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High Speed Machining

April 24, 2015

High Speed Machining

What is it?

Very high tool rpm, small


depths of cut and high feed
rates

Mostly used in milling hard


mold and die steels (hence
term hard milling)

Also appears in airframe


work for different reasons

Different materials
(aluminum)

Used to reduce heat and


material stress during
machining
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High Speed Machining

Purpose?
Increase

By Increasing cutting speed

Higher productivity

MRR

Lower production cost

Mainly in Automobile and Aerospace industry

Approximate Range of
Recommended Cutting speeds
(For Turning) (For Carbides and Ceramic Cutting tools)
Workpiece Material
Al alloys

Gray CI
Cu alloys
Steels
High Temperature alloys
SS
Thermoplastics and Thermosets
Tungsten alloys
Titanium alloys

Cutting Speed (m/min)


200-1000

60-900
50-700
50-500
20-400
50-300
90-240
60-150
10-100
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High Speed Machining

HSS tools, cutting speed lower

Higher ranges for coated carbides and cermets

Diamond cutting tools; cutting speed higher

Depth of cuts, d: 0.5 12 mm

Feeds,

f: 0.15 1 mm/rev

What is High Speed ?

Cuttings speeds @
High

Speed

: 600-1800 m/min

Very

High Speed : 1800-18000 m/min

Ultra

High Speed : > 18000 m/min

High Speed Machining

Value

Maximizes overall productivity fewer process


steps, faster machining

Machining Mold and Dies made of very hard


materials, deep cavities and fine details
typically require time consuming EDM
processes

HSM produces high quality finish on milling


machine reduces need for EDM electrodes,
burning and hand finishing

Challenges

How to drive HSM machines to capacity without


breaking tools

Tool makers cutting data ranges from very safe to


highly optimistic - what data do we use and why
doesnt this data always work for me?
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HSM

The first definition of HSM was proposed by Carl


Salomon in 1931

Cutting speed is 5 10 times higher then in


conventional machining

The chip tool interface temperature decreases at


these speeds

HSM: Temperature versus cutting speeds

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Issues with HSM


1.

Selection of proper cutting tools

2.

Power of machine tool

3.

Machine tool stiffness and damping capacity

4.

Stiffness of tool holders and work holding devices

5.

Design of special spindle for high power and high


rotational speeds

6.

Inertia of machine tool components

7.

Fast feed drives

8.

Level of automation
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Hard Milling

HSM Capable
Machine Tool

Cutting Tool

Controller

HSM capable
CAM System

Programming
Know-how

HSM - High Efficiency Hard Milling

It is only as good as the weakest link.


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HSM

Increasing spindle speed and feed while


decreasing chip load is just the beginning
step of successful high speed programming

Further understanding of the cutting action is


essential (chatter, vertical engagement angle,
material removal rate, effect of surface speed
on the finish, etc.)

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HSM - Machine
HSM Capable
Machine Tool

A stable machine capable of running at high speeds


and feeds without the machine dynamics coming into
the machining equation

The cutting forces and vibration caused by the actual


contact between the tool and the material becomes
the primary action

High Speed Spindle retrofits are not High Speed


Machines

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HSM Cutting Tools


Cutting Tool

Tools capable of handling very high surface


temperature

Available High Length to Diameter ratios for reaching


into intricate cavities

Tool holders capable of very low run-out at high


spindle speeds and acceleration

Dynamic v/s static run-out

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Hard Milling - Chatter

Chatter is the second most important cause of tool


failure in HSM applications

It is also the most overlooked

Process for avoiding chatter


Chatter Zone

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Case Study - HSM on Connecting Rod Die

Measurement
Operations required

#1
11

#2
7

Rest mill path


generation time

4:30

1:30

Overall Programming
Time

6 hr

2 hr

Improved In-process work-piece performance


Automatic cut levels in cavity milling

New Z-level Plus path to contour floors while roughing


Holder checking for multiple tools
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