousand by 2013. Foreign capital flooded into
Russia:Yandex, Russias largest search engine, staged its initial public offering on the Nasdaq exchange in 2011,
raising $1.3 billion at the time the largest dot-com IPO in the United States since Googles in 2004. The 2010 IPO
on the London Stock Exchange of Mail.ru, a major Russian Internet holding comprising social networking and
gaming sites, was 20 times oversubscribed, according to insiders.

Crimean crisis and Russian domestic policy drive out


businesses
Habelly 14 (Elena Habelly works at Business Insider. Previously, she was at the International Criminal
Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in The Hague. She graduated from Columbia with a degree in economics in 2014.
Russias Brain Drain Astounding, 12/2/14 www.businessinsider.com/russia-brain-drain-putin-ukraine-crimea-201412)

Russia is experiencing another major brain drain. Although emigration trended downward from 1997
to 2011, there was a sudden spike in people leaving the country around the third term of
President Vladimir Putin, according to Rosstat, Russia's federal state statistics service. In 2012, almost
123,000 people left, and in 2013, more than 186,000 got out . Additionally, a UN report
showed that 40,000 Russians applied for asylum in 2013 76% more than in 2012 . The biggest bombshell
of all is that since April 2014 a month after Russia annexed Crimea 203,659 Russians
have left the country. By comparison, approximately 37,000 people left the country in 2011, and less than

34,000 people left in 2010. Furthermore, the emigration numbers may be even higher. "The official statistics are
very low," Mikhail Gorshkov, the director of the Russian Academy of Sciences' Institute of Sociology told Reuters.
What's particularly interesting is the type of people who are leaving the country . "While the total
number of Russians who leave for good remains relatively small, the profile of the typical emigrant has changed.

Today, it is a
well-off professional," according to World Policy. "People who have it good are starting to leave," Anton
Nosski, a tech entrepreneur, told World Policy. Notable individuals who have left include chess
grandmaster Garry Kasparov, economist Sergei Guriyev, journalist Leonid Bershidsky, and the
founder of VKontakte (Russia's version of Facebook) Pavel Durov. For the most part, these
people are leaving either for their children or for their professional futures.
"Corruption, red tape, and allegedly crooked courts are [also] driving the exodus
among entrepreneurs," according to Reuters. "I want my children to grow up in a fairer
country, one where the rule of law is more or less observed. I used think it was possible to
When the Soviet Union dissolved, the most common emigrant was a poor, unskilled young man.

build a better society in Russia, but I've basically lost all hope now. It's time to leave," one Russian businessman told
Vocativ. "Russian venture capital funds want to invest their money only in Russia," start-up founder Artem
Kulizhnikov told Bloomberg news, "but we want to build an international business and they won't support us."
Additionally, Russia's "creative class" is starting to feel isolated, although some politicians seem unfazed. "Russia
won't lose anything if the entire so-called creative class leaves. What's the creative class anyway? For me, a woman
who gets up at 5 a.m. to milk a cow is creative because she produces something. Not some guy with a stupid
haircut who sits in a cafe all day long writing in his blog," said Vitaly Milonov, a Member of the Legislative Assembly
of Saint Petersburg. But the brain drain isn't the whole story.

Brain gain now


Habelly 14 (Elena Habelly works at Business Insider. Previously, she was at the International Criminal
Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in The Hague. She graduated from Columbia with a degree in economics in 2014.
Russias Brain Drain Astounding, 12/2/14 www.businessinsider.com/russia-brain-drain-putin-ukraine-crimea-201412)

Huge influxes of immigrants are entering Russia as well. This makes sense: If many highlevel individuals and intellectuals are leaving Russia, more high-end jobs and
opportunities will become available in Russia . According to the UN, Russia saw the second-largest
number of international migrants in 2013. The number of people moving into Russia actually
tops the number of people moving out (which you can see above.) Many of the immigrants come
from countries like Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, according to data from Rosstat. Additionally, millennials
who are culturally Russian but were born in the US or Europe are considering opportunities in
Russia. "There are opportunities for my children in Moscow that aren't found anywhere else," one parent told BI. "I
believe that Russia is at a point where they realize they cannot rely on just oil and gas to keep up with the other

"The
opportunities in Russia seem to be more promising than here in the States currently.
BRIC countries and Western economies. Russia is looking to diversify its economy," one 20-something told BI.

Before the current sanctions and drastic low oil prices, Russia was a top seven economic power. As a young RussianAmerican, I've thought about pursuing opportunities abroad that do not exist in the US." The bottom line: Russia is
seeing some dramatic demographic changes that could greatly influence its economic and political future.

India
Indias competitiveness is faltering
Kappor 13 (Amit Kapoor is the Honorary Chairman of the Institute for Competitiveness in India and a
Professor of Strategy at MDI, Gurgaon, India. 1/23/13 India is in danger of losing its competitiveness
http://www.bbc.com/news/business-21156158)

the emergence of IT
as an industry within the country. However, one has to remember that the sector has built its business
on cost arbitrage. The problem with this model is that it is short lived and would last
until the time another low cost location emerges from the shadows. One can already see
the impact of this on the call centre industry in India, which is facing the heat from the Philippines.
India also suffers from the obsession that it is a services economy. The government's
policies in areas such as infrastructure, interest rates, fiscal deficit and inflation have not yielded the desired
results. This idea is inherently hazardous as it hurts innovation in key sectors such as agriculture or
manufacturing, which are paramount to India's growth going forward. India is also often touted as
India has been focusing on and celebrating the wrong achievements. It is great to see

having a demographic dividend, with majority of its population being young. On the face of it, it does seem like a
big advantage to have. But dig a bit deeper and one begins to realise that what India is actually facing is nothing
short of a demographic disaster. According to some estimates, only 4-6% of graduates in India are skilled enough to
get employed. That doesn't do any favours to India's competitiveness. India churns out close to
1.2 million engineers and MBAs graduates per year. But a majority of these graduates are job seekers and not job
creators. That needs to change and the emergence of an entrepreneurial culture is critical for that to happen.

