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Distance Protection

for transmission lines: part 1


Gustav Steynberg

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Why impedance protection?


Situation:

Meshed network and two infeeds


Directional overcurrent time relays

0,6s

0,3s

0,6s

0,3s

0,6s

0,3s

0,6s

0,3s

non-selective trip
Page 2

01/20/16

Energy Automation

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Basic principle of impedance protection


Localization of short-circuits by means of an impedance
measurement:
fault on the protected line
Z1
relay A

fault outside the protected line

Z2

relay A

selectivity
Page 3

01/20/16

Energy Automation

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Distance measurement (principle)


IL1 ZL

ZL = RL + j XL

IL2
IL3

ZE = RE +j XE

IE ZE
UL1 UL2 UL3
6 loops:

3 phase- phase loops and


3 phase- ground loops

phase- phase -loop:

UL1-L2 = ZL ( IL1 - IL2)


Measured current
measured voltage

The same applies to the remaining loops


Page 4

01/20/16

Energy Automation

Siemens AG 200806.08.97
dtgerdis3
Energy Sector

Distance measurement (principle)


IL1 ZL
IL2

ZL = RL + j XL

IL3
ZE = RE +j XE

IE Z E
UL1 UL2 UL3
phase-ground-loop:

UL1 = L1 ( RL + j XL )- E ( RE +j XE)

L1, E measured current


UL1

measured voltage

The same applies to the remaining loops


Page 5

01/20/16

Energy Automation

Siemens AG 200806.08.97
dtgerdis3
Energy Sector

Load and short-circuit impedances


ZL

distance relay
operating
characteristic

ZLF1
ZLF2

Fault area

ZL
ZLF2

RR

ZF2

RR

ZF1

Inc

jL
j SC2
j
Fault in
SC1
reverse
direction

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01/20/16

RF
F2

ZLoad

Phase - Phase Fault

ZLoad
ZLF1

RF
F1

in g
reas

load

RR RF / 2
Phase - Earth Fault
RR RF /(1 + RE/RL)

R
Load area

Energy Automation

Minimum Load Impedance:


Minimum voltage 0,9 Un
Maximum current 1,1 In
Maximum angle
30
Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Principle of (analog) distance relaying


ZS A

ISC

ZL

ZSC

U1= k1 USC= k1 ISCZSC.


Relay design:
operation if
U1< U2
i.e. ZSC< ZReplica

comparator

ZReplica (line replica impedance)


(corresponds to the set zone reach)

Page 7

01/20/16

U2=k2
ISCZReplica

Energy Automation

ZReplica

Ext. fault

Internal fault
R

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Typical distance zone-characteristic


MHO-circle

ZR

shifted circle

ZSC'

ZSC'

external
fault

ZSC

ZSC
centre

internal
fault

R
polarised
MHO-circle

quadrilateral

ZS = 0

RF

XA

ZL

ZS small

ZSC-L

settable arc
compensation

Rarc
RA

ZS high

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01/20/16

ZS
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Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Graded distance zones


Z3
t = grading time
time

Z2

Z1

t3
t2

t1

B
D1

C
D2

Z1 = 0,85 ZAB
Z2 = 0,85 (ZAB + 0,85 ZBC)
Z3 = 0,85 (ZAB + 0,85 (ZBC + 0,85 ZCD))
01/20/16

D3
distance

Grading rules:

Page 9

Energy Automation

Safety margin is 15
%:
line error
CT, VT error
measuring error
Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Determination of grading times


(With numerical relays 250 ms is possible)
2nd Zone: It must initially allow the 1st zone on the neighbouring feeder(s) to clear the fault.
The grading time therefore results from the addition of the following times:
operating time of the neighbouring feeder mechanical 25 - 80 ms
static:
15 - 40
digital:
15 - 30
+ circuit breaker operating time

HV / EHV:
MV

60 ms (3 cycles) / 40 ms (2 cycles)
up to about 80 ms (4 cycles)

+ distance relay reset time

mechanical: approx. 60-100 ms


static:
approx. 30 ms
digital:
approx. 20 ms.

+ errors of the distance relay internal timers mechanical: 5% of the set time, minimum 60-100 ms
static:
3% of the set time, minimum 10 ms
digital:
1% of the set time, minimum 10 ms
+ distance protection starting time *)

mechanical: O/C starter: 10 ms, impedance starter: 25 ms


static:
O/C stater: 5 ms, impedance starter: 25 ms
digital:
generally 15 ms

+ safety margin (ca.)

grading;

mechanical-mechanical:
static/digital-mechanical or vice versa:
digital-digital or static-static

100 ms
75 ms
50 ms

*) only relevant if the set relay times relate to the instant of fault detection / zone pick-up. This is the case with
all Siemens relays. There are other relays where the time is adapted by software to relate to the instant of fault
inception. In the latter case the starting time has to be dropped.

