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CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 1!

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PART-TWO:-SEARCH-AND-SEIZURE!
I.
Nature,!Scope!and!Definitions!
!
A. DEFINITION!
!
RULE!126!
Section- 1.! Search' warrant' defined.! ! A! search!
warrant! is! an! order! in! writing! issued! in! the!
name!of!the!People!of!the!Philippines,!signed!by!
a! judge! and! directed! to! a! peace! officer,!
commanding! him! to! search! for! personal!
property! described! therein! and! bring! it! before!
the!court.!
Section-13.!Search'incident'to'lawful'arrest.!!A!
person! lawfully! arrested! may! be! searched! for!
dangerous! weapons! or! anything! which! may!
have! been! used! or! constitute! proof! in! the!
commission! of! an! offense! without! a! search!
warrant.!
!
STONEHILL!VS!DIOKNO!
Facts:!
1.!Respondent!(porsecution)!made!possible!the!issuance!
of! 42! search! warrants! against! the! petitioner! and! the!
corporation! to! search! persons! and! premises! of! several!
personal! properties! due! to! an! alleged! violation! of!
Central! Bank! Laws,! Tariff! and! Custom! Laws,! Internal!
Revenue! Code! and! the! Revised! Penal! Code! of! the!
Philippines.! As! a! results,! search! and! seizures! were!
conducted! in! the! both! the! residence! of! the! petitioner!
and!in!the!corporation's!premises.!
!
2.The!petitioner!contended!that!the!search!warrants!are!
null!and!void!as!their!issuance!violated!the!Constitution!
and! the! Rules! of! Court! for! being! general!
warrants.! !Thus,he! filed! a! petition! with! the! Supreme!
Court! for' certiorari,! prohibition,! mandamus! and!
injunction! to! prevent! the! seized! effects! from! being!
introduced!as!evidence!in!the!deportation!cases!against!
the!petitioner.!The!court!issued!the!writ!only!for!those!
effects!found!in!the!petitioner's!residence.!
!
Issue:- Whether- or- not- the- petitioner- can- validly- assailthe-legality-of-the-search-and-seizure-in-both-premises!
!
RULING:!No,!he!can!only!assail!the!search!conducted!in!
the! residences! but! not! those! done! in! the! corporation's!
premises.! The! petitioner! has! no! cause! of! action! in! the!

second! situation! since! a! corporation! has! a! personality!


separate!and!distinct!from!the!personality!of!its!officers!
or!herein!petitioner!regardless!of!the!amount!of!shares!
of!stock!or!interest!of!each!in!the!said!corporation,!and!
whatever!office!they!hold!therein.!Only!the!party!whose!
rights! has! been! impaired! can! validly! object! the! legality!
of! a! seizureXXa! purely! personal! right! which! cannot! be!
exercised!by!a!third!party.!The!right!to!object!belongs!to!
the! corporation! (! for! the! 1st! group! of! documents,!
papers,! and! things! seized! from! the! offices! and! the!
premises).!
!
PEOPLE!VS!MARTI!
!
FACTS:!
August! 14,! 1957,! the! appellant! and! his! commonXlaw!
wife,! Sherly! Reyes,! went! to! the! booth! of! the! Manila!
Packing! and! Export! Forwarders! carrying! Four! (4)!
wrapped!packages.!The!appellant!informed!Anita!Reyes!
that!he!was!sending!the!packages!to!a!friend!in!Zurich,!
Switzerland.!Anita!Reyes!asked!if!she!could!examine!and!
inspect!the!packages.!She!refused!and!assures!her!that!
the! packages! simply! contained! books,! cigars,! and!
gloves.!
!!
Before!the!delivery!of!appellants!box!to!the!Bureau!of!
Customs! and! Bureau! of! Posts,! Mr.! Job! Reyes!
(Proprietor),! following! the! standard! operating!
procedure,! opened! the! boxes! for! final! inspection.! A!
peculiar!odor!emitted!from!the!box!and!that!the!gloves!
contain!dried!leaves.!He!prepared!a!letter!and!reported!
to! the! NBI! and! requesting! a! laboratory! examinations.!
The! dried! marijuana! leaves! were! found! to! have!
contained!inside!the!cellophane!wrappers.!
!!
The! accused! ! appellant! assigns! the! following! errors:!
The! lower! court! erred! in! admitting! in! evidence! the!
illegality! of! search! and! seized! objects! contained! in! the!
four!(4)!parcels.!
-!
ISSUE:!
Whether!or!not!the!seizing!of!illegal!objects!is!legal?!
-!
HELD:!
Yes,!appellant!guilty!beyond!reasonable!doubt.!
!!
RATIONALE:!
Article-III,-Sections-2-and-3,-1987-Constitution!
!!

1!

Mapp-vs-Ohio,-exclusionary-rule!
!!
Stonehill- vs- Diokno,! declared! as! inadmissible! any!
evidence! obtained! by! virtue! of! a! defective! search!
warrant,! abandoning! in! the! process! the! ruling! earlier!
adopted!in!Mercado!vs!Peoples!Court.!
!!
The! case! at! the! bar! assumes! a! peculiar! character! since!
the! evidence! sought! to! be! excluded! was! primarily!
discovered!and!obtained!by!a!private!person,!acting!in!a!
private! capacity! and! without! the! intervention! and!
participation! of! state! authorities.! Under! the!
circumstances,! can! accused! /! appellant! validly! claim!
that!his!constitutional!right!against!unreasonable!search!
and!seizure.!
The! contraband! in! this! case! at! bar! having! come! into!
possession! of! the! government! without! the! latter!
transgressing! appellants! rights! against! unreasonable!
search! and! seizure,! the! Court! sees! no! cogent! reason!
whty!the!same!should!not!be!admitted.!
!
!
!
B. CONSTITUTIONAL!
AND!
STATUTORY!
BOUNDARIES;LIMITATION!ON!STATE!ACTION!
!
1. NATURE! OF! RIGHT! PROTECTED;! WAIVER! OF!
PROTECTED!RIGHT!
!
CONSTITUTION!
ART! III! Section! 2.! The! right! of! the! people! to! be!
secure!in!their!persons,!houses,!papers,!and!effects!
against! unreasonable! searches! and! seizures! of!
whatever! nature! and! for! any! purpose! shall! be!
inviolable,! and! no! search! warrant! or! warrant! of!
arrest!shall!issue!except!upon!probable!cause!to!be!
determined! personally! by! the! judge! after!
examination! under! oath! or! affirmation! of! the!
complainant! and! the! witnesses! he! may! produce,!
and!particularly!describing!the!place!to!be!searched!
and!the!persons!or!things!to!be!seized.!
!
!
KATZ!VS!US!
!
Brief! Fact! Summary.! The! petitioner,! Katz! (the!
petitioner),! was! convicted! of! transmitting!
wagering! information! over! telephone! lines! in!
violation! of! federal! law.! The! government! had!
entered! into! evidence! the! petitioners! end! of!
telephone! conversations! that! the! government! had!
obtained!by!placing!a!listening!device!to!the!phone!

2! !

booth! that! the! petitioner! used.! The! Court! of!


Appeals! rejected! the! petitioners! contention! that!
the!evidence!should!be!suppressed.!
!
Facts.!The!petitioner!used!a!public!telephone!booth!
to! transmit! wagering! information! from! Los! Angeles!
to! Boston! and! Miami! in! violation! of! federal! law.!
After! extensive! surveillance,! the! FBI! placed! a!
listening! device! to! the! top! of! the! telephone! booth!
and!recorded!the!petitioners!end!of!the!telephone!
conversations! which! was! then! used! as! evidence!
against! him! at! his! trial.! The! petitioner! moved! to!
have! the! evidence! suppressed! under! the! Fourth!
Amendment! of! the! Constitution,! and! that! motion!
was! denied.! The! Court! of! Appeals! rejected! the!
contention! that! the! evidence! is! inadmissible.!
Certiorari!was!granted.!
!
Issue.! Whether! the! Fourth! Amendment! of! the!
Constitution! protects! telephone! conversations!
conducted! in! a! phone! booth! and! secretly! recorded!
from!introduction!as!evidence!against!a!person?!
!
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Held.! Justice! Potter! Stewart! filed! the! majority!
opinion.! The! petitioner! strenuously! asserted! that!
the! phone! booth! was! a! constitutionally! protected!
area.! However,! the! Fourth! Amendment! protects!
persons! and! not! places! from! unreasonable!
intrusion.!Even!in!a!public!place,!a!person!may!have!
a! reasonable! expectation! of! privacy! in! his! person.!
Although!the!petitioner!did!not!seek!to!hide!his!self!
from! public! view! when! he! entered! the! telephone!
booth,!he!did!seek!to!keep!out!the!uninvited!ear.!He!
did!not!relinquish!his!right!to!do!so!simply!because!
he! went! to! a! place! where! he! could! be! seen.! A!
person! who! enters! into! a! telephone! booth! may!
expect!the!protection!of!the!Fourth!Amendment!of!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 3!
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the! Constitution! as! he! assumes! that! the! words! he!
utters! into! the! telephone! will! not! be! broadcast! to!
the!world.!Once!this!is!acknowledged,!it!is!clear!that!
the!Fourth!Amendment!of!the!Constitution!protects!
persons!and!not!areas!from!unreasonable!searches!
and! seizures.! The! Governments! activities! in!
electron!
ically! listening! to! and! recording! the! petitioners!
telephone! conversations! constituted! a! search! and!
seizure!under!the!Fourth!Amendment!and!absent!a!
search!warrant!predicated!upon!sufficient!probable!
cause,!all!evidence!obtained!is!inadmissible.!
!
Dissent.! Justice! Hugo! Black! (J.! Black)! filed! a!
dissenting! opinion.! J.! Black! observed! that!
eavesdropping! was! an! ancient! practice! that! the!
Framers!were!certainly!aware!of!when!they!drafted!
the!United!States!Constitution!(Constitution).!Had!
they! wished! to! prohibit! this! activity! under! the!
Fourth! Amendment! of! the! Constitution! they! would!
have! added! such! language! that! would! have!
effectively!done!so.!By!clever!wording,!the!Supreme!
Court! finds! it! plausible! to! argue! that! language!
aimed!specifically!at!searches!and!seizures!of!things!
that! can! be! searched! and! seized! may,! to! protect!
privacy,! be! applied! to! eavesdropped! evidence! of!
conversations.!
Concurrence.!Justice!John!Harlan!(J.!Harlan)!filed!a!
dissenting! opinion.! The! Fourth! Amendment! of! the!
Constitution!protects!persons,!not!places.!There!is!a!
twofold!requirement!for!what!protection!is!afforded!
to! those! people.! First,! that! a! person! has! exhibited!
an! actual! expectation! of! privacy! and,! second,! that!
the! expectation! be! one! that! society! is! prepared! to!
recognize!as!reasonable.!The!critical!fact!in!this!case!
is!that!a!person!who!enters!a!telephone!booth!shuts!
the! door! behind! him,! pays! the! toll,! and! is! surely!
entitled!to!assume!that!his!conversation!is!not!being!
intercepted.! On! the! other! hand,! conversations! out!
in! the! open! public! would! not! be! protected! against!
being! overheard! as! the! expectation! of! privacy!
would!not!be!reasonable.!
!
VILLANUEVA!VS!QUERUBIN!
In!accordance!with!the!policy!to!which!this!Court!is!
committed,! namely,! that! a! colorable! claim! of! a!
denial! of! a! constitutional! right! should! not! be!
ignored,!petitioner,!in!this!certiorari!and!prohibition!
proceeding,! succeeded! in! having! his! alleged!

grievance!against!respondent!Judge,!the!Honorable!
Jose! R.! Querubin,! now! retired,! heard.! He! would!
have!us!nullify!the!lower!court!order!of!June!1,!1966!
requiring! him! "to! return! and! deliver! to! the!
Provincial!Commander,!Bacolod!City,!the!amount!of!
P10,350.00!and!the!wooden!container!stated!in!the!
receipt! issued! by! the! accused! dated! April! 1,! 1966,!
within! fortyXeight! (48)! hours! upon! receipt! of! this!
order."-1- The!money!in!question!formed!part!of!the!
things! seized! in! accordance! with! a! search! warrant!
previously! issued! by! respondent! Judge! himself.!
Petitioner!therefore,!to!lend!plausibility!to!his!plea,!
was! under! the! necessity! of! alleging! that! less! than!
full!respect!was!accorded!his!constitutional!right!to!
be!free!from!unreasonable!search!and!seizure.-2- He!
would!impress!on!us!that!full!fealty!was!not!shown!
to!what!is!ordained!by!such!a!guarantee.!Assertion!
of! such! a! disregard! of! a! constitutional! command! is!
one! thing;! proof! is! another.! What! is! more,! there! is!
included!in!the!petition!itself! 3-a!written!promise!of!
petitioner! to! return! such! amount! when! required.!
Accordingly,! as! will! be! explained,! petitioner! did! fail!
to!show!that!he!is!entitled!to!the!writs!of!certiorari!
and!prohibition!prayed!for.!
It!was!alleged!in!the!petition!that!on!April!23,!1966,!
in! a! motion! filed! with! respondent! Judge! by! an!
assistant! city! fiscal! of! Bacolod! City! and! a! special!
prosecutor!of!the!Department!of!Justice,!it!was!set!
forth! that! on! March! 16,! 1966,! the! residence! of!
petitioner! was! raided! by! a! constabulary! and! police!
team!on!the!strength!of!a!search!warrant!issued!by!
such! respondent! Judge,! in! the! course! of! which,!
there! was! a! seizure! of! the! amount! of! P10,350.00,!
which! was! not! however! deposited! in! court,! as!
thereafter!its!possession!was!restored!to!petitioner.!
It! was! further! stated! that! an! information! for! the!
violation! of! Article! 195! of! the! Revised! Penal! Code!
was!filed!with!the!City!Court!of!Bacolod!against!!
petitioner.-4-There!was!an!opposition!on!the!part!of!
petitioner! to! such! motion! wherein! after! asserting!
that! the! lower! court! was! without! jurisdiction! and!
that! the! matter! had! become! moot! and! academic,!
because!the!money!was!spent!in!good!faith!by!him!
for!the!payment!of!the!wages!of!his!laborers,!it!was!
contended! that! there! was! a! violation! of! his!
constitutional!rights!not!to!be!deprived!of!property!
without! due! process! of! law! and! to! be! free! from!
unreasonable!searches!and!seizures.-5-Subsequently,!
after! a! reply! to! such! opposition! and! a! rejoinder!