To

add to India's woes, the disparities between its various states are increasing at an
alarming rate. States such as Goa and Delhi boast an annual per capita income of more
than $2,000 (1,250), while at the other end, states such as Bihar and Uttar Pradesh it is
less than $400. If not addressed in time, this can create huge social problems. At the same time, if some
states continue to be more prosperous than the others, it could lead to a big migration of labour from poor to richer

That would make it even tougher to


boost long-term sustainable growth in the poorer states, as bigger firms may be reluctant to set up
shop there, which would hurt the economy and also dent job creation. Any economy typically
states, the beginnings of which we are already starting to see.

has an evolutionary cycle wherein its growth is driven either by factor, investment or innovation. The first stage in

factor-driven economies which focus on low-cost basic factor


conditions, such as low-skilled labour, natural resources and geographic location.
the cycle is that of

A
high rate of inflation has been one of the biggest headaches for India's policymakers. At the next stage are
investment-driven economies which have the ability to produce products and services of high quality using efficient
methods but at lower wages than advanced economies. At the end the cycle, are innovation-driven economies that
focus on innovative products and services at the global technology frontier. India today without a doubt is stuck at
the factor-driven stage and is within an arm's reach to get the plot wrong at this level as well. Economies at this
stage of development need to focus on input costs, macro-economic, political and legal stability, efficient basic

India seems to be lagging behind,


and in some cases even failing on these parameters.
infrastructure and lowering the regulatory cost of doing business.

Alt cause- agriculture employs most citizens


Sharam 07 Vijay Sharam is Professor at the Centre for Management in Agriculture (CMA), Indian Institute of
Management, Ahmedabad. Prior to joining IIMA, he was Agricultural Economist with the Indian Council of
Agricultural Research (ICAR) Role of Agriculture in Indian Society, August 2007,
<http://iimahd.ernet.in/publications/data/2007-08-01Sharma.pdf>

The direct contribution of the agriculture sector to national economy is reflected by its
share in total GDP, its foreign exchange earnings, and its role in supplying savings and labor to other
sectors. Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry and fishing accounted for 18.5
percent of total Indian Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2005-06 (at 1999-2000 constant prices) and
employed about 58 percent of the country's workforce (CSO, 2007). It accounted for 10.95 percent of Indias
exports in 2005-06 (GoI, 2007) and about 46 percent of India's geographical area is used for agricultural activity.
There has been a structural transformation in the Indian economy during the past few decades. The composition of
Gross Domestic Product at 1993-94 constant prices reveals that the share of agriculture including forestry and
fishing has declined as growth in industrial and services sectors far outpaced agricultural sector (Figure 1). The

share of mining, manufacturing, electricity and construction sector has increased from 21.6 percent in 1970-71 to
27 percent in 2004-05 and services sector has increased significantly from 32 percent to 52.4 percent during the

agriculture is still an important sector


and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic development of the
country. Therefore, fostering rapid, sustained and broad-based growth in agriculture remains key priority for
same period. Despite a steady decline of its share in the GDP,

the government. Consistent with the trends of economic development at national level, role of agricultural sector in
the state economies is also changing rapidly. The share of agriculture in Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) has
declined significantly during the last two decades. In some States, such as Bihar, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana,
Rajasthan, and Orissa, the sector today contributes more than one-quarter of GSDP, while in some states, such as
Gujarat, Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra, the sector contributes less than 20 percent to GSDP
(Figure 2). However, contribution of agriculture to GSDP has declined in almost all States between 1993-94 and
2004-05. The decline was the highest in Karnataka (16%), followed by Haryana (14.2%), and Kerala (13.7%). In
Karnataka, decline was mainly due to significant increase in the share of service sector (from 37.9% in 1993-94 to
54.7% in 2004-05) mainly driven by informational technology (IT) industry. Similar is the case with Haryana the
decline is due to faster development of services sector in cities around the national capital, Delhi. Despite

majority of workforce continue to depend on


agricultural sector for employment and in rural areas dependence on agriculture is
more as nearly 75 percent of rural population is employed in agricultural sector.
declining share of agriculture in the economy,

However, there is disguised employment in the sector due to limited opportunities for rural non-farm employment.
This disguised employment leads to lower labor and resources productivity in the sector relative to other sectors of
the economy. The low labor productivity leads to higher rates of poverty in rural areas (Figure 3). Agriculture in
India is constitutionally the responsibility of the states rather than the central government. The central
government's role is in formulating policy and providing financial resources for agriculture to the states.

Indias economy is still weak despite recent growth


Zhong and Kala 14 (Raymond Zhong is a reporter in The Wall Street Journal's New Delhi bureau. He
previously wrote about European economics and politics from the Journal's London bureau. Anant Vijay Kala writes
about the Indian economy from the New Delhi bureau. His coverage areas include macro-economic indicators such
as India's GDP, industrial output and inflation, as well as major economic policy decisions of the government.
Previously, Mr. Kala was in Mumbai where he covered the Reserve Bank of India, tracking monetary policy decisions
and banking regulations. He also wrote about Indian fixed income and foreign exchange markets. Mr. Kala
graduated from the University of Delhi and has a master's in business administration from Management
Development Institute, Gurgaon.http://www.wsj.com/articles/indias-economic-growth-hits-four-year-high1432902911)

Indias output growth accelerated to 7.5% last quarter, putting it ahead of China as
the worlds fastest-growing large economy. According to government data released Friday, gross
domestic product in the South Asian nation grew by 7.3% for the full fiscal year ended in March. That trumps the
previous fiscal years 6.9% expansion and is the countrys fastest annual growth since 2011. Chinas growth last

Investment-friendly policies initiated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi kept


the Indian economy on a buoyant path of recovery last year, though not all sectors benefited equally.
quarter was 7%.

