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# ECE 438 Spring 2004

## Assignment #5 Combinational Logic Gates in CMOS

Chapter 6, Digital Integrated Circuits 2nd

1)

## Implement the equation X = ((A + B) (C + D + E) + F) G using complementary CMOS.

Size the devices so that the output resistance is the same as that of an inverter with an NMOS
W/L = 2 and PMOS W/L = 6. Assuming L = 1 unit. Which input pattern(s) would give the
worst and best equivalent pull-up or pull-down resistance?

2)

Either NAND gates or NOR gates can be used for implementing Boolean functions. Discuss
which one of the two is more appropriate to be implemented in (i) complementary static
CMOS logic, (ii) pseudo-NMOS logic. Explain in a few sentences.

3)

Consider the circuit in Figure P3. Assuming short channel transistors in 0.25 m CMOS
technology.

Figure P3
a) What is the output voltage if only one input is high? If all four inputs are high?
b) What is the average static power consumption if, at any time, each input turns on with an
(independent) probability of 0.5? 0.1?

4)

Consider a conventional 4-stage Domino logic circuit as shown in Figure P4 in which all
precharge and evaluate devices are clocked using a common clock . For this entire problem,
assume that the pulldown network is simply a single NMOS device, so that each Domino stage

consists of a dynamic inverter followed by a static inverter. Assume that the precharge time,
evaluate time, and propagation delay of the static inverter are all T/2. Assume that the
transitions are ideal (zero rise/fall times).

Figure P4
a) Complete the timing diagram for signals Out1, Out2, Out3 and Out4, when the IN signal
goes high before the rising edge of the clock as given below. Assume that the clock
period is 10 T time units.
b) Suppose that there are no evaluate switches at the 3 latter stages. Assume that the clock
is initially in the precharge state (=0 with all nodes settled to the correct precharge
states), and the block enters the evaluate period (=1). Is there a problem during the
evaluate period, or is there a benefit to the overall performance? Explain.
c) Assume that the clock is initially in the evaluate state (=1), and the block enters the
precharge state ( = 0). Is there a problem, or is there any benefit, if the last three evaluate
switches are removed? Explain.

5)

Consider the circuit of Figure P5 fabricated in 0.25m CMOS. Let Cx = 50 fF, Mr has W/L =
0.375/0.375, Mn has W/Leff = 0.375/0.25. Assume the output inverter doesnt switch until its
input equals VDD/2. Use the 0.25m CMOS model in textbook for calculations.

Figure P5

a) How long will it take Mn to pull down node x from 2.5 V to 1.25 V if In is at 0 V and B is
at 2.5V?
b) How long will it take Mn to pull up node x from 0V to 1.25V if VIn is 2.5V and VB is
2.5V?
c) What is the minimum value of VB necessary to pull down Vx to 1.25V when VIn = 0V?

6)

Figure P6 shows a two-input multiplexer. For this problem, assume independent, identicallydistributed uniform white noise inputs at A, S, and B.

Figure P6
a) Find the exact signal (P1) and transition (P0 1) formulas for nodes X, Y, and Z for: (1) a
static, fully complementary CMOS implementation, and (2) a dynamic np-CMOS
implementation.
b) Compute the switching power consumed by the multiplexer in Figure P6. Assuming that
all significant capacitances have been lumped into the three capacitors shown in the figure,
where C = 0.3 pF. Assume that VDD = 2.5 V and independent, identically-distributed
uniform white noise inputs, with events occuring at a frequency of 100 MHz. Perform this
calculation on (1) a static, fully complementary CMOS implementation, and (2) a dynamic
np-CMOS implementation.
c) Is the switching power PSW of the dynamic implementation in part (b) reflecting the total
power consumed? Explain, in a few sentences.