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A collection of software for organizing the information in a database that
might contain routines for data input, verification, storage, retrieval, and
A database management system (DBMS) with the ability to access data
organized in tabular files that can be related to each other by a common
field. An RDBMS has the capability to recombine the data items from
different files, providing powerful tools for data usage.
A representation of facts, concepts, or instructions in a formalized manner
suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by humans or by
automated means.
Information is a term with many meanings depending on context, but is as a
rule closely related to such concepts as meaning, knowledge, instruction,
communication, representation, and mental stimulus.
Information Management System:
IMS (Information Management System) is a joint hierarchical database and
information management system
Data Abstraction:
A data type with a private representation and a public set of operations. The
C++ language uses the concept of classes to implement data abstraction.
DBMS Data Models
It refers the tools that describes data and relationship among data.
Entity Relationship Model
In Data Modelling, an entity-relationship model (ERM) is a representation of
structured data; entity-relationship modelling is the process of generating
these models.
Entity & Entity sets
An Entity is an object that exists and is distinguishable from other objects.
An entity may be concrete (a person or a book, for example) or abstract (like
a holiday or a concept). An entity set is a set of entities of the same type
(e.g., all persons having an account at a bank).


Entity Relationship(E-R) Diagram

A graphical representation of the entities and the relationships between
them. Entity relationship diagrams are a useful medium to achieve a
common understanding of data among users and application developers.
Object Oriented Model in DBMS
Object DBMSs add database functionality to object programming languages.
They bring much more than persistent storage of programming language
Relationship Model in DBMS
A branch of set theory that deals with logical relationships between sets.
The Relational Model underlies OOA/D Class Models.
Network Model in DBMS
The popularity of the network data model coincided with the popularity of
the hierarchical data model.
DBMS Hierarchical Model
The hierarchical data model organizes data in a tree structure. There is a
hierarchy of parent and child data segments. This structure implies that a
record can have repeating information, generally in the child data segments.
Data Definition Language (DDL) :
Statements are used to define the database structure or schema.
CREATE - to create objects in the database
ALTER - alters the structure of the database
DROP - delete objects from the database
TRUNCATE - remove all records from a table, including all spaces
allocated for the records are removed
COMMENT - add comments to the data dictionary
RENAME - rename an object
Data Manipulation Language (DML) :
Statements are used for managing data within schema objects.
SELECT - Retrieve data from the a database
INSERT - Insert data into a table
UPDATE - Updates existing data within a table
DELETE - deletes all records from a table, the space for the records
MERGE - UPSERT operation (insert or update)
CALL - Call a PL/SQL or Java subprogram
LOCK TABLE - control concurrency


Data Control Language (DCL)

GRANT - gives user's access privileges to database
REVOKE - withdraw access privileges given with GRANT Command
Transaction Control (TCL): Statements are used to manage the changes
made by DML statements. It allows statements to be grouped together into
logical transactions.
COMMIT - save work done
SAVEPOINT - identify a point in a transaction to which you can later
roll back
ROLLBACK - restore database to original since the last COMMIT

Database Administrators:
DBA perform a critical role within an organization. Charged with
understanding the processes and architecture of the Oracle database, they
fine-tune the day-to-day performance that is the backbone of the
organization's IT system.
Distributed DBMS
A Distributed Database Management System is a software system that
permits the management of a distributed database and makes the
distribution transparent to the users.
Client server DBMS
The Client--Server DBMS Model has emerged as the main paradigm in
database computing. The Enhanced Client--Server architecture takes
advantage of all the available client resources including their disk managers.
However, when updates occur at the server, some of the client data
managers may need to not only be notified about them but also obtain
portions of the updates as well.
An object-relational database (ORD) or object-relational database
management system (ORDBMS) is a relational database management
system that allows developers to integrate the database with their own
custom data types and methods.
In an object oriented database, information is represented in the form of
objects as used in Object-Oriented Programming. When database
capabilities are combined with object programming language capabilities,
the result is an object database management system (ODBMS).