Manufacturing activity roared ahead at 7.1%. Services such as finance, insurance and real estate continued to
perform strongly, growing by 11.5%. But with below-average rain hurting crops last year, agricultural growth was

to Indias
official GDP-estimation method that boosted some recent growth readings by more
than two percentage points. The revised numbers have confounded analysts and policy makers since
they were announced in January. A raft of other data, including exports and corporate profits,
still points to weakness in Asias third-largest economy . Were all a little bit into the
barely positive, at 0.2%. The latest output figures were helped by a controversial recent update

unknown, said Faraz Syed, a Sydney-based economist atMoodys Analytics. The world needs a strengthening India

Indias $2 trillion
economy still contributes far less to world growth than its northern neighbor, whose
GDP is $10 trillion. But with middling growth prospects in Europe and the U.S., policy makers are hoping India
to help counterbalance weakness across both rich countries and emerging ones like China.

can help pick up some slack. In this cloudy global horizon, India is a bright spot, Christine Lagarde, the
International Monetary Funds managing director, told college students in New Delhi in March. Indias revised GDP
methodology incorporates updated data sources and new ways of capturing activity in the countrys vast and hardto-measure informal economy. How these and other changes added two percentage points to earlier estimates of

The wild swings in key parts of the new GDP


series have added to the skepticism. Fridays data release included a sharp
downward revision of growth in the October-to-December quarter, to 6.6%
from 7.5%. The earlier figure had only been in released in February. The revision raises questions on the
recent growth is still hard for many to fathom.

sanctity of these growth numbers, said Gautam Singh, an economist at Spark Capital Advisors. Nonetheless,
Prime Minister Modi has basked in the new GDP figures. He marked his governments first anniversary this month by
parading his moves to attract investment and remove hurdles to doing business. The Modi administration is
targeting economic growth of up to 8.5% for this fiscal year. Still, few say the early policy changes have brought
about a radical turnaround. The

Indian economy has shown signs of gradual recovery, but


over the last year this has not met market expectations , said Rajiv Biswas, Asia-Pacific chief
economist for the research firm IHS. Even if Mr. Modi makes it easier for firms to expand and invest, they wont

Bank credit
growth remains stagnant. There is significant slack in the system. Factories are
running at less than three-fourths capacity, and wholesale prices have fallen yearover-year in each of the last six months. Mr. Syed at Moodys says the new GDP numbers are
necessarily do so if consumer demand remains muted. Home sales in big cities are contracting.

changing the goal posts rather than the actual picture. If the economy is supposedly expanding at more than 7%,
then the potential growth rate is now more likely in the double-digits, he said. One possible sign of recovery is that
federal sales-tax revenue jumped 9.8% in April. This should help the Modi government meet its goal of spending an
additional $11 billion this year on roads, railways and other infrastructure to improve conditions for private
investment. But companies say they need more than a bit of deregulation and new infrastructure before theyll
open their wallets again. Many are struggling with debt and cant easily finance new projects. K. Shankaran, a
director at TTK Prestige Ltd., a kitchen-appliance maker in Bangalore, said his firm invested heavily in new
manufacturing equipment before 2013. But demand has sagged since then. Until that picks up, further investment
is on hold, Mr. Shankaran said. We are more interested in utilizing existing capacity. Indias central bank also isnt
ecstatic about the state of the economy. With inflation having cooled substantially over the last year, the Reserve
Bank of India is expected next week to announce an interest-rate cut to help spark more growth.

International students arent returning to India


Mishra 14 (Rayjia Mishra, Mishra graduated with a bachelor's degree in commerce from Allahabad
University before earning his Master of Arts degree in English literature at the Jawaharlal Nehru University in New
Delhi Indias Brain Drain Problem http://www.theage.com.au/comment/brain-drain-a-headache-for-india-and-china20131023-2w1kg.html)

Many young men and women educated at highly subsidised public institutions
started leaving the country in the 1960s to deepen or monetise their skills in First World countries. Unlike
short-term contract workers servicing the construction boom in the Persian Gulf and south-east Asia, these
expensively educated seekers of greener grass, many of whom ended up as
prominent bankers, entrepreneurs, innovators and scholars abroad, seemed unlikely
to return to a slow-growth economy. The loss of the best and brightest may have
diminished the growth prospects of what was then a very poor post-colonial country. But in the 1990s,
as news spread of an economic bonanza in India, some of these long-departed brothers, sisters, cousins, nephews
and nieces began to return. In many ways, the achievements as well as the illusions of ''rising'' India in the past two
decades are largely due to this repatriating Indian diaspora, which brought fresh energy, capital, information,
networks and ideas to the motherland. Disillusionment with India's political dysfunction and seemingly ineradicable
corruption and inefficiency has made many of them want to go back to relatively low-growth but less challenging
and more secure economic environments. This is part of a broader flight. India's biggest corporate beneficiaries of
economic liberalisation - names such as Tata, Mahindra, Birla - are putting the bulk of their investments abroad.

Escaping rapidly declining educational institutes at home , more Indian students than
ever before - the number has risen 256 per cent in the past decade to almost
200,000 - have gone abroad, to Spain and China as well as the US, Britain and Australia. Young
technology professionals and bright undergraduates are moving to Singapore, Australia and Silicon Valley. An influx
of wealthy businessmen and financiers has made Indians the highest-income ethnic group in Singapore. A similar
quest for more congenial climes is apparent among China's privileged classes. The country's rapid economic growth
was actually triggered in the late 1970s and 1980s by its far-flung and patriotic diaspora. But the new China they
enabled is now a place - environmentally challenged, and politically and economically unstable - that many of its
wealthy inhabitants hope to leave. A recent report by Bain & Co revealed that an astonishing 60 per cent of Chinese
it surveyed with a net worth of $1.5 million or more wanted to emigrate, and a third of them already have
investments abroad. Chinese seeking second and third homes, and foreign residency and passports, have been
pushing up real-estate prices from Hong Kong to London. Hong Kong, outshone by Shanghai in recent years, has
become a fresh magnet for mainland Chinese .