01/20/16

Energy Automation

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Determination of fault direction

Fault location

Where is the fault ?

Current area for


forward faults

USC

SC

Impedance area for


forward faults

SC

ZSC

SC
R

Z'SC

SC
Current area for
reverse faults

Impedance area for


reverse faults

current / voltage diagram

impedance diagram

The impedance also shows the direction, but ....


Page 11

01/20/16

Energy Automation

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Impedance measurement and directional determination


Why impedance measurement and directional determination separately?
A

line characteristic
fault with arc resistance
in forward direction
fault in forward direction

close-in fault
R
fault in reverse
direction

direction may be determined together with the impedance measurement


but: problems may arise in certain cases (e.g. close-in faults)
separate directional determination required!

Page 12

01/20/16

Energy Automation

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Alternatives for the directional measurement


~

Zgrid

relay

fault L1-E

Zline

Method 1
Vf

VL1
Vf

VL1

Method 2
VL1

If

VL3

Vf

VL2

If
VL3

VL2-L3

faulty phase voltage

VL3

VL2

healthy-phase voltage
(phase to phase voltage)
Page 13

01/20/16

If

Energy Automation

VL2

voltage memory
(pre-fault voltage)
Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Directional measurement
Summery of all 3 methods
uRI = uL2L3

uf = uL1

if(t)
uL1

Measuring
window

01/20/16

Distance measurement

Direction measurement
with voltage memory

if

uL1

if
uL2-L3
if

Page 14

Energy Automation

Direction measurement
with unfaulted voltage

06.08.97
dtgerdis9

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Fault detection techniques

Over-current fault detection


Voltage dependant
over-current fault detection
Voltage and
angle dependant
over-current
fault detection

I>

I>

I >>

Impedance
fault
detection

Not in 7SA522

Page 15

01/20/16

Energy Automation

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Reach of over-current fault detection


ph-ph fault as an example

110 kV
net

ISC(2)[kA]
2,5

20 kV

2,0

400/1 A
l

1,5

SCC(3)" = 1500 MVA

40 MVA
uSC = 15 %
D I>start = 1,5 IN = 600 A
OH-line
95/15 Al/St
Z'L = 0,483 /km

UN 1,1

1,0

ISC(2) =
2 (ZS + ZS + ZL' l)

I>start = 600 A

0,5

There is a limitation
to the reach
10

20

30

40

50

60

l [km]

reach of OC starter
approx. 32 km

Page 16

01/20/16

Energy Automation

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Voltage controlled overcurrent fault detection


G

SC
line

Power
system

USC

Relay

ZS
E

USC

ISC

digital

electro-mechanical

UN

ZSC

UI>
UI>>

Page 17

I>

I>>

USC

01/20/16

Energy Automation

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Voltage and angle controlled overcurrent fault detection


(U-I--starting)
X

X
2

2
1

U/UN
100 %

U(I >>)

U(I>)
50 %

I>

I>
1

I>>
2

I/IN

This method is used in Germany


Page 18

01/20/16

Energy Automation

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Impedance zones of digital relays (7SA6 and 7SA52)


w
for
ard

Line

Z5
Z4
Z2
Z1B

Distance zones
Inclined with line angle
Angle prevents overreach of
Z1 on faults with fault
resistance that are fed from
both line ends

Z1

rev
ers
e

Load

Load

R
forw
ard
s

Z3

e
ers
rev

Page 19

01/20/16

Energy Automation

Fault detection
no fault detection polygon:
the largest zone
determines the fault
detection characteristic
simple setting of load
encroachment area with
Rmin and Load
Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Zone grading chart, radial feeder

Z3
Z2
Z1 B

Z1 = 0.85 ZA-B

Z2 = 0.85 (ZA-B + 0.85 ZB-C)


Z3 = 0.85 [ ZA-B + 0.85 (ZB-C+ 0.85 ZC-D) ]

Page 20

01/20/16

Energy Automation

>> ZT
>t

Grading according
the recommendation
with the safety margin
of 15%.
Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Ring feeder: with grading against opposite end

grading time
(s)
0.6
0.3

The same grading from both sides

Page 21

01/20/16

Energy Automation

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Grading in a branched radial system


Z3

L2

Z1

L1

L3
Z2

L4
The impedances of the Z2 and Z3 must be grading with the shortest impedance

Page 22

01/20/16

Energy Automation

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector