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The University of the West Indies

Faculty of Humanities and Education


School of Education, St. Augustine (2009-2010)
Diploma in Education

Clinical Supervision Proposal Vera Dookie-Ramlal


Supervisor Mr. R. Hackett

Introduction................................................................................................................3

History of Emergence of Clinical Supervision as a professional development


strategy........................................................................................................................3
Purpose of Clinical Supervision.................................................................................5
School Context (Status of Teaching, Learning and Assessment, Areas of
weaknesses and opportunities)...................................................................................6
Extent of the need for Clinical Supervision in my department / school.................16
The teacher selected.................................................................................................17
Rationale for Identification and selection of teacher as participant in clinical
supervision exercises.................................................................................................17
Profile of teacher (Academic and professional qualifications, Experience,
Commitment, Personality, Age, Gender etc.)...........................................................18
Other relevant issue..................................................................................................19
Methodology.............................................................................................................19
Description of the clinical supervision procedure for development of the teacher
(stages).......................................................................................................................19
Areas of instructional pedagogy to be used to be developed by teacher (detailed
list).............................................................................................................................25
Rationale for selecting each pedagogical area (with supporting evidence from the
literature)...................................................................................................................25
Expected outcomes/ objectives for each selected area.............................................27
Clear descriptions of how these areas were selected...............................................28
Resources and strategies to be employed.................................................................29
Rationale for keeping journal and Clear description of how you will employ your
journal to capture the outcomes, challenges, insights and successes of the Clinical
Supervision Exercise.................................................................................................30
Proposals of how the clinical exercises may be continued / instituted at my school
...................................................................................................................................31
Conclusion................................................................................................................32
Brief summary of what is proposed, highlighting objectives and expected
outcomes....................................................................................................................32

Introduction
History of Emergence of Clinical Supervision as a professional
development strategy

According to Jeffrey Glanz the field of supervision has been a practical one, concerned
more with administrative and supervisory strategies for school operations than with
analysis and introspection. Glanz also argued that supervision as a field of study has
little by way of history.

In examining the history of supervision, Sergiovanni and Starratt, in their recently revised
textbook on supervision, retitled Supervision: A Redefinition, assert that numerous
changes and understandings about schooling, teaching, and leadership, among other
factors, necessitate a redefinition of supervisory practice and theory. This redefinition
includes the disconnection of supervision from hierarchical roles and a focus on
community as the primary metaphor for schooling. Through the word community the
authors of this comprehensive, up-to-date, and widely acknowledged text on supervision
denote the fact that responsibility for supervision has widened to include not only
supervisors, but teachers, mentors, consultants, and other school and district-based
personnel. Still, Sergiovanni and Starratt maintain that the supervisor's role remains
important but is understood differently.

Generally, though writers on the topic agree that the emphasis has shifted from evaluating
teachers to promoting teacher development and building professional community among
teachers (Sergiovanni et. al., 1998). Indeed, the role of principals and other supervisors
as instructional leaders has given way to supervisors as developers and leaders of leaders.
This changing role has not diminished the reality that supervision continues to emerge as
a key role and function in the operations of schools.

However, it is still debatable

whether this new supervision will result in increased regulation and control of teachers
and teaching or whether it will lead to greater professionalism and improved teaching and
learning in the school system.

Indeed, historical research reveals that supervision routines, beliefs and practices began
emerging as soon as therapists, and not just teachers, wished to train others (Leddick &
Bernard, 1980). The focus of early training, however, was on the efficacy of a particular
theory for example, behavioral, psychodynamic or client centered therapy.

As

supervision became more focused three types of models emerged namely developmental,
integrated and orientation specific.

Developmental models focus on new areas of growth in a life learning process.


Integrated models, on the other hand, emphasize interventions geared towards the needs
of the supervisee instead of the supervisors own preferences and styles. The orientation
specific supervision model conversely, adopts a psychoanalytic approach to supervision
and takes into account empathy, genuineness and unconditional positive regard (Leddick
& Bernard, 1980).

All in all, the models of supervision point to a safe supervisory relationship, task
directed structure, methods addressing a variety of learning styles, analyzing and
elaboration of pertinent issue. As individuals, Leddick (1980) believes ones personal
model of supervision will grow, change and transform as one gains experience and
insight.

