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9 vues11 pagesModelling the stress–deformation behaviour of municipal solid waste

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Modelling the stress–deformation behaviour of municipal solid waste

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9 vues11 pagesModelling the stress–deformation behaviour of municipal solid waste

© All Rights Reserved

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140]

V. K R A S E , S . B E N T E , U. KOWA L S K Y a n d D. D I N K L E R

La modelisation conceptuelle des decharges de dechets

solides municipaux est indispensable pour une etablir une

prognose du developpement a` long terme et levaluation

du potentiel de risques. Les decharges sont considerees

comme des structures poreuses heteroge`nes dans lesquelles des procedes decoulement et de transport de gaz

et liquides sont alliees a` la degradation materielle et a` la

deformation mecaniques locales du squelette solide. La

presente communication se penche sur un mode`le constitutif qui se concentre sur le comportement de la deformation mecanique des dechets elimines, en divisant les

matie`res solides en deux fractions distinctes. La premie`re

fraction comprend des particules plus graineuses, dont

les proprietes sont similaires a` celles des matie`res granulaires. La deuxie`me fraction se compose de constituants

plus fibreux, qui influent de facon importante sur la

solidite du materiau composite. Le comportement tension

deformation des deux fractions est modelise selon la

theorie de lelastoplasticite finie. En outre, ce mode`le

tient compte egalement des tassements produits par fluage mecanique. Le mode`le constitutif ainsi cree est valide

et calibre dapre`s des resultats decoulant dexperiences

en laboratoire, et en appliquant des algorithmes genetiques. Enfin, des analyses numeriques effectuees avec la

methode aux elements finis illustrent la capacite de la

methode presentee.

vital for prognosis of the long-term development and the

assessment of risk potential. Landfills are considered as

heterogeneous porous structures, in which flow and transport processes of gases and liquids are combined with

local material degradation and mechanical deformation

of the solid skeleton. This contribution deals with a

constitutive model focusing on the mechanical deformation behaviour of the disposed waste dividing the solid

material into two different fractions. The first fraction

includes more grainy particles and has properties comparable with granular materials. The second fraction

consists of more fibrous constituents having an important

influence on the strength of the composite material.

Stressstrain behaviour of the two fractions is modelled

according to the theory of finite elasto-plasticity. Settlements generated by mechanical creep are also included

in the model. The developed constitutive model is validated and calibrated on results from laboratory experiments applying genetic algorithms. Numerical analyses

using the finite-element method show the capability of

the presented approach.

INTRODUCTION

Municipal solid waste landfills are constructed to separate

the waste safely from the surrounding environment. During

operation and aftercare, the landfilled waste is exposed to

various physical effects, such as environmental influences,

flow processes of leachate and landfill gas, transport of

hazardous substances and heat, or mechanical deformations.

In particular, if a lot of degradable organic matter exists, the

resulting biochemical reaction processes determine the longterm landfill behaviour. Degradation processes and settlements affect the mechanical and hydraulic parameters. Thus,

physical and biochemical processes keep the waste and the

entire landfill in a state of ongoing change. Kindlein et al.

(2006) report in more detail about a coupled model for nonisothermal gas and leachate transport and biochemical reactions. In the HPM2 challenge, several research teams apply

biodegradation models with different complexity to predict

the behaviour of two consolidating anaerobic reactors

(CARs) over a period of 3 years. Beaven (2008) compares

the answers of the models Gassim2 of Clewes et al.

(2008), Moduelo of Lobo et al. (2008), HBM of

McDougall (2008), Pose of Reichel & Haarstrick (2008)

and LDAT of White (2008).

Monitoring of emissions and deformations combined with

engineering experience are often used to get a rough estima-

detailed analysis, Edil et al. (1990) distinguish the settlements in view of the main mechanisms involved:

(a) mechanical: distortion, bending, crushing and reorientation of particles

(b) ravelling: movement of fines into larger voids

(c) physicalchemical: corrosion, oxidation and combustion

(d ) biochemical: aerobic or anaerobic degradation of

organics.

Later, Grisolia & Napoleoni (1996) subdivide the observed settlements temporally: initial deformations, deformations generated by primary and secondary creep phenomena,

deformations due to the biodegradation, and residual deformations. Fig. 1 connects the different stages with the governing processes inside a landfill. The dead load creates initial

settlement immediately after emplacement. Short-term mechanical creep and consolidation in micropores occur during

the first months after loading. In contrast, the long-term

settlements over decades result mainly from the decomposition of organic constituents by microorganisms.

Dixon & Jones (2005) provide an overview of relevant

engineering properties of municipal solid waste. Simple onedimensional approaches for the primary and the secondary

creep phase and the biodegradation, for example Park et al.

