site surveying procedures- this presents the methods used for area and earthwork calculation for land surveyors.

© All Rights Reserved

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site surveying procedures- this presents the methods used for area and earthwork calculation for land surveyors.

© All Rights Reserved

- Tacheometry Report
- Topographical Surveying & Earthwork Calculations
- Earthwork Volume Calculation Methods
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- TesseraManual-en.pdf

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entire area

By offsets to the

baes line

Based on field

measurements

By latitudes

&departures

Area

Based on

measurements

scaled from a

map

By coordinates

Instrumental

method

Usually by a

planimeter

In this method, the area is divided into number of geometrical figures such as triangles,

rectangles, squares and trapeziums and then the area can be calculated according to one of

following method. Computing the area can be achieved in two steps.

1 st step

Area of a triangle:

Area= s ( sa ) ( sb )( sc )

Where a, b and c are sides and s = (a + b + c) / 2

Area of rectangle

Area=a b

Where a and b are sides.

Area of square

Area=a2

Where a is the side of the square.

Area of the trapezium

1

Area= ( a+b ) d

2

Where a and b are the parallel sides and d is the perpendicular distance between them.

2 n d step

The area along the boundaries is calculated as follows.

X1

X22

01 , 02=ordinates

x 1 , x 2=chainages

01+ 02

( x 2x 1 )

2

This method is suitable for long narrow strips of land. The offsets are measured from the

boundary to the base line or a survey line at regular intervals. This method can also be

applied to a plotted plan from which the offsets to a line can be scaled off. There are 4

methods in order to calculate the area.

Mid-ordinate rule

Average-ordinate rule

Trapezoidal rule

Simpsons rule

Mid-ordinate rule

In order to apply this method, we assume that the boundaries between the extremities of the

ordinates are straight lines.

The base line is divided into a number of divisions and the ordinates are measured at the mid

points of each division.

Area=common distance*sum of mid ordinates

Mid ordinate=o1+o2/2=h1

Area=d (h1+h2+)

Average-ordinate rule

In this method also we assume that the boundaries between the extremities of the ordinates

are straight lines. The offsets are measured to each of the points of the divisions of the base

line.

Area=sum of ordinate/no.of ordinates *length of base line

Area=o1+o2++on/o (n+1)*l

Trapezoidal rule

This rule is based on the assumption that the figures are trapeziums. This rule is more

accurate than the previous two rules which are approximate versions of this rule. This rule

can be applied for any number of ordinates.

Area enclosed by one trapezium=o0+o1/2*d

Total area is the sum of each separate trapezium.

Total area= o0+o1/2*d +

Total area=d/2*(o1+2o2++2on-1+on)

Total area=common distance/2*(1st ordinate + last ordinate+2[sum of other ordinate]

Add the average of the end offsets to the sum of the intermediate offsets. Multiply the total

sum thus obtained by the common distance between the ordinates to get the required area.

Simpsons rule

In this rule, we assume that the short lengths of boundary between the ordinates are parabolic

arcs. This method is more useful when the boundary line departs considerably from the

straight line.

The area is equal to the sum of the two end ordinates plus four times the sum of the even

intermediate ordinates plus twice the sum of the odd intermediate ordinates, the whole

multiplied by one-third the common interval between them.

Even though this method gives more accurate results out of other three methods, this is only

applicable when the number of divisions is even.

intervals

There are two methods to find the area when the ordinates distances are irregular.

1st method

In this method, the area of each trapezoid is calculated separately and then added together to

compute the total area.

2nd method

Area by coordinates

This method is one of the most frequently used for computing the area of a closed traverse.

In order to calculate the area by this method, the latitudes and departures of each line of the

traverse are calculated. Then the traverse is balanced.

A reference meridian is then assumed to pass through the most westerly station of the traverse

& the double meridian distances of the lines are computed.

Meridian distances

The meridian distance of any point in a traverse is the distance of that point to the reference

meridian, measured at right angles to the meridian.

The meridian distance of any line is equal to the meridian distance of the preceding line plus

half the departure of the preceding line plus half the departure of the line itself.