3!

were! submitted,! the! respondent! Judge! issued! the!


challenged!order!dated!June!1,!1966,!the!dispositive!
portion! of! which! reads:! "[In! view! thereof],! the!
accused! Oscar! Villanueva! is! hereby! ordered! to!
return! and! deliver! to! the! Provincial! Commander,!
Bacolod! City,! the! amount! of! P10,350.00! and! the!
wooden! container! stated! in! the! receipt! issued! by!
the! accused! dated! April! 1,! 1966,! within! fortyXeight!
(48)!hours!upon!receipt!of!this!order."!6!
There! was! a! motion! for! reconsideration,! but! it! was!
denied! on! June! 11,! 1966.- 7- Hence! this! petition.! In!
view! of! the! stress! laid! therein! as! to! the! failure! of!
respondent!Judge!considering!the!circumstances!of!
the!case!to!yield!deference!to!the!command!of!the!
right! against! unreasonable! searches! and! seizure,!
and! the! assertion! that! unless! there! is! a! writ! of!
preliminary!injunction!issued,!respondent!Judge!will!
cause! the! enforcement! of! the! challenged! order,!
thus! exposing! him! to! contempt! proceedings! and!
other! disciplinary! actions! if! he! could! not! comply!
with!it,!this!Court!adopted!a!resolution!on!June!21,!
1966!which!reads!as!follows:!"The!respondents!in!LX
26177!(Oscar!Villanueva!vs.!Hon.!Judge!R.!Querubin,!
etc.,!et!al.)!are!required!to!file,!within!10!days!from!
notice! hereof,! an! answer! (not! a! motion! to! dismiss)!
to! the! petition! for! prohibition! and! certiorari;! upon!
petitioner's! posting! a! bond! of! two! thousand! pesos!
(P2,000.00),!let!preliminary!injunction!issue."!8!
In! the! answer! filed! by! the! then! Solicitor! General!
Antonio! P.! Barredo,! now! a! member! of! this! Court,!
the! question! of! the! alleged! violation! of! the!
constitutional! guarantee! against! unreasonable!
search!and!seizure!was!squarely!met,!thus:!"Neither!
will! the! assailed! orders! result! in! unreasonable!
search! and! seizure! for! as! already! said! earlier! the!
money! and! wooden! box! in! question! were!
confiscated! during! a! gambling! raid! pursuant! to! a!
search!warrant!issued!by!the!respondent!court!after!
due! and! appropriate! proceedings! during! which! the!
petitioner! and! his! witnesses! were! examined! under!
oath! by! the! respondent! court."- 9- The! point! thus!
raised! was! sought! to! be! refuted! in! petitioner's!
written! memorandum,! but! in! a! manner! far! from!
persuasive.! For! he! did! raise! the! specious! argument!
that! after! the! service! of! the! search! warrant! on!
March! 16,! 1966,! the! motion! of! April! 23,! 1966! for!
the! return! of! the! money! came! too! late,! ignoring!
that!the!Rules!of!Court!does!require!that!the!things!
seized! be! deposited! in! court.! 10- Moreover,! to!
counter! the! damaging! effect! of! a! written! promise,!
which! commendably! he! did! not! omit! from! his!
petition,! that! the! amount! of! P10,350.00! "will! be!

4! !

returned!...!if!the!higher!authorities!will!require!the!
return! of! the! same! by! legal! orders,...,"! 11- he! would!
rely!on!his!alleged!rights!as!owner.!Thus:!"While!he!
agreed! to! return! the! money! by! 'legal' orders',! this!
cannot!be!considered!as!a!limitation!on!his!right!of!
ownership,! because! when! an! agreement! conflicts!
with! the! provision! of! law,! the! latter! must! prevail.!
(Article!1306,!Civil!Code)."!12-There!was!no!adequate!
appreciation! of! the! controlling! norms! as! to! the!
effects!of!a!seizure!under!a!valid!search!warrant!or!
one! not! so! challenged.! It! is! on! the! basis! of! such!
contentions!that!petitioner!would!have!us!issue!the!
writs!of!certiorari!and!prohibition.!
A!perusal!of!the!pleadings!yields!the!conclusion!that!
petitioner! failed! to! meet! the! burden! of!
demonstrating! that! there! was! a! denial! of! a!
constitutional! right! sufficient! to! oust! the! court! of!
jurisdiction.! On! the! contrary,! what! appears!
undeniable! is! that! the! actuation! of! respondent!
Judge!was!in!accordance!with!law.!There!can!be!no!
question!then!of!a!violation!of!the!safeguard!against!
unreasonable!search!and!seizure.!
1.!This!constitutional!right!refers!to!the!immunity!of!
one's! person,! whether! citizen! or! alien,! from!
interference!by!government,!included!in!which!is!his!
residence,!his!papers,!and!other!possessions.!Since,!
moreover,! it! is! invariably! through! a! search! and!
seizure! that! such! an! invasion! of! one's! physical!
freedom!manifests!itself,!it!is!made!clear!that!he!is!
not! to! be! thus! molested,! unless! its! reasonableness!
could! be! shown.! To! be! impressed! with! such! a!
quality,!it!must!be!accomplished!through!a!warrant,!
which!should!not!be!issued!unless!probable!cause!is!
shown,! to! be! determined! by! a! judge! after!
examination! under! oath! or! affirmation! of! the!
complainant! and! the! witnesses! he! may! produce,!
with! a! particular! description! of! the! place! to! be!
searched,!and!the!persons!or!things!to!be!seized.!
It! is! deference! to! one's! personality! that! lies! at! the!
core! of! this! right,! but! it! could! be! also! looked! upon!
as!a!recognition!of!a!constitutionally!protected!area,!
primarily! one's! home,! but! not! necessarily! thereto!
confined.!13-What!is!sought!to!be!guarded!is!a!man's!
prerogative! to! choose! who! is! allowed! entry! to! his!
residence.! In! that! haven! of! refuge,! his! individuality!
can!assert!itself!not!only!in!the!choice!of!who!shall!
be! welcome! but! likewise! in! the! kind! of! objects! he!
wants! around! him.! There! the! state,! however!
powerful,! does! not! as! such! have! access! except!
under! the! circumstances! above! noted,! for! in! the!
traditional!formulation,!his!house,!however!humble,!
is! his! castle.! Thus! is! outlawed! any! unwarranted!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 5!
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intrusion! by! government,! which! is! called! upon! to!
refrain! from! any! invasion! of! his! dwelling! and! to!
respect!the!privacies!of!his!life.! 14-In!the!same!vein,!
Landynski! in! his! authoritative! work! 15- could! fitly!
characterize! this! constitutional! right! as! the!
embodiment!of!"a!spiritual!concept:!the!belief!that!
to! value! the! privacy! of! home! and! person! and! to!
afford! its! constitutional! protection! against! the! long!
reach!of!government!is!no!less!than!to!value!human!
dignity,! and! that! his! privacy! must! not! be! disturbed!
except! in! case! of! overriding! social! need,! and! then!
only!under!stringent!procedural!safeguards."!16!
2.! Necessarily,! then,! if! petitioner's! alleged!
grievance,!consisting!of!a!disregard!of!the!guarantee!
against! unreasonable! search! and! seizure,! were!
substantiated,!he!could!validly!raise!a!constitutional!
question! of! sufficient! gravity! to! entitle! him! to! the!
remedies! sought.! For! a! failure! to! respect! a!
constitutional! command! resulting! in! a! deprivation!
of! a! constitutional! right! is! visited! by! loss! of!
jurisdiction.! 17-Such!is!not!the!case,!however.!He!did!
not! even! put! in! issue! the! validity! of! the! search!
warrant,!as!a!result!of!which!there!was!a!seizure!of!
the!money!in!question.!For!what!were!the!facts!on!
which!the!challenged!order!was!based,!facts!binding!
on! this! Court?! As! set! forth! therein:! "As! a! result! of!
the! raid! conducted! by! a! party! of! the! Philippine!
Constabulary! led! by! Lt.! Alexander! Aguirre! at! 4:00!
o'clock!in!the!afternoon!of!March!16,!1966,!in!virtue!
of! a! search! warrant! issued! by! the! undersigned! on!
March!14,!1966,!the!raiding!party!was!able!to!arrest!
eight!(8)!participants!in!the!game!of!"Monte"!held!in!
one! of! the! rooms! of! the! house! of! Oscar! Villanueva!
at! 6th! Street,! Bacolod! City.! Among! the! gambling!
paraphernalias! seized! during! the! raid! is! cash! in! the!
amount! of! P10,570.00,! which! the! raiding! party!
submitted! to! this! Court! in! endorsing! the! search!
warrant,!
thus!
subjecting!
the!
gambling!
paraphernalia!seized!by!the!raiding!party!under!the!
control! of! this! Court.! On! March! 24,! 1966! the! City!
Fiscal! of! Bacolod! City! filed! an! information! for!
Violation! of! Art.! 195! of! the! Revised! Penal! Code!
against!the!eight!(8)!apprehended!persons!named!in!
the!endorsement!of!the!Philippine!Constabulary.!All!
the!accused!pleaded!guilty!and![were]!convicted!by!
the!City!Court.!Upon!recommendation!of!the!Fiscal,!
however,!only!the!amount!of!P220.00!was!ordered!
forfeited! in! favor! of! the! government! and! the!
amount! of! P10,350.00! was! ordered! to! be! returned!

to! Oscar! Villanueva,! the! owner! of! the! house,! who!


issued! the! receipt! for! the! amount! with! the!
condition!that!he!will!return!the!money!if!the!higher!
authorities! will! require! the! return! of! the! said!
amount."! 18- Then! respondent! Judge,! after! referring!
to! Philips' vs.' Municipal' Mayor,! 19- stated! further! in!
the! order! now! under! scrutiny:! "In! the! light! of! the!
aforequoted!ruling!of!the!appellate!court,!it!is!clear!
that! the! Court! of! First! Instance! that! issued! the!
search! warrant! has! jurisdiction! over! the! amount! of!
P10,350.00! and! its! wooden! container.! With! regard!
to! the! contention! of! the! counsel! for! the! accused!
that! the! return! of! the! amount! of! P10,350.00! is! a!
moot! question! because! the! said! amount! is! already!
spent! by! the! accused,! whatever! defenses! the!
accused! may! invoke! to! resist! the! return! of! the!
amount! of! money! in! question! is! futile! and!
untenable! by! estoppel.! The! accused! in! issuing! the!
corresponding!receipt!of!the!amount!of!P10,350.00!
and!the!wooden!box!container,!agreed!to!return!the!
said! amount! and! the! box! if! the! higher! authorities!
may! so! require.! The! return! of! the! amount! of!
P10,350.00! and! its! wooden! container.! With! regard!
to! the! contention! money! in! the! box! is! a! part! and!
parcel! of! the! gambling! paraphernalia! seized! by! the!
raiding! party! of! the! Philippine! Constabulary! in! the!
house! of! the! accused! Oscar! Villanueva! who! is! at!
present! facing! the! charge! for! violation! of! the!
gambling!law."!20!
Even! if! the! recital! of! the! antecedents! of! the!
challenged! order! were! less! compelling! in! thus!
lending! support! to! what! was! done! by! respondent!
Judge,!still!petitioner!had!failed!to!make!out!a!case.!
For,!had!he!entertained!doubts!as!to!the!validity!of!
the!issuance!of!the!search!warrant!or!the!manner!in!
which! it! was! executed,! he! was! called! upon! to!
establish! such! a! claim! in! court.! He! could! rely! on!
authoritative! doctrines! of! this! Court! precisely! to!
seek!a!judicial!declaration!of!any!illegal!taint!that!he!
could,! with! plausibility,! assert.! 21- That! he! failed! to!
do.! The! Rules! of! Court! made! clear! what! is! to! be!
done! after! the! seizure! of! the! property.! Thus:! "The!
officer! must! forthwith! deliver! the! property! to! the!
municipal!judge!or!judge!of!the!city!court!or!of!the!
Court! of! First! Instance! which! issued! the! warrant,!
together!with!a!true!inventory!thereof!duly!verified!
by! oath."! 22- The! legal! custody! was! therefore!
appropriately! with! respondent! Judge,! who! did!
authorize!the!issuance!of!such!search!warrant.!Even!