(2002) or Marques et al. (2003), are often applied and allow

rough prognoses of the long-term development under constant environmental conditions. But, if these conditions

change drastically, for instance after construction of a surface cover system or installing a recirculation system for

leachate, such models may fail completely. Thus, more

detailed models for the investigation of processes inside

12 May 2010. Published online ahead of print 25 January 2011.

Discussion on this paper closes on 1 January 2012, for further

details see p. ii.

Institut fur Statik, Technische Universitat Carolo-Wilhelmina zu

Braunschweig, Germany.

665

666

200300 min

2/3 months

1 year

large reduction of

macroporosity

Time t (log)

1030 years

Stage I

Stage II

viscous deformation of

deformable particles

Settlement: %

Stage III

creep and beginning

of degradation

Stage IV

biodegradation

Stage V residual settlements

Stage V

Stable inert solid

Degradable particle

Fig. 1. Municipal solid waste compression curve redrawn from Grisolia & Napoleoni (1996)

is illustrated in Fig. 2. The horizontal tensile stress of a

waste sample is plotted against the applied stretch in dependency on the vertical loading. The maximum tensile force

carried by the fibres depends on the stress state of the

surrounding basic matrix. Two failure mechanisms exist. A

bonding failure occurs under low vertical loads, whereby the

fibres are pulled out of the basic matrix. At higher load

levels, the anchorage effect is much stronger and single

fibres rupture if their strength is exceeded.

Only a limited number of modelling approaches exist that

describe the three-dimensional stressstrain behaviour of

municipal solid waste. Ebers-Ernst & Dinkler (1999), Luke

(2002) and Machado et al. (2002) all adopt the idea of

splitting the material into a granular matrix and fibrous

constituents applying infinitesimal small strain theory.

Against it, the constitutive model of Ebers-Ernst (2001) is

further improved using a finite-strain theory. In contrast, the

models established by McDougall & Pyrah (2001) or Finno

et al. (2007) describe waste as conventional geotechnical

material. Nevertheless, additional research is required to

understand better all underlying complex mechanisms and

interactions.

Kockel (1995) detects the significant influence of fibrous

constituents on the strength of the waste in laboratory test

series. Therefore, it is feasible to consider the material as a

mixture of two solid fractions, see Fig. 3. The first fraction

is the basic matrix with more granular properties indicated

by the index B. In contrast, the second fraction consists of

Vertical stress zz Pc /Abase (kPa)

200

understanding and assessment of the actual state and the

future development.

In this contribution, the main focus is laid on the mechanical deformation behaviour of municipal solid waste,

which is quite complex and differs considerably from ordinary engineering and geological materials. A model is presented, which deals with the first three stages of the

municipal solid waste compression curve. Thereby, initial

settlements and mechanical induced creep processes are considered only, while all aspects of biodegradation are neglected. Since municipal solid waste undergoes large

inelastic deformations under load (settlements up to 30% of

the initial height are possible) the application of theories for

large strain inelasticity is required in order to describe the

behaviour correctly. In particular, large rigid body motions

and rotations can produce unphysical results using a small

strain theory. For instance, a nearly unloaded block on top

can be subjected to a finite rotation owing to differential

settlements of layers below it, which generates high stresses

although no strains exist in reality.

It is well known that fibrous constituents increase the

strength of the waste significantly and even very steep slopes

are often stable. Cowland et al. (1993) observe that a 6 m

vertical trench cut in 6 month old waste did not fail during

the investigation period of 2 months. Similar observations

are obtained by Bauer et al. (2005), who monitor only low

horizontal deformations of a cut having nearly 10 m high

vertical walls. Owing to the particle sizes, the inhomogeneity, and the high compressibility of the waste, often considerable difficulties are associated with the carrying out of

strength tests. The shear strength parameters reported in the

technical literature vary in wide ranges, see the summary by

Dixon & Jones (2005). Furthermore, Jessberger & Kockel

(1993) suggest the use of effective or mobilised shear

parameters instead of constant values. Thus, the angle of

internal friction and the cohesion depend on the state of

deformation expressed by the vertical strain in their approach. Kockel (1995) also investigates the strength of waste

by means of uniaxial and triaxial compression tests and

concludes that municipal solid waste behaves in a similar

way to reinforced earth structures. Fibrous constituents consisting of plastics, cardboard, papers, wood or metals are

embedded into smaller more grainy particles and act as a

reinforcement. The reinforcement effect is proven by carrying out tests on milled waste after removing all fibrous

constituents at first and then repeating the tests after remixing the fibres into the sample material. Kolsch (1996)

describes the equipment for a large tensile test on municipal

solid waste. Stressstrain curves of such tests are highly

97

199

282

150

Pc

Abase

Ft

lbox

Across

100

50

001

002

003

004

Applied tensile stretch xx u / lbox

005

667

P in initial configuration

Initial configuration

P

Current configuration

P in current configuration

u

X

Landfill

x2

Pore

x1

Fibre

Basic matrix

dX2

dX1

P in initial configuration

Homogenisation

Fibrous

constituents

u

P in current configuration

dx2

dx1

Solid skeleton

Organic particle

Microscopic

Macroscopic

idea of splitting the solid material allows the establishment

of constitutive equations for each of the two fractions

independently. The flow of landfill gas and leachate through

the partially saturated pores of the solid skeleton is neglected totally in the presented approach. Furthermore, it is

assumed that the two solid fractions exist on every material

point at the same time and, for simplification, their displacement fields are equal. In the continuum mechanical approach

used, all relevant physical quantities are smeared over the

representative elementary volume, in which they are distributed homogeneously in a statistical sense.

