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Krase, V. et al. (2011). Geotechnique 61, No. 8, 665675 [doi: 10.1680/geot.8.P.

140]

Modelling the stressdeformation behaviour of municipal solid waste


V. K R A S E  , S . B E N T E  , U. KOWA L S K Y  a n d D. D I N K L E R 
La modelisation conceptuelle des decharges de dechets
solides municipaux est indispensable pour une etablir une
prognose du developpement a` long terme et levaluation
du potentiel de risques. Les decharges sont considerees
comme des structures poreuses heteroge`nes dans lesquelles des procedes decoulement et de transport de gaz
et liquides sont alliees a` la degradation materielle et a` la
deformation mecaniques locales du squelette solide. La
presente communication se penche sur un mode`le constitutif qui se concentre sur le comportement de la deformation mecanique des dechets elimines, en divisant les
matie`res solides en deux fractions distinctes. La premie`re
fraction comprend des particules plus graineuses, dont
les proprietes sont similaires a` celles des matie`res granulaires. La deuxie`me fraction se compose de constituants
plus fibreux, qui influent de facon importante sur la
solidite du materiau composite. Le comportement tension
deformation des deux fractions est modelise selon la
theorie de lelastoplasticite finie. En outre, ce mode`le
tient compte egalement des tassements produits par fluage mecanique. Le mode`le constitutif ainsi cree est valide
et calibre dapre`s des resultats decoulant dexperiences
en laboratoire, et en appliquant des algorithmes genetiques. Enfin, des analyses numeriques effectuees avec la
methode aux elements finis illustrent la capacite de la
methode presentee.

Conceptual modelling of municipal solid waste landfills is


vital for prognosis of the long-term development and the
assessment of risk potential. Landfills are considered as
heterogeneous porous structures, in which flow and transport processes of gases and liquids are combined with
local material degradation and mechanical deformation
of the solid skeleton. This contribution deals with a
constitutive model focusing on the mechanical deformation behaviour of the disposed waste dividing the solid
material into two different fractions. The first fraction
includes more grainy particles and has properties comparable with granular materials. The second fraction
consists of more fibrous constituents having an important
influence on the strength of the composite material.
Stressstrain behaviour of the two fractions is modelled
according to the theory of finite elasto-plasticity. Settlements generated by mechanical creep are also included
in the model. The developed constitutive model is validated and calibrated on results from laboratory experiments applying genetic algorithms. Numerical analyses
using the finite-element method show the capability of
the presented approach.

KEYWORDS: constitutive relations; creep; deformation; landfills; numerical modelling

INTRODUCTION
Municipal solid waste landfills are constructed to separate
the waste safely from the surrounding environment. During
operation and aftercare, the landfilled waste is exposed to
various physical effects, such as environmental influences,
flow processes of leachate and landfill gas, transport of
hazardous substances and heat, or mechanical deformations.
In particular, if a lot of degradable organic matter exists, the
resulting biochemical reaction processes determine the longterm landfill behaviour. Degradation processes and settlements affect the mechanical and hydraulic parameters. Thus,
physical and biochemical processes keep the waste and the
entire landfill in a state of ongoing change. Kindlein et al.
(2006) report in more detail about a coupled model for nonisothermal gas and leachate transport and biochemical reactions. In the HPM2 challenge, several research teams apply
biodegradation models with different complexity to predict
the behaviour of two consolidating anaerobic reactors
(CARs) over a period of 3 years. Beaven (2008) compares
the answers of the models Gassim2 of Clewes et al.
(2008), Moduelo of Lobo et al. (2008), HBM of
McDougall (2008), Pose of Reichel & Haarstrick (2008)
and LDAT of White (2008).
Monitoring of emissions and deformations combined with
engineering experience are often used to get a rough estima-

tion of the long-term settlement behaviour. In a more


detailed analysis, Edil et al. (1990) distinguish the settlements in view of the main mechanisms involved:
(a) mechanical: distortion, bending, crushing and reorientation of particles
(b) ravelling: movement of fines into larger voids
(c) physicalchemical: corrosion, oxidation and combustion
(d ) biochemical: aerobic or anaerobic degradation of
organics.
Later, Grisolia & Napoleoni (1996) subdivide the observed settlements temporally: initial deformations, deformations generated by primary and secondary creep phenomena,
deformations due to the biodegradation, and residual deformations. Fig. 1 connects the different stages with the governing processes inside a landfill. The dead load creates initial
settlement immediately after emplacement. Short-term mechanical creep and consolidation in micropores occur during
the first months after loading. In contrast, the long-term
settlements over decades result mainly from the decomposition of organic constituents by microorganisms.
Dixon & Jones (2005) provide an overview of relevant
engineering properties of municipal solid waste. Simple onedimensional approaches for the primary and the secondary
creep phase and the biodegradation, for example Park et al.
(2002) or Marques et al. (2003), are often applied and allow
rough prognoses of the long-term development under constant environmental conditions. But, if these conditions
change drastically, for instance after construction of a surface cover system or installing a recirculation system for
leachate, such models may fail completely. Thus, more
detailed models for the investigation of processes inside

Manuscript received 27 November 2008; revised manuscript accepted


12 May 2010. Published online ahead of print 25 January 2011.
Discussion on this paper closes on 1 January 2012, for further
details see p. ii.
 Institut fur Statik, Technische Universitat Carolo-Wilhelmina zu
Braunschweig, Germany.