5!

if!the!money!could!validly!be!returned!to!petitioner,!
had!it!happened!that!in!the!meanwhile!some!other!
officer!of!the!law!had!it!in!his!possession,!still,!under!
the! ruling! of! this! Court! in! Molo' v.' Yatco,! 23- there!
should!be!a!motion!for!its!restoration!to!petitioner!
that! must! be! affirmatively! acted! upon! by!
respondent! Judge.! Thus:! "It! appears! from! the!
present! case! that! the! documents! and! other! papers!
belonging! to! the! petitioner! Mariano! Molo,! which!
were! seized! by! a! special! agent! of! the! AntiXUsury!
Board!by!virtue!of!a!warrant!issued!by!the!Court!of!
First! Instance! of! Rizal,! came! into! the! possession! of!
said! board,! and! while! it! does! not! appear! how! said!
board! came! to! have! them! in! its! possession,! it! is!
presumed!that!it!was!by!virtue!of!an!authority!given!
by! said! court! (see.! 334,! No.! 31,! Act! No.! 190).! By!
virtue!of!said!authority!the!board!became!an!agent!
of!the!Court!of!First!Instance!of!Rizal!in!the!custody!
of!the!documents!in!question,!with!the!obligation!to!
return! them! to! said! court! upon! the! termination! of!
the!investigation!for!which!the!board!needed!them.!
As! the! AntiXUsury! Board! had! found! no! sufficient!
evidence! to! warrant! a! criminal! action! against! the!
petitioner!for!violation!of!the!Usury!Law,!and!as!said!
board!had!dismissed!the!case!under!investigation,!it!
was! duty! bound! to! return! said! documents! and!
papers!to!the!Court!of!First!Instance!of!Rizal!so!that!
the! latter! might! order! the! return! thereof! to! their!
owner."!24!
Much! less! could! the! seizure,! the! validity! of! the!
search! warrant! being! admitted,! be! open! to!
question.! As! was! set! forth! by! Justice! Malcolm! in!
People' v.' Veloso:! "The! police! officers! were!
accordingly!authorized!to!break!down!the!door!and!
enter! the! premises! of! the! building! occupied! by! the!
soXcalled! Parliamentary! Club.! When! inside,! they!
then!had!the!right!to!arrest!the!persons!presumably!
engaged!in!a!prohibited!game,!and!to!confiscate!the!
evidence! of! the! commission! of! the! crime.! It! has!
been!held!that!an!officer!making!an!arrest!may!take!
from! the! person! arrested! any! money! or! property!
found! upon! his! person,! which! was! used! in! the!
commission! of! the! crime! or! was! the! fruit! of! the!
crime,! or! which! may! furnish! the! person! arrested!
with! the! means! of! committing! violence! or! of!
escaping,!or!which!may!be!used!as!evidence!on!the!
trial!of!the!cause,!but!not!otherwise."!25!
3.! There! is! an! equally! insurmountable! obstacle! to!
the! grant! of! petitioner's! prayer! for! the! writs! of!
certiorari!and!prohibition.!There!is!included,!as!one!
of! the! annexes! to! his! petition,! the! following:!
"Received!from!Assistant!City!Fiscal!Jesus!V.!Ramos!

6! !

the! sum! of! [Ten! Thousand! Three! Hundred! Fifty]!


(P10,350.00)! Philippine! Currency.! This! money! will!
be! returned! to! him! if! the! higher! authorities! will!
require! the! return! of! the! same! by! legal! orders,!
otherwise!the!same!will!not!be!returned."! 26- It!was!
executed! on! April! 1,! 1966! and! duly! signed! by! him.!
As! previously! noted,! he! would! dispute! the! legality!
of! the! order! requiring! the! return! to! enable! him! to!
avoid!the!effects!of!such!a!promise.!Not!only!would!
he!thus!ignore!his!plighted!word,!but!what!is!worse,!
he!would!impress!on!this!Court!a!rather!unorthodox!
notion! of! what! legality! connotes.! His! contention! as!
to!the!failure!of!the!challenged!order!to!meet!such!a!
test! is! that! he! is! the! owner! of! such! an! amount.!
What!he!would!conveniently!ignore!was!the!seizure!
thereof! under! a! valid! search! warrant.! The! very!
constitutional! guarantee! relied! upon! does! not!
preclude!a!search!in!one's!home!and!the!seizure!of!
one's! papers! and! effects! as! long! as! the! element! of!
reasonableness!is!not!lacking.!It!cannot!be!correctly!
maintained!then!that!just!because!the!money!seized!
did!belong!to!petitioner,!its!return!to!the!court!that!
issued! the! search! warrant! could! be! avoided! when!
precisely! what! the! law! requires! is! that! it! be!
deposited! therein.! As! a! matter! of! fact,! what! lacks!
the! element! of! legality! is! the! continued! possession!
by! petitioner.! Resort! to! a! higher! tribunal! then! to!
nullify!what!was!done!by!respondent!Judge!is!futile!
and!unavailing.!
WHEREFORE,! the! petition! for! prohibition! and!
certiorari! is! dismissed! and! the! writ! of! preliminary!
injunction!under!the!resolution!of!this!Court!of!June!
21,! 1966,! lifted! and! set! aside.! With! costs! against!
petitioner.!
!
!
PEOPLE!VS!MARTI!(SUPRA)!
!
GUANZON!V!DE!VILLA!
Facts:! The! 41! petitioners! alleged! that! the!
"saturation! drive"! or! "aerial! target! zoning"! that!
were!conducted!in!their!place!(Tondo!Manila)!were!
unconstitutional.! They! alleged! that! there! is! no!
specific!target!house!to!be!search!and!that!there!is!
no!search!warrant!or!warrant!of!arrest!served.!Most!
of! the! policemen! are! in! their! civilian! clothes! and!
without! nameplates! or! identification! cards.! The!
residents! were! rudely! rouse! from! their! sleep! by!
banging! on! the! walls! and! windows! of! their! houses.!
The! residents! were! at! the! point! of! highXpowered!
guns! and! herded! like! cows.! Men! were! ordered! to!
strip!down!to!their!briefs!for!the!police!to!examine!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 7!
!
their! tattoo! marks.! The! residents! complained! that!
they're! homes! were! ransacked,! tossing! their!
belongings! and! destroying! their! valuables.! Some! of!
their! money! and! valuables! had! disappeared! after!
the!operation.!The!residents!also!reported!incidents!
of!maulings,!spotXbeatings!and!maltreatment.!Those!
who! were! detained! also! suffered! mental! and!
physical! torture! to! extract! confessions! and! tactical!
informations.! The! respondents! said! that! such!
accusations! were! all! lies.! Respondents! contends!
that! the! Constitution! grants! to! government! the!
power! to! seek! and! cripple! subversive! movements!
for! the! maintenance! of! peace! in! the! state.! The!
aerial! target! zoning! were! intended! to! flush! out!
subversives! and! criminal! elements! coddled! by! the!
communities!were!the!said!drives!were!conducted.!
They! said! that! they! have! intelligently! and! carefully!
planned!months!ahead!for!the!actual!operation!and!
that!local!and!foreign!media!joined!the!operation!to!
witness!and!record!such!event.!
!
!
Issue:! Whether! or! Not! the! saturation! drive!
committed!consisted!of!violation!of!human!rights.!
!
!
Held:!It!is!not!the!police!action!per!se!which!should!
be!prohibited!rather!it!is!the!procedure!used!or!the!
methods!which!"offend!even!hardened!sensibilities"!
.Based!on!the!facts!stated!by!the!parties,!it!appears!
to! have! been! no! impediment! to! securing! search!
warrants! or! warrants! of! arrest! before! any! houses!
were! searched! or! individuals! roused! from! sleep!
were! arrested.! There! is! no! showing! that! the!
objectives! sought! to! be! attained! by! the! "aerial!
zoning"! could! not! be! achieved! even! as! th! rights! of!
the! squatters! and! low! income! families! are! fully!
protected.! However,! the! remedy! should! not! be!
brought! by! a! tazpaer! suit! where! not! one! victim!
complaints!and!not!one!violator!is!properly!charged.!
In!the!circumstances!of!this!taxpayers'!suit,!there!is!
no!erring!soldier!or!policeman!whom!the!court!can!
order! prosecuted.! In! the! absence! of! clear! facts! no!
permanent!relief!can!be!given.!
!
In!the!meantime!where!there!is!showing!that!some!
abuses! were! committed,! the! court! temporary!
restraint! the! alleged! violations! which! are! shocking!
to! the! senses.! Petition! is! remanded! to! the! RTC! of!

Manila.!
!
RULE! 126! Section- 13.! Search' incident' to' lawful'
arrest.! ! A! person! lawfully! arrested! may! be!
searched!for!dangerous!weapons!or!anything!which!
may! have! been! used! or! constitute! proof! in! the!
commission!of!an!offense!without!a!search!warrant.!
!
2. SCOPE!OF!PROTECTION!
!
CONSTITUION!ART!III!Section!3.!!
(1)! The! privacy! of! communication! and! correspondence!
shall! be! inviolable! except! upon! lawful! order! of! the!
court,! or! when! public! safety! or! order! requires!
otherwise,!as!prescribed!by!law.!
(2)! Any! evidence! obtained! in! violation! of! this! or! the!
preceding!section!shall!be!inadmissible!for!any!purpose!
in!any!proceeding.!
!
BURGOS!VS!CHIEF!OF!STAFF!
Two! warrants! were! issued! against! petitioners! for! the!
search!on!the!premises!of!Metropolitan!Mail!and!We!
Forum!newspapers!and!the!seizure!of!items!alleged!to!
have! been! used! in! subversive! activities.! Petitioners!
prayed! that! a! writ! of! preliminary! mandatory! and!
prohibitory! injunction! be! issued! for! the! return! of! the!
seized! articles,! and! that! respondents! be! enjoined! from!
using! the! articles! thus! seized! as! evidence! against!
petitioner.!
!
Petitioners! questioned! the! warrants! for! the! lack! of!
probable! cause! and! that! the! two! warrants! issued!
indicated! only! one! and! the! same! address.! In! addition,!
the! items! seized! subject! to! the! warrant! were! real!
properties.!
!
Issue:!
Whether! or! not! the! two! warrants! were! valid! to! justify!
seizure!of!the!items.!
!
Held:!
The!defect!in!the!indication!of!the!same!address!in!the!
two! warrants! was! held! by! the! court! as! a! typographical!
error! and! immaterial! in! view! of! the! correct!
determination! of! the! place! sought! to! be! searched! set!
forth! in! the! application.! The! purpose! and! intent! to!
search! two! distinct! premises! was! evident! in! the!
issuance!of!the!two!warrant.!
As! to! the! issue! that! the!! items! seized! were! real!

7!

properties,!the!court!applied!the!principle!in!the!case!of!
Davao! Sawmill! Co.! v.! Castillo,!ruling! that! machinery!
which!is!movable!by!nature!becomes!immobilized!when!
placed!by!the!owner!of!the!tenement,!property!or!plant,!
but! not! so! when! placed! by! a! tenant,! usufructuary,! or!
any!other!person!having!only!a!temporary!right,!unless!
such! person! acted! as! the! agent! of! the! owner.! In! the!
case! at! bar,! petitioners! did! not! claim! to! be! the! owners!
of! the! land! and/or! building! on! which! the! machineries!
were! placed.! This! being! the! case,! the! machineries! in!
question,! while! in! fact! bolted! to! the! ground! remain!
movable!property!susceptible!to!seizure!under!a!search!
warrant.!
However,!the!Court!declared!the!two!warrants!null!and!
void.!
!
Probable!cause!for!a!search!is!defined!as!such!facts!and!
circumstances! which! would! lead! a! reasonably! discreet!
and! prudent! man! to! believe! that! an! offense! has! been!
committed! and! that! the! objects! sought! in! connection!
with!the!offense!are!in!the!place!sought!to!be!searched.!
!
The! Court! ruled! that! the! affidavits! submitted! for! the!
application! of! the! warrant! did! not! satisfy! the!
requirement! of! probable! cause,! the! statements! of! the!
witnesses!having!been!mere!generalizations.!
!
Furthermore,! jurisprudence! tells! of! the! prohibition! on!
the!issuance!of!general!warrants.!(Stanford!vs.!State!of!
Texas).!The!description!and!enumeration!in!the!warrant!
of!the!items!to!be!searched!and!seized!did!not!indicate!
with! specification! the! subversive! nature! of! the! said!
items.!
!
KATZ!VS!US!(SUPRA)!
!
RA! 4200! AN- ACT- TO- PROHIBIT- AND- PENALIZE- WIRETAPPING- AND- OTHER- RELATED- VIOLATIONS- OF- THEPRIVACY- OF- COMMUNICATION,- AND- FOR- OTHERPURPOSES.!
Section-1.!It!shall!be!unlawful!for!any!person,!not!being!
authorized! by! all! the! parties! to! any! private!
communication! or! spoken! word,! to! tap! any! wire! or!
cable,! or! by! using! any! other! device! or! arrangement,! to!
secretly! overhear,! intercept,! or! record! such!
communication! or! spoken! word! by! using! a! device!
commonly! known! as! a! dictaphone! or! dictagraph! or!
dictaphone! or! walkieXtalkie! or! tape! recorder,! or!
however!otherwise!described:!
It! shall! also! be! unlawful! for! any! person,! be! he! a!
participant!or!not!in!the!act!or!acts!penalized!in!the!next!
preceding! sentence,! to! knowingly! possess! any! tape!