The part of the total differential volume dv occupied by a

component 2 {B, F} is determined by the local volume

ratio n

n

dv

,

dv

n 1

(1)

vector x as a function of time t and the placement X at the

beginning of the observation at time t0 together with the

displacement vector u

B

x x x xX , t X uX , t

(2)

together with two attached vectors dX 1 and dX 2 in the

initial configuration. The same vectors are called dx1 and

dx2 in the current configuration. Owing to the deformation

process, their size and orientation are changed, which is

described by the deformation gradient F

dx F dX

(3)

displacement function u by

F

@x @(X u)

@u

1

@X

@X

@X

(4)

configuration, are constructed by means of F

1

A 1 F T F 1

2

1

grad(u) gradT (u) gradT (u) grad(u)

2

(5)

the additional term gradT (u) grad(u). Since the reversible

elastic part of the deformation is relatively small for municipal solid waste, it is allowed to decompose the Almansi

strains A for the two solid phases basic matrix and fibrous

constituents into an elastic part Ael and an inelastic part Ain

additively

A Ael Ain

(6)

of dual variables (Haupt, 2002), the Kirchhoff stresses T ,

which are releated to the real physical Cauchy stresses by

T det(F )

(7)

are used for the constitutive modelling later. Since the two

components, basic matrix and fibres, act on every material

point, the stresses in the solid waste comprise the stress of

the basic matrix T B and the fibres T F weighted by their

volume ratio nB and nF in the modelling approach

T nB T B nF T F

(8)

The stresses T B of the basic matrix are connected by

Hookes law with the elastic strains ABel

T B C B : ABel

(9)

elasticity tensor C B displayed as a matrix by

3

1

0

0

0

7

6

1

0

0

0

7

6

7

6

1

0

0

0

7

6

1 2

7

6

E

7

6 0

0

0

0

0

B

C

7

6

2

7

1 1 2 6

1 2

7

6

0

0

0

0

7

6 0

7

6

2

4

1 2 5

0

0

0

0

0

2

668

(10)

Thus, it is assumed that the strain rate D Bin , describing the

temporal change of the inelastic strains ABin , is additively

composed by D Bpl connected to the shear failure mechanism

and by D Bcr describing the mechanical creep

D Bin D Bpl D Bcr

(11)

mechanisms is discussed in detail in the following.

A simplified version of a single-failure surface introduced

by Ehlers (1995) limits the shear stresses

v

! mF

u

u

JB

F B 2

B

I1

f T t J B2D 1 F 3D3=2

2

J B2D

(12)

sin B

I 1 c cos < 0

3

The shear resistance of the basic matrix as a frictional

material is split into a pressure-dependent part characterised

by the first invariant I B1 of the stress tensor and a pressureindependent part using the classical shear parameters angle

of internal friction j and cohesion c. The acting shear

forces are expressed by means of the second and the third

invariants of the deviator of the stresses J B2D and J B3D . The

parameters F and mF control the shape of the failure

envelope in the deviatoric -plane. By setting mF 1/2,

good approximation of the MohrCoulomb criterion is

obtained formulating F in dependency of the friction angle

j by

!2= mF

3 sinj

p 1

3 sinj

27

(13)

F

!2= mF

2

3 sinj

1

3 sinj

I B1 , 0) in order to round the tip of the failure cone. Fig. 4

compares the shape of the applied failure envelope in the

deviatoric -plane with MohrCoulomb and Drucker

Prager criteria for j 308.

Spontaneous inelastic strains are generated after loading if

the new stress state violates the failure condition, equation

(12). The strain rate D Bpl , activated by the shear failure, is

the derivative of the potential Q with respect to the stresses

T B using a Lagrangian multiplier _ pl

@Q

;

@ TB

r

Q B 2 sin B

I1

I1

Q J B2D

2

3

D Bpl _ pl

(14)

the angle of dilatancy controls the change of volume

during the shearing.

Obviously, the shear parameters j and c and the angle of

MohrCoulomb

Compression cone

DruckerPrager

Simple shear F 0

F 150, mF = 05

Grisolia et al. (1992) or Jessberger & Kockel (1993) report

in detail about tests in triaxial cells, in which no failure

states are reached and the strength of the material increases

due to the compaction of the waste. After sieving out the

fibrous constituents, Kockel (1995) obtains shear failure for

waste samples in triaxial tests. Thereby, the shear resistance

increases with ongoing densification. Nevertheless, the shear

strength parameters are kept constant in the modelling approach here. The consideration of deformation- or densitydependent parameters is a task for the future.