Purpose of Clinical Supervision


The main purpose of clinical supervision is the construction of individualized learning
plans for supervisees working with clients (Leddick, George R., 1994). Furthermore,
supervision is concerned primarily with improving instruction rather than summative
evaluation (Glickman, Carl. D., 1989). At the core of this instruction is ultimately the
achievement of student learning but accompanying that is also a commitment to an
understanding of student learning (Hackett, 2009).

When one talks about, clinical

supervision there are other adjoining issues which include curriculum development and
design, awareness of students learning styles and effective learning at the three main
domains. Clinal supervision also ensures effective assessment procedures whether this
evaluation is traditional such as tests or authentic such as practical exercises or field work
and portfolios (Doolittle, 1994).

Clinical supervision is also grounded in benefits which are of a more macro nature.
Among these are higher levels of professionalism, the need to link teaching to the aims of
education, and national developmental goals specifically Vision 2020 which distinctly
talks about developing innovative people (Vision 2020 Draft National Strategic Plan, p
16, 2005).

With respect to the issue of professionalism, instructional supervisors should reinforce


strengths demonstrated by the teacher as well as address any areas of weaknesses. The
key focus remains the growth and development of the teacher as propounded by the
developmental model of supervision (Leddick, 1994).

In summary, therefore, clinical supervision includes: objective feedback on the current


state of a teachers instruction, diagnosis and solution of instructional problems, provision
of assistance to the supervisee on the skilful use of instructional strategies and the
development of a positive attitude about continuous professional development (Hackett,
Raymond. S, 2006).

School Context (Status of Teaching, Learning and Assessment, Areas


of weaknesses and opportunities)

The key issues of concern here are teacher training, classroom effectiveness, assessment
strategies and technology integration. At present, based on survey data collected by the
researcher, approximately 50% of the teachers possess teaching training certification.
However, whether this is reflective of ones effectiveness in the classroom is an area that
requires further research and investigation.

Based on observation and focused discussions, one can conclude that approximately 30%
of the teachers recognize the need to adapt their teaching and learning approaches to cater
for the students needs and ability levels. It seems as though another third of the teachers
are present in the classroom but very little teaching / learning takes place. The remaining
teachers are either very examination oriented and capitalize on the philosophy that
academic success is a true indicator that effective teaching / learning is occurring in the
classroom.

Another critical area, which is that of assessment, can be viewed from two main angles.
Firstly, assessment may be of a summative nature, primarily at the final examination level
and including coursework assignments namely the School Based Assessment and termly /
monthly examinations. The second main perspective is that of formative assessment
which comprises in-class testing during and at the end of the lesson.

Based on the CXC examination results, the data shows that just about 30% of the students
graduate with a full certificate, with a school population of 1100 students, this amounts to
just about 300-400 students. This statistic whilst being reflective of the overall national
pass rate, is not a true indication of the performance of some schools in the nation, where
pass rates may scale to as high as 99% and as low as 30% or even lower. This therefore
means that there is ample room for improvement in examination results at the school.

At the formative level of assessment, it was widely agreed by academic staff that this
strategy is practiced by an average of 50% of the teaching staff.

The reasons for the

absence of greater utilization of ongoing testing, may be grounded in deeper school


problems such as the size of some classes as well as the varying ability levels which
sometimes poses difficulties for teachers in utilizing comprehensive formative assessment
tools.

There are quite a number of areas where weaknesses and opportunities present
themselves within the school. In terms of weaknesses or problematic areas the following
were discovered as highlighted in the table below.

Figure 1.1
Problems at BSCS
CORE PROBLEMS

SYMTOMATIC PROBLEMS

STUDENT BASED
Indiscipline
Special Students
Gambling
Unpunctuality and Absenteeism
Fighting
Social Problems, Low self-esteem
Lack of Conflict Resolution
Failure to complete assignments

Curriculum
Illiteracy
Student Perception
Lack of Parental Support

STAFF-BASED
Lack of teacher training
High teacher expectations
Low productivity

Regularity and Punctuality


Demotivation
Unsupervised classes
Low morale among some members of staff*

MANAGEMENT-BASED
Poor communication
Limited methods of discipline
Inert Management Team
Ineffective Dean System
Poor stores and office management
Inadequate Training

Lack of loyalty to school


Demotivated
Overworked / Stresses / Burn out workers
Complacency by some members

MINISTRY-BASED
Student / Teacher ratio
Space and Classroom design
Lack of support staff
Poor staff accommodation
Size of the school / Capacity
Lack of control (quality of intake, funds)*