8! !

record,! wire! record,! disc! record,! or! any! other! such!


record,! or! copies! thereof,! of! any! communication! or!
spoken!word!secured!either!before!or!after!the!effective!
date!of!this!Act!in!the!manner!prohibited!by!this!law;!or!
to!replay!the!same!for!any!other!person!or!persons;!or!
to!communicate!the!contents!thereof,!either!verbally!or!
in!writing,!or!to!furnish!transcriptions!thereof,!whether!
complete!or!partial,!to!any!other!person:!Provided,!That!
the!use!of!such!record!or!any!copies!thereof!as!evidence!
in! any! civil,! criminal! investigation! or! trial! of! offenses!
mentioned!in!section!3!hereof,!shall!not!be!covered!by!
this!prohibition.!
Section- 2.! Any! person! who! willfully! or! knowingly! does!
or!who!shall!aid,!permit,!or!cause!to!be!done!any!of!the!
acts!declared!to!be!unlawful!in!the!preceding!section!or!
who! violates! the! provisions! of! the! following! section! or!
of! any! order! issued! thereunder,! or! aids,! permits,! or!
causes!such!violation!shall,!upon!conviction!thereof,!be!
punished!by!imprisonment!for!not!less!than!six!months!
or!more!than!six!years!and!with!the!accessory!penalty!of!
perpetual! absolute! disqualification! from! public! office! if!
the! offender! be! a! public! official! at! the! time! of! the!
commission! of! the! offense,! and,! if! the! offender! is! an!
alien!he!shall!be!subject!to!deportation!proceedings.!
Section-3.!Nothing!contained!in!this!Act,!however,!shall!
render! it! unlawful! or! punishable! for! any! peace! officer,!
who! is! authorized! by! a! written! order! of! the! Court,! to!
execute! any! of! the! acts! declared! to! be! unlawful! in! the!
two!preceding!sections!in!cases!involving!the!crimes!of!
treason,!espionage,!provoking!war!and!disloyalty!in!case!
of! war,! piracy,! mutiny! in! the! high! seas,! rebellion,!
conspiracy!and!proposal!to!commit!rebellion,!inciting!to!
rebellion,! sedition,! conspiracy! to! commit! sedition,!
inciting! to! sedition,! kidnapping! as! defined! by! the!
Revised! Penal! Code,! and! violations! of! Commonwealth!
Act! No.! 616,! punishing! espionage! and! other! offenses!
against! national! security:! Provided,! That! such! written!
order! shall! only! be! issued! or! granted! upon! written!
application! and! the! examination! under! oath! or!
affirmation! of! the! applicant! and! the! witnesses! he! may!
produce! and! a! showing:! (1)! that! there! are! reasonable!
grounds! to! believe! that! any! of! the! crimes! enumerated!
hereinabove!has!been!committed!or!is!being!committed!
or!is!about!to!be!committed:!Provided,'however,!That!in!
cases!involving!the!offenses!of!rebellion,!conspiracy!and!
proposal! to! commit! rebellion,! inciting! to! rebellion,!
sedition,! conspiracy! to! commit! sedition,! and! inciting! to!
sedition,!such!authority!shall!be!granted!only!upon!prior!
proof! that! a! rebellion! or! acts! of! sedition,! as! the! case!
may!be,!have!actually!been!or!are!being!committed;!(2)!
that! there! are! reasonable! grounds! to! believe! that!
evidence!will!be!obtained!essential!to!the!conviction!of!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 9!
!
any! person! for,! or! to! the! solution! of,! or! to! the!
prevention!of,!any!of!such!crimes;!and!(3)!that!there!are!
no! other! means! readily! available! for! obtaining! such!
evidence.!
The! order! granted! or! issued! shall! specify:! (1)! the!
identity! of! the! person! or! persons! whose!
communications,! conversations,! discussions,! or! spoken!
words! are! to! be! overheard,! intercepted,! or! recorded!
and,! in! the! case! of! telegraphic! or! telephonic!
communications,! the! telegraph! line! or! the! telephone!
number!involved!and!its!location;!(2)!the!identity!of!the!
peace! officer! authorized! to! overhear,! intercept,! or!
record!the!communications,!conversations,!discussions,!
or!spoken!words;!(3)!the!offense!or!offenses!committed!
or! sought! to! be! prevented;! and! (4)! the! period! of! the!
authorization.! The! authorization! shall! be! effective! for!
the!period!specified!in!the!order!which!shall!not!exceed!
sixty! (60)! days! from! the! date! of! issuance! of! the! order,!
unless! extended! or! renewed! by! the! court! upon! being!
satisfied!that!such!extension!or!renewal!is!in!the!public!
interest.!
All! recordings! made! under! court! authorization! shall,!
within! fortyXeight! hours! after! the! expiration! of! the!
period!fixed!in!the!order,!be!deposited!with!the!court!in!
a! sealed! envelope! or! sealed! package,! and! shall! be!
accompanied! by! an! affidavit! of! the! peace! officer!
granted!such!authority!stating!the!number!of!recordings!
made,! the! dates! and! times! covered! by! each! recording,!
the! number! of! tapes,! discs,! or! records! included! in! the!
deposit,! and! certifying! that! no! duplicates! or! copies! of!
the! whole! or! any! part! thereof! have! been! made,! or! if!
made,!that!all!such!duplicates!or!copies!are!included!in!
the!envelope!or!package!deposited!with!the!court.!The!
envelope!or!package!so!deposited!shall!not!be!opened,!
or!the!recordings!replayed,!or!used!in!evidence,!or!their!
contents! revealed,! except! upon! order! of! the! court,!
which! shall! not! be! granted! except! upon! motion,! with!
due!notice!and!opportunity!to!be!heard!to!the!person!or!
persons! whose! conversation! or! communications! have!
been!recorded.!
The!court!referred!to!in!this!section!shall!be!understood!
to! mean! the! Court! of! First! Instance! within! whose!
territorial! jurisdiction! the! acts! for! which! authority! is!
applied!for!are!to!be!executed.!
Section- 4.! Any! communication! or! spoken! word,! or! the!
existence,! contents,! substance,! purport,! effect,! or!
meaning! of! the! same! or! any! part! thereof,! or! any!
information! therein! contained! obtained! or! secured! by!
any!person!in!violation!of!the!preceding!sections!of!this!

Act! shall! not! be! admissible! in! evidence! in! any! judicial,!
quasiXjudicial,! legislative! or! administrative! hearing! or!
investigation.!
Section- 5.! All! laws! inconsistent! with! the! provisions! of!
this!Act!are!hereby!repealed!or!accordingly!amended.!
Section-6.!This!Act!shall!take!effect!upon!its!approval.!
Approved:!June!19,!1965!
!
C. TYPES!
!
1. THROUGH!SEARCH!WARRANT!
!
RULE! 126! Section- 1.! Search' warrant' defined.! ! A!
search! warrant! is! an! order! in! writing! issued! in! the!
name! of! the! People! of! the! Philippines,! signed! by! a!
judge!and!directed!to!a!peace!officer,!commanding!
him! to! search! for! personal! property! described!
therein!and!bring!it!before!the!court.!(1)!
!
PEOPLE!VS!ARUTA!
Facts:-On!Dec.!13,!1988,!P/Lt.!Abello!was!tipped!off!
by!his!informant!that!a!certain!Aling!Rosa!will!be!
arriving! from! Baguio! City! with! a! large! volume! of!
marijuana! and! assembled! a! team.! The! next! day,! at!
the! Victory! Liner! Bus! terminal! they! waited! for! the!
bus! coming! from! Baguio,! when! the! informer!
pointed! out! who! Aling! Rosa! was,! the! team!
approached! her! and! introduced! themselves! as!
NARCOM! agents.! When! Abello! asked! aling! Rosa!
about!the!contents!of!her!bag,!the!latter!handed!it!
out!to!the!police.!They!found!dried!marijuana!leaves!
packed!in!a!plastic!bag!marked!cash!katutak.!!
!
Instead!of!presenting!its!evidence,!the!defense!filed!
a!demurrer!to!evidence!alleging!the!illegality!of!the!
search! and! seizure! of! the! items.! In! her! testimony,!
the! accused! claimed! that! she! had! just! come! from!
Choice! theatre! where! she! watched! a! movie!
Balweg.! While! about! to! cross! the! road! an! old!
woman! asked! her! for! help! in! carrying! a! shoulder!
bag,! when! she! was! later! on! arrested! by! the! police.!
She! has! no! knowledge! of! the! identity! of! the! old!
woman!and!the!woman!was!nowhere!to!be!found.!
Also,!no!search!warrant!was!presented.!!
!
The!trial!court!convicted!the!accused!in!violation!of!
the!dangerous!drugs!of!1972!
!
!

9!

Issue:-Whether!or!Not!the!police!correctly!searched!
and!seized!the!drugs!from!the!accused.!
!
!
Held:- The! following! cases! are! specifically! provided!
or!allowed!by!law:!
!
1.! Warrantless! search! incidental! to! a! lawful! arrest!
recognized!under!Section!12,!Rule!126!of!the!Rules!
of!Court!8!and!by!prevailing!jurisprudence!
!
2.!Seizure!of!evidence!in!"plain!view,"!the!elements!
of!which!are:!(a)!a!prior!valid!intrusion!based!on!the!
valid! warrantless! arrest! in! which! the! police! are!
legally!present!in!the!pursuit!of!their!official!duties;!
(b)! the! evidence! was! inadvertently! discovered! by!
the!police!who!had!the!right!to!be!where!they!are;!
(c)!the!evidence!must!be!immediately!apparent,!and!
(d)! "plain! view"! justified! mere! seizure! of! evidence!
without!further!search;!
!
3.! Search! of! a! moving! vehicle.! Highly! regulated! by!
the! government,! the! vehicle's! inherent! mobility!
reduces! expectation! of! privacy! especially! when! its!
transit! in! public! thoroughfares! furnishes! a! highly!
reasonable! suspicion! amounting! to! probable! cause!
that!the!occupant!committed!a!criminal!activity;!
!
4.!Consented!warrantless!search;!
!
5.!Customs!search;!!
!
6.!Stop!and!Frisk;!!
!
7.!Exigent!and!Emergency!Circumstances.!!
!
The! essential! requisite! of! probable! cause! must! still!
be!satisfied!before!a!warrantless!search!and!seizure!
can!be!lawfully!conducted.!!
!
The! accused! cannot! be! said! to! be! committing! a!
crime,! she! was! merely! crossing! the! street! and! was!
not! acting! suspiciously! for! the! Narcom! agents! to!
conclude! that! she! was! committing! a! crime.! There!
was! no! legal! basis! to! effect! a! warrantless! arrest! of!
the!accuseds!bag,!there!was!no!probable!cause!and!
the!accused!was!not!lawfully!arrested.!!
!
The! police! had! more! than! 24! hours! to! procure! a!
search! warrant! and! they! did! not! do! so.! The! seized!
marijuana!was!illegal!and!inadmissible!evidence.!!
!

10! !

!
RULE!113,!RULES!OF!COURT!
!
Section!5.!Arrest!without!warrant;!when!lawful.!!A!
peace! officer! or! a! private! person! may,! without! a!
warrant,!arrest!a!person:!
!
(a)!When,!in!his!presence,!the!person!to!be!arrested!
has! committed,! is! actually! committing,! or! is!
attempting!to!commit!an!offense;!
(b)!When!an!offense!has!just!been!committed,!and!
he!has!probable!cause!to!believe!based!on!personal!
knowledge! of! facts! or! circumstances! that! the!
person!to!be!arrested!has!committed!it;!and!
(c)! When! the! person! to! be! arrested! is! a! prisoner!
who! has! escaped! from! a! penal! establishment! or!
place! where! he! is! serving! final! judgment! or! is!
temporarily! confined! while! his! case! is! pending,! or!
has! escaped! while! being! transferred! from! one!
confinement!to!another.!
!
In! cases! falling! under! paragraph! (a)! and! (b)! above,!
the! person! arrested! without! a! warrant! shall! be!
forthwith!delivered!to!the!nearest!police!station!or!
jail! and! shall! be! proceeded! against! in! accordance!
with!section!7!of!Rule!112.!!
!
!
RULE!126,!RULES!OF!COURT!
!
Section! 2.! Court! where! application! for! search!
warrant! shall! be! filed.! ! An! application! for! search!
warrant!shall!be!filed!with!the!following:!
!
a)! Any! court! within! whose! territorial! jurisdiction! a!
crime!was!committed.!
b)!For!compelling!reasons!stated!in!the!application,!
any!court!within!the!judicial!region!where!the!crime!
was! committed! if! the! place! of! the! commission! of!
the!crime!is!known,!or!any!court!within!the!judicial!
region!where!the!warrant!shall!be!enforced.!
!
However,! if! the! criminal! action! has! already! been!
filed,!the!application!shall!only!be!made!in!the!court!
where!the!criminal!action!is!pending.!!
!
Section! 7.! Right! to! break! door! or! window! to! effect!
search.! ! The! officer,! if! refused! admittance! to! the!
place! of! directed! search! after! giving! notice! of! his!
purpose! and! authority,! may! break! open! any! outer!
or!inner!door!or!window!of!a!house!or!any!part!of!a!
house!or!anything!therein!to!execute!the!warrant!or!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 11!
!
liberate! himself! or! any! person! lawfully! aiding! him!
when!unlawfully!detained!therein.!!
!
Section! 12.! Delivery! of! property! and! inventory!
thereof!to!court;!return!and!proceedings!thereon.!
!
(a)! The! officer! must! forthwith! deliver! the! property!
seized! to! the! judge! who! issued! the! warrant,!
together!with!a!true!inventory!thereof!duly!verified!
under!oath.!
(b)! Ten! (10)! days! after! issuance! of! the! search!
warrant,! the! issuing! judge! shall! ascertain! if! the!
return! has! been! made,! and! if! none,! shall! summon!
the! person! to! whom! the! warrant! was! issued! and!
require! him! to! explain! why! no! return! was! made.! If!
the!return!has!been!made,!the!judge!shall!ascertain!
whether! section! 11! of! this! Rule! has! been!
complained!with!and!shall!require!that!the!property!
seized!be!delivered!to!him.!The!judge!shall!see!to!it!
that!subsection!(a)!hereof!has!been!complied!with.!
(c)! The! return! on! the! search! warrant! shall! be! filed!
and!kept!by!the!custodian!of!the!log!book!on!search!
warrants! who! shall! enter! therein! the! date! of! the!
return,!the!result,!and!other!actions!of!the!judge.!
!
A!violation!of!this!section!shall!constitute!contempt!
of!court.!
!
MANANLILI!VS!CA!
!!
Manalili!vs!CA!
Facts:!
This! is! a! petition! for! certiorari! seeking! the! reversal!
of! CAs! decision! in! affirming! TCs! decision! on!
convicting! Manalili! of!illegal! possession! of!
prohibited!drug!violating!RA!6425.!Police!operatives!
Espiritu,! Lumabas! and! driver! Enriquez! conducted!
surveillance! along! the! front! of! Kalookan! Cemetery!
based! on! the! information! that! drug! addicts! were!
roaming! around! in! the! area,! saw! a! man! who!
appeared! to! be! high! on! drugs! and! introduced!
themselves! as! policemen.! Said! man! avoided! them!
and! tried! to! resist,! when! they! asked! what! the! man!
was!holding!in!his!hand,!the!man!held!out!his!wallet!
and!allowed!Espiritu!to!examine!it,!who!found!what!
he!suspected!to!be!crushed!mj!leaves.!The!man!was!
brought! to! the! AntiXNarcotics! Unit! and! turned! out!
to!be!Manalili.!The!substance!found!on!
Manalilis! wallet! was! sent! to! NBI! Foresic! Chemistry!