An anisotropic creep model is included in order to capture

settlements of the second and third stages of the municipal

solid waste compressive curve plotted in Fig. 1. The mechanical creep is caused by different mechanisms such as

viscous deformation and crushing of larger particles, consolidation in micropore systems, ravelling and so on. In

general, these phenomena are related to the action of

stresses mainly due to the load of overburden layers and

should be clearly distinguished from settlements induced by

the biodegradation of organic matter, which is not considered here. Therefore, it is assumed that compressive stresses

cause such mechanical deformations. Furthermore, the compaction occurs mainly in the direction of the load itself.

Thus the rate of inelastic creep D Bcr is formulated as a

product of the dyad of the principal directions n of the

stresses of the basic matrix T B and the associated creep rate

_ cr,

D Bcr

_ cr, n n

(15)

as a function of the stress level expressed by the principal

stress in the investigated direction T B and of the actual

density rt. The two influences are combined multiplicatively

_ cr,

B ! n

m

T

r

r1

A

ln max

ln

rt

r1 rt

0

|{z} |{z} |{z}

stress

density

deceleration

669

by the invariants of the inelastic strains ABin

Av 1 1 Av,0

q

3 1 2 I 1 ABin 4 I 2 ABin 8 I 3 ABin

(19)

initial state after emplacement of the waste compared to the

state, in which the material exhibits its loosest packing.

Thus, the value Av,0 is determined by

Av,0 1

r0

rmin

(20)

(16)

The parameter A is a basic value for the creep rate, which is

modified by three additional factors. In the first factor, the

ramp function ,. . .. ensures that only principal compressive stresses compact the material. The parameter 0 is set

to 1 kPa in order to obtain a dimensionless expression. The

parameter n controls the influence of the stresses. The

second factor includes the effect that under the same load

level waste in a looser state compacts faster than material in

a denser state using the ratio between the maximum density

rmax and the actual density rt. When the current density

reaches a final density r1, the rate goes down to zero,

which is included by the last term. Thereby, the final density

is non-linearly interpolated with two parameters av and bv

between the minimum density and the maximum density in

dependency on the actual stresses by

av

X

B

bv rmin

T

rmax

av

r1

(17)

X

B

bv

T

the equations (16)(20).

CONSTITUENTS

As mentioned before, the fibrous constituents increase the

strength of the material significantly. A characteristic texture

exists inside landfills due to the emplacement of the waste

in relatively thin layers. The fibres are orientated in a

horizontal plane, which is observed in situ by Gifford et al.

(1990) as well as by Cowland et al. (1993). In a micromechanical sense, the fibrous particles consist of very different materials wood, paper, plastics, metal or textiles.

Obviously, it is not possible to model all single particles,

themselves. Thus, a smeared approach over all fibrous constituents is applied here, as well. A transverse isotropic

elasticity law connects the stresses of the fibres T F and the

elastic Almansi strains AFel in order to consider the existing

anisotropy

T23

parameter set (A, n, m, av and bv ) has to be determined by

fitting the constitutive model against laboratory experiments,

for example laterally confined compression (oedometric)

tests.

The dry density rt changes owing to the deformation

process

rt

r0

1 Av

r0

det F

1 Av,0

150

(18)

T23

: C F : R F R F : AFel

(21)

fibrous plane, which may change during the deformation, see

Fig. 7. Thereby, the vectors N 1 and N 2 of the initial

configuration are mapped to the current configuration and

their images are used to construct the new local basis ni .

The elasticity tensor C F is displayed here by its inverse as

matrix

Load p

Load p

w, zz

max

125

400

500

max

300

200

100

Current volume dv

min

025

Test

Fit

050

min

v0

u0

075

100

Density: Mg/m3

T F R F T R F T

670

Initial configuration

Current configuration

N1 N2

f c, T F Tc, < 0

constant compressive strength value Tc, is set to zero. In

contrast, the fibres are able to carry considerable tensile

stresses. Thus, further failure criteria f t, are introduced

"

#

f t, TF, Tt,0 Th, AFin ; T B Ts, AFin ; T B < 0

|{z} |{z} |{z}

N2

n1 n 2

N1

G3

n2

g3

G2

n1

g2

initial

g1

G1

N T1

RF

N T1 NT2

C F1

1

B

E

B ?

B ?

B

B E

B ?

B

k

B

B

B Ek

B

B

B 0

B

B

B

B 0

B

B

@

0

(24)

nT2

nT1 nT2

?

E?

1

E?

k

Ek

k

Ek

k

Ek

1

Ek

softening

tensile strength

The first part Tt,0 is the initial tensile strength, which is

independent of the loading history, see the dark grey part of

the tensile strength in Fig. 8. The second part Th, models

the bonding mechanism in dependency on the stresses of the

basic matrix as well as the state of hardening by a multiplicative approach

Th, AFin ; T B Tm, T B h1, AFin

(25)

hardening

|{z}

nT1

NT2

RF0

(23)

21 ?