665

KRASE, BENTE, KOWALSKY AND DINKLER

666
200300 min

2/3 months
1 year

Stage I initial settlements,


large reduction of
macroporosity

Time t (log)

1030 years
Stage I
Stage II

Stage II primary settlements,


viscous deformation of
deformable particles

Settlement: %

Stage III

Stage III secondary settlements,


creep and beginning
of degradation

Stage IV

Stage IV settlements due to


biodegradation
Stage V residual settlements

Stage V
Stable inert solid

Degradable particle

Deformable particle with micropores

Fig. 1. Municipal solid waste compression curve redrawn from Grisolia & Napoleoni (1996)

non-linear, exhibiting hardening as well as softening, which


is illustrated in Fig. 2. The horizontal tensile stress of a
waste sample is plotted against the applied stretch in dependency on the vertical loading. The maximum tensile force
carried by the fibres depends on the stress state of the
surrounding basic matrix. Two failure mechanisms exist. A
bonding failure occurs under low vertical loads, whereby the
fibres are pulled out of the basic matrix. At higher load
levels, the anchorage effect is much stronger and single
fibres rupture if their strength is exceeded.
Only a limited number of modelling approaches exist that
describe the three-dimensional stressstrain behaviour of
municipal solid waste. Ebers-Ernst & Dinkler (1999), Luke
(2002) and Machado et al. (2002) all adopt the idea of
splitting the material into a granular matrix and fibrous
constituents applying infinitesimal small strain theory.
Against it, the constitutive model of Ebers-Ernst (2001) is
further improved using a finite-strain theory. In contrast, the
models established by McDougall & Pyrah (2001) or Finno
et al. (2007) describe waste as conventional geotechnical
material. Nevertheless, additional research is required to
understand better all underlying complex mechanisms and
interactions.

KEY IDEA AND FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS


Kockel (1995) detects the significant influence of fibrous
constituents on the strength of the waste in laboratory test
series. Therefore, it is feasible to consider the material as a
mixture of two solid fractions, see Fig. 3. The first fraction
is the basic matrix with more granular properties indicated
by the index B. In contrast, the second fraction consists of
Vertical stress zz Pc /Abase (kPa)

200

Tensile stress xx Ft /Across: kPa

landfills are of great importance in order to achieve a better


understanding and assessment of the actual state and the
future development.
In this contribution, the main focus is laid on the mechanical deformation behaviour of municipal solid waste,
which is quite complex and differs considerably from ordinary engineering and geological materials. A model is presented, which deals with the first three stages of the
municipal solid waste compression curve. Thereby, initial
settlements and mechanical induced creep processes are considered only, while all aspects of biodegradation are neglected. Since municipal solid waste undergoes large
inelastic deformations under load (settlements up to 30% of
the initial height are possible) the application of theories for
large strain inelasticity is required in order to describe the
behaviour correctly. In particular, large rigid body motions
and rotations can produce unphysical results using a small
strain theory. For instance, a nearly unloaded block on top
can be subjected to a finite rotation owing to differential
settlements of layers below it, which generates high stresses
although no strains exist in reality.
It is well known that fibrous constituents increase the
strength of the waste significantly and even very steep slopes
are often stable. Cowland et al. (1993) observe that a 6 m
vertical trench cut in 6 month old waste did not fail during
the investigation period of 2 months. Similar observations
are obtained by Bauer et al. (2005), who monitor only low
horizontal deformations of a cut having nearly 10 m high
vertical walls. Owing to the particle sizes, the inhomogeneity, and the high compressibility of the waste, often considerable difficulties are associated with the carrying out of
strength tests. The shear strength parameters reported in the
technical literature vary in wide ranges, see the summary by
Dixon & Jones (2005). Furthermore, Jessberger & Kockel
(1993) suggest the use of effective or mobilised shear
parameters instead of constant values. Thus, the angle of
internal friction and the cohesion depend on the state of
deformation expressed by the vertical strain in their approach. Kockel (1995) also investigates the strength of waste
by means of uniaxial and triaxial compression tests and
concludes that municipal solid waste behaves in a similar
way to reinforced earth structures. Fibrous constituents consisting of plastics, cardboard, papers, wood or metals are
embedded into smaller more grainy particles and act as a
reinforcement. The reinforcement effect is proven by carrying out tests on milled waste after removing all fibrous
constituents at first and then repeating the tests after remixing the fibres into the sample material. Kolsch (1996)
describes the equipment for a large tensile test on municipal
solid waste. Stressstrain curves of such tests are highly

97
199
282

150

Pc

Abase
Ft

lbox

Across

100

50

001
002
003
004
Applied tensile stretch xx u / lbox

Fig. 2. Results from tensile tests after Kolsch (1996)

005

MODELLING THE STRESSDEFORMATION BEHAVIOUR OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

667

P in initial configuration
Initial configuration
P
Current configuration

P in current configuration

u
X

Landfill

x2
Pore

x1

Fibre
Basic matrix

dX2
dX1

P in initial configuration

Homogenisation

Fibrous
constituents

u
P in current configuration

dx2
dx1

Solid skeleton
Organic particle
Microscopic

Macroscopic

Fig. 3. Mechanical model and deformation of municipal solid waste

the fibrous constituents designated by the index F. The key


idea of splitting the solid material allows the establishment
of constitutive equations for each of the two fractions
independently. The flow of landfill gas and leachate through
the partially saturated pores of the solid skeleton is neglected totally in the presented approach. Furthermore, it is
assumed that the two solid fractions exist on every material
point at the same time and, for simplification, their displacement fields are equal. In the continuum mechanical approach
used, all relevant physical quantities are smeared over the
representative elementary volume, in which they are distributed homogeneously in a statistical sense.
The part of the total differential volume dv occupied by a
component 2 {B, F} is determined by the local volume
ratio n
n

dv
,
dv

n 1

(1)