The Associated Chambers of Commerce and


Industry of India estimates that Indian students studying abroad cost India as much
as $17 billion a year in lost revenue. Only 37 per cent of Chinese educated overseas have returned to
China in the past 30 years. The Economic Times, India's biggest business daily, reported this July that
fewer Indian students at Wharton and other prestigious business schools in the US are planning to

come home this year; the recent depreciation of the rupee and signs of revival in
the US economy are making them keener to stay on.

No Indo-Pakistan Warnuclear deterrence checks


Ullah 12, Ikram Ullah is an analyst for the South Asian Strategic Stability Institute, Nuclear Pakistan:
Defence Vs Energy Development, 7/26/12, http://www.eurasiareview.com/26072012-nuclear-pakistan-defence-vsenergy-development-oped/

nuclear weapons are here to maintain peace and stability between


Pakistan and India. Pakistan was forced to run its nuclear weapon program due to Indias nuclear weapon
We must be clear that

program and its hegemonic ambition. Pakistan has long said that its nuclear weapon program is security driven.
While on other hand Indian nuclear weapon program is not security driven, rather it is based on its regional and
global aspirations. The

security threats still exist for Pakistan, but due to its credible nuclear

deterrence Pakistan is capable of crushing such threats or plans. In the recent past, the tragedy, which many

historians remember as the Fall of Dhaka, carries some lessons for us to be learnt. If India could intervene at that

the nuclear capability of Pakistan


deters India from perusing any kind of intervention because of the fear of perceived
consequences. It is Pakistans credible nuclear deterrence capability that effectively neutralizes any ill intent of
its opponent against its integrity and sovereignty. It is evident that after the December 13, 2001
terrorists attack on Indian Parliament, India mobilized its armed forces to attack on
Pakistan, but refrained from doing so as it realized that any such irrational action
would lead to a nuclear war. The same was the case after Mumbai attacks on
November 26, 2008 the nuclear deterrence prevailed and it prevented the
likelihood of an all out nuclear war in South Asia. It is our national responsibility that we should
time, then it is quite possible it could intervene in Baloachistan. Now

strengthen our strategic institutions with our moral support, rather unnecessarily criticizing the sincere efforts of
our strategic community. Learn by heart: the stronger is our the national defense, the stronger would be the
national development and, vise versa, the stronger is our national development, the stronger will be that of the

Nuclear weapons prohibit the leaders to take any irrational steps, even
a minor one, which can lead towards nuclear war. The Cuban Missile crisis 1962 was the occasion
national defense.

when a war was imminent between USSR and the USA. It was only the credible threat of nuclear use that directed
the political leadership of both superpowers to defuse the crisis with political means. This is the reason why
Pakistan cannot remain oblivious to any nuclear development inside India. It is India that is heavily investing in its
nuclear weapon program and Pakistan is only responding to it, to keep the nuclear deterrence stable at all levels.
Pakistan, if in any case, remains unable to establish the credibility of its nuclear deterrence with continuous
progress in Research & Development of its nuclear weapon program then its mainland will no longer be safe for its
inhabitants. The doctrine of minimum credible deterrence has been designed in accordance with the economic

The nukes are peace-keepers,


which
certainly impose an environment of peace, stability and development without the
threat of war.
conditions of Pakistan and to maintain the strategic stability in South Asia.

not evil and their role is only to keep humans the on right path. These are the weapons of restraint,

Brain Circulation
Brain Drainers return with new ideas to develop their home
countries
Easterly and Nyarko 08 William Easterly is a Visiting Fellow at Brookings Global Economy and
Development. He is also a Professor of Economics at New York University, joint with Africa House. Yaw Nyarko is a
Professor of Economics at New York University, joint with Africa House.Is the Brain Drain Good for Africa?,
Brookings Global Economy and Development Review, March 2008, <
http://dri.as.nyu.edu/docs/IO/12607/DRIWP31.pdf>>//ak

aspects of the early brain drain and how they assisted in the
development of writing in the local languages, the establishment of formal
educational institutions and the production of the Independence leaders. Given the
history of many African countries, slavery then colonialism and poverty, perhaps the optimal strategy
for the national planners was to send as many of its people abroad to have a
percentage come back with newly acquired skills, human capital, and simply
knowledge about how things are done overseas . We believe that was indeed a desire of many of
Above we mentioned

the post independence leaders, who encouraged students and educated people to travel abroad to learn the way

Brain Circulation: When travelling go to many West African cities it is obvious to


that a lot of new economic activity is being generated by people who
have lived abroad for a long time and then returned to their home countries . Even
foreign economies are run. 2.
many observers

more interesting are those who maintain residences both in their home country and in the country they drained to.

those whose primary residence is abroad but who return to their home
countries every year to assist in some way or the other with economic development .
Finally there are

Many have used the terminology of brain circulation rather than brain drain to describe the current day movement
of educated Africans between their homes and the west. One other argument that is often made about the brain
drain is that it causes the loss of leadership of a vibrant middle class. The argument is that many of those who are
drained away are the most vibrant and entrepreneurial members of their respective societies. If only they would
stay in their home countries, they would be the engine of growth. Their mere presence would lead to the

the
exposure to outside ideas is itself an engine of growth . Having a significant portion of the
population abroad means that those resident in the home countries are able to benefit via
information flowseither through visits, discussions, etc with those who have drained. Many
of those who do initially drain, often come back with new ideas to help
develop their respective socities. It was mentioned in the introduction the infl uence of the
independence leaders of Africa, many of them who were initially drained but who returned to
their societies later on in life. As has been stressed by the recent growth literature, it is
ideas and knowledge which form a big part of the engine of growth of nations. Our
independence leaders, who were initially brain drained , realized this. Ghana had a scheme,
development of a vibrant middle class, who would insist on western values, transparent government, etc. First,

started by Kwame Nkrumah, of what was called chartered flights. These were government subsidies to encourage
Ghanaian youth in secondary schools or universities to visit the UK. Kwame Nkrumah said bluntly that he wanted

This
circulation of brains helps in the diffusion of knowledge which is precisely what is
needed in our developing economies. Those who are part of the brain drain may be
those who are the most adept at change they after all are the ones who successfully migrated,
his people to see how things were abroad to get an idea of where he wanted to take his country.

perhaps they are better at implementing the change in their home country. Some of the more exciting things going

A returning Ghanaian expatriate, who


had been educated at Swarthmore and then been in upper management at
Microsoft, started a new private high-quality university, Ashesi University . NYU has
on in Ghana involve many of the drained/circulating brains.

opened a studyabroad center in Ghana partially based at Ashesi. Another Ghanaian returnee from the brain drain,

These examples are only anecdotal,


but they point to the need for more research on some of the intangible
benefi ts of returning and circulating brain drainers.

started DataBank, one of Ghanas first investment banks.

