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# Exercises for Cosmology

## Homework 2 (27th Oct - 31st Oct 2014)

1. Quickies
(a) Write down the relation between redshift z and the scale factor a!
(b) Explain why there is no unique distance measure in Cosmology!
(c) What is the dierence between proper and comoving volumes? What is the
comoving volume of a redshift shell at redshift z with (redshift) thickness dz
around us?
2. Elliptical coordinates
Let x1 = r cos , x2 = f r sin .
(a) What are the curves of constant r? What are curves of constant ?
(b) If ds2 = dx21 + dx22 , what is ds2 in terms of r and ?
3. Angular diameter distance on the sphere
(a) Write down the metric on a three-dimensional sphere in spherical polar coordinates.
(b) What is the distance L between two great circles that intersect at the poles at
an angle of (i.e. L is measured along lines of constant latitude), as function
of the distance to the poles (measured along lines of constant longitude)?
4. Age of the Universe at its milestones
Use equation 4.26 to find the age of the Universe...
(b) when recombination occurred (i.e. at redshift z 1100).
For this, take the Hubble parameter to be h = 0.72 and the cosmic density parameter
for matter in the present to be m = 0.3.
5. Derivation of the Mattig relation
The Mattig relation (equation 4.34) gives the angular-diameter distance as a function
of redshift for a Universe with = 0. We talk through the derivation here, with a
1

couple of easy questions at the end. Feel free to do the algebra in between the steps
we outline here!
Although not the most direct derivation, this method provides, as a side product,
a dierential equation for the angular-diameter distance D(z) for all values of the
density parameters. We start by noting that D = fk /(1 + z) (eqn 4.16), where fk
is the comoving angular-diameter distance, which satisfies the dierential equation
d2 fk /d2 = K fk (see eqn 4.2). Well simplify the notation by writing
H(z) = H0 H(z) ,

with H(z) =

dD
1
=
dz
(1 + z)

dfk
D
H0 H d

## By taking a further derivative, we arrive at

(

2
d2 D
H
=
+
dz 2
1+z
H

)(

c
H0 H (1 + z)

dfk
2
m + 1
+

D,
d
(1 + z)2
H2

where H = dH/dz.
Finally by combining the two preceding equations, it is possible derive the secondorder dierential equation for D,
[

2
dD 3(1 + z)
d2 D
1+z
+
+
[3m (1 + z) + 2(1 m )]
+
m D = 0 .
2
2
dz
1+z
2H
dz
2H2
(a) The angular-diameter distance that we use in practice, D(z), is a particular
solution of this dierential equation. State the corresponding boundary conditions which fix this solution. What would the boundary conditions be for the
angular-diameter distance D(z1 , z2 ) for a source at redshift z2 as seen by an
observer at redshift 0 z1 < z2 ?
(You may then want to try solving the equation in the case of = 0, yielding
the Mattig relation.)
(b) Given the Mattig relation itself, show that it reduces to the expression in equation 4.25 in the case of an Einsteinde Sitter universe.