Section!and!was!confirmed!as!mj.!
Manalilis! version! of! the! story! was! that! early!
afternoon! he! was! riding! in! a! tricycle! when! 3!
policemen! stopped! the! tricycle! and! informed! them!
of! the! suspected! possession! of! mj,! the! policemen!
bodily! searched! both! Manalili! and! the! driver! and!
upon!finding!nothing!illegal!on!their!persons,!let!the!
driver! go! but! brought! Manalili! along! to! the! police!
station.!Manalili!while!on!the!way!to!the!station!saw!
a! neighbor! whom! he! signaled! to! follow! them! and!
when!he!was!again!searched!in!the!station,!he!was!
asked! to! strip! his! pants! where! they! found! nothing!
illegal.! Said! neighbor! then! asked! the! policemen! to!
let! Manalili! go! seeing! as! they! had! not! found!
anything! illegal! but! Manalili! was! put! on! a! cell! who!
was! brought! to! a! fiscal! later! that! day! and! was! told!
not! to! say! anything! despite! his! saying! that! the!
policemen! had! not! found! mj! on! his! person.! Said!
tricycle!driver!and!neighbor!testified!on!court!as!to!
how! the! 2! searches! yielded! nothing! illegal! on!
Manalilis!person.!
!!
Issues:!
1.! W/N! evidence! seized! during! a! stopXandXfrisk! is!
admissible.!
2.!W/N!Manalilis!actions!constituted!a!waiver!of!his!
rights.!
!!
3.!W/N!the!evidence!is!sufficient!to!prove!Manalilis!
guilt.!
!!
Ruling:!
I.!
!!
I.! In! Terry! vs! Ohio,! a! stopXandXfrisk! was! defined! as!
the! vernacular! designation! of! the! right! of! a! police!
officer! to! stop! a! citizen! on! the! street,! interrogate!
him! and! pat! him! for! weapons:! W)here! a! police!
officer! observes! an! unusual! conduct! which! leads!
him! reasonably! to! conclude! in! light! of! his!
experience! that! criminal! activity! may! be! afoot! and!
that! the! persons! with! whom! he! is! dealing! may! be!
armed! and! presently! dangerous,! where! in! the!
course! of! investigating! this! behavior! he! identified!
himself!as!
a! policeman! and! makes! reasonable! inquiries,! and!
where!nothing!in!the!initial!stages!of!the!encounter!
serves! to! dispel! his! reasonable! fear! for! his! own! or!
others'! safety,! he! is! entitled! for! the! protection! of!

11!

himself!and!others!in!the!area!to!conduct!a!carefully!
limited!search!of!the!outer!clothing!of!such!persons!
in!an!attempt!to!discover!weapons!which!might!be!
used! to! assault! him.! Such! a! search! is! a! reasonable!
search! under! the! Fourth! Amendment,! and! any!
weapon! seized! may! properly! be! introduced! in!
evidence!against!the!person!from!whom!they!were!
taken.!
It!did!not,!however!abandon!the!rule!that!the!police!
must,!whenever!practicable,!obtain!advance!judicial!
approval! of!! searches! and! seizures! through! the!
warrant! procedure,! excused! only! by! exigent!
circumstances.! As! People! vs! Lacerna! enumerated! 5!
recognized! exceptions! to! the! rule! against!
warrantless! searches! and! seizures:! 1)! search!
incidental!to!lawful!
arrest;! 2)! search! of! moving! vehicles;! 3)! seizure! in!
plain! view;! 4)! customs! search;! 5)! waiver! of! the!
accused!of!his!rights!against!unreasonable!searches!
and! seizures.! From! Espiritus! experience! as! a!
member!of!the!Anti!XNarcotics!Unit!of!Caloocan!City!
Police,! Manalilis! suspicious! behavior! was!
characteristic!of!drug!addicts!who!were!high.!
II.!
SGs!contention!that!Manalili!effectively!waived!the!
inadmissibility! of! the! evidence! illegally! obtained!
when! he! failed! to! raise! this! issue! or! object! during!
trial.! A! valid! waiver! of! right! against! unreasonable!
searches! and! seizures! require! the! concurrence! of!
these! requisites:! 1)! the! right! to! be! waived! existed;!
2)! the! person! waiving! it! had! knowledge;! and! 3)!
he/she!
had! actual! intention! to! relinquish! the! right.! In! this!
case!however,!it!is!deemed!that!Manalili!has!waived!
such!right!for!failure!to!raise!its!violation!before!the!
trial! court,! at! the! earliest! opportunity! possible.!
Issues! not! raised! below! cannot! be! pleaded! for! the!
first!time!on!appeal.!
!!
III.!
Manalilis! contention! that! the! charge! was! trumped!
up!to!extort!money!and!testimonies!of!the!arresting!
officers! were! inconsistent,! it! held! that! the! tri!
alcourts! assessment! of! the! credibility! of! the!
witnesses! particularly! when! affirmed! by! CA! is!
accorded! great! weight! and! respect! as! it! had!
opportunity! to! observe! their! demeanor! and!
deportment!as!they!testified!before!it.!
The!elements!of!illegal!possession!of!mj!are:!a)!the!
accused!is!in!possession!of!an!item!or!object!which!
is! identified! to! be! a! prohibited! drug;! b)! such!
possession! is! not! authorized! by! law;! and! c)! the!

12! !

accused! freely! and! consciously! possessed! the! said!


drug.!The!substance!found!on!Manalilis!wallet!was!
identified! as! mj! which! was! prohibited! and!
knowingly!without!authority.!
Considering!that!he!was!high!and!tried!to!avoid!and!
resist,!such!behavior!clearly!shows!that!he!knew!he!
was!holding!mj!and!it!was!prohibited!by!law.!
!
B.! VENUE! OF! APPLICATION;! JURISDICTION! OF!
COURT!
!
RULE!126!Section- 2.!Court'where'application'for'search'
warrant' shall' be' filed.! ! An! application! for! search!
warrant!shall!be!filed!with!the!following:!
a)!Any!court!within!whose!territorial!jurisdiction!a!crime!
was!committed.!
b)!For!compelling!reasons!stated!in!the!application,!
any!court!within!the!judicial!region!where!the!crime!
was! committed! if! the! place! of! the! commission! of!
the!crime!is!known,!or!any!court!within!the!judicial!
region!where!the!warrant!shall!be!enforced.!
!
MALALOAN!V!CA!
FACTS-!
X! 1st! Lt.! Absalon! V.! Salboro! of! the! CAPCOM! Northern!
Sector!(now!Central!Sector)!filed!with!the!Regional!Trial!
Court! of! Kalookan! City! an! application! for! search!
warrant.! The! search! warrant! was! sought! for! in!
connection!with!an!alleged!violation!of!P.D.!1866!(Illegal!
Possession! of! Firearms! and! Ammunitions)! perpetrated!
at! No.! 25! Newport! St.,! corner! Marlboro! St.,! Fairview,!
QUEZON- CITY.- On! March! 23,! 1990,! respondent- RTCJudge- of- KALOOKAN- CITY- issued! Search! Warrant! No.!
95X90.!!
X!On!the!same!day,!at!around!2:30!p.m.,!members!of!the!
CAPCOM,! armed! with! subject! search! warrant,!
proceeded!to!the!situs!of!the!offense!alluded!to,!where!
a! labor! seminar! of! the! Ecumenical! Institute! for! Labor!
Education! and! Research! (EILER)! was! then! taking! place.!
According! to! CAPCOM's! 'Inventory! of! Property! Seized,'!
firearms,! explosive! materials! and! subversive!
documents,! among! others,! were! seized! and! taken!
during! the! search.! And! all! the! sixtyXone! (61)! persons!
found! within! the! premises! searched! were! brought! to!
Camp! Karingal,! Quezon! City! but! most! of! them! were!
later! released,! with! the! exception! of! the! herein!
petitioners,! EILER! Instructors,! who! were! indicted! for!
violation! of! P.D.! 1866! in! Criminal! Case! No.! QX90X11757!
before!Branch!88!of!the!Regional!Trial!Court!of!Quezon!
City,! presided! over! by! respondent! Judge! Tirso! D.C.!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 13!
!
Velasco.!!
X! On! July! 10,! 1990,! petitioners! presented! a! 'Motion! for!
Consolidation,! Quashal! of! Search! Warrant! and! For! the!
Suppression! of! All! Illegally! Acquired! Evidence'! before!
the! Quezon! City! court;! and! a! 'Supplemental! Motion! to!
the! Motion! for! Consolidation,! Quashal! of! Search!
Warrant!and!Exclusion!of!evidence!Illegally!Obtained'.!!
X! On! September! 21,! 1990,! the! respondent! Quezon! City!
Judge!issued!the!challenged!order,!consolidating!subject!
cases! but! denying! the! prayer! for! the! quashal! of! the!
search! warrant! under! attack,! the! validity! of! which!
warrant! was! upheld;! opining! that! the! same! falls! under!
the! category! of! Writs! and! Processes,! within! the!
contemplation! of! paragraphs! 3(b)! of! the! Interim! Rules!
and! Guidelines,! and! can! be! serve! not! only! within! the!
territorial!jurisdiction!of!the!issuing!court!but!anywhere!
in! the! judicial! region! of! the! issuing! court! (National!
Capital!Judicial!Region).!!
X! Respondent! Court! of! Appeals! rendered! judgment,! in!
effect! affirming! that! of! the! trial! court,! by! denying! due!
course! to! the! petition! for! certiorari! and! lifting! the!
temporary!restraining!order!it!had!issued!on!November!
29,! 1990! in! connection! therewith.! This! judgment! of!
respondent!court!is!now!impugned!in!and!sought!to!be!
reversed!through!the!present!recourse!before!us.!!
ISSUE-!
WON!a!court!may!take!cognizance!of!an!application!for!
a! search! warrant! in! connection! with! an! offense!
committed!outside!its!territorial!jurisdiction!and!to!issue!
a! warrant! to! conduct! a! search! on! a! place! likewise!
outside!its!territorial!jurisdiction.!!
HELD-!
YES!X!No!law!or!rule!imposes!such!a!limitation!on!search!
warrants,!in!the!same!manner!that!no!such!restriction!is!
provided! for! warrants! of! arrest.! The! arguments! of!
petitioners! are! not! inferable! by! necessary! implication!
from!the!statutory!provisions!which!are!presumed!to!be!
complete! and! expressive! of! the! intendment! of! the!
framers.!A!contrary!interpretation!on!whatever!pretext!
should! not! be! countenanced.!X! A! bit! of! legal! history! on!
his! contestation! will! be! helpful.! The! jurisdictional! rule!
heretofore! was! that! writs! and! process! of! the! soXcalled!
inferior! courts! could! be! enforced! outside! the! province!

only! with! the! approval! of! the! former! court! of! first!
instance.! Under! the! Judiciary! Reorganization! Act,! the!
enforcement! of! such! writs! and! processes! no! longer!
needs! the! approval! of! the! regional! trial! court.! On! the!
other!hand,!while,!formerly,!writs!and!processes!of!the!
then! courts! of! first! instance! were! enforceable!
throughout! the! Philippines,! under! the! Interim! or!
Transitional!Rules!and!Guidelines,!certain!specified!writs!
issued!by!a!regional!trial!court!are!now!enforceable!only!
within!its!judicial!region.!+-PRACTICAL-CONSIDERATIONSThe!Court!cannot!be!blind!to!the!fact!that!it!is!extremely!
difficult,! as! it! undeniably! is,! to! detect! or! elicit!
information! regarding! the! existence! and! location! of!
illegally! possessed! or! prohibited! articles.! The! Court! is!
accordingly! convinced! that! it! should! not! make! the!
requisites! for! the! apprehension! of! the! culprits! and! the!
confiscation! of! such! illicit! items,! once! detected,! more!
onerous! if! not! impossible! by! imposing! further! niceties!
of!procedure!or!substantive!rules!of!jurisdiction!through!
decisional!dicta.!For!that!matter,!we!are!unaware!of!any!
instance!wherein!a!search!warrant!was!struck!down!on!
objections!based!on!territorial!jurisdiction.!!
X! We! do! not! believe! that! the! enforcement! of! a! search!
warrant! issued! by! a! court! outside! the! territorial!
jurisdiction!wherein!the!place!to!be!searched!is!located!
would! create! a! constitutional! question.! Nor! are! we!
swayed! by! the! professed! apprehension! that! the! law!
enforcement!authorities!may!resort!to!what!could!be!a!
permutation!of!forum!shopping,!by!filing!an!application!
for! the! warrant! with! a! "friendly"! court.! It! need! merely!
be!recalled!that!a!search!warrant!is!only!a!process,!not!
an! action.! Furthermore,! the! constitutional! mandate! is!
translated! into! specifically! enumerated! safeguards! in!
Rule! 126! of! the! 1985! Rules! on! Criminal! Procedure! for!
the!issuance!of!a!search!warrant,!and!all!these!have!to!
be!observed!regardless!of!whatever!court!in!whichever!
region! is! importuned! for! or! actually! issues! a! search!
warrant.! Said! requirements,! together! with! the! tenXday!
lifetime! of! the! warrant! would! discourage! resort! to! a!
court!in!another!judicial!region,!not!only!because!of!the!
distance! but! also! the! contingencies! of! travel! and! the!
danger! involved,! unless! there! are! really! compelling!
reasons! for! the! authorities! to! do! so.! Besides,! it! does!
seem! odd! that! such! constitutional! protests! have! not!
been! made! against! warrants! of! arrest! which! are!
enforceable! indefinitely! and! anywhere! although! they!
involve,!not!only!property!and!privacy,!but!persons!and!

