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Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Landslide is a geological phenomenon that includes a wide range of ground


movements, such as rock falls, deep failure of slopes, and shallow debris flows. Landslides
can occur in offshore, coastal and onshore environments.
A landslide occurs when part of a natural slope is unstable and unable to support its
own weight. If a slippery material is present below soil then soil can become heavy with
rainwater and prone to landslide. It is a downward or outward movement of soil, rock or
vegetation due to gravitational force. This movement can be fall, flow, slide, spread or topple.
Landslides occur usually at steep slopes but these may occur in areas with low slope gradient.
According to the "Annual Disaster Statistical Review 2013" published last January
13, 2014 by the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED), 2013 is a
year with 330 registered natural disasters. This is less than the average annual disaster
frequency observed from 2003 to 2012 which is 388, and represents a decrease in associated
human impacts of disasters which were, in 2013, at their lowest level in last 16 years. The
death toll of natural disasters still killed a significant number of people totaling to 21 610 but
this is largely below the annual average between 2003 - 2012 which is 106 654.

Statistics shows that one of the disastrous natural phenomenon in the world is
landslide. Landslides are a recurrent problem throughout most of Philippines, where they are
cause extensive damage to property and occasionally result in loss of life. Landslides
triggered by heavy rainfall are the most common throughout Philippines, but few attempts
are made to predict them or prevent damage.
Continuous heavy rains in the North Eastern Section of CARAGA and Region VIII
due to diffused tail-end of a cold front resulted to the occurrence of flooding in low lying
areas, significant rising of water level in various rivers and landslides in the regions.
More than 800 residents were evacuated from their flooded villages in Bislig City and
San Miguel, Surigao del Sur . Landslides and floods have also closed portions of the national
highway in Barobo and Tagbina towns in Surigao del Sur. Ocean View Park located at P-6,
Cumawas, Bislig City was selected as a suitable case to evaluate the preventive measures on
landslide occurrences.
These facts encouraged the researchers to conduct a study with regards to the
preventive measures on landslide occurrences in Ocean View Park in P-6, Cumawas, Bislig
City, Surigao Del Sur. The study will be beneficial to the institution that will have an
alternative course of action in understanding about the preventive measures on landslide
occurrences; it provides information for the community that are situated nearby landslide
prone area; and also it can be a source of knowledge to the Department of Public Works and
Highways.

The main objectives in the conduct of this study is to know the different preventive
measures on landslide occurrences in Ocean View Park in P-6, Cumawas, Bislig City,
Surigao Del Sur.

Statement of the Problem

This particular research is conducted in order to determine the different preventive


measures on landslide occurrences in Ocean View Park in P-6, Cumawas, Bislig City,
Surigao Del Sur. Specifically, the study attempted to answer the following questions:
1. What are the causes of landslides in Ocean View Park in P-6, Cumawas, Bislig
City, Surigao Del Sur?
2. How the local government of Bislig City deals with this serious problem of
landslide in Ocean View Park in P-6, Cumawas, Bislig City, Surigao Del Sur?
3. What are the different types of landslides occurring in Ocean View Park in P-6,
Cumawas, Bislig City, Surigao Del Sur?

Objectives of the Study

The main objectives in the conduct of this study is to know the different preventive
measures on landslide occurrences in Ocean View Park in P-6, Cumawas, Bislig City,
Surigao Del Sur.
1. To determine the causes and effects of landslide in Ocean View Park in P-6,
Cumawas, Bislig City, Surigao Del Sur.
2. To determine how the local government of Bislig City deals with this serious
problem of landslide in Ocean View Park in P-6, Cumawas, Bislig City, Surigao
Del Sur.
3. To determine the types of landslide occurrences in Ocean View Park in P-6,
Cumawas, Bislig City, Surigao Del Sur.

Hypotheses

Based on field observation and review about landslides the following hypotheses
were developed;
1. Landslides are caused by heavy rainfall in steep slopes wherein there is a slippery
material present below the soil then it becomes heavy with rainwater.
2. The local government unit of Bislig City initiates some primary preventive
measures such as planting trees alongside the slope, etc.
3. The types of landslides are (1) a fall; (2) a topple; (3) a slide; (4) a spread; and (5)
a flow.

Significance of the Study

Landslides are recurrent problem throughout the Philippines, where it causes


extensive damage to property and occasionally result in loss of life.
Landslides triggered by heavy rainfall are the most common throughout Philippines,
but few attempts are made to predict them or prevent damage.
In this occasion, the researchers were encouraged to conduct a study with regards to
the preventive measures on landslide occurrences in Ocean View Park in P-6, Cumawas,
Bislig City, Surigao Del Sur.
The study will be beneficial to the institution that will have an alternative course of
action in understanding about the preventive measures on landslide occurrences; it provides

information for the community that are situated nearby landslide prone area; and
correspondingly, it can be a source of additional data to the units of the local government
such as the Department of Public Works and Highways.
It would also provide baseline information that may serve as a standpoint for future
researchers who will become enthusiastically immersed in this study. These would likewise
enlighten other researchers to conduct various investigations in preventing landslides
occurrences.

Scope and Delimitation

This study was conducted to know the different preventive measures on landslide
occurrences in Ocean View Park in P-6, Cumawas, Bislig City, Surigao Del Sur.
Additionally, this was also conducted to determine the different causes and effects as
well as the types of landslides.

Definition of Terms

Landslide - a geological phenomenon that includes a wide range of ground movements, such
as rock falls, deep failure of slopes, and shallow debris flows.
Debris - the remains of something broken down or destroyed.
Topple to fall from or as if from being top-heavy.
Epidemiology a branch of medical science that deals with the incidence, distribution, and
control of disease in a population.
Recurrent running or turning back in a direction opposite to a former course.

PREVENTIVE MEASURES ON LANDSLIDES OCCURENCES IN


OCEAN VIEW PARK IN P-6, CUMAWAS, BISLIG CITY

A Research Paper Submitted to

CRISTINE D. GULFO
Education Department
University of Southeastern Philippines
Maharlika, Bislig Citty

In Partial Fulfillment of the Course


ENGLISH 2
Writing in the discipline

Submitted by:

DAVE KHYL J. BOSQUE


HANNALOU A. BISAS
IAN CARLO G. OMAYAO
DIODELYN J. TAGHAP
ALVIN B. ACEVEDO
JOMARD POROL