The current placement of a point P is described by the


vector x as a function of time t and the placement X at the
beginning of the observation at time t0 together with the
displacement vector u
B

x x x xX , t X uX , t

(2)

The movement of a point P is schematically shown in Fig. 3


together with two attached vectors dX 1 and dX 2 in the
initial configuration. The same vectors are called dx1 and
dx2 in the current configuration. Owing to the deformation
process, their size and orientation are changed, which is
described by the deformation gradient F
dx F  dX 

(3)

The deformation gradient F can be computed using the


displacement function u by
F

@x @(X u)
@u

1
@X
@X
@X

(4)

The finite Almansi strains A, which act in the current


configuration, are constructed by means of F

1
A 1  F T  F 1
2

1
grad(u) gradT (u) gradT (u)  grad(u)
2

(5)

They are distinguished from infinitesimal small strains by


the additional term gradT (u) grad(u). Since the reversible
elastic part of the deformation is relatively small for municipal solid waste, it is allowed to decompose the Almansi
strains A for the two solid phases basic matrix and fibrous
constituents into an elastic part Ael and an inelastic part Ain
additively
A Ael Ain

(6)

Owing to thermodynamic considerations and the concept


of dual variables (Haupt, 2002), the Kirchhoff stresses T ,
which are releated to the real physical Cauchy stresses by
T det(F )

(7)

are used for the constitutive modelling later. Since the two
components, basic matrix and fibres, act on every material
point, the stresses in the solid waste comprise the stress of
the basic matrix T B and the fibres T F weighted by their
volume ratio nB and nF in the modelling approach
T nB T B nF T F

(8)

CONSTITUTIVE MODEL FOR THE BASIC MATRIX


The stresses T B of the basic matrix are connected by
Hookes law with the elastic strains ABel
T B C B : ABel

(9)

using Youngs modulus E and Poissons ratio  in the


elasticity tensor C B displayed as a matrix by

KRASE, BENTE, KOWALSKY AND DINKLER


3
1


0
0
0
7
6 
1

0
0
0
7
6
7
6 

1


0
0
0
7
6
1  2
7
6
E
7
6 0
0
0
0
0
B
C
7
6
2
7
1  1  2 6
1  2
7
6
0
0
0
0
7
6 0
7
6
2
4
1  2 5
0
0
0
0
0
2

668

(10)

Shearing as well as creep may produce inelastic strains.


Thus, it is assumed that the strain rate D Bin , describing the
temporal change of the inelastic strains ABin , is additively
composed by D Bpl connected to the shear failure mechanism
and by D Bcr describing the mechanical creep
D Bin D Bpl D Bcr

(11)

The chosen approach for modelling these two physical


mechanisms is discussed in detail in the following.
A simplified version of a single-failure surface introduced
by Ehlers (1995) limits the shear stresses
v
! mF
u
u
JB
F  B 2
B
I1

f T t J B2D 1 F  3D3=2
2
J B2D
(12)
sin B
I 1  c cos < 0
3
The shear resistance of the basic matrix as a frictional
material is split into a pressure-dependent part characterised
by the first invariant I B1 of the stress tensor and a pressureindependent part using the classical shear parameters angle
of internal friction j and cohesion c. The acting shear
forces are expressed by means of the second and the third
invariants of the deviator of the stresses J B2D and J B3D . The
parameters F and mF control the shape of the failure
envelope in the deviatoric -plane. By setting mF 1/2,
good approximation of the MohrCoulomb criterion is
obtained formulating F in dependency of the friction angle
j by
!2= mF
3  sinj
p 1 
3 sinj
27
(13)
F
!2= mF
2
3  sinj
1
3 sinj

The parameter F is used in the tensile regime (F 0 for


I B1 , 0) in order to round the tip of the failure cone. Fig. 4
compares the shape of the applied failure envelope in the
deviatoric -plane with MohrCoulomb and Drucker
Prager criteria for j 308.
Spontaneous inelastic strains are generated after loading if
the new stress state violates the failure condition, equation
(12). The strain rate D Bpl , activated by the shear failure, is
the derivative of the potential Q with respect to the stresses
T B using a Lagrangian multiplier _ pl
@Q
;
@ TB
r
Q  B 2 sin B
I1
I1
Q J B2D
2
3

D Bpl _ pl

(14)

The parameter Q rounds the cone in the tensile zone and


the angle of dilatancy controls the change of volume
during the shearing.
Obviously, the shear parameters j and c and the angle of

MohrCoulomb
Compression cone

DruckerPrager
Simple shear F 0
F 150, mF = 05

Fig. 4. Failure envelope in deviatoric -plane

dilatancy cannot be constants for municipal solid waste.