International students are key to US diplomatic powerthe US


can influence foreign leaders who were educated in the US, but
in the squo, relations are strained as world leaders question
US restrictions on visas
Flavia R. da Silva-Benson, 2004, an attorney in Medfield, MA, 38 New Eng. L.
Rev. 807 LENGTH: 20465 words NOTE: NEW UNITED STATES IMMIGRATION POLICIES
AND HOW THE CURTAILMENT OF STUDENT VISAS WILL AFFECT THE INTERESTS OF
DIVERSITY IN AMERICAN SOCIETY
One of America's strongest diplomatic assets is the ability to educate future leaders
of countries. n276 Former (and some current) presidents of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil , Costa
Rica, Ecuador, France, Ghana, Peru, Philippines, Taiwan, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe, just
to name a few, have been educated in American universities and colleges. n277 In
addition, many influential Middle Eastern leaders have been [*834] educated in this
country, such as: Atef Muhammad Muhammad Ebid, Prime Minister of Egypt;
Benjamin Netanyahu and Shimon Peres, former Prime Ministers of Israel; Abdullah
Bin Al-Hussein, King of Jordan; Benazir Bhutto, former President of Pakistan; and
Abdul-Aziz Abdul-Ghani, former Prime Minister of the Yemen Arab Republic. n278
When foreign students come to study in the U nited States, they get to experience the
freedom and opportunity that is the motto of the American way of life. They form
special bonds with American students and , in this way, become allies. n279 According
to Shalini Bhutani, Director of International Student and Scholar Services at
Pennsylvania State University, "they form bonds here and when they go back to
their countries, they are people who actually carry the message of American Life.
They know what America has to offer and they can help dispel those stereotypes
about life in America." n280 Mark D. Rentz, Associate Director of the American
Language and Culture Program at Arizona State University , has spent years researching
American-educated world leaders. n281 He wrote letters to American universities and foreign
embassies in order to obtain the names of their most "illustrious alumni." n282 After
obtaining three thousand names, Rentz wrote letters to those world leaders. n283 Since then,
many leaders have answered Rentz's request to recount their stories about studying
in the United States. n284 According to Rentz, "All acknowledged how useful their American
education has been to them. But what really stands out, what they remember most
fondly, are all the relationships and experiences they had with people. These
friendships left the greatest impression." n285 [*835] Aside from losing the opportunity
to educate future world leaders, the new immigration policies are putting a
strain on diplomatic relationships. In late December 2002, Deputy Prime Minister
Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi of Malaysia questioned the visa issuance
problems in a meeting with top United States officials in Washington D.C. n286 His
concern was about the many Malaysian students who had been accepted to
American universities but had not received visas. n287 The Patriot Act's impact will be more

noticeable in years to come when future leaders of the world will fail to comprehend the American way of life simply

When cultures are not


understood and friendships are not cultivated, the bonds that tie humanity together
may forever be severed. As United Nations Secretary-General, Kofi Annan, stated
while accepting the 2001 Fulbright Prize: Today, perhaps more than ever,
international understanding is essential to world peace ?understanding between
faiths, between nations, between cultures. Today, we know that just as no nation is
immune to conflict or suffering, no nation can defend itself alone. We need each
because an invitation to learn about its people and culture was not forthcoming.

other . . . in our struggle to uphold common values, and to fulfill common needs.
n288

Politics
The plan is popularjob creation means republicans and
democrats back it
Wallace and Walsh 12, Gregory Wallace is a News and Production Assistant at CNN, specializing
in political topics, Deirdre Walsh is a Senior Congressional Producer for CNN. Over the last 14 years at CNN, Walsh
has covered major news stories including: four presidential campaigns, several midterm elections, and the Sept 11,
2001 attacks. House passes immigration bill to keep science and technology students in U.S.
11/30/12,<http://politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com/2012/11/30/house-passes-immigration-bill-to-keep-science-andtechnology-students-in-u-s/>ak
Washington (CNN) - The U.S. House approved Republican-backed immigration legislation on
Friday that had previously fallen short in September, though Democrats described it as a piecemeal political move

House Democrats predicted it


would fail in the Democratic-controlled Senate , partly due to White House opposition. The "STEM
by Republicans after their poor election showing among non-white voters.

Jobs Act" would grant as many as 55,000 visas to non-citizens who complete some advanced degrees at U.S.

The measure succeeded 245 to 139,


with support from a majority of Republicans as well as 27 Democrats . When advanced in
universities in science, technology, engineering, and math.

September, the measure was fast-tracked and so required a two-thirds "super majority" for passage and fell short,
257 to 158. Republicans hailed it as a plus for employers and the economy . "The bill that we
passed will allow these individuals to have a green card if they get a diploma and, therefore, enabling them to stay
in this country to begin their careers to create jobs rather than being forced to leave to go back to their home
countries and actually compete with us," House Majority Leader Eric Cantor said at a news conference. Sponsor
Rep. Lamar Smith, a Texas Republican who chairs the Judiciary Committee, said in a statement, " Many

of the
world's top students come to the U.S. to obtain advanced degrees in science,
technology, engineering, and math subjects. We could boost economic growth and
spur job creation by allowing American employers to more easily hire some of the
most qualified foreign graduates of U.S. universities. These students have the ability
to start a company that creates jobs or come up with an invention that could jumpstart a whole new industry." The Obama administration said Wednesday it is opposed to the measure but
did not threaten a veto. "The administration does not support narrowly tailored proposals that do not meet
[President Barack Obama's] long-term objectives with respect to comprehensive immigration reform," a policy

is seen by
some Democrats as a Republican attempt to appeal to non-white voters , who largely
statement from the White House said. The bill does not address broader immigration issues and

sided with Obama over GOP presidential nominee Mitt Romney on Election Day. Rep. Jaime Herrera Beutler, RWashington, pointedly criticized her "colleagues from the other side of the aisle" on the House floor Friday for not
passing an immigration measure when they controlled the House, Senate, and White House earlier in Obama's
term. She described the STEM measure as "a piece of the puzzle" and said "we need to take this a piece at a time."