13!

liberty.!!
X!On!the!other!hand,!it!is!a!matter!of!judicial!knowledge!
that!the!authorities!have!to!contend!now!and!then!with!
local! and! national! criminal! syndicates! of! considerable!
power!and!influence,!political!or!financial!in!nature,!and!
so! pervasive! as! to! render! foolhardy! any! attempt! to!
obtain! a! search! warrant! in! the! very! locale! under! their!
sphere!of!control.!Nor!should!we!overlook!the!fact!that!
to! do! so! will! necessitate! the! transportation! of!
applicant's! witnesses! to! and! their! examination! in! said!
places,! with! the! attendant! risk,! danger! and! expense.!
Also,!a!further!wellXfounded!precaution,!obviously!born!
of! experience! and! verifiable! data,! is! articulated! by! the!
court!a!quo,!as!quoted!by!respondent!court:!!
"This! court! is! of! the! further! belief! that! the! possible!
leakage!of!information!which!is!of!utmost!importance!in!
the! issuance! of! a! search! warrant! is! secured! (against)!
where!the!issuing!magistrate!within!the!region!does!not!
hold!court!sessions!in!the!city!or!municipality,!within!the!
region,!where!the!place!to!be!searched!is!located."!!
X! The! foregoing! situations! may! also! have! obtained! and!
were! taken! into! account! in! the! foreign! judicial!
pronouncement! that,! in! the! absence! of! statutory!
restrictions,!a!justice!of!the!peace!in!one!district!of!the!
county! may! issue! a! search! warrant! to! be! served! in!
another! district! of! the! county! and! made! returnable!
before! the! justice! of! still! another! district! or! another!
court! having! jurisdiction! to! deal! with! the! matters!
involved.!In!the!present!state!of!our!law!on!the!matter,!
we!find!no!such!statutory!restrictions!both!with!respect!
to!the!court!which!can!issue!the!search!warrant!and!the!
enforcement!thereof!anywhere!in!the!Philippines.!!
+- NONETHELESS,- TO- PUT- DOUBTS- TO- REST,- THESUPREME-COURT-LAID-DOWN-THE-FOLLOWING-POLICYGUIDELINES;-1.! The! Court! wherein! the! criminal! case! is!
pending! shall! have! primary! jurisdiction! to! issue! search!
warrants!necessitated!by!and!for!purposes!of!said!case.!
An! application! for! a! search! warrant! may! be! filed! with!
another! court! only! under! extreme! and! compelling!
circumstances! that! the! applicant! must! prove! to! the!
satisfaction! of! the! latter! court! which! may! or! may! not!
give! due! course! to! the! application! depending! on! the!
validity! of! the! justification! offered! for! not! filing! the!
same!in!the!court!with!primary!jurisdiction!thereover.!!
2.! When! the! latter! court! issues! the! search! warrant,! a!
motion!to!quash!the!same!may!be!filed!in!and!shall!be!
resolved!by!said!court,!without!prejudice!to!any!proper!
recourse! to! the! appropriate! higher! court! by! the! party!

14! !

aggrieved! by! the! resolution! of! the! issuing! court.! All!


grounds! and! objections! then! available,! existent! or!
known! shall! be! raised! in! the! original! or! subsequent!
proceedings! for! the! quashal! of! the! warrant,! otherwise!
they!shall!be!deemed!waived.!!
3.! Where! no! motion! to! quash! the! search! warrant! was!
filed! in! or! resolved! by! the! issuing! court,! the! interested!
party!may!move!in!the!court!where!the!criminal!case!is!
pending!for!the!suppression!as!evidence!of!the!personal!
property!seized!under!the!warrant!if!the!same!is!offered!
therein!for!said!purpose.!Since!two!separate!courts!with!
different! participations! are! involved! in! this! situation,! a!
motion! to! quash! a! search! warrant! and! a! motion! to!
suppress! evidence! are! alternative! and! not! cumulative!
remedies.!In!order!to!prevent!forum!shopping,!a!motion!
to! quash! shall! consequently! be! governed! by! the!
omnibus! motion! rule,! provided,! however,! that!
objections! not! available,! existent! or! known! during! the!
proceedings! for! the! quashal! of! the! warrant! may! be!
raised! in! the! hearing! of! the! motion! to! suppress.! The!
resolution!of!the!court!on!the!motion!to!suppress!shall!
likewise! be! subject! to! any! proper! remedy! in! the!
appropriate!higher!court.!!
4.! Where! the! court! which! issued! the! search! warrant!
denies! the! motion! to! quash! the! same! and! is! not!
otherwise! prevented! from! further! proceeding! thereon,!
all! personal! property! seized! under! the! warrant! shall!
forthwith!be!transmitted!by!it!to!the!court!wherein!the!
criminal!case!is!pending,!with!the!necessary!safeguards!
and!documentation!therefor.!!
5.!These!guidelines!shall!likewise!be!observed!where!the!
same! criminal! offense! is! charged! in! different!
informations! or! complaints! and! filed! in! two! or! more!
courts! with! concurrent! original! jurisdiction! over! the!
criminal! action.! When! the! issue! of! which! court! will! try!
the! case! shall! have! been! resolved,! such! court! shall! be!
considered!as!vested!with!primary!jurisdiction!to!act!on!
applications!for!search!warrants!incident!to!the!criminal!
case.!!
Dispositive)WHEREFORE,!on!the!foregoing!premises,!the!
instant!petition!is!DENIED!and!the!assailed!judgment!of!
respondent!Court!of!Appeals!in!CAXG.R.!SP!No.!23533!is!
hereby!AFFIRMED.!!
!
PEOPLE!VS!CA!
In!behalf!of!the!People,!the!Solicitor!General!has!
perfected!the!appeal!at!bar!under!Rule!45!of!the!Rules!
of! Court! from! the! Decision! promulgated! on! September!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 15!
!
11,! 1996! of! the! Fourteenth! Division! of! the! Court! of!
Appeals.[if! !supportFootnotes][1][endif]! Said! judgment! dismissed!
the! Peoples! petition! for! certiorari! to! invalidate! (i)! the!
order! of! Judge! Caesar! A! Casanova! of! Branch! 80! of! the!
Regional! Trial! Court! dated! February! 9! 1996,[if!
!supportFootnotes][2][endif]
! as! well! as! (ii)! that! dated! May! 28,!
1996!denying!the!Peoples!motion!for!reconsideration.[if!
!supportFootnotes][3][endif]
! Those! orders! were! handed! down! in!
Criminal! Case! No.! 43XMX96,! a! case! of! illegal! possession!
of!explosives!after!the!accused!had!been!arraigned!and!
entered! a! plea! of! not! guilty! to! the! charge.! More!
particularly,!the!Order!of!February!9,!1996:!
1)!quashed!a!search!warrant!(No.!1068![95])!issued!
by! Judge! Marciano! I.! Bacalla! of! Branch! 216!
of! the! Regional! Trial! Court! at! Quezon! City!
on!December!15,!1995,[if!!supportFootnotes][4][endif]!
2)!declared!inadmissible!for!any!purpose!the!items!
seized!under!the!warrant,!and!
3)! directed! the! turnover! of! the! amount! of! U.S.!
$5,750.00! to! the! Court! within! five! (5)! days!
to! be! released! thereafter! in! favor! of! the!
lawful! owner! considering! that! said! amount!
was!not!mentioned!in!the!Search!Warrant."!
The! antecedents,! culled! from! the! records! by! the!
Appellate!Court,!are!hereunder!set!out.!
1.! On! December! 14,! 1995,! S/Insp! PNP! James!
Brillantes! applied! for! search! warrant! before!
Branch! 261,! RTC! of! Quezon! City! against! Mr.!
Azfar! Hussain,! who! had! allegedly! in! his!
possession! firearms! and! explosives! at! Abigail!
Variety! Store,! Apt.! 1207! Area! F,! Bagong!
Buhay!Ave.!Sapang!Palay,!San!Jose!del!Monte!
Bulacan.!
2.! The! following! day,! December! 15,! 1995,! Search!
Warrant! No.! 1068! (95)! against! Mr.! Hussain!
was!issued!not!at!Abigail!Variety!Store!but!at!
Apt.!No.!1,!immediately!adjacent!9to0!Abigail!
Variety!Store!resulting!in!the!arrest!of!four!(4)!
Pakistani!nationals!and!in!the!seizure!of!their!
personal!belongings,!papers!and!effects!such!
as! wallet,! wrist! watches,! pair! of! shoes,!
jackets,! tXshirts,! belts,! sunglasses! and!

travelling! bags! including! cash! amounting! to!


$3,550.00! and! P1,500.00! aside! from! US!
$5,175.00! (receipted)! which! were! never!
mentioned! in! the! warrant.! The! sum! of!
$5,175.00! was! however! returned! to! the!
respondents! upon! order! of! the! court! on!
respondents! motion! or! request.! Included!
allegedly!are!one!piece!of!dynamite!stick;!two!
pieces! of! plastic! explosives! CX4! type! and! one!
(1)! fragmentation! grenade.! But! without! the!
items!described!in!the!search!warrant!are:!(a)!
three!(3)!Ingram!machine!pistols;!(b)!four!(4)!
gmm! pistol;! (c)! blasting! caps;! (d)! fuse;! (e)!
assorted! chemical! ingredients! for! explosives;!
and! (f)! assorted! magazine! assg! and!
ammunitions.!
3.! On! December! 19,! 1995,! three! days! after! the!
warrant! was! served,! a! return! was! made!
without! mentioning! the! personal! belongings,!
papers! and! effects! including! cash! belonging!
to! the! private! respondents.! There! was! no!
showing!that!lawful!occupants!were!made!to!
witness!the!search.!
4.! On! January! 22,1996,! private! respondents! upon!
arraignment,! pleaded! not! guilty! to! the!
offense! charged;! **! and! on! the! same! date,!
submitted!their!Extremely'Urgent'Motion'(To'
Quash' Search' Warrant' and' to' Declare'
Evidence' Obtained' Inadmissible),! dated!
January!15,!1996;!
5.!**!According!to!the!private!respondents!in!their!
pleading! (consolidated! comment! on! petition!
for! certiorari! **):! On! January! 29,! 1996,! an!
ocular! inspection! of! the! premises! searched!
was!conducted!by!respondent!Judge!and!the!
following! facts! had! been! established! as!
contained! in! the! order! dated! January! 30,!
1996**!to!wit:!
1)!That!the!residence!of!all!the!accused!is!at!
Apartment! No.! 1! which! is!
adjacent! to! the! Abigails! Variety!

15!

Store;!

2)! That! there! is! no! such! number! as! 1207!


found! in! the! building! as! it! is!
correspondingly! called! only!
Apartment!No.!1,!2,!3,!and!4;!

3)! That! Apartment! No.! 1! is! separate! from!


the!Abigails!Variety!Store;!

4)! That! there! are! no! connecting! doors! that!


can! pass! from! Abigails! Variety!
Store!to!Apartment!No.!1;!

5)! That! Abigails! Variety! Store! and!


Apartment! No.! 1! have! its! own!
respective! doors! used! for!
ingress!and!egress.!

That! there! being! no! objection! on! the! said!


observation!of!the!Court,!let!the!
same! be! reduced! on! the!
records.!

SO!ORDERED.!

6.! On! February! 9,! 1996,! respondent! Judge! **!


issued!its!order!duly!granting!the!motion!to!
quash!
search!
warrant!
**;[if!
!supportFootnotes][5][endif]
!

16! !

