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Recycle

as a Resource
Benefits, Performance, and Equipment Technology

April 2012

Topics
Value of RAP
Performance of RAP Mixes
Equipment Technology and Processing

What does GREEN mean?


Conserving our resources
Reducing energy cost
Reducing Greenhouse Emission
Being more environmentally friendly
And building a better, longer-lasting pavement

UPHILL BATTLE

RAP IS A RESOURCE
NOT A WASTE

Sustainability
Rock Quarry
+
Oil Well

Rock Quarry
+
Oil Well

6% Bitumen

n
a
h
t
ore
m
RAP is worth the virgin material it replaces

Recycle makes a better road

Why?

Pavement Quality Issues


Overlays can
experience cracks
and rutting

Milling and inlays


prevent re-rutting

Pavement Quality Issues


Milling ensures consistent
paving density

No shoulder or guardrail
changes with milling

What about mix


performance?

Mechanical Foaming
Uses water (steam bubbles) to decrease viscosity

NAPA Survey - Asphalt Pavement Mix


US Production
400

2009
2010
2011

350
300
Millions of tons

250

200
150
100
50
0

Total

WMA

Percentage of Use

NAPA Survey - Asphalt Pavement Mix


US Production
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

2009

2010

2011

Organic Addi/ve

0.3

0.3

Chemical Addi/ve

15

3.8

Addi/ve Foaming

0.2

Plant Foaming

83

92

95.4

General Process - WMA

Very small bubbles


from mechanically
foamed bitumen

Viscosity vs. Temperature PG64-22 (Approximate)

Back to this question


What about mix
performance?

NCAT Pavement Test Track

2009 Group Experiment (+)

Six-State Sponsored

50% RAP

WMA

6 Test Sec/ons
Data courtesy of NCAT

Rutting Results
12
11.0

11

Average Rut Depth (mm)

10
9.0

9
8

7.1

7
6

5.4

5
3.7

4
3
1.7

2
1
0

Control
SecBon

PFC
SecBon

RAP HMA

RAP WMA

WMA Foam

Add WMA

Data courtesy of NCAT

Truck Fleet Operations

Data courtesy of NCAT

Actual Strain Response


Virgin Mixes

RAP stiffer than virgin less


strain at the same temperature.

50% RAP Mixes

Data courtesy of NCAT

Beam Fatigue Apparatus


Cyclically applies a
set amount of
strain to the
specimen.
It bends the test
specimen (beam)
until it fails.

Photo courtesy of N CAT

Actual Strain Response


Virgin Mixes

50% RAP Mixes

Data courtesy of NCAT

Fatigue Performance Expectations 500


Forecast Cycles to Failure via AASHTO
(Millions)

6.0
5.5
5.0
4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0

0.07

0.07

0.02

0.04

0.07

0.07

Control
SecBon

PFC
SecBon

RAP HMA

RAP WMA

WMA Foam

Add WMA

Data courtesy of NCAT

Fatigue Performance Expectations Actual

Virgin @ 350 / RAP @ 250

Forecast Cycles to Failure via AASHTO


(Millions)

6.0
5.5
5.0

10 million ESAL strain cycles

4.5
4.0

3.8

3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0

1.6

1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0

0.3

0.2

Control
SecBon

PFC
SecBon

RAP HMA

RAP WMA

0.6

0.6

WMA Foam

Add WMA

Data courtesy of NCAT

Fatigue Performance Expectations Actual

Virgin @ 350 / RAP @ 250

Forecast Cycles to Failure via AASHTO


(Millions)

6.0
5.5
5.0

10 million ESAL strain cycles

4.5
4.0

3.8

3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0

2x

1.5

1.6

1.0
0.5
0.0

0.3

0.2

Control
SecBon

PFC
SecBon

RAP HMA

RAP WMA

0.6

0.6

WMA Foam

Add WMA

Data courtesy of NCAT

Fatigue Performance Expectations Actual

Virgin @ 350 / RAP @ 250

Forecast Cycles to Failure via AASHTO


(Millions)