Expanding visas for STEM students is populartech lobbies


Scola 14, Nancy Scola is a reporter for the Washington Post who covers the intersections of technology and
public policy, politics, and governance. 11/21/14 Obama likely to expand a foreign-student pipeline the high-tech
industry loves, < https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-switch/wp/2014/11/20/obama-likely-to-expand-aforeign-student-pipeline-the-high-tech-industry-loves/>//ak
In his speech Thursday night announcing executive action on immigration, President Obama is likely to say
he will expand a program that acts as a pipeline for foreign students studying in the
United States to join the high-tech workforce, say those closely involved in the immigration
debate. The potential expansion of the little known program, known as Optional Practical Training, would
likely be a small part of Obama's announcement. But it would help address the tech industry's
complaints about the lack of available high-skilled workers even as would likely
spark concerns among both liberals and conservatives who have said the program is mismanaged. Under the OPT
program, international students can work while enrolled in a U.S. university or for a limited period after they
graduate. As of last year, about 100,000 of the 1 million foreign students in the United States were allowed to work
under the program. Under pressure from the tech industry, in 2008,

the Bush administration expanded

the program so that students in the so-called STEM fields -- science, technology, engineering,
and mathematics -- could stay in the United States and work for up to 29 months. There is currently no limit on the
number of students who can qualify to work in the United States under OPT. But Obama could expand the types of
students who qualify to stay for a longer period or further increase the time-limit on STEM authorizations, perhaps

The tech industry has been


begging for an expansion of the well-known H1-B visa program, which
currently only allows a limited number of high-skilled foreign workers into
the country. OPT has been a lower priority, but could act as a bridge for tech companies that want to keep

to 48 months, according to several people involved in the debate.

recent foreign graduates on their payroll until they can secure an H1-B visa.

Bipartisan support for high-skilled students


Hatch 15, Orrin Hatch is the most senior Republican in the Senate and is in his seventh term. Senator Hatch
is the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Finance. He is also a member (and former Chairman) of the Judiciary
Committee; a member (and former Chairman) of the Senate Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee;
and a member of the Joint Committee on Taxation. HATCH, KLOBUCHAR, RUBIO, COONS, FLAKE, BLUMENTHAL
INTRODUCE HIGH-SKILLED IMMIGRATION BILL, 1/13/15,<
http://www.hatch.senate.gov/public/index.cfm/2015/1/hatch-klobuchar-rubio-coons-flake-blumenthal-introducehigh-skilled-immigration-bill>//ak

bipartisan legislation is the result of constant outreach with leaders in the


business and high-tech industries. This is a commonsense, bipartisan proposal to help ensure the next
The

generation of innovators and entrepreneurs get their start in America, no matter where they are born, Klobuchar
said.We need to move forward on immigration reform for the good of our economy and the good of our country,
and I will continue to push for action. America

deserves an immigration system that works


for our economy, drives innovation, and creates good paying jobs for our people,
said Rubio. An immigration system for the 21st century will be judged by whether it
provides the conditions for both security and economic growth. The reforms in this
legislation lead the way to such a system, which I believe we can ultimately achieve after meeting the immediate
challenges of securing our borders and improving internal enforcement. The

creativity, ingenuity, and


determination that immigrants have brought to this county have been a large part of our
economic success, Coons said. Our immigration system is broken, though, and while I still believe the
Senate should come together again on comprehensive immigration reform, its important that we make
progress in the areas that Democrats and Republicans do agree on, like steps to
ensure that the worlds best and brightest do their work here in the United States.
Inspiration is a precious resource, and if we want those ideas to be turned into job-creating innovations here in the
U.S., we need to ensure those individuals can earn status here." I am pleased to have the opportunity to

continue to push for critical reforms to benefit high-skilled legal immigration and
ensure that the U.S. economy has the talent it needs to be competitive in the global
marketplace, said Flake.

Rand Paul
Paul confirmed his vetono amount of political capital can
sway him
Strauss 7/14, Daniel Strauss is a political writer for Politico. Rand Paul comes out against Iran deal,
7/14/15,< http://www.politico.com/story/2015/07/rand-paul-against-iran-deal-120111.html> //ak
The most dovish member of the 2016 Republican presidential field Sen.

Rand Paul says hes

against President Obamas nuclear deal with Iran . Paul, who said in April that he would keep an
open mind about the nuclear talks, registered three objections to the agreement unveiled on
Tuesday. In a Facebook post, the Kentucky senator said his three concerns were: 1) sanctions relief
precedes evidence of compliance, 2) Iran is left with significant nuclear capacity, 3)
it lifts the ban on selling advanced weapons to Iran. I will, therefore, vote
against the agreement, he said. While I continue to believe that negotiations are preferable to war,
I would prefer to keep the interim agreement in place instead of accepting a bad deal, Paul added.

Terror DA

No Link
SEVIS isnt efective at fighting terrorlitany of problems with
this program
David Treystser, Copyright (c) 2003, Treyster is an Attorney in Fort Lee, NJ, New York Law School New York
Law School Journal of International & Comparative Law 2003 22 N.Y.L. Sch. J. Int'l & Comp. L. 497 LENGTH: 15448
words NOTES & COMMENTS: FOREIGN STUDENTS V. NATIONAL SECURITY: WILL DENYING EDUCATION PREVENT
TERRORISM?