E?

1

2 Gk

1

0 C

C

C

0 C

C

C

C

0 C

C

C

C

C

0 C

C

C

C

0 C

C

C

1 A

2 Gk

(1996). Thereby, the load-depending tensile strength of the

fibres follows a trilinear function applying indirectly a linear

friction law

8

Tmin

>

>

>

>

>

for T BV, . 0

>

>

>

>

>

>

< Tmin Tmax Tmin T B

V,

B

T Bcrit

(26)

Tm, T

>

>

B

B

>

for

0

>

T

>

T

>

V,

crit

>

>

>

>

T

>

max

>

>

:

for T Bcrit . T BV,

(22)

The two important parameters E? and ? specify the

stiffness in the fibrous plane. Youngs modulus Ek and

Poissons ratio k describe the elastic deformation behaviour

parallel to the transversal axis. The shear modulus Gk

characterises the stressstrain relation regarding the transversal axis and the axes of the fibrous plane. Since no fibres act

orthogonal to the fibrous plane, the parameters Ek , k and

Gk are zero, but small values are set in order to avoid

numerical problems.

A Rankine criterion limits the stresses of the fibres T F .

Thus, each of the principal stresses T F of the fibrous

fraction has to fulfil the failure hypothesis fc, in the compressive regime

The clamp stress T BV, is the major stress of the basic matrix

acting in the plane orthogonal to the investigated principal

stress direction n of the fibrous fraction, see Fig. 8. It is

responsible for the bond and the anchorage of the fibres. If

T BV, has a high compressive value, the fibres are strongly

clamped in between granular particles. In contrast, if the

clamp stress is low or in the tensile regime, most of the

fibres may be pulled out from the basic matrix easily and

the resulting tensile strength is low. In the modelling ap-

Tearing

Bond failure

in orthogonal plane

Tt,0 Tm

Tt,0 Tmh1

Principal direction n2

Tmax

Maximum of

load-dependent

tensile strength

Clamp stress T BV

(bonding)

Tmin

Fibrous plane

Actually mobilised strength

due to hardening

Principal direction n1

Plane orthogonal to

principal direction n1

Tt,0

Initial strength

T Bcrit

Fibres

T BV

proach, the parameter Tmin characterises the load-independent part and the parameter Tmax the maximum tensile

strength that can be mobilised due to hardening. If the

clamp stress T BV, falls below a critical value T Bcrit , the fibres

start to rupture predominantly. Thus, a further increase of

the bonding effect does not result in a higher tensile strength

of the fibrous fraction. The hardening is modelled by a

power law. The inelastic strain component AFin, in the

direction of the investigated principal axis n controls the

hardening process with two parameters a and b

F

(27)

h1 AFin 1 a(b Ain, )

The tensile strength is reduced by ongoing extraction of

the fibres due to the occurrence of bonding failure or rupture

of single fibres. Thus, a softening term Ts, is added so that

the tensile strength can be lost completely. Since weak fibres

fail at a very early stage, the softening begins immediately

with the inelastic process. It is formulated as a product

(28)

Ts, AFin ; T B Tt,0 Tm, h2, AFin

using a power law for modelling the ongoing of softening

with parameters c, d and e

F

e

h2, AFin 1 c(d [ Ain, ] )

(29)

The associative flow rule is formulated using Lagrangian

multipliers _ Fpl,

X

@ f c, X F @ f t,

D Fpl

_ Fpl,

_ pl,

(30)

@ TF

@ TF

failure condition related to the multiplier.

Figure 9 demonstrates the one-dimensional behaviour of

the developed model. Thus, the total strain A xx is increased

monotonically. The stress T Fxx is obtained by multiplying the

elastic strain component AFel,xx by Youngs modulus E? .

When the stress T Fxx reaches the initial strength Tt,0, irreversible strains are produced by ongoing of loading. At first,

the tensile strength increases due to hardening. Later, the

stress T Fxx decreases, caused by the softening. Variation of

the clamp stress T BV, shows the included effect of bonding

failure. Thus, for low bonding T BV 0 the mobilised tensile

strength becomes Tt,0 + Tmin only, whereas the anchorage is

so strong in the case of high bonding T BV T Bcrit that the full

tensile strength Tt,0 + Tmax can be mobilised.

