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Dougherty Valley HS

Chemistry Nuclear and electron Review


1. Explain why most of the mass of an atom is in the nucleus and its volume is in the
electron cloud.
2. What force keeps the nucleus of the atom together? What force in the nucleus
tries to break it apart?
3. Give the nuclear symbol for the elements below
a. carbon 14
c. Sodium 24
b. Calcium 43
d. Uranium - 239
4. What are the six types of radioactive decay we discussed in class?
5. Explain each decay above and give its charge and nuclear symbol.
6. Rank Alpha, Beta, and gamma first by density and then by ease of stopping the
particle. Explain the relationship between the density and ease of stopping the
particle.
7. write out or finish the decays below.
14
a.
147 N + _________
6C
b. Uranium 235 undergoes an alpha decay
c. What is produced when protactinium 229 goes through two alpha decays.
d. What element goes through a beta decay to produce cerium-144
e. Neutron initiated fission of U-235 results in the release of 2 neutrons, the
formation of Cs-144 and another nucleus.
f. Tritium and deuterium are fused to produce a neutron and a new nucleus.
8. What are the half-life equations?
9. Calculate the ending half-life amount.
a. Health officials are concerned about radon levels in homes. The half-life of
radon-222 is 3.82 days. If a sample of gas contains 4.38 micrograms of radon222, how much will remain in the sample after 15.2 days?
b. Sodium-24 has a half-life of 15 hours. How much sodium-24 will remain in an
18.0 g sample after 60 hours?
10. Calculate the original half-life amount.
a. Carbon-14 has a half life of 5,715yrs. If 2.5g of a sample is left after
23,456yrs what was the mass of the original sample?
b. A sample of Radon-222 is found to have a mass of 1.2 grams. If it has a halflife of 3.82 days and you have had it for 3 months how much did you start
with?
11. Calculate the percentage of sample left.
a. Uranium-238 decays very slowly, with a half-life of 4.47 billion years. What
percentage of a sample of uranium-238 would remain after 13.4 billion years?
b. The half-life of palladium-103 is 17 days. What is the percentage of your
sample left if you keep it for 10 months?
12.
Calculate the half-life.
a. A sample of Strontium-90 is found to have decayed to one-eighth of its
original amount after 87.3 years. What is the half-life of strontium-90?
b. A sample of Francium-212 will decay to one-sixteenth its original amount
after 80 minutes. What is the half-life of francium-212?
13.
Calculate the time.
a. Sodium-24 has a half-life of 15 hours. How much sodium-24 will remain in an
18.0 g sample after 60 hours?

Dougherty Valley HS
Chemistry Nuclear and electron Review
b. Element-106 has a half-life of 0.90 seconds. If one million
atoms of it were prepared, how many atoms would remain
after 4.5 seconds?
14.
Order the color spectrum from hottest (most energy) to
coldest (lest energy).
15.
Explain the photoelectric effect. Draw out a picture of what
happens when an atom absorbs energy and releases energy.
16.
What is the ground state and excited state.
17.
What is a line emission spectrum and how is it produced.
18.
Explain the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
19.
Give the electron configuration for the elements below.
a. Fe
c. Cu
b. Ca
d. I
20. What elements are below.
a. 1s22s22p63s1
b. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p3
c. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d4
d. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p2
21.
How many electrons can be held in each p orbital?
22.
How many electrons can be held in the d orbitals?
23.
Write all the electron configurations in 17-18 in noble gas
configuration.
24.
What are the charges of the electrons.
25.
What are the four quantum numbers and what do they tell
you.
26.
Give the four quantum numbers for the elements below.
a. Es
c. K
b. Te
d. Mn
27.
Give the element represented by the quantum numbers
below.
a. 3, 1, -1, -1/2
c. 4, 3, +1, +1/2
b. 2, 0, 0, +1/2
d. 5, 2, -2, -1/2
28.
Draw the orbital diagrams of the elements below.
a. Zn
d. Cr
b. Al
e. K
c. Br
f. P

g.