Poor / Unclear systems and procedures


Archaic information systems
Untrained employees

EXTERNAL
Insufficient Parental Support
Impact of society and media
Inadequate funding

Lack of respect
Deviant societal norms,
Poor expectations

MANAGEMENT / MINISTRY
** denotes secondary data collection
*
8

Lack of orientation programmes for both Overworked teachers


staff and students.
Inadequate emphasis on extra and co- Lack of accountability (sharing premises with
curricula activities.
Snail pace for disciplining teachers (TSC)

YTEPP)

ALL STAKEHOLDERS
Poor image of the school

Poor academic performance

The main areas where opportunities and threats facing the school, which also had implications
for the supervisory process, are identified below:

INTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

STRENGTHS
WEAKNESSES
Principal is open to ideas and suggestions
Insufficient training for educators and managers
(Heads, Deans, Teachers, Administrators etc)
from staff members
Many multi-talented, committed staff
Low visibility of deans and minimal overall
members
effectiveness of the Dean system
Some members of staff are continuous
Lack of physical resources for HODs
learners
Existence and operation of a management
Some staff members lack commitment whilst
team, including trained heads of
others are overworked, although there is a
departments and deans, and various
reduction in the pupil / teacher ratio
committees and subject planning sessions.
Established structures and standard
Need for upgrading of certain areas of plant
operating procedures in the school.
Warm, and energetic students with many
Inadequate space for school activities
talents
Heterogeneous nature of school community
Lack of control or authority over critical areas
eg: funding, recruitment and entry / exit of
staff.
A wide range of courses and certification
Ineffective management of the CVQ
are available (CXC, CAPE, CVQ)
programme in the technical / vocational
education
Avenues for creative expression exist
Poor parenting of some students
Improving laboratories (language,
The problems of some students are outside the

computer), workshops and library. Also


establishment of a new computer laboratory
Student involvement in activities in the
wider community (for example, Operation
Shoebox)
Seven year school affords students the
opportunity of further education
Existence of a democratically elected
student council and prefect system.
Presence of a Guidance Officer

Existence of an Audio / Visual Technician.


Conscientious and committed Safety
Officers
Existence of PTA, LSB - two key
stakeholder groups.
Functioning Past Pupil Association

scope of the school


Underperformance and apathy of some
students and teachers including Absenteeism
and Punctuality problems; indiscipline
(Leveling off of results in external
examinations) etc.
Decline in literacy and numeracy skills of
students.
The impact of the Student Council is
inadequate
Less than efficient operational processes which
demotivates teachers (printing, photocopying,
requisitioning teaching materials etc)
Need for enhancement of school spirit
Inadequate communication including internal
communication challenges
Inadequate
support
for
extra-curricula
activities
Lack of adequate support mechanisms re:
MOE (Student Support Services, T & EDU Training
and Employee Development Unit

EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

VARIABLES

OPPORTUNITIES

POLITICAL

Implementation of position of
deans
and
heads
of
departments as a permanent
part of the school management
structure.
Creation of an additional post
of Vice Principal
Secondary
Education
Modernization programme re: ongoing projects
Programmes provided by UTT
to school graduates

THREATS
Intake of students who score
from as low as 40% at the
SEA
(Secondary
Entrance
Assessment)

Information about changes at


the Ministerial level is not
always available in a timely
manner
Unplanned manipulation and
at
time
autocratic
implementation
of
the
education policy
Lack of timely dissemination
of information re: SEMP and
CAPE
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Expansion and Implementation


of such programmes as HYPE
(Helping
Youth
Prepare
for
Employment),
MUST (MultiSector skills Training) and CCC
(Civilian Conservation Corporation)

etc.
Increase in the number of
national scholarships

Free tertiary education


Fully
functional
Officers

Safety

Existence of MOEs Students


Support Services and EAP
Conversion of all schools to
full time Secondary schools
can now groom ALL our
students from Form 1

VARIABLES

OPPORTUNITIES

MTS workers inadequate


security and maintenance
services

World economic slowdown


and
falling
government
revenues
impacting
the
technical upgrade of the
school. (Teachers may opt to
transfer to a newer school).
Full
implementation
of
CSME
Lack of implementation of
PMAP and Reward system
by the MOE
Insufficient training provided
by MOE
Inability of the MOE to
address pressing problems
facing the school system.
(Training, Timely filling of
vacancies,
Sourcing
of
competent recruits) etc.