7.!On!February!12,!1996,!private!respondents!filed!
the!concomitant!motion!to!dismiss!**;!
8.! On! February! 19,! 1996,! Asst.! Provincial!
Prosecutor!Rolando!Bulan!filed!a!motion!for!
reconsideration! and! supplemental! motion!
on! the! order! quashing! the! search!
warrant**;!
9.! On! February! 27,! 1996! and! March! 12,! 1996,!
private!
respondent!
filed!
opposition/comment! and! supplemental!
opposition/comment! on! the! motion! for!
reconsideration!**:!
10.!On!May!28,!1996,!respondent!Judge!**!issued!
its! order! denying! the! motion! for!
reconsideration!**;!(and!on)!June!11,!1996,!
private! respondents! filed! extremely! urgent!
reiterated!motion!to!dismiss**.!
Chiefly! to! nullify! Judge! Casanovas! quashal! Order!
of! February! 9,! 1996! above! referred! to,! the! Solicitor!
General! forthwith! commenced! a! special! civil! action! of!
certiorari! in! the! Court! of! Appeals.! The! action! did! not!
prosper,!however.!As!earlier!mentioned,!the!Fourteenth!
Division! of! the! Appellate! Tribunal! promulgated!
judgment! on! September! 11,! 1996,! dismissing! the! case!
for!lack!of!merit.!
The! judgment! was! grounded! on! the! following!
propositions,!to!wit:[!
1.! The! place! actually! searched! was! different! and!
distinct! from! the! place! described! in! the!
search!warrant.!This!fact!was!ascertained!by!
the!Trial!Judge!through!an!ocular!inspection,!
the!findings!wherein,!not!objected!to!by!the!
People,! were! embodied! in! an! order! dated!
January! 30,! 1996.! The! place! searched,! in!
which!the!accused!(herein!petitioners)!were!
then! residing,! was! Apartment! No.! 1.! It! is! a!
place! other! than! and! separate! from,! and! in!
no!way!connected!with,!albeit!and!adjacent!
to,!Abigails'Variety'Store,!the!place!stated!in!
the!search!warrant.!
2.! The! public! prosecutors! claim! XX! that! the! sketch!
submitted! to! Judge! Bacalla! relative! to! the!
application! for! a! search! warrant,! actually!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 17!
!
depicted!the!particular!place!to!be!searched!
XX! was! effectively! confuted! by! Judge!
Casanova!who!pointed!out!that!said!SKETCH!
was! not' dated,' not' signed! by! the! person!
who!made!it!and!not!even'mentioned'in'the'
Search' Warrant' by' the' Honorable' Judge!
(Bacalla,! who)! instead' **' directed' them' to'
search'Abigail'Variety'Store'Apartment'1207!
**! in! the! Order! **! dated! December! 15,!
1995!XX!this,!too,!being!the!address!given!in!
the! Application! for! Search! Warrant! dated!
December!14,!1995!requested!by!P/SR!INSP.!
Roger! James! Brillantes,! the! Team! Leader.!
The! untenability! of! the! claim! is! made! more!
patent!by!the!Peoples!admission,!during!the!
hearing! of! its! petition! for! certiorari! in! the!
Court! of! Appeals,! that! said! sketch! was! in!
truth! not' attached' to' the' application' for'
search' warrant' **! (but)' merely' attached' to'
the'motion'for'reconsideration.!
Quoted!with!approval!by!the!Appellate!Court!were!
the! following! observations! of! Judge!
Casanova!contained!in!his!Order!of!May!28,!
1996,!viz.:!
(d)**! **! it' is' very' clear' that' the' place'
searched' is' different' from' the'
place' mentioned' in' the' Search'
Warrant,' that! is! the! reason!
why! even! P/SR.! INSP! Roger!
James! Brillantes,! SPO1! Prisco!
Bella! and! SPO4! Cesar! D.!
Santiago,! who! were! all!
EDUCATED,! CULTURED! and!
ADEPT! to! their! tasks! of! being!
RAIDERS! and! who! were! all!
STATIONED! IN! BULACAN! were!
not! even! able! to! OPEN! THEIR!
MOUTH! to! say! in! TAGALOG!
with! Honorable! Judge! who!
issued!the!Search!Warrant!the!
words! KATABI,! or! KADIKIT! or!
KASUNOD!
NG!
ABIGAIL!
VARIETY! STORE! ang! papasukin!
namin! or! if! they! happen! to! be!
an!
ENGLISH!
speaking!
POLICEMEN,! they! were! not!

able!to!open!their!mouth!even!
to! WHISPER! the! ENGLISH!
WORDS! RESIDE! or! ADJACENT!
or!BEHIND!or!NEXT!to!ABIGAIL!
VARIETY!STORE,!the!place!they!
are!going!to!raid.**.!

3.! The! search! was! not! accomplished! in! the!


presence! of! the! lawful! occupants! of! the!
place! (herein! private! respondents)! or! any!
member!of!the!family,!said!occupants!being!
handcuffed! and! immobilized! in! the! living!
room!at!the!time.!The!search!was!thus!done!
in!violation!of!the!law.[!
4.! The! articles! seized! were! not! brought! to! the!
court! within! 48! hours! as! required! by! the!
warrant!itself;!(i)n!fact!the!return!was!done!
after! 3! days! or! 77! hours! from! service,! in!
violation! of! Section! 11,! Rule! 126! of! the!
Rules!of!Court.[if!!
5.!Judge!Casanova!correctly'took'cognizance'of'the'
motion' to' quash' search' warrant,' pursuant!
to!the!doctrinal!tenets!laid!down!in!Nolasco'
vs.' Pao! (139! SCRA! 152)! which! overhauled!
the!previous!ruling!of!the!Supreme!Court!in!
Templo'vs.'dela'Cruz!(60'SCRA'295).!It'is'now'
the' prevailing' rule' that' whenever' a' search'
warrant' has' been' issued' by' one' court' or'
branch' thereof' and' a' criminal' case' is'
initiated' in' another' court' or' branch' thereof'
as'a'result'of'the'search'of'the'warrant,'that'
search'warrant'is'deemed'consolidated'with'
the'criminal'case'for'orderly'procedure.'The'
criminal' case' is' more' substantial' than' the'
search' warrant' proceedings,' and' the'
presiding'Judge'in'the'criminal'case'has'the'
right' to' rule' on' the' search' warrant' and' to'
exclude' evidence' unlawfully' obtained'
(Nolasco'&'Sans'cases).!
6.! Grave! abuseof! discretion! cannot! be! imputed! to!
the! respondent! Judge,! in! light! of! Article! III,!

17!

Section! 2! of! the! Constitution! and! Rule! 126!


of!the!Rules!of!Court.!
7.!The!proper!remedy!against!the!challenged!Order!
is! an! appeal,! not! the! special! civil! aciton! of!
certiorari.!
The! Solicitor! General! now! seeks! reversal! of! the!
foregoing! verdict! ascribing! to! the! Court! of! Appeals! the!
following!errors,!to!wit:!
1)! sanctioning! the! lower! Courts! precipitate! act! of!
disregarding! the! proceedings! before! the!
issuing! Court! and! overturning! the! latters!
determination! of! probable! cause! and!
particularity!of!the!place!to!be!searched;!
2)!sanctioning!the!lower!Courts!conclusion!that!the!
sketch! was! not! attached! to! the! application!
for!warrant!despite!the!clear!evidence!**!to!
the!contrary;!
3)! ignoring! the! very! issues! raised! in! the! petition!
before!it:!
4)! holding! that! the! validity! of! an! otherwise! valid!
warrant! could! be! diminished! by! the!
tardiness!by!which!the!return!is!made;!
5)! hastly! applying! the! general! rule! that! certiorari!
cannot! be! made! a! substitute! for! appeal!
although! the! circumstances! attending! the!
case!at!bar!clearly!fall!within!the!exceptions!
to!that!rule;!and!
6)! depriving! petitioner! of! the! opportunity! to!
present!evidence!to!prove!the!validity!of!the!
warrant! when! the! petition! before! it! was!
abruptly! resolved! without! informing!
petitioner!thereof.!
The!whole!case!actually!hinges!on!the!question!of!
whether! or! not! a! search! warrant! was! validly! issued! as!
regards! the! apartment! in! which! private! respondents!
were!then!actually!residing,!or!more!explicitly,!whether!
or! not! that! particular! apartment! had! been! specifically!
described!in!the!warrant.!

18! !

The! Government! insists! that! the! police! officers!


who! applied! to! the! Quezon! City! RTC! for! the! search!
warrant!had!direct,!personal!knowledge!of!the!place!to!
be! searched! and! the! things! to! be! seized.! It! claims! tha!
tone! of! said! officers,! infact,! had! been! able! to!
surreptitiously! enter! the! place! to! be! searched! prior! to!
the! search:! this! being! the! first! of! four! (4)! separate!
apartments! behind! the! Abigail! Variety! Store;! and! they!
were! also! the! same! police! officers! who! eventually!
effected!the!search!and!seizure.!They!thus!had!personal!
knowledge! of! the! place! to! be! searched! and! had! the!
competence! to! make! a! sketch! thereof;! they! knew!
exactly! what! objects! should! be! taken! therefrom;! and!
they! had! presented! evidence! sufficient! to! establish!
probable!cause.!That!may!be!so;!but!unfortunately,!the!
place! they! had! in! mind! XX! the' first' of' four' (4)' separate'
apartment' units' (No.' 1)' at' the' rear' of' Abigail' Variety'
Store!XX!was!not!what!the!Judge!who!issued!the!warrant!
himself! had! in! mind,! and! was' not' what' was' ultimately'
described'in'the'search'warrant.!
The! discrepancy! appears! to! have! resulted! from!
the! officers! own! faulty! depiction! of! the! premises! to! be!
searched.! For! in! their! application! and! in! the! affidavit!
thereto! appended,! they! wrote! down! a! description! of!
the! place! to! be! searched,! which! is! exactly! what! the!
Judge! reproduced! in! the! search! warrant:! premises'
located' at' Abigail' Variety' Store' Apt' 1207,' Area]F,'
Bagong' Buhay' Avenue,' Sapang' Palay,' San' Jose' Del'
Monte,'Bulacan.!And!the!scope!of!the!search!was!made!
more!particular!XX!and!more!restrictive!XX!by!the!Judges!
admonition! in! the! warrant! that! the! search! be! limited'
only'to'the'premises'herein'described.!
Now,! at! the! time! of! the! application! for! a! search!
warrant,! there! were! at! least! five! (5)! distinct! places! in!
the! area! involved:! the! store! known! as! Abigails! Variety!
Store,!and!four'(4)'separate'and'independent'residential'
apartment'units.!These!are!housed!in!a!single!structure!
and!are!contiguous!to!each!other!although!there!are!no!
connecting! doors! through! which! a! person! could! pass!
from! the! interior! of! one! to! any! of! the! others.! Each! of!
the!five!(5)!places!is!independent!of!the!others,!and!may!
be! entered! only! through! its! individual! front! door.!
Admittedly,!the!police!officers!did!not!intend!a!search!of!
all!five!(5)!places,!but!only!one!of!the!residential!units!at!
the!rear!of!Abigails!Variety!Store:!that!immediately!next!
to!the!store!(Number!1).!
However,! despite! having! personal! and! direct!
knowledge! of! the! physical! configuration! of! the! store!
and!the!apartments!behind!the!store,!the!police!officers!
failed! to! make! Judge! Bacalla! understand! the! need! to!
pinpoint! Apartment! No.! 1! in! the! warrant.! Even! after!
having! received! the! warrant! XX! which! directs! that! the!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 19!
!
search!be!limited'only'to'the'premises'herein'described,'
Abigail'Variety'Store'Apt'1207']]!thus!literally!excluding!
the!apartment!units!at!the!rear!of!the!store!XX!they!did!
not!ask!the!Judge!to!correct!said!description.!They!seem!
to!have!simply!assumed!that!their!own!definite!idea!of!
the! place! to! be! searched! XX! clearly! indicated,! according!
to!them,!in!the!sketch!they!claim!to!have!submitted!to!
Judge! Bacalla! in! support! of! their! application! XX! was!
sufficient! particularization! of! the! general! identification!
of!the!place!in!the!search!warrant.!
The!Solicitor!General!argues!that!this!assumption!
is! sanctioned! by! Burgos,' Sr.' v.' Chief' of' Staff,' AFP,'
allegedly! to! the! effect! that! the! executing! officers! prior!
knowledge! as! to! the! place! intended! in! the! warrant! is!
relevant,! and! he! may,! in! case! of! any! ambiguity! in! the!
warrant! as! to! the! place! to! be! searched,! look! to! the!
affidavit!in!the!official!court!file.!
Burgos! is! inapplicable.! That! case! concerned! two! (2)!
search! warrants! which,! upon! perusal,! immediately!
disclosed! an! obvious! typographical! error.! The!
application! in! said! case! was! for! seizure! of! subversive!
material! allegedly! concealed! in! two! places:! one! at! No.!
19.! Road! 3,! Project! 6,! Quezon! City;! and! the! other,! at!
"784! Units! C! &! D.! RMS! Building,! Quezon! Avenue,!
Quezon! City;"! Two! (2)! warrants! issued! XX! No.! 20X82! [a]!
and! No.! 20X82! [b]).! Objection! was! made! to! the!
execution!of!Warrant!No.!20X82!(b)!at!784!Units!C!&!D,!
RMS! Building,! Quezon! Avenue,! Quezon! City! because!
both! search! warrants! apparently! indicated! the! same!
address!(No.!19,!Road!3,!Project!6,!Quezon!City)!as!the!
place! where! the! supposedly! subversive! material! was!
hidden.!This!was!error,!of!course!but,!as!this!Court!there!
ruled,!the!error!was!obviously!typographical,!for!it!was!
absurd! to! suppose! that! the! Judge! had! issued! two!
warrants!for!the!search!of!only!one!place.!Adverting!to!
the! fact! that! the! application! for! the! search! warrants!
specified!two!(2)!distinct!addresses,!and!that!in!fact!the!
address,!784!Units!C&D,!RMS!Building,!Quezon!Avenue,!
Quezon! City! appeared! in! the! opening! paragraph! of!
Warrant!20X82!(b),!this!Court!concluded!that!evidently,!
this!was!the!address!the!judge!intended!to!be!searched!
when!he!issued!the!second!warrant!(No.!20X82![b]);!and!
to! clear! up! the! ambiguity! caused! by! the! obviously!
typographical! error,! the! officer! executing! the! warrant!
could!consult!the!records!in!the!official!court!file.!
The!case!at!bar,!however,!does!not!deal!with!the!
correction! of! an! obvious! typographical! erro! involving!
ambiguous!descriptions!of!the!place!to!be!searched,!as!
in!Burgos,!but!the!search'of'a'place'different'from'that'

clearly' and' without' ambiguity' identified' in' the' search'


warrant.! In! Burgos,! the! inconsistency! calling! for!
clarification!was!immediately!perceptible!on!the!face!of!
the!warrants!in!question.!In!the!instant!case,!there!is!no!
ambiguity! at! all! in! the! warrant.! The! ambiguity! lies!
outside! the! instrument,! arising! from! the! absence! of! a!
meeting! of! minds! as! to! the! place! to! be! searched!
between! the! applicants! for! the! warrant! and! the! Judge!
issuing!the!same;!and!what!was!done!was!to!substitute!
for! the! place! that! the! judge! had! written! down! in! the!
warrant,!the!premises!that!the!executing!officers!had!in!
their!mind.!This!should!not!have!been!done.!It!is!neither!
fair! nor! licit! to! allow! police! officers! to! search! a! place!
different! from! that! stated! in! the! warrant! on! the! claim!
that! the! place! actually! searched! XX! although! not! that!
specified! in! the! warrant! XX! is! exactly! what! they! had! in!
view! when! they! applied! for! the! warrant! and! had!
demarcated! in! their! supporting! evidence.! What! is!
material! in! determining! the! validity! of! a! search! is! the!
place! stated! in! the! warrant! itself,! not! what! the!
applicants!had!in!their!thoughts,!or!had!represented!in!
the! proofs! they! submitted! to! the! court! issuing! the!
warrant.! Indeed,! following! the! officers! theory,! in! the!
context! of! the! facts! of! this! case,! all! four! (4)! apartment!
units! at! the! rear! of! Abigails! Variety! Store! would! have!
been!fair!game!for!a!search.!
The! place! to! be! searched,! as! set! out! in! the!
warrant,!cannot!be!amplified!or!modified!by!the!officers!
own! personal! knowledge! of! the! premises,! or! the!
evidence! they! adduced! in! support! of! their! application!
for! the! warrant.! Such! a! change! is! proscribed! by! the!
Constitution! which! requires! inter' alia! the! search!
warrant! to! particularly! describe! the! place! to! be!
searched!as!well!as!the!persons!or!things!to!be!seized.!It!
would!concede!to!police!officers!the!power!of!choosing!
the!place!to!be!searched,!even!if!not!be!that!delineated!
in!the!warrant.!It!would!open!wide!the!door!to!abuse!of!
search!process,!and!grant!to!officers!executing!a!search!
warrant! that! discretion! which! the! Constitution! has!
precisely! removed! from! them.! The! particularization! of!
the! description! of! the! place! to! be! searched! may!
properly! be! done! only! by! the! Judge,! and! only! in! the!
warrant! itself;! it! cannot! be! left! to! the! discretion! of! the!
police!officers!conducting!the!search.!
The! Government! faults! Judge! Casanova! for!
having!undertaken!a!review!of!Judge!Bacallas!finding!of!
probable! cause,! as! if! he! were! an! appellate! court.! A!
perusal!of!the!record!however!shows!that!all!that!Judge!
Casanova! did! was! merely! to! point! out! inconsistencies!