East-west lines drawn from each station to the reference meridian, thus getting triangles and

trapeziums.

One side of each triangle or trapezium will be one of the lines, the base of the triangle or

trapezium will be the latitude of the line, and the height of the triangle or trapezium will be

the meridian distance of that line.

Area of triangle or trapezium=latitude of the line*meridian distance of the line

The double meridian distance of a line is equal to the sum of the meridian distances of the

two lines.

The D.M.D. of any line is equal to the D.M.D. of the preceding line plus the departure of the

preceding line plus the departure of the line itself.

Area by latitudes and double meridian distances

A=area of dDcC+area of CcbB-area of dDA-area of ABb

Area from departures and total latitudes

A parallel distance of any line of a traverse is the perpendicular distance from the middle

point of that line to a reference line (chosen to pass through most southerly station) at right

angles to the meridian.

The DPD of any line is the sum of the parallel distances of its ends.

The principle of finding area by D.M.D method & D.P.D. method are identical.

Area by coordinates

This method can be applied when the offset intervals are irregular.

The procedure for this method is that from the given distances & offsets, a point is selected as

the origin.

Then the coordinated of all other points are arranged with reference to the origin.

Instrumental method

The instrument used for computation of area from a plotted map is the planimeter. The area

obtained from this instrument is more accurate than other graphical methods.

The two types of planimeter are:

Amsler polar planimeter

Roller planimeter

Procedure of finding the area with a planimeter

The Vernier of the index mark is set to the exact graduation marked on the tracer arm

corresponding to the scale as obtained from the table.

The anchor point is fixed firmly in the paper outside or inside the figure. It should be ensured

that the tracing point is easily able to reach every point on the boundary line.

A good starting point is marked on the boundary line.

By observing the disc, wheel and Vernier the initial reading (IR) is recorded.

The tracing point is moved gently in a clockwise direction along the boundary of the area.

The number of times the zero mark of the dial passes the index mark in a clockwise or

anticlockwise direction should be observed.

Finally, observing the disc, wheel and Vernier the final reading (FR) is recorded.

Then, the area of the figure may be obtained from the following expression.

Are=M (FR-IR+- 10N +C)

M=multiplier given in the table

N=number of times the 0 mark of the dial passes the index mark

C=constant given in the table

Level

section

Two-level

section

From

cross

sections

Side hill

two-level

section

Three level

section

Volume

From spot

levels

Multi-level

section

By cross

sections

From

contours

By equal

depth

contours

By

horizontal

planes

This is the most widely used method.

The total volume is divided into a series of solids by the planes of cross sections.

Cross-sections are established at some convenient intervals along a center line of the works.

Volumes are calculated by relating the cross-sectional areas to the distances between them.

In order to compute the volume it is first necessary to evaluate the cross-sectional areas,

which may be obtained by the following methods:

By calculating from the formula or from first principles the standard cross-sections of

constant formation widths and side slopes.

By measuring graphically from plotted cross-sections drawn to scale, areas being obtained by

planimeter or division into triangles or square.

The various cross sections may be categorized as,

Level section

Two level sections

Side hill two level sections

Multi- level section

Level section

In this case the ground is level transversely.

Formation width = b

Side width = w

Area = h(b + mh)

Side hill two level sections

In this case, the ground slope crosses the formation level so that one portion of the area is in

cutting and the other in filling.

Area of cut = [(b/2 - kh)2/(k-n)]

The volumes of the prismoids between successive cross-sections are obtained either by

trapezoidal formula or by prismoidal formula.

The prismoidal formula

A prismoid is defined as a solid whose end faces lie in parallel and consist of any two

polygons, not necessarily of the same number of sides, the longitudinal faces being surface

extended between the end planes.

The longitudinal faces take the form of triangles, parallelograms or trapezium.

The total volume of the pyramid can be stated as follows.

Where h is the length of the prismoid measured perpendicular to the two end parallel planes

and.

A2= area of cross-section of other end plane.

A=the mid area

In order to calculate the volume of earth work between a number of sections having area a1,

a2, a3, , an spaced at a constant distance h apart.

Total voume=h/3[(a1+an)+4(a2+a4an-1)+2(a3+a5an-2)]

This is also known as Simpsons rule for volume.