THREATS

11

ECONOMIC

Possible
funding
and sponsorship from the local
business community
Potential resource persons are
available in nearby industries,
including past students who are
even business owners

Light industries in
the community provide
employment opportunities for
graduates

SOCIAL

Heterogeneous nature of the


community
provides
for
diversity of interaction
Valuable support provided by
the Community Police /
members of the nearby police
station

TECHNOLOGICAL

Innovative technologies in the


marketplace
Recent acquisition of new
computers, digital language
laboratory, security cameras and
other pieces of equipment by
the school

Close proximity of bars and


internet caf
Difficulty in persuading the
business entities to partner
with the school on several
ventures
Hurdle in corresponding and
following up with formal
communication methods in
order to get businesses on
board in partnering with the
school.
Potential
increases
in
unemployment
Absentee
parents/
Poor
parenting
High crime rate
Evolution of gang subculture
HIV / AIDS
Drug culture
New social order (anything
goes)
Need for continuous training
of staff in use of technology
Need to continue the upgrade
process of the electrical
system to accommodate the
increased power needs form
use of more technological
devices
Prevalence of mobile phones
Competition
from
fully
computerized
schools
including
Smart schools eg Trinity
East.

12

ENVIRONMENTAL

Potential for the LSB / PTA /


NGOs and other community
groups to become involved in
the environmental enhancement
of the school

Noise and odours from


surrounding
industries
sometimes
reach
an
unacceptable level
Poor drainage is a problem
during the rainy season
Poor national culture /
attitude
towards
the
environment and transfer of
littering attitudes from the
home
to
the
school
environment

GAPS (Challenges and the opportunities they present)


STAFF ISSUES:
1. Lack of Training - impacts on the performance of staff, students and the
operational efficiency of the school (Heads, Deans, Remedial Teachers,
Administrative staff etc)
2. Low performance and productivity as a result of lack of resources / support
and de-motivation
3. Orientation of new staff members needs to be improved
4. Management structure of the school can be improved (Deans Need for greater
visibility of deans and Heads) {Department Plan, Co-ordinator Role,
Succession Planning, Coaching and Mentoring etc.}
5. Underutilization of the human resource capacity for improvement within the
school
6. Regularity and Punctuality which negatively impacts the daily delivery of the
national curriculum
7. Demotivated staff members who are in need of guidance and support systems.
Low morale / school spirit of some members of staff.
8. Underperforming staff members who simply go through the motion and believe
that presence is performance.
9. Unsupervised classes which results in an unpleasant and unproductive school
environment
10. Teacher function not Educator role takes precedenceSTUDENT ISSUES:
1. Underperformance and apathy of some students as per examination results
2. Lack of parental support
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3. Curriculum unsuitability for quite a large number of students who are unable
to meet the minimum pass mark for examination purposes. ( To what extent
can we say that this area has been sufficiently addressed? Re: CVQ
(standardized and student based qualification)
4. Literacy and Numeracy problems among special students which comprises
approximately 50% of the student population
5. Student Council and Prefect System is not functioning effectively
6. Insufficient Extra and Co-curricula activities as avenues for students to explore
and display their aesthetic, sporting and leadership skills.
7. Different learning styles of students which are not catered for, causing
psychological withdrawal and / or indiscipline of some students.
8. Indiscipline and infraction of rules among student population without stringent
penalties enforcement. (Gambling, Fighting, poor resolution of petty conflict,
Unpunctuality and Absenteeism, Failure to complete homework assignment
9. Demotivated students who are not performing to the best of their ability
10. Poor perception of the school by many students
MANAGEMENT ISSUES:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Leadership and Management issues signaling the need for training.


Communication - inadequate flow of information throughout the school
Motivational incentives are largely not provided.
Inert Management System (Short lived managerial efforts, Inability to initiate
change and devise and implement much needed policy initiatives, Stores and
Office management)
Overworked / Stressed / Burn out workers
Complacency by some members.
Inadequate security underutilized / underperforming electronic security
system. Greater involvement of MTS is required.
Poor maintenance of the school

MINISTRY
1. Infrastructural constraints re: Space and Classroom design (URGENT need for
school upgrade. This has become a major issue especially since schools that
were built at the same time as our school are now being upgraded / rebuilt.
To add insult to injury it was communicated that such a project was to take
effect, now there is absolutely no word on when such will materialize. Thus,
a high degree of uncertainty and a sense of hopelessness has overshadowed
the staff)
2. Poor staff accommodation lack of storage space, adequate office furniture
etc.

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3. Lack of support staff / substitute teachers to fill in for teachers who are on
short term leave.
4. Effectiveness of the Student Support Services Unit at the MOE is questionable
5. Lack of control quality of intake, funds
6. Poor / unclear systems and procedures
7. Archaic information systems
8. Untrained employees
9. Disciplining of teachers occurs at snail-pace
10. Lack of accountability as a result of sharing of premises with other bodies
such as YTEPP and continuation classes
EXTERNAL ISSUES:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Insufficient parental support


Need for greater community support and involvement
Poor image of the school
Deviant social norms
Impact of society and media including cell-phones and musical devices

Barataria South Secondary School, Strategic Plan, 2009-2012


Please note that all the areas where opportunities, weaknesses and gaps exist has
implications for the teaching / learning process as a whole and hence they have been
included to reflect the wholistic state of the school.

Extent of the need for Clinical Supervision in my department / school


Historically, as with most schools in the island there has been much talk about
Performance Management and its accompanying supervisory elements. These talks and
their progress in the form of workshops and dissemination of relevant literature dates
back to 1995 thats fourteen (14) years ago. This means that although the programme
was launched, it really has not materialized in the manner in which it was envisioned.
At the secondary school which I am affiliated to, there have been announcements at
meetings which acknowledge that as professionals we should be ready for such a system,
whenever it is implemented. Its approval though meant that such critical elements as

15

properly trained personnel, human resource documents such as the Job Specification and
relevant and updated Performance Appraisal instruments ought to be prepared and
accepted by all relevant stakeholders. To date, some of these crucial elements have been
completed in principle only.

However, other hurdles have also prevented its

implementation including wide span of control, insufficient training for Heads of


Department and other supervisory staff, unclear standards for evaluation and so on.
Despite these hurdles, due to rising states of uneasiness in the school and some
improvement with respect to span of control the school has once again embarked on a
programme of clinical supervision. To begin the process, literature on the topic was once
again distributed in order to ensure all participants are au courant with the process.
Finally, as was mentioned previously, the myriad problems plaguing the teaching /
learning process signals the need for urgent implementation so that issues within this
sphere can be ironed out. However, one acknowledges that this is not by any means an
overnight affair. On the contrary, given the dynamics of the multiplicity of factors which
interplay at the institution, one can safely say that the process would be long and arduous
but certainly not insurmountable.

The teacher selected


Rationale for Identification and selection of teacher as participant in
clinical supervision exercises
The teacher selected, Ms. T. Charran, is one of four teachers in the school who specializes
in the teaching of Principles of Business. Of this subgroup within the business
department, she is the only member who has not undertaken teacher training. It must be
noted that the business department consist of a total of ten teachers and one lone female

16

Head of Department. The Business Department is one of eight departments within the
school.

Despite the initial hesitation of Ms.Charran to engage in the exercise after much moral
suasion, she eventually succumbed to the idea. Ms. Charran was reminded of the benefits
of being a participant in the programme which includes:
1. The opportunity to engage in a planned and reflective approach to teaching and
learning
2. Assistance in the overall goals of the department
3. Preparatory work for teaching and learning at the post graduate level.
4. The opportunity to explore greater reach in the form of greater understanding and
application of the content by the students.

Profile of teacher (Academic and professional qualifications,


Experience, Commitment, Personality, Age, Gender etc.)
Qualifications: Ms Charan possesses a first degree in business management. She has not
pursued any further training.

Experience: The teacher selected has been teaching at the school for the past six years.
She has not taught at any other school in the system. I am yet to find out if she has
worked at any other establishment besides the teaching service.

17

Commitment: Based on observation and feedback from the Head of Department, Ms.
Charran displays a fairly high level of commitment to her work and the teaching of the
subject area. She is, however, not involved in any other aspects of the school.

Personality: Ms. Charran can be described as a warm and friendly teacher who is well
liked by students and teachers alike. She is 33 year old female who enjoys being a
teacher.

Other relevant issue


Ms. Charran still has doubts about engaging in the clinical supervision process but I am
hoping that she will not change her mind.

Methodology
Description of the clinical supervision procedure for development of
the teacher (stages)
The literature on Clinical Supervision identifies three major tenets in its implementation.
These are the pre-observation conference, the classroom observation and the postobservation conference. The clinical supervision exercise as outlined by Glickman 1990
uses five sequential steps as follows:
1.

Preconference with the teacher

2.

Observation

3.