A well-known problem connected to modelling softening

is the mesh dependency of the solutions obtained in structural analyses with the finite-element method. In this instance,

80

Hardening only

Tt,0 Tmax

60

T BV T Bcrit

40

0 T BV T Bcrit

671

Of course, this zone tends to become smaller and smaller as

the mesh is refined. In the limit case of elements with

infinitesimally small width, the zone vanishes and no energy

is dissipated during the inelastic deformation process, which

is obviously an unphysical behaviour. Non-local approaches

are developed for modelling damage or softening in describing failure of concrete, in metal plasticity and so on, see

Bazant & Jirasek (2002) or Velde et al. (2009), in order to

obtain a unique mesh-independent solution. The transfer of

such approaches to the developed model for municipal solid

waste is an outstanding task for the future. Nevertheless, the

strength model in its presented form is implemented into a

finite-element code and applied for structural analyses

(Krase, 2008).

PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION

Genetic algorithms or evolution strategies, for example

Pohlheim (2006), are effective numerical methods for parameter identification. Kowalsky & Ahrens (1997) define an

objective function for the underlying minimisation problem

Ysim,i Yexp,i dt

n

X

wi

(31)

f ob

Yexp,max,i t i

i1

The difference Ysim,i Yexp,i of stresses, forces or deformations between numerical simulation and laboratory test

number i is integrated over the test duration t i . The

derivation is scaled by the maximum value Yexp,max, i and the

test duration. A weighting factor w i controls the influence of

every laboratory test.

The developed constitutive model is validated by different

laboratory tests. Oedometric tests are carried out at the

Leichtwei Institute, TU Braunschweig, on mechanical

biological pre-treated waste from the landfill Meisenheim,

Germany. Such a waste contains only a low portion of

fibrous constituents. Therefore, the fibres are totally neglected in this simulation setting nF to zero. Table 1 lists

available information about the samples of two oedometric

tests. The oedometer has a diameter of 600 mm and the

initial height of the material filled in is about 500 mm.

The parameters for the compaction model are obtained

employing the genetic algorithm for the material 1. Poissonss number is pre-defined to 0.3. Furthermore, the

shear strength parameters are set to 308 for the friction angle

j and to 5 kPa for the cohesion c under a volume preserving

angle of dilatancy of 08. Then, the same parameter set is

used for reproducing the test with material 2, changing

slightly the model parameters rmin , rmax and bv that describe

the states with lowest and highest density and the interpolation between them, respectively. A critical comparison of the

obtained results, plotted in Fig. 10, proves the ability of the

proposed model to fit the two laboratory tests for all three

applied vertical loads Cauchy stress zz values of 90, 220

and 330 kPa. Significant differences between simulation and

measurement only occur in the unloading phase simulating

Tt,0 Tmin

T BV 0

Tt,0

20

001

002

003

Applied strain, Axx

004

005

Initial wet density

Initial dry density r

Treatment

Material 1

Material 2

< 60 mm

1470 kg/m3

950 kg/m3

Sieving

< 300 mm

1300 kg/m3

810 kg/m3

No sieving

Vertical displacement, w: m

0

Test material 1

Simulation material 1

Test material 2

Simulation material 2

zz 90 kPa

005

zz

v0

u0

010

zz 220 kPa

015

0

500

zz 300 kPa

1000

1500

2000

Time, t : h

2500

3000

3500

parameters.

Tensile tests on municipal solid waste from the landfill

Gottingen, Germany, are used to calibrate the model of the

fibrous constituents. The waste has an initial dry density of

404 kg/m3 and an initial wet density of 750 kg/m3 . With

respect to dry mass, it consists of 28.5% mixed material

passing a 8 mm filter and 43.7% mixed material passing a

40 mm filter. The particles with diameter larger than 40 mm

are composed of 4.4% textiles, 2.4% mineral matter, 9.9%

wood and leather, 0.8% metals, 3.3% hard plastics, 4.7%

soft plastics and 2.3% paper and cardboard. Thus, the

amount of fibrous constituents is comparatively high and the

volume fraction of the fibres is assumed to be 0.20. The test

consists of four different levels of vertical loading 100,

200, 300 and 400 kPa under laterally confined displacements, in which time-dependent settlements occur in addition. Therefore, the test is used to validate the mechanical

creep model, too. After decaying of settlements, the displacement-controlled tensile test is carried out. The box (base

area 3.00 m 3 1.00 m) with the waste sample inside is split

into two parts and one of them is pulled away in a

horizontal direction until the maximum of the tensile force

is reached, see Fig. 11. Then, the part of the box which has

been moved is pushed back and the next stage begins by

increasing the vertical load. The last tensile test is repeated

and the applied horizontal displacement is increased until

the softening of the material becomes apparent.

The simulation assumes a homogeneous stress and strain

distribution inside the box. Not all desired data are available

owing to the complexity and the difficulties in carrying out

the test. For instance, no information exists about stresses in

the horizontal direction during the creep period. Nevertheless, the complex stressstrain history is simulated completely and the curves of laboratory experiment and numerical

simulation are compared in Fig. 12, displaying the temporal

development of the vertical deformation w and in Fig. 13

plotting the real horizontal Cauchy stresses xx against the

applied horizontal deformation u.