In order to apply this formula, it is necessary to have an odd number of cross-sections.

If there are even numbers of sections, the end strip must be calculated separately, and the

volume between the remaining sections may be calculated by prismoidal formula.

The trapezoidal formula (Average End Area Method)

It is no more accurate to use the prismoidal formula where the mid-sectional areas have not

been directly measured than it is to use the end areas formula, particularly as the earth solid is

not exactly represented by a prismoid.

Hence this method is based on the assumption that the mid-area is the mean of the end areas.

In that case the volume of the above prismoid is given as,

v = h [ ( A1 + A2) / 2 ]

but this is true only if the prismoid is composed of prisms and wedged only and not of

pyramids.

In some cases the volume is calculated and then a correction is applied the correcton being

equal to the difference between the volume as calculated and that which could be obtained by

the use of the prismoidal formula. the correction is known as the prismoidal correction.

In order to calculate the volume of earth work between a number of sections having area a1,

a2, a3, , an spaced at a constant distance h apart.

V = d{[( A1 + A2) / 2 ] + A2 + A3 + An-1}

level section

prismoidal

correct

Cp=

two

sections

level sections

sections

level

Ds

h1h2 )2

(

6

ion

In this method, the field work consists in dividing the area into a number fo squares,

rectangles or triangles and measuring the levels of their corners before and after the

construction.

Thus, the depth of excavation or height of filling at every corner is known.

Therefore for a rectangle with corner depth ha, hb, hc and hd,

h1 = some of depths used once

h2 = sum of depths used twice

h3 = sum of depths used thrice

h4 = sum of depths used four times.

A=horizontal area of the cross-section of the prism

Contour lines may be used for volume calculations and theoretically this is the most accurate

method.

However, as the small contour interval necessary for accurate work is seldom provided due to

cost, high accuracy is not often obtained.

Unless the contour interval is less than 1m or 2m at the most, the assumption that there is an

even slope between the contours is incorrect and volume calculation from contours become

unreliable.

There are four distinct methods depending upon the type of work.

By cross-sections

On the same cross-section used to draw the ground surface the grade line of the proposed

work can be drawn and the area of the section can be estimated either by ordinary methods or

with the help of a planimeter.

The area of the cut and fill can be found from the cross-section.

The volumes of earth work between adjacent cross-sections may be calculated by the use of

average end areas.

In this method, the contours of the finished or graded surface are drawn on the contour map at

the same interval as that of contours.

At every point, where the contours of the finished surface intersect a contour of the existing

surface the cut or fill can be found by simply subtracting the difference elevation between the

two contours.

By joining the points of equal cut or fill, a set of lines is obtained.

These lines are the horizontal projections of the lines cut from the existing surface by planes

parallel to the finished surface.

The volume between any two successive areas is determined by multiplying the average of

the two areas by the depth between them, or by the prismoidal formula.

H=contour interval

V-total volume

V=sigmah/2 (a1+A2) by trapezoidal

V=Sigma h/3(A1+4A2+A3) by prismoidal formula

By horizontal planes

This method consists in determining the volumes of earth to be moved between the horizontal

planes marked by successive contours.

Chainag

e along

the

survey

line

Ordinate

(m)

0.0

20.0

40.0

60.0

80.0

100.0

130.0

160.0

190.0

8.4

9.5

7.34

6.23

7.89

7.3

9.81

6.65

4.5

According to the given data above we can plot a graph to determine the enclosed area of the

given survey line.

12

10

9.81

9.5

8.4

8

7.89

7.34

7.3

6.63

6.23

4.5

4

2

0

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

In this particular survey line there are two distinct Chainage intervals of 20m and 30m.

Therefore when calculating the area it has to be separated into two parts.

The method used to calculate the area is the trapezoidal rule since it is more accurate than the

mid-ordinate rule and average-ordinate rule and Simpsons rule cannot be applied because the

number of divisions is not even in the plotted plan.

Y-Values

12

10

8

Axis Title

Y-Values

6

4

2

0

20

40

60

80

Axis Title

100

130

160

190

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