Grisolia et al. (1992) or Jessberger & Kockel (1993) report
in detail about tests in triaxial cells, in which no failure
states are reached and the strength of the material increases
due to the compaction of the waste. After sieving out the
fibrous constituents, Kockel (1995) obtains shear failure for
waste samples in triaxial tests. Thereby, the shear resistance
increases with ongoing densification. Nevertheless, the shear
strength parameters are kept constant in the modelling approach here. The consideration of deformation- or densitydependent parameters is a task for the future.
An anisotropic creep model is included in order to capture
settlements of the second and third stages of the municipal
solid waste compressive curve plotted in Fig. 1. The mechanical creep is caused by different mechanisms such as
viscous deformation and crushing of larger particles, consolidation in micropore systems, ravelling and so on. In
general, these phenomena are related to the action of
stresses mainly due to the load of overburden layers and
should be clearly distinguished from settlements induced by
the biodegradation of organic matter, which is not considered here. Therefore, it is assumed that compressive stresses
cause such mechanical deformations. Furthermore, the compaction occurs mainly in the direction of the load itself.
Thus the rate of inelastic creep D Bcr is formulated as a
product of the dyad of the principal directions n of the

MODELLING THE STRESSDEFORMATION BEHAVIOUR OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE


stresses of the basic matrix T B and the associated creep rate
_ cr,
D Bcr

_ cr, n  n

(15)

The creep rate _ cr, is modelled in every principal direction


as a function of the stress level expressed by the principal
stress in the investigated direction T B and of the actual
density rt. The two influences are combined multiplicatively
_ cr,

 B ! n

 m
T
r
r1
 A
ln max
ln
rt
r1  rt
0
|{z} |{z} |{z}
stress

density

deceleration

669

Thereby, the volume ratio AV can be equivalently expressed


by the invariants of the inelastic strains ABin
Av 1  1  Av,0
q
 
 
 
3 1  2 I 1 ABin 4 I 2 ABin  8 I 3 ABin

(19)

The volume ratio AV,0 characterises the difference of the


initial state after emplacement of the waste compared to the
state, in which the material exhibits its loosest packing.
Thus, the value Av,0 is determined by
Av,0 1 

r0
rmin

(20)

(16)
The parameter A is a basic value for the creep rate, which is
modified by three additional factors. In the first factor, the
ramp function ,. . .. ensures that only principal compressive stresses compact the material. The parameter 0 is set
to 1 kPa in order to obtain a dimensionless expression. The
parameter n controls the influence of the stresses. The
second factor includes the effect that under the same load
level waste in a looser state compacts faster than material in
a denser state using the ratio between the maximum density
rmax and the actual density rt. When the current density
reaches a final density r1, the rate goes down to zero,
which is included by the last term. Thereby, the final density
is non-linearly interpolated with two parameters av and bv
between the minimum density and the maximum density in
dependency on the actual stresses by

av
X


B
bv rmin
T
rmax



av
r1
(17)
X


B
bv
T

Figure 6 explains the different volumes and densities used in


the equations (16)(20).

CONSTITUTIVE MODEL FOR THE FIBROUS


CONSTITUENTS
As mentioned before, the fibrous constituents increase the
strength of the material significantly. A characteristic texture
exists inside landfills due to the emplacement of the waste
in relatively thin layers. The fibres are orientated in a
horizontal plane, which is observed in situ by Gifford et al.
(1990) as well as by Cowland et al. (1993). In a micromechanical sense, the fibrous particles consist of very different materials wood, paper, plastics, metal or textiles.
Obviously, it is not possible to model all single particles,
themselves. Thus, a smeared approach over all fibrous constituents is applied here, as well. A transverse isotropic
elasticity law connects the stresses of the fibres T F and the
elastic Almansi strains AFel in order to consider the existing
anisotropy
T23

Figure 5 shows the density interpolation schematically. The


parameter set (A, n, m, av and bv ) has to be determined by
fitting the constitutive model against laboratory experiments,
for example laterally confined compression (oedometric)
tests.
The dry density rt changes owing to the deformation
process
rt

r0
1  Av
 r0
det F
1  Av,0

150

(18)

T23
: C F : R F  R F : AFel

(21)

The tensor R F describes the current global orientation of the


fibrous plane, which may change during the deformation, see
Fig. 7. Thereby, the vectors N 1 and N 2 of the initial
configuration are mapped to the current configuration and
their images are used to construct the new local basis ni .
The elasticity tensor C F is displayed here by its inverse as
matrix
Load p

Load p

w, zz

max

125

Fig. 5. Estimation of density r 1

400

500

Fig. 6. Definition of different volumes and densities

max

300

Volume in densest packing

200

Vertical stress, zz: kPa

100

Volume at end of compaction

Current volume dv

min
025

Test
Fit

050

min

v0

u0

075

Volume after emplacement dv0

100

Volume in loosest packing

Density: Mg/m3

T F R F T  R F T

KRASE, BENTE, KOWALSKY AND DINKLER

670
Initial configuration

Current configuration

N1 N2

f c, T F  Tc, < 0

Since the fibres fail under low compressive stresses, the


constant compressive strength value Tc, is set to zero. In
contrast, the fibres are able to carry considerable tensile
stresses. Thus, further failure criteria f t, are introduced
"



#
f t, TF,  Tt,0 Th, AFin ; T B Ts, AFin ; T B < 0
|{z} |{z} |{z}

N2
n1 n 2

N1
G3

n2

g3

G2

n1
g2

initial

g1

G1
N T1

RF

N T1 NT2

C F1

1
B
E
B ?
B ?
B
B E
B ?
B 
k
B
B
B Ek
B
B
B 0
B
B
B
B 0
B
B
@
0

(24)

nT2
nT1 nT2

?
E?
1
E?
k
Ek

k
Ek
k
Ek
1
Ek

softening

tensile strength

Thereby, the tensile strength is decomposed into three parts.