The settlement behaviour as well as the tensile tests are

reproduced quite well. The settlements are optimised in view

of the higher vertical loading steps. Nevertheless, the simulated displacements for the first vertical load level are fitted

satisfactorily. Some differences exist in the second and third

stages. In contrast, the final value under the highest vertical

load is obtained more or less exactly, which is enforced by

setting a higher weighting factor w i in the objective function

for the genetic algorithm. By this method, the main goal of

reproducing the correct level of stresses and the softening

behaviour of the fibres is reached in a satisfactory way. Only

the accurate development of the tensile stresses in the hardening range is not reproduced exactly for the first tensile

test, see Fig. 13. Table 3 summarises the obtained model

parameters.

NUMERICAL METHODS AND STRUCTURAL

ANALYSIS

The principle of virtual work in its Lagrangian representation ensures forces equilibrium

E: F 1 nB T B nF T F F T dv0

dv0

u rw,0 g dv0

dv0

d0

zz 100 kPa

u0

060

Sample of waste

Tensile force

zz 200 kPa

zz 300 kPa

2500

5000

7500

Time, t : h

150 m

Rollings

10 000

12 500

300

Test

Simulation

200

zz

100

0

u, xx

0

150 m

v0

zz 400 kPa

150 m

Tensile way

Load cell (pressure)

High-pressure pad Box

Box

Load cell (tension)

Distance measurement

w, zz

040

E 9118 kPa; 0.30

A 4.54 3 107 1/s; n 0.87; m 7.9

av 0.5

bv 20.0; rmin 700 kg/m3 ; rmax 1750 kg/m3

bv 22.8; rmin 690 kg/m3 ; rmax 1640 kg/m3

u t R,0 d0

Test

Simulation

080

Elasticity

Creep

Density

Material 1

Material 2

(32)

020

Vertical displacement, w: m

672

01

005

Horizontal displacement, u: m

v0

015

j 308; c 5 kPa; 08

A 2.26 3 108 1/s; n 0.94; m 10.1

av 0.5, bv 25.5; rmin 300 kg/m3 ;

rmax 1470 kg/m3

Elasticity

Shearing

Creep

Density

Vertical displacement: m

Basic matrix

673

05

Case 1 point A

Case 1 point B

Case 2 point A

Case 2 point B

10

15

Fibrous constituents

20

Ek 1 kPa; k 0 ; Gk 0.5 kPa

Tt,0 40 kPa; Tmin 40 kPa; Tmax 1500 kPa;

T Bcrit 400 kPa

a 2.74; b 154.1

c 1.24; d 18933.8; e 2.81

Elasticity

Strength

Hardening

Softening

10 000

20 000

30 000

Time: h

40 000

50 000

1000

1:2

metres

1000

2000

Av:

08

10

07

15

x

06

05

20

25

30

25

30

04

10

traction t R,0 on the non-deformed geometry d0 , and volume

forces rw,0 g. The NewtonRaphson procedure solves the

non-linear algebraic equation system applying standard

finite-element method with quadratic shape functions for the

displacements u, see Bathe (2002). The material equations

are integrated with a predictorcorrector stress algorithm at

the Gaussian points of the finite elements, for example Simo

& Hughes (1998) or Pinsky et al. (1983). By this means, the

internal variables are transformed from the last converged

configuration to the current configuration and trial stresses

are computed during the elastic predictor step. If the

obtained trial stresses violate the failure hypotheses or generate inelastic creep, the time-depending material equations

are integrated applying an Euler-backward scheme during

the inelastic corrector step.

A fictive landfill is investigated concerning its time-dependent settlement behaviour. The parameter set is taken from

the oedometric test of material 1 on pre-treated waste of the

landfill Meisenheim, Germany, summarised in Table 1

case 1, and from the material of the tensile test case 2.

The landfill with a height of 10 m has an inclination of 1:2

and is loaded at time t0 suddenly. The waste is emplaced

with an initial wet density rw,0 of 1400 kg/m3 for the first

case and 750 kg/m3 for the second case, respectively. Fig. 14

sketches the geometry assuming plane strain conditions.

Figure 15 shows the development of vertical displacements in time of two distinctive points on top of the landfill

for the two scenarios. Point A is situated in the centre, point

B nearby the slope. One can easily detect that the settlements in the centre are higher than in the outer parts caused

by the stress distribution. Higher vertical compressive stresses occur in the inner part of the landfill and lead to more

compaction. Thus, bowl-shaped settlements emerge on the

top, which can be seen in Fig. 16 and Fig. 17. The two

figures show the distribution of the volume strain Av for case

10

Av:

08

10

07

15

x

06

05

20

04

changes from the initial value 0.35 to 0.75 in the inner

part immediately after loading. Thus, the dry density increases from 400 kg/m3 up to 520 kg/m3 . Owing to the

ongoing process of compaction, the inelastic volume strain

reaches values of about 0.85 corresponding to a dry

density of about 550 kg/m3 after 2 years. Although the creep

process is not finished at this time, most of the total

deformation of about 2 m is already present.

