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Energy Automation

Proper detection and


treatment of power swing
to reduce the risk of
Blackouts

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Basics

I*XG

I*XL

I*XM

VG VM
sin( )
XG XL XM

P
Pmax

VA

VB

VG

VM

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Jrg Blumschein

90

180
Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Influence of voltage angle


I*XG

P
Pmax
PM=PG

=120
I*XG

=60

I*XG
V
G
VG
=180
0

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20.01.16

VG

I*XL

I*XM

VB VM
I V I*XL
I*XM
A
I
I*XVM
VA I*XL VB
M
I

=60
=120
=180

VB

VM

VA=0

180

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Typical impedance trajectory


Z( = 0)

= 60
normal load condition

= 120
dangerous for
distance protection

Z( = 60)

Z( = 180)

Page 4

= 180
unstable power swing
out of step tripping

Z( = 120)

20.01.16

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Required characteristics for power swing detection


No settings are required, thus no complex calculation is needed.
Detection of power swing with frequencies up to 10Hz.
Detection of power swings that occur during single-pole open
condition and during faults.
Immediate unblocking of distance protection on all kind of faults
occurring during power swing.
Quick detection of reappeared power swing after fault clearance.
Out-of-step tripping in case of unstable power swing

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Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Principle of power swing detection


X

Continuous
calculation and
monitoring of
Impedances

Zone

First impedance in
power swing area:
algorithm starts to
analyze the
impedance trajectory

automatically sized
power swing area

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20.01.16

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Main criteria for power swing detection

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20.01.16

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

monotony criterion

X
X1
X2
X11
X2

X2
R2
R2
R2

R1

R1

power swing if
R1 and
and R
R22 and
or
X1 and
and X
X22
have
have same
same directions
direction
no power swing if
R1 and R2 and
X1 and X2 have
different directions

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20.01.16

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

continuity criterion

power swing
if R or X
exceed a threshold

X
X

no power swing
if R and X are
below the threshold

R
R

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20.01.16

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

smoothness criterion

X
X1
X1
R2
R2

R1X2

R1

power swing if
R1 nearly R2
and X1 nearly X2

X2 no power swing if
R1 strong vary from R2
or
X1 strong vary from X2

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20.01.16

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

If three machines oscillating against each other

Impedance trajectory
will not follow a
perfect elliptical path
difficult to manage
with blinders

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Jrg Blumschein

easy to detect with


criteria monotony,
continuity and
smoothness

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Quick redetection of power swing after fault inception

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Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Secure power swing detection during open pole condition

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20.01.16

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Necessity of power swing detection, example


D1

Trip

Trip

D2

Busbar
2

Busbar
1

3-phase-fault initiates
a power swing in the
transmission network

Transmission network

D3

Trip

3-phase
fault

Trip

Relay 5

D4

Power swing blocking


function prevents the
distance relays D1 ..
D4 from unselective
tripping

Distribution network

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20.01.16

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Impedance Vector for Distance Relay D4


X

3-phase reverse fault:


Impedance vector
jumps to ZFault

Zone Z2
Zone Z1

ZLoad
R

ZFault

The power swing blocking


function prevents an
unselective trip, before
the impedance vector
enters the tripping zone
Z1

Zone
Zone Z3

Power Swing Detection


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power swing is initiated by


the reverse fault:
The impedance moves
on a circular trajectory

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

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20.01.16

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Rotor angle and impedance trajectories for stable


and unstable power swing
distinguish between
stable and unstable
power swing
Trip only for
unstable out of step
condition
strong network: trip
as fast as possible
weak network: keep
the line in service
as long as possible

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20.01.16

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

Basic signals for out of step detection


1. power swing detected

2. impedance in out of
step area detected

3. impedance crosses
the line angle from
the right side

4. impedance leaves
power swing area
at opposite side after
complete crossing
5. impedance crosses
the line angle from
the left side

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20.01.16

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

special out of step tripping logic

Individual out of step trip by logical combination of basic signals

Trip, if the impedance crosses the line angle 3 times inside the
predefined area
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20.01.16

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

special out of step tripping scheme


6. Trip, if the impedance
crosses the line angle
3 times inside the
predefined area

Out of step area


Trip
6

No Trip

Page 20

out of step protection


becomes a selective
function

20.01.16

7. no trip, if the
impedance crosses
the line angle outside
the predefined
out of step area

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector

conclusion
For the protection of the transmission systems of the future we
recommend a strong coordination of power swing detection, distance
protection and out of step protection.
This method, successfully used in Kazakhstan and Romania has the
following advantages:

distance protection for selective clearing of faults in the protected


zone

block distance protection in case of power swing

flexible out of step protection to split the grid selectively according


grid study

optimal coordination of distance protection and out of step protection


by using the same algorithm for power swing detection

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20.01.16

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2008
Energy Sector