6.0
5.5
5.0

10 million ESAL strain cycles

4.5
4.0

3.8

3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0

1.6

1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0

0.3

5.3x

Control
SecBon

0.2

PFC
SecBon

RAP HMA

RAP WMA

0.6

0.6

WMA Foam

Add WMA

Data courtesy of NCAT

Fatigue Performance Expectations Actual

Virgin @ 350 / RAP @ 250

Forecast Cycles to Failure via AASHTO


(Millions)

6.0
5.5
5.0

10 million ESAL strain cycles

4.5
4.0

3.8

3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0

12.7 X

1.5

1.6

1.0
0.5
0.0

0.3

0.2

Control
SecBon

PFC
SecBon

RAP HMA

RAP WMA

0.6

0.6

WMA Foam

Add WMA

Data courtesy of NCAT

Other Foamed WMA Benets


Use less fuel due to lower temperature
(approx. 50F [28C] reduction)
Less CO2 emissions and VOC emissions
Better working conditions / Better neighbor
Less oxidation of mix
Can be used as a compaction aid
Extended hauling distances

WMA Benet: Reduced Emissions


Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)*
Mix Temperature
(C)

Load-out Emissions
(kg/yr)

Silo-filling Emissions
(kg/yr)

% Reduction

163

1064

3317

135

303

945

71.5

127

208

649

80.4

v Based upon a plant producing mix at 360TPH with a total


yearly production of 544,310 tonnes (600,000 tons) using
USEPA emissions factors for HMA production.

WMA Benet: Reduced Emissions


Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)*
Mix Temperature
(F)

Load-out Emissions
(lb/yr)

Silo-filling Emissions
(lb/yr)

% Reduction

325

2346

7312

275

669

2084

71.5

260

459

1430

80.4

v Based upon a plant producing mix at 400TPH with a total


yearly production of 600,000 tons using USEPA emissions
factors for HMA production

Double Barrel Combination Dryer Mixer

Sequential Mixing
Virgin aggregate mixing begins on collecting conveyor
Virgin aggregate mixing continues at the scalping
(oversize) screen
Vigorous mixing in the dryer
Gentle mixing in the mixing chamber

Virgin aggregate mixing begins on


collecting conveyor

Each bin deposits material on conveyor

Coarse material first

Belt Travel

Each bin deposits material on conveyor

Fine material last

Belt Travel

Each bin deposits material on conveyor


Material NOT mixed, but
Aggregate types are in proper proportion, and
In close proximity to one another

Cold Feed Bins


Aggregate types are in proper
proportion, and in close
proximity to one another

Virgin aggregate mixing continues at


the scalping (oversize) screen

After the sifting action of the scalping screenUnmixed material cannot be


visually detected. All this is PRIOR to mixing in the dryer

Vigorous mixing in the dryer.

Thorough mixing in the mixing


chamber.

Thorough mixing in the mixing


chamber.

Double Barrel Advantages

Low radiation loss -- shell radiates into mix.


Counter flow minimum stack temperature.
Easier on bags (temp. and hydrocarbons).
Clear stack with high % RAP, low CO
Sequential, thorough mixing
Steam release blankets RAP and superheated
aggregate mechanism of heat transfer.

Double Barrel Facts


850 units worldwide
180 tonne/hr to 540 tonne/hr
360 tonne/hr is the most common size
worldwide
Located on every populated continent
Guaranteed 50% RAP capability
Used to produce specification mixes from
walking paths to airport runways

Conclusions:
RAP is a RESOURCE
Milling enhances infrastructure function and
maintainability
RAP and bitumen foaming are not new technologies
RAP + WMA longer life pavements (NCAT data)

Conclusions:
Double Barrel offers sequential thorough

mixing

Direct RAP driers have the potential to oxidize,


volatize, and produce carbon monoxide
Blending of RAP and virgin aggregate in the Double
Barrel mixing chamber
Clear exhaust stack
Protective steam blanket
Production of specification mix worldwide