SEVIS Is Not an Effective Tool for Fighting Terrorism

By allowing the implementation of SEVIS, Congress is "overreaching," by expanding the

power of the INS. n107 SEVIS will also monitor the students' activity on campus, from criminal activity to major fields of study. n108 Furthermore, the system will also monitor any changes in majors and "red flag" certain courses of
study, such as nuclear physics. n109 If a foreign student enrolls to pursue a literature degree and [*513] then switches their major to nuclear physics, the move will be monitored by the school as well as immigration officials. n110
SEVIS should be limited to that information which is relevant to the INS; it should be used only to confirm that the student is still attending school. n111 The SEVIS program is excessively intrusive and the INS is not using the program
to provide a service to the schools, as mandated by section 641(c) of IIRIRA, but to track terrorists. n112 INS is not an agency that tracks terrorists and this power should not be delegated to them. n113 Currently, schools are
required to provide INS with the "current academic status" of a student, a definition that hinges on whether the student is attending school full time. n114 The INS will redefine that term to include which major field of study the student is enrolled in. n115 None of the acts mandate that institutions provide INS with the major of the students or provide the INS with the new major that the student changes to. n116 The system that was introduced to automate the
reporting process is being used as a tool to invade the privacy of foreign students, by accessing their information without consent and labeling them as potential terrorists. n117 The government needs to stop placing additional

The government needs to address the problems of


ineffi-cient administration instead of implementing solutions that will not combat
terrorism. There is a need for better administrative procedures and monitoring of
international students studying in the United States, and implementing SEVIS would do
little to reduce terrorism and ensure national security. n119 It would be like
looking for a "needle in a haystack." n120 To [*514] focus so much attention on
such a small minority of nonimmi-grants in the country will do little to improve
national security. n121 There is no reason to single out foreign students, who are
already closely monitored by the universities, when millions of people illegally enter
the United States each year. n122 Monitoring the students will not help national security, as
the SEVIS system requires documenting a foreign student as long as he/she is
enrolled, and not after he/she graduates or drops out. n123 To monitor students outside the
burdens on foreign stu-dents, as they try to improve their lives through education. n118

institutional boundaries will require a tremendous task force and the INS lacks the personnel to accomplish this.
n124 INS currently has fewer than 5,000 inspectors to evaluate people at ports of entry and only about 2,000

It will
be very hard to monitor foreign students because the agents are "focused in a lot of
different directions." n126 Even in big cities, the immigration service typically assigns only one person to work on visas with colleges and
intelligence officers to find people who overstay their visas or break the law while in the United States. n125

myriad other schools offering subjects like com-puter, language, and flight training. n127 Catching immigrants who overstay their visas has been a "very
very low priority and it should be a low priority." n128 In March of 2002, a bureaucratic blunder made the INS a laughingstock, showcasing the agency's

The INS approved student


visas for the September 11th terrorists to study at Huffman Aviation, before their
terrorist associations came to light. n130 On March 11, 2002, exactly six months after the
terrorist attacks in New York and Washington, Huffman received the paperwork
informing the men that their visas had been approved. n131 The mistake [*515] was another
weakness at a time when it already was under severe criticism after the September 11th attacks. n129

embarrass-ing gaffe for an agency that has long been criticized in Congress for sloppy management and inept
record keeping and for being unable to control the borders or keep track of foreigners in the U.S. legally or illegally.

"This shows the complete incompetence of the INS to enforce our laws and
protect our borders." n133 "This kind of thing happens all the time to people who
aren't terrorists, but then it's not news . The very fact that this falls through the
cracks tells you that they do not really own their own data, or have much control
over what happens to it." n134 INS officials have little grasp of the foreign student population, including how many are taking classes
n132

illegally or out of status. n135 Embarrassed by issuing visas to dead hijackers, the agency is struggling to prove it can reliably track anyone. n136
However, the INS has also failed to keep track of schools authorized to accept foreign students. n137 Alt-hough INS is supposed to review the schools
every two years, the authorized list contains institutions that dissolved years ago, in one case, more than a decade ago. n138 As a result of these
"blunders," President Bush will likely accept a proposal from his domestic defense advisers to merge parts of the embattled INS and the Customs Service
into a new agency that would exert firmer control over who and what enters the country. n139

Doesnt link to terrormost foreign students arent malicious


and even if they are monitoring systems dont reveal
intentions
Johnson 01 Marlene M. Johnson, Executive Director and CEO of NAFSA:

Association of International Educators, Thinking Clearly about Foreign Students and


Terrorism, 9/20/01,
<http://lobby.la.psu.edu/_107th/119_Student_Visas_Security/Organizational_Statem
ents/NAFSA/NAFSA_Thinking_about_ForeignStudents_Terrorism.htm> //ak
Obviously, much changed on September 11. But not everything changed. The United States still needs friends
in the world - now more than ever . One of the most important but least appreciated
successes of American foreign policy has been the reservoir of goodwill toward our
country that we have created by educating successive generations of world leaders.
As the debate on foreign students proceeds, we must recognize that our country gains much from being their
destination of choice. It also remains true that 99.99 percent of the foreign students
enrolled in our institutions wish us no ill, cause us no problems, and seek nothing more than the best
education in the world. As the administration seeks to define an effective anti-terrorism strategy, we cannot afford to punish the
many for the acts of the few. September 11 did not change the fact that U.S. pre-eminence in science is not an accident; it is due
fundamentally to our openness to scientific exchange, which has enabled us over the generations to benefit from the best scientific

It is very much worth preserving the freedom of foreign scholars to


participate in scientific exchanges at U.S. universities and research institutes.
America's world leadership is being tested as rarely before . But how will we continue to renew our
expertise in the world.

ability to lead? Another thing September 11 did not change is that we cannot effectively lead a world we do not understand.