Database normalization
It is a technique for designing relational database tables. Tables can be
normalized to varying extents. Database theory describes a table's degree of
normalization in terms of normal forms of successively higher degrees of
A database follows the all or nothing rule, i.e., the database considers all
transaction operations as one whole unit or atom
Consistency ensures that only valid data following all rules and constraints
is written in the database
Ensures that transactions are securely and independently processed at the
same time without interference, but it does not ensure the order of
Durability refers to the ability of the system to recover committed
transaction updates if either the system or the storage media fails.
First normal form
A relation is in first normal form if the domain of each attribute contains only
atomic values.
Second normal form
The entity justifies all the criteria of 1NF, and all non-key attributes are fully
functional dependent on the primary key.
Third normal form
The entity should be in 2nd Normalized Form, No column (attribute) should
depend on any value other than the prime key value.
BCNF (Boyce- Cod normal form)
It is known as 3.5 NF


Fourth normal form

It should be in 3rd Normalized Form. A record type should not contain two or
more independent multi-valued facts about an entity.
It is an approach to speeding up read performance (data retrieval) in which
the administrator selectively adds back specific instances of redundant data
after the data structure has been normalized.

Operating System :
A program that acts as an intermediary between a user of a computer and
the computer hardware.
kernel :
It is a computer program that manages input/output requests from software
Shell :
It is a command line interpreter (CLI).
SPOOL : Simultaneous Peripheral Operation OnLine

Batch processing :
It is a technique in which Operating System collects one programs and data
together in a batch before processing starts.
Multi-tasking :
It means to run more than one program at once
process :
It is a program in execution.
Is called process control box that acts as the Data Structure which Stores
the information about the process.
Thread :
It is a light weight process that uses same address space for the execution.
Semaphore :
It is a technique for managing concurrent processes by using the value of a
simple integer variable.


Deadlocks :
Deadlocks are a set of blocked processes each holding a resource and
waiting to acquire a resource held by another process.
Swapping :
It is the process of bringing in each process in main memory, running it for a
while and then putting it back to the disk.
Fragmentation :
It occurs in a dynamic memory allocation system when most of the free
blocks are too small to satisfy any request.
Paging :
It is a memory management mechanism that allows the physical address
space of a process to be non-contagious.
Segmentation :
Memory-management scheme that supports user view of memory
Virtual memory :
It provides the separation of user logical memory from physical memory.
Page-fault :
An interrupt that occurs when a program requests data that is not in
Thrashing :
Thrashing is a condition in which excessive paging operations are taking
Interconnection of several system and devices to perform task as a single


In networking, a connection refers to pieces of related information that are
transferred through a network.

A packet is, generally speaking, the most basic unit that is transferred over a

Network Interface:
A network interface can refer to any kind of software interface to networking

LAN stands for "local area network". It refers to a network or a portion of a
network that is not publicly accessible to the greater internet. A home or
office network is an example of a LAN.

WAN stands for "wide area network". It means a network that is much more
extensive than a LAN. While WAN is the relevant term to use to describe
large, dispersed networks in general, it is usually meant to mean the
internet, as a whole.

A protocol is a set of rules and standards that basically define a language
that devices can use to communicate. There are a great number of protocols
in use extensively in networking, and they are often implemented in different

A port is an address on a single machine that can be tied to a specific piece
of software. It is not a physical interface or location, but it allows your server
to be able to communicate using more than one application.


A firewall is a program that decides whether traffic coming into a server or
going out should be allowed. A firewall usually works by creating rules for
which type of traffic is acceptable on which ports. Generally, firewalls block
ports that are not used by a specific application on a server.

NAT stands for network address translation. It is a way to translate requests
that are incoming into a routing server to the relevant devices or servers that
it knows about in the LAN. This is usually implemented in physical LANs as
a way to route requests through one IP address to the necessary backend

VPN stands for virtual private network. It is a means of connecting separate
LANs through the internet, while maintaining privacy. This is used as a
means of connecting remote systems as if they were on a local network,
often for security reasons.
OSI Model
OSI stands for Open Systems Interconnect. This model defines seven
separate layers.

TCP/IP Model
The TCP/IP model, more commonly known as the Internet protocol suite, is
another layering model that is simpler and has been widely adopted. It
defines the four separate layers, some of which overlap with the OSI model.

Networking works by piggybacking a number of different protocols on top of
each other. In this way, one piece of data can be transmitted using multiple
protocols encapsulated within one another.


Media Access Control

Media access control is a communications protocol that is used to
distinguish specific devices. Each device is supposed to get a unique MAC
address during the manufacturing process that differentiates it from every
other device on the internet.

The IP protocol is one of the fundamental protocols that allow the internet to
work. IP addresses are unique on each network and they allow machines to
address each other across a network. It is implemented on the internet layer
in the IP/TCP model.