The first part Tt,0 is the initial tensile strength, which is
independent of the loading history, see the dark grey part of
the tensile strength in Fig. 8. The second part Th, models
the bonding mechanism in dependency on the stresses of the
basic matrix as well as the state of hardening by a multiplicative approach


 
Th, AFin ; T B Tm, T B h1, AFin
(25)

Fig. 7. Placement of fibrous plane during deformation

hardening

|{z}

nT1

NT2

RF0

(23)

21 ?
E?

1
2 Gk

1
0 C
C
C
0 C
C
C
C
0 C
C
C
C
C
0 C
C
C
C
0 C
C
C
1 A
2 Gk

The bond is modelled following the suggestion by Kolsch


(1996). Thereby, the load-depending tensile strength of the
fibres follows a trilinear function applying indirectly a linear
friction law
8
Tmin
>
>
>
>
>
for T BV, . 0
>
>
>
>
>
>
< Tmin Tmax  Tmin T B
V,
B
T Bcrit
(26)
Tm, T
>
>
B
B
>
for
0
>
T
>
T
>
V,
crit
>
>
>
>
T
>
max
>
>
:
for T Bcrit . T BV,

(22)
The two important parameters E? and ? specify the
stiffness in the fibrous plane. Youngs modulus Ek and
Poissons ratio k describe the elastic deformation behaviour
parallel to the transversal axis. The shear modulus Gk
characterises the stressstrain relation regarding the transversal axis and the axes of the fibrous plane. Since no fibres act
orthogonal to the fibrous plane, the parameters Ek , k and
Gk are zero, but small values are set in order to avoid
numerical problems.
A Rankine criterion limits the stresses of the fibres T F .
Thus, each of the principal stresses T F of the fibrous
fraction has to fulfil the failure hypothesis fc, in the compressive regime

The clamp stress T BV, is the major stress of the basic matrix
acting in the plane orthogonal to the investigated principal
stress direction n of the fibrous fraction, see Fig. 8. It is
responsible for the bond and the anchorage of the fibres. If
T BV, has a high compressive value, the fibres are strongly
clamped in between granular particles. In contrast, if the
clamp stress is low or in the tensile regime, most of the
fibres may be pulled out from the basic matrix easily and
the resulting tensile strength is low. In the modelling ap-

Tensile strength of fibres


Tearing

Bond failure

Stress of basic matrix


in orthogonal plane

Tt,0 Tm
Tt,0 Tmh1

Principal direction n2

Tmax

Maximum of
load-dependent
tensile strength

Clamp stress T BV
(bonding)

Tmin

Fibrous plane
Actually mobilised strength
due to hardening

Principal direction n1
Plane orthogonal to
principal direction n1

Tt,0

Initial strength
T Bcrit

Fibres

T BV

Clamp stress of basic matrix

Fig. 8. Model of tensile strength of fibrous constituents

MODELLING THE STRESSDEFORMATION BEHAVIOUR OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE


proach, the parameter Tmin characterises the load-independent part and the parameter Tmax the maximum tensile
strength that can be mobilised due to hardening. If the
clamp stress T BV, falls below a critical value T Bcrit , the fibres
start to rupture predominantly. Thus, a further increase of
the bonding effect does not result in a higher tensile strength
of the fibrous fraction. The hardening is modelled by a
power law. The inelastic strain component AFin, in the
direction of the investigated principal axis n controls the
hardening process with two parameters a and b
 
F
(27)
h1 AFin 1  a(b Ain, )
The tensile strength is reduced by ongoing extraction of
the fibres due to the occurrence of bonding failure or rupture
of single fibres. Thus, a softening term Ts, is added so that
the tensile strength can be lost completely. Since weak fibres
fail at a very early stage, the softening begins immediately
with the inelastic process. It is formulated as a product


 
(28)
Ts, AFin ; T B  Tt,0 Tm, h2, AFin
using a power law for modelling the ongoing of softening
with parameters c, d and e
 
F
e
h2, AFin 1  c(d [ Ain, ] )
(29)
The associative flow rule is formulated using Lagrangian
multipliers _ Fpl,
X
@ f c, X F @ f t,
D Fpl
_ Fpl,

_ pl,
(30)
@ TF
@ TF

which become unequal zero if a stress state violates the


failure condition related to the multiplier.
Figure 9 demonstrates the one-dimensional behaviour of
the developed model. Thus, the total strain A xx is increased
monotonically. The stress T Fxx is obtained by multiplying the
elastic strain component AFel,xx by Youngs modulus E? .
When the stress T Fxx reaches the initial strength Tt,0, irreversible strains are produced by ongoing of loading. At first,
the tensile strength increases due to hardening. Later, the
stress T Fxx decreases, caused by the softening. Variation of
the clamp stress T BV, shows the included effect of bonding
failure. Thus, for low bonding T BV 0 the mobilised tensile
strength becomes Tt,0 + Tmin only, whereas the anchorage is
so strong in the case of high bonding T BV T Bcrit that the full
tensile strength Tt,0 + Tmax can be mobilised.
A well-known problem connected to modelling softening
is the mesh dependency of the solutions obtained in structural analyses with the finite-element method. In this instance,
80

Hardening only

Tensile stress, T Fxx: kPa

Tt,0 Tmax

Hardening and softening

60

T BV T Bcrit

40

0 T BV T Bcrit

671

the inelastic strains are concentrated inside one element row.