The parameter set for the material model can be varied

for every finite element. In this way, inhomogeneous conditions can be simulated leading to differential settlements on

the top of the landfill, which are most important for design

and construction of cover systems. Furthermore, the complete history of building up of a landfill can be reconstructed

numerically using advanced strategies in finite-element technology. Including models for the biodegradation of organic

matter and the transport of pore fluids is the most important

issue to address in future work, in order to complete the

description.

674

Basic ideas for the description of deformation behaviour

and strength of municipal solid waste are presented. The

split of the solid material into two fractions, one including

more grainy particles and the other all fibrous constituents,

captures the anisotropic strength of municipal solid waste

observed in laboratory tests as well as in situ measurements.

An anisotropic model describes mechanical creep. The consideration of all aspects in a three-dimensional approach

naturally increases the number of required model parameters.

It is shown how the model parameters can be determined by

genetic algorithms. Numerical simulations reproduce laboratory experiments quite well, with complex loading history

like the large tensile test.

Softening of the fibres occurs in the post-failure branch

during the tensile test. This must be investigated in future

work, to determine whether this effect can be neglected in

slope stability analyses in order to reduce the required number of model parameters.

Further research should focus on applying the anisotropic

creep model to the long-term prediction of settlements,

which is one of the most important engineering tasks dealing

with landfills. The formulation of the creep rate in dependency on the solid density allows an easy coupling with a

biodegradation model, which describes the reduction of the

amount of solid matter. The solid density changes due to the

conversion, which also influences the creep rate. In addition,

future work should investigate whether the differentiation

into basic matrix and fibres is important in this case.

The application of the model on test fields and on in situ

landfills is necessary to verify the chosen approach. The

performed structural analyses prove the capacity of the

developed tool, which requires a reliable database for future

long-term prognoses. The model helps to understand the

basic mechanisms and to interpret observed in situ situations

and measured data. Using adaptive strategies and coupling

model predictions with real landfill measurements will improve the monitoring strategies as well as the numerical

analyses for interpretation of the measured data.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The German Research Foundation (DFG) granted financial

support within project B6 of SFB 477 Life cycle assessment

of structures via innovative monitoring.

NOTATION

General

A

Av

Av,0

C

D

dv

dv

F

g

I1

I2

I3

J2D

J3D

n

R

T

t

t0

t R,0

u

w

current volume strain

initial volume strain

elasticity tensor

time rate of strains

total differential volume

differential volume occupied by component

deformation gradient

gravity vector

1st invariant

2nd invariant

3rd invariant

2nd invariant of deviator

3rd invariant of deviator

volume ratio of component

rotational tensor

Kirchhoff stress tensor

current time point

time point of beginning of observation

surface traction

displacement vector

weighting factor

x placement vector at current time

Ysim value in simulation

Yexp value in test

E virtual strains

u virtual displacement vector

rt current dry density

r0 initial dry density

rw,0 initial wet density

Cauchy stress tensor

A, m, n

av , bv

c

E

f

mF

n

Q

_ cr,

F

_ pl

F

Q

rmax

rmin

r1

j

parameters for density interpolation

cohesion

Youngs modulus

failure hypothesis basic matrix

parameter in failure hypothesis

eigenvector of stress tensor

potential for flow rule

creep rate in direction

parameter in failure hypothesis

multiplier flow rule

parameter in failure hypothesis

parameter in potential Q

Poissons ratio

maximum density

minimum density

final density at end of compaction

friction angle

dilatance angle

a, b

c, d, e

E?

Ek

fc

ft

Gk

h1

h2

Tc

T Bcrit

Th,0

Tm

Tmax

Tmin

Ts,0

Tt,0

T BV,

_ Fpl:

?

k

model parameters in softening function

Youngs modulus transversal isotropic elasticity

Youngs modulus transversal isotropic elasticity

failure hypothesis fibres under compressive stress

failure hypothesis fibres under tensile stress

shear modulus transversal isotropic elasticity

hardening function

softening function

compressive strength of fibres

critical value for clamp stress

increasing of tensile strength due to hardening

mobilised tensile strength

maximum of load-dependent tensile strength

minimum of load-dependent tensile strength

reduction of tensile strength due to softening

initial tensile strength

clamp stress of basic matrix

multiplier flow rule

Poissons ratio transversal isotropic elasticity

Poissons ratio transversal isotropic elasticity

Subscripts

B

cr

el

F

in

pl

0

basic matrix

creep

elastic

fibrous constituents

inelastic

failure

initial value

Mathematical operations

det

grad

.

gradient, spatial derivative

tensor product

dot product A . b (a b ) . c (b i ci ) a

: double dot product (a b c d ) : (e f ) (ci e i )

(d j f j ) (a b )

(. . .)T transpose of a second-order tensor

(. . .)T23 change of 2nd and 3rd basis

(. . .)1 inverse of a tensor

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