ICMP stands for internet control message protocol. It is used to send
messages between devices to indicate the availability or error conditions.
These packets are used in a variety of network diagnostic tools, such as
ping and trace route.

TCP stands for transmission control protocol. It is implemented in the
transport layer of the IP/TCP model and is used to establish reliable

UDP stands for user datagram protocol. It is a popular companion protocol
to TCP and is also implemented in the transport layer.

HTTP stands for hypertext transfer protocol. It is a protocol defined in the
application layer that forms the basis for communication on the web.

FTP stands for file transfer protocol. It is also in the application layer and
provides a way of transferring complete files from one host to another.


DNS stands for domain name system. It is an application layer protocol used
to provide a human-friendly naming mechanism for internet resources. It is
what ties a domain name to an IP address and allows you to access sites by
name in your browser.

Address Mapping
Technique that allows different protocols to interoperate by translating
addresses from one format to another. For example, when routing IP over
X.25, the IP addresses must be mapped to the X.25 addresses so that the IP
packets can be transmitted by the X.25 network. See also address

Address Mask
Bit combination used to describe which portion of an address refers to the
network or subnet and which part refers to the host. Sometimes referred to
simply as mask. Also subnet mask.

Address Resolution
When two addressing systems refer to the same entity, the process of
translating or expressing the address of an entity on one system to the
equivalent address of the same entity in the second system. For instance,
translating an IP address to its given DNS name.

In the terminology of wave motion, the height of the wave. Amplitude is
usually measured from a reference point of 0. In electrical waves, amplitude
is typically expressed in volts.

Asynchronous response mode, HDLC communication mode involving one
primary station and at least one secondary station, where either the primary
or one of the secondary stations can initiate transmissions. See also primary
station and secondary station.


Address Resolution Protocol. The protocol for mapping IP addresses to
physical addresses such as Ethernet or Token Ring.

Advanced Research Projects Agency, Research and development
organization that is part of DoD. ARPA is responsible for numerous
technological advances in communications and networking. ARPA evolved
in DARPA, and then back into ARPA again (in 1994). See also DARPA.

Advanced Research Projects Agency Network. Landmark packet-switching
network established in 1969. ARPANET was developed in the 1970s by BBN
and funded by ARPA (and later DARPA). It eventually evolved into the
Internet. The term ARPANET was officially retired in 1990.

Automatic repeat request. Communication technique in which the receiving
device detects errors and requests retransmission.

Asynchronous time-division multiplexing. Method of sending information
that resembles normal TDM, except that time slots are allocated as needed
rather than reassigned to specific transmitters. Compare with FDM,
Statistical multiplexing, and TDM.

Asynchronous Transfer Mode. A broadband transmission system using 53octet packets over a cell-switched network at speeds up to 2.2 GBPS.


A loss in the amplitude or strength of a signal due to an interaction with the
signal's media. Generally expressed in decibels.

Autonomous System
Collection of networks under a common administration sharing a common
routing strategy. Autonomous systems are subdivided by areas. An
autonomous system must be assigned a unique 16-bit number by the IANA.
Sometimes abbreviated AS.

In analogy communications, the range of frequencies over which a
communication system operates.

In analogy communications, the difference between the highest and lowest
frequencies available in the band. In digital communications, bandwidth is
loosely used to refer to the information-carrying capacity of a network or
component of a network.

Unit of signalling speed equal to the number of discrete signal elements
transmitted per second. Baud is synonymous with bits per second (bps), if
each signal element represents exactly 1 bit.

Baud Rate
The number of voltage or frequency transitions per second.

A transmission system capable of carrying many channels of
communication simultaneously by modulating them on one of several carrier


An information transmission that is intended to be interpreted by all entities
capable of receiving it.

Classless inter domain routing. Technique supported by BGP4 and based on
route aggregation. CIDR allows routers to group routes together in order to
cut down on the quantity of routing information carried by the core routers.
With CIDR, several IP networks appear to networks outside the group as a
single, larger entity.

A type of relationship between two computers where the two have different
roles in the relationship. Typically, the client computer drives the
relationship and uses a resource of the server computer.

A network activity in which a computer acts as if it is another kind of
computer or terminal. An example is when a Macintosh user opens a remote
terminal session to a VAX, it may run a program that emulates a DEC VT240

Exterior gateway protocol

Any internetwork protocol used to exchange routing information between
autonomous systems. Not to be confused with Exterior Gateway Protocol
EGP), which is a particular instance of an exterior gateway protocol.