Of course, this zone tends to become smaller and smaller as
the mesh is refined. In the limit case of elements with
infinitesimally small width, the zone vanishes and no energy
is dissipated during the inelastic deformation process, which
is obviously an unphysical behaviour. Non-local approaches
are developed for modelling damage or softening in describing failure of concrete, in metal plasticity and so on, see
Bazant & Jirasek (2002) or Velde et al. (2009), in order to
obtain a unique mesh-independent solution. The transfer of
such approaches to the developed model for municipal solid
waste is an outstanding task for the future. Nevertheless, the
strength model in its presented form is implemented into a
finite-element code and applied for structural analyses
(Krase, 2008).

PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION
Genetic algorithms or evolution strategies, for example
Pohlheim (2006), are effective numerical methods for parameter identification. Kowalsky & Ahrens (1997) define an
objective function for the underlying minimisation problem



Ysim,i  Yexp,i dt
n
X
wi
(31)
f ob
Yexp,max,i t i
i1


The difference Ysim,i  Yexp,i of stresses, forces or deformations between numerical simulation and laboratory test
number i is integrated over the test duration t i . The
derivation is scaled by the maximum value Yexp,max, i and the
test duration. A weighting factor w i controls the influence of
every laboratory test.
The developed constitutive model is validated by different
laboratory tests. Oedometric tests are carried out at the
Leichtwei Institute, TU Braunschweig, on mechanical
biological pre-treated waste from the landfill Meisenheim,
Germany. Such a waste contains only a low portion of
fibrous constituents. Therefore, the fibres are totally neglected in this simulation setting nF to zero. Table 1 lists
available information about the samples of two oedometric
tests. The oedometer has a diameter of 600 mm and the
initial height of the material filled in is about 500 mm.
The parameters for the compaction model are obtained
employing the genetic algorithm for the material 1. Poissonss number is pre-defined to  0.3. Furthermore, the
shear strength parameters are set to 308 for the friction angle
j and to 5 kPa for the cohesion c under a volume preserving
angle of dilatancy of 08. Then, the same parameter set is
used for reproducing the test with material 2, changing
slightly the model parameters rmin , rmax and bv that describe
the states with lowest and highest density and the interpolation between them, respectively. A critical comparison of the
obtained results, plotted in Fig. 10, proves the ability of the
proposed model to fit the two laboratory tests for all three
applied vertical loads Cauchy stress zz values of 90, 220
and 330 kPa. Significant differences between simulation and
measurement only occur in the unloading phase simulating

Tt,0 Tmin

T BV 0

Tt,0

20

001

002
003
Applied strain, Axx

004

005

Fig. 9. One-dimensional application of tensile strength model

Table 1. Material properties of pre-treated waste

Maximum particle size


Initial wet density
Initial dry density r
Treatment

Material 1

Material 2

< 60 mm
1470 kg/m3
950 kg/m3
Sieving

< 300 mm
1300 kg/m3
810 kg/m3
No sieving

KRASE, BENTE, KOWALSKY AND DINKLER

Vertical displacement, w: m

0
Test material 1
Simulation material 1
Test material 2
Simulation material 2

zz 90 kPa

005

zz

v0

u0
010
zz 220 kPa

015
0

500

zz 300 kPa

1000

1500
2000
Time, t : h

2500

3000

3500

Fig. 10. Parameter determination by means of oedometric tests

the test of material 2. Table 2 summarises the model


parameters.
Tensile tests on municipal solid waste from the landfill
Gottingen, Germany, are used to calibrate the model of the
fibrous constituents. The waste has an initial dry density of
404 kg/m3 and an initial wet density of 750 kg/m3 . With
respect to dry mass, it consists of 28.5% mixed material
passing a 8 mm filter and 43.7% mixed material passing a
40 mm filter. The particles with diameter larger than 40 mm
are composed of 4.4% textiles, 2.4% mineral matter, 9.9%
wood and leather, 0.8% metals, 3.3% hard plastics, 4.7%
soft plastics and 2.3% paper and cardboard. Thus, the
amount of fibrous constituents is comparatively high and the
volume fraction of the fibres is assumed to be 0.20. The test
consists of four different levels of vertical loading 100,
200, 300 and 400 kPa under laterally confined displacements, in which time-dependent settlements occur in addition. Therefore, the test is used to validate the mechanical
creep model, too. After decaying of settlements, the displacement-controlled tensile test is carried out. The box (base
area 3.00 m 3 1.00 m) with the waste sample inside is split
into two parts and one of them is pulled away in a
horizontal direction until the maximum of the tensile force
is reached, see Fig. 11. Then, the part of the box which has
been moved is pushed back and the next stage begins by
increasing the vertical load. The last tensile test is repeated
and the applied horizontal displacement is increased until
the softening of the material becomes apparent.
The simulation assumes a homogeneous stress and strain
distribution inside the box. Not all desired data are available
owing to the complexity and the difficulties in carrying out
the test. For instance, no information exists about stresses in

the horizontal direction during the creep period. Nevertheless, the complex stressstrain history is simulated completely and the curves of laboratory experiment and numerical
simulation are compared in Fig. 12, displaying the temporal
development of the vertical deformation w and in Fig. 13
plotting the real horizontal Cauchy stresses xx against the
applied horizontal deformation u.
The settlement behaviour as well as the tensile tests are
reproduced quite well. The settlements are optimised in view
of the higher vertical loading steps. Nevertheless, the simulated displacements for the first vertical load level are fitted
satisfactorily. Some differences exist in the second and third
stages. In contrast, the final value under the highest vertical
load is obtained more or less exactly, which is enforced by
setting a higher weighting factor w i in the objective function
for the genetic algorithm. By this method, the main goal of
reproducing the correct level of stresses and the softening
behaviour of the fibres is reached in a satisfactory way. Only
the accurate development of the tensile stresses in the hardening range is not reproduced exactly for the first tensile
test, see Fig. 13. Table 3 summarises the obtained model
parameters.
NUMERICAL METHODS AND STRUCTURAL
ANALYSIS
The principle of virtual work in its Lagrangian representation ensures forces equilibrium