Analyzing and interpreting observation and determining conference approach

4.

Post conference with the teacher

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5.

Critique of previous four steps.

Step One: The pre conference with the teacher. The supervisor sits with the teacher and
determines the reason and purpose for the observation, the focus for the observation, the
method and form of the observation to be used at this time of observation. Both the
teacher and the supervisor are clear about what will transpire. The teacher states his / her
personal concerns, needs and aspirations. The areas of instructional concerns are
identified in behavioural terms and the observation instrument to use in collecting the
data created or selected. A decision is also made about the time for observation.

Step Two: The actual classroom observation. The supervisor observes the teacher in the
classroom and collects data using the observation instruments agreed to in the preconference. Some of these include categorical frequencies, physical indicators,
performance indicators, visual diagramming, space utilization, focused questionnaire and
so on.

Step Three: The supervisor analyzes the data by himself . He lays our recorded pages of
observation and studies the information. The information is summarized by counting up
frequencies, determination of recurring patterns, isolation of a major occurrence, discover
which performance indicators were present and which were not. He then puts it in a
visual form for analysis by both parties.

Step Four: The post observation conference. The teacher and supervisor meet and analyze
the information. Every effort should be made to elicit the analysis of the data from the

19

teacher. It is extremely important that the data is true and accurate and is indeed a
complete representation of what actually occurred. The supervisor and the teacher
thereafter make plans for further improvement.

Step Five: the supervisor and teacher reflect on and critique the previous four steps. The
procedures from preconference to post conference are reviewed to determine whether
they were satisfactory or if revisions might be needed before repeating the sequence. A
number of questions can be asked to seek to determine ways to improve.
Questions such as:

What was valuable in this exercise?

What changes could be suggested?

Were we able to develop possible solutions?

These questions indicate that the supervisor is involved in an improvement effort in the
same manner as the supervisee.

The following format can be utilized during the pre-conferencing stage.


PRE-OBSERVATION CONFERENCE DATA SHEET
Teacher: ______________________

Observer: __________________

Class Level____________

Subject: ________________

Date _________

Time: ______________

What are the objectives of the lesson?


What type of lesson is it?
What are the specific observable student behaviors desired?
What do you expect the students to learn?

20

How will you know if the objectives have been met? Or that student learning has
occurred?
What specific teaching strategies /behaviors will be used?
What led to and what follows this lesson?
What would you like me (the observer) to concentrate on?
What type of observation would you like?

SOME OBSERVATION TECHNIQUES which can be utilized are:

Generic Observation
Using a standard evaluation form, the observer makes anecdotal notes and comments on
the class or lesson as a whole. Often these forms will have elements of a standard fivestep lesson plan or teacher competencies which can be checked or commented upon as
appropriate.

Detached Open-Ended Narrative.


Observer records every person, event or thing that attracts his or her attention. It involves
extensive writing to objectively record all significant class events, statements and
exercises.

Educational Criticism

21

Modeled after the style of an art critic, this format requires a skilled observer to evaluate
the lesson much as a critic evaluates a work of art, movie or book. Language is
expository and the writing tries to capture the tone or mood of the class.

Question-Response Patterns
Observer uses a seating chart to record the nature of student and teacher responses to
teacher generated questions.
Key:
-- Incorrect response
Teacher Prompt or encouragement
+ Correct Response
X Response cannot be classified as correct or incorrect
O Positive teacher feedback or praise

Teacher Questions
Observer can use the chart below to records all of the questions and interrogative
statements that a teacher makes. The questioning patterns are then analyzed.

QUESTION

TALLY

TOTAL

PERCENT

CATEGORY
Knowledge
Compare
Comprehension
Application
Analysis
Synthesis
Evaluation
Translation
22

Totals

The chart can be analyzed in terms of the teacher:


Giving Information
Questioning
Answering
Praising
Scolding

Verbal Interaction
Observer uses a seating chart to trace verbal statements in the class. Arrows indicate a full
statement directed to another person. Observer uses a new sheet every five minutes or so
and numbers the arrows. This method can help determine which students or areas of the
room are included or excluded.

Traffic Patterns
Using a diagram of the room, observer uses lines and arrows to trace movement patterns
of teacher and students. (Arrows are accompanied by times.) This may not be appropriate
if excessive group movement will be occurring during an activity.

Areas of instructional pedagogy to be used to be developed by


teacher (detailed list)

23

The main pedagogical areas to be covered are:


1.