Foreign scholars who help us understand the world from whence they
come do not threaten our national security; they enhance it . If cracking down on
foreign students and scholars could really protect us against terrorism, i t might be necessary to forego
the benefits that they bring. But that's not the case. Foreign students and
scholars constitute a tiny proportion of the 30 million foreign visitors who enter the
United States annually with visas, and a minuscule proportion of the hundreds of
millions who cross our borders legally each year . Whatever degree of monitoring of foreign visitors may
be necessary, we cannot pretend that we protect ourselves by applying it only to this small group. Monitoring
systems will never reveal people's intentions . There is no substitute for the
intelligence community being able to identify dangerous people before they get
here. Absent that, we will always be blind. The threat we face is very serious. Our nation's response must be equally so. Daunting
foreign policy, military, intelligence, and security challenges confront us. The job now is to focus the nation's attention and resources

Given that foreign students are already among the most


closely monitored of all nonimmigrant visitors, it is difficult not to see
increased monitoring as a diversion from the task at hand.

on these urgent challenges.

Link Turn
Foreign students key to build up the goodwill necessary to
deter terrorism
NAFSA 03, NAFSA: Association of International Educators, In Americas Interest:
Welcoming International Students January 2001,
<http://www.nafsa.org/uploadedFiles/NAFSA_Home/
Resource_Library_Assets/Public_Policy/in_america_s_interest.pdf>

Secretary Powell has spoken eloquently of the foreign policy benefits that accrue to the United States from being
the destination of choice for the worlds internationally mobile students and, especially, from educating successive

By hosting international students, we generate an


appreciation of American political values and institutions, and we lay the foundation
for constructive relations based on mutual understanding and goodwill . The ties formed
at school between future American and future foreign leaders have facilitated innumerable foreign
policy relationships. The millions of people who have studied in the United States
over the years constitute a remarkable reservoir of goodwill for our country,
perhaps our most undervalued foreign policy asset . Is there a danger that terrorists will
generations of world leaders.

gain access to the United States by posing as students? Of course there is; that danger exists with respect to all
nonimmigrant visitors, of which students constitute only a minuscule two percent. All countries must confront a
central question of our age, which is how to reconcile global mobility with global terrorism .
Openness to mobility carries dangers; higher education wants to be a part of the greater attention to these dangers
that is now necessary, and of the more robust enforcement measures that are now required. In this context, the
task force fully supports appropriate screening and monitoring measures. Schools are collectively spending millions
of dollars and countless hours to implement the international student tracking system that became a federal
priority on September 11. They are working with the Department of State to protect the integrity of student visas
and to prevent their fraudulent use by those who seek access to the United States for illegitimate reasons. Research
institutions are wrestling with questions of access to sensitive scientific information and are doing their best to
strike the appropriate balance. In these and other ways, higher education is doing its part to help protect our

But to unduly restrict the access of future leadersand, indeed, the youth of
the worldto this country is to court a greater danger , which is to nurture the
isolationism, fundamentalism, and bigoted caricatures that drive antiWestern terrorism. After September 11, it seems clear that the more people who can
experience this country first-hand, breaking down the stereotypes they grow up with
and opening their minds to a world beyond their borders, the better it is for U.S.
security
country.

STEM research key to combat terrorism


Tilghman 03 Shirley M. Tilghman is the 19th President of Princeton University,

Dealing with Foreign Students and Scholars in the Age of Terrorism: Visa Backlogs
and Tracking Systems, 3/26/03,
<http://www.princeton.edu/president/tilghman/speeches/20030326/>
As was so clearly articulated in the Hart-Rudman report, Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change , a
robust system of research and education is our greatest defense against
terrorism . The report calls the current investment in research and development a consumption of the capital
of the past three generations, pointing out that the U.S. need for the highest quality human
capital in science, mathematics, and engineering is not being met. It goes on to explain
that: American students know that professional careers in basic science and mathematics require considerable

NonU.S. nationals, however, do find these professions attractive and, thanks to science,
math, and technical preparation superior to that of many Americans, they
increasingly fill American university graduate studies seats and job slots in these
preparation and effort, while salaries are often more lucrative in areas requiring less demanding training.

areas.

So, while we make national and institutional efforts to attract American students to careers in science
and work to improve K-12 education to produce more Americans who have the capabilities necessary to excel in

we turn to international students and scholars to fill the


widening gap between supply and demand for U.S. scientists and engineers. These
foreign scientists and scholars make many critical contributions to the American scientific
and education enterprise. They bring a wealth of knowledge and experience to our colleges and
science and mathematics,

universities, and they enrich the cultural diversity of our campuses. Given the global nature of business, the
economy, education, and the scientific enterprise, cultural diversity on our campuses pays important dividends to
our entire society; it is imperative to the future success of our graduates and the international leadership and
stability of our nation. Foreign-born scientists have, for more than 50 years, helped the U.S. achieve the preeminence in science and technology that has led to our strong economic growth and long-term national security.

Almost 20 percent of the distinguished scientists and engineers who are members
of the National Academy of Sciences, and more than a third of U.S. Nobel Laureates,
are foreign born. I, too, am a foreign-born scientist, having been raised and educated in Canada prior to my
graduate studies at Temple University. According to the 2002 Science and Engineering Indicators, nearly a third of
the doctoral degrees in science and engineering awarded in the U.S. each year go to foreign nationals, with well
over 40 percent of the doctoral degrees in engineering and computer science earned by foreign students. Twothirds of foreign students who receive a Ph.D. in science or engineering stay in the U.S., taking positions in
academia and industry, and nearly 40 percent of the current U.S. engineering faculty is foreign-born. Despite the
important contributions that foreign students and scholars have made and continue to make to U.S. advances in
science and technology, we are all painfully aware that at least three of the 19 September 11th hijackers were
attending U.S. flight schools on student visas when they committed their heinous acts. And we know from the 1993
bombing of the World Trade Center that others exploited weaknesses in the student non-immigrant visa program

the wake of the


September 11th attacks, there has been increased oversight of the student and
scholar visa program resulting in new legislation and regulations in this area.
and were in this country on expired student visas when they committed their crime. In