E: F 1  nB T B nF T F  F T dv0
dv0

u rw,0 g dv0
dv0

d0

zz 100 kPa
u0
060

Sample of waste

Tensile force

zz 200 kPa
zz 300 kPa

2500

5000
7500
Time, t : h

150 m

Rollings

Fig. 11. Cross-sectional sketch of large tensile test

10 000

12 500

Fig. 12. Parameter optimisation for tensile test settlements


300
Test
Simulation

200

zz
100

0
u, xx
0

150 m

v0

zz 400 kPa

Applied tensile stresses, xx: kPa

150 m

Tensile way
Load cell (pressure)
High-pressure pad Box
Box
Load cell (tension)
Distance measurement

w, zz

040

Table 2. Parameter set for oedometric tests on pre-treated waste


E 9118 kPa;  0.30
A 4.54 3 107 1/s; n 0.87; m 7.9
av 0.5
bv 20.0; rmin 700 kg/m3 ; rmax 1750 kg/m3
bv 22.8; rmin 690 kg/m3 ; rmax 1640 kg/m3

u t R,0 d0

Test
Simulation

080

Elasticity
Creep
Density
Material 1
Material 2

(32)

020

Vertical displacement, w: m

672

01
005
Horizontal displacement, u: m

v0
015

Fig. 13. Parameter optimisation for tensile test tensile stresses

MODELLING THE STRESSDEFORMATION BEHAVIOUR OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

E 4490 kPa;  0.30


j 308; c 5 kPa; 08
A 2.26 3 108 1/s; n 0.94; m 10.1
av 0.5, bv 25.5; rmin 300 kg/m3 ;
rmax 1470 kg/m3

Elasticity
Shearing
Creep
Density

Vertical displacement: m

Table 3. Parameter set for tensile tests on municipal solid waste


Basic matrix

673

05
Case 1 point A
Case 1 point B
Case 2 point A
Case 2 point B

10

15

Fibrous constituents
20

E? 90916 kPa ; ? 0.33;


Ek 1 kPa; k 0 ; Gk 0.5 kPa
Tt,0 40 kPa; Tmin 40 kPa; Tmax 1500 kPa;
T Bcrit 400 kPa
a 2.74; b 154.1
c 1.24; d 18933.8; e 2.81

Elasticity
Strength
Hardening
Softening

10 000

20 000
30 000
Time: h

40 000

50 000

Fig. 15. Time settlement curve for scenarios

1000

1:2

metres

1000

Fig. 14. Landfill scenario

2000

Av:

08

10

07

15
x

06

05

20

25

30

25

30

04

Fig. 16. Volume strain Av after loading case 2

10

with the virtual strains E, virtual displacements u, surface


traction t R,0 on the non-deformed geometry d0 , and volume
forces rw,0 g. The NewtonRaphson procedure solves the
non-linear algebraic equation system applying standard
finite-element method with quadratic shape functions for the
displacements u, see Bathe (2002). The material equations
are integrated with a predictorcorrector stress algorithm at
the Gaussian points of the finite elements, for example Simo
& Hughes (1998) or Pinsky et al. (1983). By this means, the
internal variables are transformed from the last converged
configuration to the current configuration and trial stresses
are computed during the elastic predictor step. If the
obtained trial stresses violate the failure hypotheses or generate inelastic creep, the time-depending material equations
are integrated applying an Euler-backward scheme during
the inelastic corrector step.
A fictive landfill is investigated concerning its time-dependent settlement behaviour. The parameter set is taken from
the oedometric test of material 1 on pre-treated waste of the
landfill Meisenheim, Germany, summarised in Table 1
case 1, and from the material of the tensile test case 2.
The landfill with a height of 10 m has an inclination of 1:2
and is loaded at time t0 suddenly. The waste is emplaced
with an initial wet density rw,0 of 1400 kg/m3 for the first
case and 750 kg/m3 for the second case, respectively. Fig. 14
sketches the geometry assuming plane strain conditions.
Figure 15 shows the development of vertical displacements in time of two distinctive points on top of the landfill
for the two scenarios. Point A is situated in the centre, point
B nearby the slope. One can easily detect that the settlements in the centre are higher than in the outer parts caused
by the stress distribution. Higher vertical compressive stresses occur in the inner part of the landfill and lead to more
compaction. Thus, bowl-shaped settlements emerge on the
top, which can be seen in Fig. 16 and Fig. 17. The two
figures show the distribution of the volume strain Av for case

10

Av:

08

10

07

15
x

06

05

20

04

Fig. 17. Volume strain Av after 2 years case 2

2 characterising the state of compaction. The volume strain


changes from the initial value 0.35 to 0.75 in the inner
part immediately after loading. Thus, the dry density increases from 400 kg/m3 up to 520 kg/m3 . Owing to the
ongoing process of compaction, the inelastic volume strain
reaches values of about 0.85 corresponding to a dry
density of about 550 kg/m3 after 2 years. Although the creep
process is not finished at this time, most of the total
deformation of about 2 m is already present.
The parameter set for the material model can be varied
for every finite element. In this way, inhomogeneous conditions can be simulated leading to differential settlements on
the top of the landfill, which are most important for design
and construction of cover systems. Furthermore, the complete history of building up of a landfill can be reconstructed
numerically using advanced strategies in finite-element technology. Including models for the biodegradation of organic
matter and the transport of pore fluids is the most important
issue to address in future work, in order to complete the
description.