Lesson Planning (First, determine the curriculum; that is, what the children will learn, what
they will be able to do upon completing the activities or work of the lesson. Second, determine
what the students already know, before beginning the lesson that can lead into the new
curriculum of the day. Be sure to include the exact examples, problems, projects, or activities
that will be used.)

2. Class participation and a more constructivist approach to teaching


3. Formative evaluation
4. Technology integration in lesson delivery.

Rationale for selecting each pedagogical area (with supporting


evidence from the literature)
Lesson Planning was selected since the teacher is new to this tool and has in the past
relied mainly on lesson notes. The research indicates that all students benefit from, and
appreciate well-structured lessons. According to Dr. Sandra Klitz lesson plans are
written by teachers to help them structure the learning for themselves and for the
students.

Another anonymous writer believes that effective teachers systematically and carefully
plan for productive use of instructional time. The same writer believes that the effective
teacher also needs to develop a plan to provide direction toward the attainment of the
selected objectives. The more organized a teacher is, the more effective the teaching, and
thus the learning, is. Indeed, writing daily lesson plans is a large part of being organized.

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Wider class participation and a more constructivist approach to teaching versus an


instructivist. Constructivism is the philosophy of learning from, and reflecting upon
ones own experiences. This is where individuals must build their own understandings of
the world. Everyone generates his or her own rules, which are used to make sense of
ones own experiences. Hence, learning is the process of altering prototypical minds to
accommodate new experiences. (Petree Allie, 2004, Tenner, Morton,1966).

The purpose of formative evaluation is to validate or ensure that the goals of the
instruction are being achieved and to improve the instruction, if necessary, by means of
identification and subsequent remediation of problematic aspects. Weston, Mc Alpine,
and Bordonaro, (1995). Formative evaluation is conducted to provide program staff
evaluative information useful in improving the program. Worthen, Sanders, and
Fitzpatrick, (1997). "When the cook tastes the soup, thats formative; when the guests
taste the soup, thats summative." Robert Stakes. According to Scriven, (1996),
formative evaluation is "is research-oriented vs. action-oriented". The "evaluations are
intended - by the evaluator - as a basis for improvement"
Use of technology in the classroom would enable the creation of lesson which not only
caters for the visual learner but also the child with literacy problems. Research from
Sudbury Northern Life Staff and Palliser Regional School in the US both agree that
technology enhances the learning experiences of the child.

Colleen Valin (2009) writes about the use of technology in the classroom by teacher Gord
Smith in Palliser Regional School in the US in the article Technology 'makes the lessons

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fun'. Furthermore, Sudbury Northern Life Staff (2009) recently added more teachers are
being classified as Technology Integration Mentors (TIMs). The TIM teachers will
support classroom teachers and students to use technology in ways that enhance lesson
planning, delivery and ultimately student learning and achievement.

Expected outcomes/ objectives for each selected area

The expected outcome for the lesson planning area is that the teacher can produce well
structured and innovative lesson which will grab and retain the interest of the students.
Additionally, only by documenting the structure of a lesson can one accurately reflect on
it in order to continually improve ones craft and practice of teaching.

The expected outcome of the constructivist approach is that the teacher will organize
learning objectives and content beforehand. Material and skills will be predetermined and
defined in advance of learning. It is intended that the material is delivered by the teacher,
skills and material are learnt by the student. Students are assessed by their ability to
remember the material or practice the skill. Johanssen (1994)

Formative evaluation allows the teacher to obtain user feedback during the delivery of the
lesson. In Oregon, teachers are learning to use the tools of evaluation to find out if their
teaching strategies are really working. (Stepanek, 2004)

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Technology integration allows for more visual and interesting lesson which will capture
and hold the learners attention. It also allows for easy manipulation of the lesson for
subsequent classes which is a wonderful time saving device.

Clear descriptions of how these areas were selected


These areas were selected by discussions with the teacher in question as well as informal
observation of the teacher. Additionally, experience has taught that these are indeed some
critical areas required for any effective teacher.

Lesson planning was selected since it is a critical part of the organization process in
preparing for ones class. It takes into account all or at least most of the critical variables
that one would cover in a lesson. However, one appreciates that a lesson plan is simply a
guide and the effective delivery of a lesson may sometimes require the teacher to
meander around the core concepts of the lesson whilst learning is in fact still taking place.

Experience in the profession has revealed that we tend to adopt an instructivist instead of
a constructivist approach to teaching, where children are treated as passive recipients of
knowledge rather than active participants in the teaching / learning process. Hence, this
area is a critical one where most teachers are required to change their approach.