Fibre Data Distributed Interface. A specification (ANSI X 3T9.5) for 100
MBits/sec. on dual counter-rotating token passing ring implemented on fibre
optic cabling.


Frequency-division multiplexing. Technique whereby information from
multiple channels can be allocated bandwidth on a single wire based on
frequency. Compare with ATDM, statistical multiplexing, and TDM.

Fibre-optic Cable
Physical medium capable of conducting modulated light transmission.
Compared with other transmission media.

Router or access server, or several routers or access servers, designated as
a buffer between any connected public networks and a private network. A
firewall router uses access lists and other methods to ensure the security of
the private network.

High-speed external data bus intended to replace the SCSI bus in the
Macintosh system architecture, as the bus of choice for the connection of
storage devices, external video and image I/O, etc.

Leased Line
Transmission line reserved by a communications carrier for the private use
of a customer. A leased line is a type of dedicated line. See also dedicated

A formal procedure where a computing device initiates a sustained
connection to another computing device for the purpose of using a resource
managed by the computer.

A Formal procedure where a computing device severs its connection to
another computing device.


Media Access Control. The method whereby a computing device takes
control of the transmission media for the purpose of sending an information

Mac address
Standardized data link layer address that is required for every port or device
that connects to a LAN. MAC addresses are 6 bytes long and are controlled
by the IEEE. Also known as a hardware address, or a physical address.

A device that can covert data signals between analogy and digital signalling

Process by which the characteristics of electrical signals are transformed to
represent information. Types of modulation include AM, FM, and PAM.

Multi-access Network
Network that allows multiple devices to connect and communicate

Single packets copied by the network and sent to a specific subset of
network addresses. These addresses are specified in the destination
address field.

Network Basic Input/output System. API used by applications on an IBM LAN
to request services from lower-level network processes. These services
might include session establishment and termination, and information


A trademark of Novell that includes network operating systems and LAN
server processes that run on and/or serve many computing platforms,
operating systems and protocols.

Network Adapter
A hardware device that translates electronic signals between a computing
device's native network hardware and the transmission media. A network
adapter may also include memory or additional hardware or firmware to aid
or perform the computing device's network operations.

Network Address
Network layer address referring to a logical, rather than a physical, network
device. Also called a protocol address.

Network Administrator
A person who is charged with the responsibility of caring for a network and
the communication abilities of its users.

Network File System. A file met language and set of procedure calls to
access and manage files that is standard issue on nearly every computer
that uses TCP/IP protocols as its standard network protocols. Designed by
Sun Microsystems, NFS is now standard feature of nearly all Unix systems.

A discrete chunk of communication in a pre-defined format.

In networking, a device to which a computer has a network connection that
is relatively symmetrical, i.e. where both devices can initiate or respond to a
similar set of requests.


Physical Address
A synonym for Hardware Address or MAC - layer address.

A network diagnostic utility on operating systems that sends an ICMP Echo
Request to a distant node which must then immediately return an ICMP Echo
Reply packet back to the originating node.

A term used to refer to the transmission of a packet on a network for test
purposes only.

In networking, a specification of the data structures and algorithms
necessary to accomplish a particular network function.

A low-grade implementation of twisted pair wire, where four conductors (two
pairs) are all twisted together with no independent twisting between the

Radio (RF) Frequency

Electromagnetic radiation with a frequency in the range of 10 KHz to 300
GHz. 2. Wireless data communication using such radiation.

The means of conveyance for a communication, typically an electromagnetic
wave that is modulated to encode the information communicated.
Signal to Noise Ratio
In an electromagnetic signal, the ratio of the amplitude (strength) of a signal
to the amplitude of the ambient radiation and other signal disturbances that
are present, usually expressed in decibels (dB).


Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. The standard protocol for exchanging mail
over TCP/IP networks.

Simple Network Management Protocol. A de facto standard for management
of networked devices using a simple request-response data retrieval

Synchronous Optical Network. A standard for a worldwide digital network
using a common transport. SONET can run over copper or fibre.

A sudden and transient increase in the voltage from a power supply.

Subnet Address
Portion of an IP address that is specified as the sub network by the subnet
mask. See also IP address, subnet mask, and sub network.

Subnet Mask
A representation of a user's Internet address where all of the bit positions
corresponding to the user's network and sub network id are 1's and the bit
corresponding to the user's host id are 0's.

Establishment of common timing between sender and receiver.

A communication system where stations may only transmit at prescribed
intervals and must provide a timing pulse with their packet.