KRASE, BENTE, KOWALSKY AND DINKLER

674

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION


Basic ideas for the description of deformation behaviour
and strength of municipal solid waste are presented. The
split of the solid material into two fractions, one including
more grainy particles and the other all fibrous constituents,
captures the anisotropic strength of municipal solid waste
observed in laboratory tests as well as in situ measurements.
An anisotropic model describes mechanical creep. The consideration of all aspects in a three-dimensional approach
naturally increases the number of required model parameters.
It is shown how the model parameters can be determined by
genetic algorithms. Numerical simulations reproduce laboratory experiments quite well, with complex loading history
like the large tensile test.
Softening of the fibres occurs in the post-failure branch
during the tensile test. This must be investigated in future
work, to determine whether this effect can be neglected in
slope stability analyses in order to reduce the required number of model parameters.
Further research should focus on applying the anisotropic
creep model to the long-term prediction of settlements,
which is one of the most important engineering tasks dealing
with landfills. The formulation of the creep rate in dependency on the solid density allows an easy coupling with a
biodegradation model, which describes the reduction of the
amount of solid matter. The solid density changes due to the
conversion, which also influences the creep rate. In addition,
future work should investigate whether the differentiation
into basic matrix and fibres is important in this case.
The application of the model on test fields and on in situ
landfills is necessary to verify the chosen approach. The
performed structural analyses prove the capacity of the
developed tool, which requires a reliable database for future
long-term prognoses. The model helps to understand the
basic mechanisms and to interpret observed in situ situations
and measured data. Using adaptive strategies and coupling
model predictions with real landfill measurements will improve the monitoring strategies as well as the numerical
analyses for interpretation of the measured data.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The German Research Foundation (DFG) granted financial
support within project B6 of SFB 477 Life cycle assessment
of structures via innovative monitoring.
NOTATION
General
A
Av
Av,0
C
D
dv
dv
F
g
I1
I2
I3
J2D
J3D
n
R
T
t
t0
t R,0
u
w

Almansi strain tensor


current volume strain
initial volume strain
elasticity tensor
time rate of strains
total differential volume
differential volume occupied by component
deformation gradient
gravity vector
1st invariant
2nd invariant
3rd invariant
2nd invariant of deviator
3rd invariant of deviator
volume ratio of component
rotational tensor
Kirchhoff stress tensor
current time point
time point of beginning of observation
surface traction
displacement vector
weighting factor

X placement vector at time t0


x placement vector at current time
Ysim value in simulation
Yexp value in test
E virtual strains
u virtual displacement vector
rt current dry density
r0 initial dry density
rw,0 initial wet density
Cauchy stress tensor

Model parameters for basic matrix


A, m, n
av , bv
c
E
f
mF
n
Q
_ cr,
F
_ pl
F
Q

rmax
rmin
r1
j

parameters for creep rate


parameters for density interpolation
cohesion
Youngs modulus
failure hypothesis basic matrix
parameter in failure hypothesis
eigenvector of stress tensor
potential for flow rule
creep rate in direction
parameter in failure hypothesis
multiplier flow rule
parameter in failure hypothesis
parameter in potential Q
Poissons ratio
maximum density
minimum density
final density at end of compaction
friction angle
dilatance angle

Model parameters for fibrous constituents


a, b
c, d, e
E?
Ek
fc
ft
Gk
h1
h2
Tc
T Bcrit
Th,0
Tm
Tmax
Tmin
Ts,0
Tt,0
T BV,
_ Fpl:
?
k

model parameters in hardening function


model parameters in softening function
Youngs modulus transversal isotropic elasticity
Youngs modulus transversal isotropic elasticity
failure hypothesis fibres under compressive stress
failure hypothesis fibres under tensile stress
shear modulus transversal isotropic elasticity
hardening function
softening function
compressive strength of fibres
critical value for clamp stress
increasing of tensile strength due to hardening
mobilised tensile strength
maximum of load-dependent tensile strength
minimum of load-dependent tensile strength
reduction of tensile strength due to softening
initial tensile strength
clamp stress of basic matrix
multiplier flow rule
Poissons ratio transversal isotropic elasticity
Poissons ratio transversal isotropic elasticity

Subscripts
B
cr
el
F
in
pl
0

basic matrix
creep
elastic
fibrous constituents
inelastic
failure
initial value

Mathematical operations
det
grad

.

determinant of a second-order tensor


gradient, spatial derivative
tensor product
dot product A . b (a  b ) . c (b i ci ) a

MODELLING THE STRESSDEFORMATION BEHAVIOUR OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE


: double dot product (a  b  c  d ) : (e  f ) (ci e i )
(d j f j ) (a  b )
(. . .)T transpose of a second-order tensor
(. . .)T23 change of 2nd and 3rd basis
(. . .)1 inverse of a tensor

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