Evaluation as a whole is often neglected; especially since often times as teachers we are
so focused on covering the content in order to envelop all areas of the syllabus. This

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pressure to cover content sometimes occurs at the opportunity cost of testing whether
learning is actually occurring.

Technology is an area which opens up a window of possibilities from lesson planning and
delivery to more innovative areas of video conferencing and internet research. Although,
the basic areas would be covered such as the preparation of lesson in power point, the
various possibilities remain to be explored as the technology becomes available.

Resources and strategies to be employed


The collaborator in this process will use experience gained over the years in addition to
pedagogical guidelines and literature provided by the lecturers in the Diploma in
education programme. Additionally, as a continuous learner, extensive research on the
internet and the library would be utilized in order to ensure sound teaching / learning
strategies.

Rationale for keeping journal and Clear description of how you will
employ your journal to capture the outcomes, challenges, insights
and successes of the Clinical Supervision Exercise

The Clinical Supervision Journal will be used to trace the growth and development of the
teacher as well as the reflections by the supervisor on required changes in strategy. The
image of looking at oneself in a mirror, means that it has implications of being conscious
of what one is doing. Because of this it is a word that is widely used but not always
understood. Rowntree (1988), for example, praises the reflective student who thinks
about her own experience of studying and decides what changes of approach might be
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most suitable.

Rowntree (1988) says reflection is studying one's own study methods as seriously as one
studies the subject and thinking about a learning task after you have done it. Unless you
do this, he says, the task will almost certainly be wasted.

In any learning situation, he says, you should prepare for it beforehand, participate
actively during it, and reflect on it afterwards. Thus the journal will be used to capture
such activities and reflections.

Proposals of how the clinical exercises may be continued / instituted


at my school
The clinical process can best be started by encouraging a degree of peer collaboration
within the various subject groupings namely Principles of Business and Management of
Business, Principles of Accounts and A level Accounting, Economics, Office
Administration and Electronic Data Processing and Management. These can be
facilitated by the Head of Department or a Subject Co-ordinator.

Focus on the preparatory process of Lesson Planning is the second step towards effective
delivery. Acquisition of the requisite resources to facilitate a more interesting and

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focused lessons would be next in line. Incorporation of other key elements for effective
delivery of lessons can be added to the repertoire of skills as the clinical supervision
process develops. Some of these other key skills and techniques would be motivational,
communication, classroom management and a variety of instructional methods.

Conclusion
Brief summary of what is proposed, highlighting objectives and
expected outcomes
Basically this clinical supervision proposal focuses on the development of four critical
areas in the selected teacher. These are lesson planning skills, greater class participation
and a more inductive approach to teaching, greater use of summative evaluation and the
infusion of technology in the delivery of lessons.

The overall objective is the production and delivery of more effective lessons. This
would be accomplished by focusing on the development of specific critical skills as

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previously highlighted. The expected outcome is the creation of a professional teacher


who can become a reflective practitioner by continually reviewing her actions in order to
improve and ultimately add greater value in the classroom setting, particularly the
students cognitive, affective and psychomotor learnings and skills.

References
Doolittle, P. (1994) Teacher Portfolio Assessment.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation. Retrieved Sept 2009
Johanssen (1994) Article: Constructivism and Instructivism
http://www.worc.ac.uk/LTMain/LTC/StaffDev/Constructivism. Page last updated
on 9th October 2001
Kizlik, S. Lesson Plans the easy way. http://www.adprima.com/easyless.htm
Leddick, G. R & Bernard, J.M. (1980). The history of supervision: A critical review.
Counselor Education and Supervision, p186

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Management and Staff (2009/10), Barataria South Secondary School, Strategic Plan,
2009-2012
Petree, A. Constructivism, a better way of teaching.
http://www.kn.pacbell.com/wired/fil/pages/listconstrucal2.html,
Sergiovanni, Thomas J. & Starratt Robert J. (1993).Supervision: A Redefinition. New
York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Sergiovanni, T.J. & Starratt, R.J. (1998). Supervision: A redefinition (6th ed.):
McGraw-Hill, Boston, MA
Swift, D. (1984). Finding and keeping teachers: Strategies for small schools
Tener Morton. (1966). Teaching Business Principles by the Case study method, Volume
V, No 1, Fall. www.mortontener.com www. pareonline.net/getvn.asp

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