Time-division multiplexing. Technique in which information from multiple
channels can be allocated bandwidth on a single wire based on reassigned
time slots.

Time domain reflectometer. Device capable of sending signals through a
network medium to check cable continuity and other attributes. TDRs are
used to find physical layer network problems.

Teletypewriter service allowing subscribers to send messages over the

A process to access a remote computer system, often a Unix system, over
the network. Origin: Teletype Network.

Transfer Rate
The rate at which data is transferred from one device to another, usually
expressed in bit per second or in bytes per second.

A System that provides communication without the use of wires.

A group of networked computer users who frequently communicate with
each other and share common devices.


(Audio Video Interleaved) A Microsoft Corporation multimedia video format.
It uses waveform audio and digital video frames (bitmaps) to compress
Bandwidth :
The capacity of an electronic line, such as a communications network or
computer channel, to transmit bits per second (bps).
Blog :
A blog is information that is instantly published to a Web site. Blog scripting
allows someone to automatically post information to a Web site.
Bookmark :
A way of storing your favourite sites on the Internet. Browsers like Netscape
or Internet Explorer let you to categorize your bookmarks into folders.
Browser :
A software program that allows users to access the Internet.
CGI (Common Gateway Interface script) :
Aspecification for transferring information between a Web server and a CGI
program, designed to receive and and return data.
Chat :
Real-time, synchronous, text-based communication via computer.
Cookie :
Information (in this case URLs, Web addresses) created by a Web server and
stored on a user's computer. This information lets Web sites the user visits
to keep of a user's browsing patterns and preferences.
Domain Name :
A method of identifying computer addresses. Your e-mail address has a
domain address. If you have an "edu" at the end of your e-mail address that
means your account is affiliated with an educational institution. A "com"
extension means you have a business account. A government account has a
.gov suffix.
dpi :
(Dots per inch) the way the resolution of display and printing is measured.


Flash :
Animation software used to develop interactive graphics for Web sites as
well as desktop presentations and games (Windows and Mac) by the
company Macromedia.
Using file transfer protocol software to receive from upload) or send to
(download) files (text, pictures, spreadsheets, etc.) from one
computer/server to another.
A type of text code in Hypertext Mark-up Language which, when embedded
in a document, allows that document to be read and distributed across the
The hypertext transfer protocol (http) that enables html documents to be
read on the Internet.
Hyperlink :
Text, images, graphics that, when clicked with a mouse (or activated by
keystrokes) will connect the user to a new Web site. The link is usually
obvious, such as underlined text or a "button" of some type, but not always.
Instant Messaging (IM) :
A text-based computer conference over the Internet between two or more
people who must be online at the same time. When you send an IM the
receiver is instantly notified that she/he has a message.
Internet :
A global network of thousands of computer networks linked by data lines
and wireless systems.
IP Address :
Internet Protocol is The number or name of the computer from which you
send and receive information on the Internet.
Newsgroup :
An Internet "site" cantered around a specific topic or course. Some
newsreader software can "thread" discussion so there can be various topics
cantered around a central theme.


Portal :
A Web site "gateway" that provides multiple services, which could include
Web searching capability, news, free-email, discussion groups, online
shopping, references and other services.
Search Engine :
Specialized software, such as AltaVista and Yahoo, that lets WWW browser
users search for information on the Web by using keywords, phrases, and
Boolean logic.
Shockwave :
A three dimensional (3D) animation technology/format created by the
Macromedia company. Shockwave can be used to create more sophisticated
animations than the Macromedia Flash format.
Telnet :
The command to log on to another computer on the Internet.
A universal resource locator (a computer address) that identifies the location
and type of resource on the Web. A URL generally starts with "http."
Virus :
A computer program usually hidden in an existing program. Once the
existing program is executed, the virus program is activated and can attach
itself to other programs or files.
Web Bot :
A term that applies to programs/applets (macros and intelligent agents) used
on the Internet. Such bots perform a repetitive function, such as posting
messages to multiple newsgroups or doing searches for information.
Wide World Web (WWW) :
A hypermedia information storage system which links computer-based
resources around the world.
A destructive computer program that replicates itself throughout your
computer's hard drive and memory. Worms use up the computers resources
and pull the system down. Worms can be spread in mass-e-mailing if the
user opens an attachment.


A computer that is used to transfer data on the Internet.
Web Hosting
To store and make web pages available and ready for inquiries, or a
computer that has a consistent connection to the Internet.