19!

between! Judge! Bacalla'! Order! of! December! 15,! 1995!


and! the! warrant! itself,! as! regards! the! identities! of! the!
police! officers! examined! by! Judge! Bacalla.! In! Judge!
Casanovas! view,! said! inconsistencies,! being! quite!
apparent! in! the! record,! put! in! doubt! the! sufficiency! of!
the! determination! of! the! facts! on! which! the! search!
warrant!was!founded.!
The! Government! alleges! that! the! officers! had!
satisfactorily! established! probable! cause! before! Judge!
Bacalla!for!the!issuance!of!a!search!warrant.!While!this!
may! be! conceded,! the! trouble! is,! to! repeat,! that! the!
place! described! in! the! search! warrant! XX! which,! of!
course,! is! the! only! place! that! may! be! legitimately!
searched! in! virtue! thereof! XX! was! not! that! which! the!
police!officers!who!applied!for!the!warrant!had!in!mind,!
with! the! result! that! what! they! actually! subjected! to!
searchXandXseizure! operations! was! a' place' other' than'
that' stated' in' the' warrant.! In! fine,! while! there! was! a!
search!warrant!more!or!less!properly!issued!as!regards!
Abigails! Variety! Store,! there' was' none' for' Apartment'
No.' 1' ]]' the' first' of' the' four' (4)' apartment' units' at' the'
rear' of' said' store,' and' precisely' the' place' in' which' the'
private'respondents'were'then'residing.!
It! bears! stressing! that! under! Section! 2,! Article! III!
of!the!Constitution,!providing!that:!
The! right! of! the! people! to! be! secure! in! their!
persons,!houses,!papers,!and!effects!against!
unreasonable! searches! and! seizures! of!
whatever! nature! and! for! any! purpose! shall!
be! inviolable,! and! no! search! warrant! or!
warrant! of! arrest! shall! issue! except! upon!
probable!cause!to!be!determined!personally!
by! the! judge! after! examination! under! oath!
or! affirmation! of! the! complainant! and! the!
witnesses! he! may! produce,! and! particularly'
describing' the' place' to' be' serched,! and! the!
things!to!be!seized.,!
it! does! not! suffice,! for! a! search! warrant! to! be! deemed!
valid,! that! it! be! based! on! probable! cause,! personally!
determined!by!the!judge!after!examination!under!oath,!
or!affirmation!of!the!complainant!and!the!witnesses!he!
may! produce;! it! is! essential,! too,! that! it! particularly'
describe' the' place' to' be' searched,[! the! manifest!
intention! being! that! the! search! be! confined! strictly! to!
the!place!so!described.!
There!was!therefore!in!this!case!an!infringement!
of!the!constitutional!requirement!that!a!search!warrant!
particularly!describe!the!place!to!be!searched;!and!that!
infringement! necessarily! brought! into! operation! the!
concomitant! provision! that! (a)ny! evidence! obtained! in!

20! !

violation! **! (inter' alia! of! the! searchXandXseizure!


provision)! shall! be! inadmissible! for! any! purpose! in! any!
proceeding.[if!!
In! light! of! what! has! just! been! discussed,! it! is!
needless!to!discuss!such!other!points!sought!to!be!made!
by!the!Office!of!the!Solicitor!General!as!whether!or!not!
(1)!the!sketch!of!the!building!housing!the!store!and!the!
residential! apartment! units! XX! the! place! to! be! searched!
being! plainly! marked! XX! was! in! fact! attached! to! the!
application!for!the!search!warrant;!or!(2)!the!search!had!
been!conducted!in!the!presence!of!the!occupants!of!the!
place! (herein! petitioners),! among! others;! or! (3)! the!
validity! of! the! search! warrant! was! diminished! by! the!
tardiness! by! which! the! return! was! made,! or! (4)! the!
Court! of! Appeals! had! improperly! refused! to! receive!
evidence!which!**!(the!People)!had!earlier!been!denied!
opportunity!to!present!before!the!trial!court;!or!(5)!the!
remedy! of! the! special! civil! action! of! certiorari! in! the!
Court! of! Appeals! had! been! erroneously! availed! of.! The!
resolution! of! these! issues! would! not! affect! the!
correctness! of! the! conclusion! that! the! search! and!
seizure!proceedings!are!void!because!the!place!set!forth!
in! the! search! warrant! is! different! from! that! which! the!
officers! actually! searched,! or! the! speciousness! of! their!
argument! that! anyway,! the! premises! searched! were!
precisely! what! they! had! described! to! the! Judge,! and!
originally!and!at!all!times!had!in!mind.!
Only! one! other! matter! merits! treatment.! The!
Solicitor! Generals! Office! opines! that! where! a! search!
warrant! has! been! issued! by! the! court! other! than! the!
one! trying! the! main! criminal! case,! the! proper! recourse!
of! persons! wishing! to! quash! the! warrant! is! to! assail! it!
before! the! issuing! court! and! not! before! that! in! which!
the!criminal!case!involving!the!subject!of!the!warrant!is!
afterwards! filed.[In! support,! it! cites! the! second! of! five!
(5)!policy!guidelines!laid!down!by!this!Court!in!Malaloan'
v.' Court' of' Appeals[]' concerning! possible! conflicts! of!
jurisdiction! (or,! more! accurately,! in! the! exercise! of!
jurisdiction)! where! the! criminal! case! is! pending! in! one!
court!and!the!search!warrant!is!issued!by!another!court!
for!the!seizure!of!personal!property!intended!to!be!used!
as!evidence!in!said!criminal!case.!Said!second!guideline!
reads:[!
2.! When! the! latter! court! (referring! to! the! court!
which! does! not! try! the! main! criminal! case)!
issues! the! search! warrant,! a! motion! to!
quash!the!same!may!be!filed!in!and!shall!be!
resolved!by!said!court,!without!prejudice!to!
any! proper! recourse! to! the! appropriate!
higher! court! by! the! party! aggrieved! by! the!
resolution! of! the! issuing! court.! All! grounds!
and! objections! then! available,! existent! or!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 21!
!
known! shall! be! raised! in! the! original! or!
subsequent! proceedings! for! the! quashal! of!
the! warrant,! other! they! shall! be! deemed!
waived.!
The!guidelines!have!been!misconstrued.!Where!a!
search! warrant! is! issued! by! one! court! and! the! criminal!
action! based! on! the! results! of! the! search! is! afterwards!
commenced! in! another! court,! it! is! not! the! rule! that! a!
motion! to! quash! the! warrant! (or' to' retrieve' things'
thereunder' seized)! may! be! filed! only! with! the! issuing!
Court.!Such!a!motion!may!be!filed!for!the!first!time!for!
the!first!time!in!either!the!issuing!Court!or!that!in!which!
the! criminal! action! is! pending.! However,! the! remedy! is!
alternative,! not! cumulative.! The! Court! first! taking!
cognizance! of! the! motion! does! so! to! the! exclusion! of!
the! other,! and! the! proceedings! thereon! are! subject! to!
the! Omnibus! Motion! Rule! and! the! rule! against! forumX
shopping.! This! is! clearly! stated! in! the! third! policy!
guidelines!which!indeed!is!what!properly!applies!to!the!
case!at!bar,!to!wit:!
3.! Where! no! motion! to! quash! the! search! warrant!
was!filed!in!or!resolved!by!the!issuing!court,!
the!interested!party!may!move!in!the!court!
where! the! criminal! case! is! pending! for! the!
suppression! as! evidence! of! the! personal!
property! seized! under! the! warrant! if! the!
same! is! offered! therein! for! said! purpose.!
Since! two! separate! courts! with! different!
participations! are! involved! in! this! situation,!
a! motion! to! quash! a! search! warrant! and! a!
motion! to! supress! evidence! are! alternative!
and! not! cummulative! remedies.! In! order! to!
prevent!forum!shopping,!a!motion!to!quash!
shall! consequently! be! governed! by! the!
omnibus! motion! rule,! provided! however,!
that! objections! not! available,! existent! or!
known! during! the! proceedings! for! the!
quashal!of!the!warrant!may!be!raised!in!the!
hearing! of! the! motion! to! suppress.! The!
resolution! of! the! court! on! the! motion! to!
suppress! shall! likewise! be! subject! to! any!
proper! remedy! in! the! appopriate! higher!
court.!
In! this! case,! the! search! warrant! was! applied! for!
in,!and!issued!by,!Branch!216!of!the!Regional!Trial!Court!
at!Quezon!City,!and!the!return!was!made!to!said!court.!

On! the! other! hand,! the! criminal! action! in! connection!


with! the! explosives! subject! of! the! warrant! was! filed! in!
Branch!80!of!the!Regional!Trial!Court!of!Bulacan.!In!this!
situation,!a!motion!to!quash!the!search!warrant,!or!for!
the! return! of! the! personal! property! seized! (not!
otherwise! contraband)! could! have! properly! been!
presented! in! the! QC! RTC.! No! such! motion! was! ever!
filed.! It! was! only! after! the! criminal! action! had! been!
commenced! in! the! Bulacan! RTC! that! the! motion! to!
quash! and! to! suppress! evidence! was! submitted! to! the!
latter.! The! case! thus! falls! within! guideline! No.! 3! above!
quoted! in! accordance! with! which! the! latter! court! must!
be!deemed!to!have!acted!within!its!competence.!
WHEREFORE,! the! judgment! of! the! Fourteenth! Division!
of!the!Court!of!Appeals!of!September!11,!1996!XX!which!
dismissed! the! Peoples! petition! for! certiorari! seeking!
nullification!of!the!Orders!of!Branch!80!of!the!Regional!
Trial!Court!dated!February!9,!1996!and!May!28,!1996!in!
the!Criminal!Case!No.!43XMX96!XX!is,!for!the!reasons!set!
out!in!the!foregoing!opinion,!hereby!AFFIRMED!without!
pronouncement!as!to!costs.!
!
!
C. REQUISITES!FOR!ISSUANCE!
!
CONSTI!ART!III!Section!2.!The!right!of!the!people!to!be!
secure! in! their! persons,! houses,! papers,! and! effects!
against!unreasonable!searches!and!seizures!of!whatever!
nature! and! for! any! purpose! shall! be! inviolable,! and! no!
search! warrant! or! warrant! of! arrest! shall! issue! except!
upon! probable! cause! to! be! determined! personally! by!
the! judge! after! examination! under! oath! or! affirmation!
of!the!complainant!and!the!witnesses!he!may!produce,!
and!particularly!describing!the!place!to!be!searched!and!
the!persons!or!things!to!be!seized.!
!
PAPER!INDUSTRIES!CORP!VS!ASUNCION!
FACTS:!! On! January! 25,! 1995,! Police! Chief! Inspector!
Napoleon!B.!Pascua!applied!for!a!search!warrant!before!
the! RTC! of! Quezon! City,! stating:! 1.! That! the!
management! of! Paper! Industries! Corporation! of! the!
Philippines,! located! at! PICOP! compound,! is! in!
possession! or! ha[s]! in! [its]! control! high! powered!
firearms,! ammunitions,! explosives,! which! are! the!
subject!of!the!offense,!or!used!or!intended!to!be!used!in!
committing!the!offense,!and!which!.!.!.!are![being!kept]!
and! conceal[ed]! in! the! premises! described;! 2.! That! a!
Search!Warrant!should!be!issued!to!enable!any!agent!of!
the! law! to! take! possession! and! bring! to! the! described!

21!

properties.! After! propounding! several! questions! to!


Bacolod,! Judge! Maximiano! C.! Asuncion! issued! the!
contested! search! warrant.! On! February! 4,! 1995,! the!
police! enforced! the! search! warrant! at! the! PICOP!
compound! and! seized! a! number! of! firearms! and!
explosives.! Believing! that! the! warrant! was! invalid! and!
the!search!unreasonable,!the!petitioners!filed!a!Motion!
to! Quash! before! the! trial! court.! Subsequently,! they!
also! filed! a! Supplemental! Pleading! to! the! Motion! to!
Quash!and!a!Motion!to!SuppressEvidence.!On!March!
23,!1995,!the!RTC!issued!the!first!contested!Order!which!
denied!petitioners!motions.!On!August!3,!1995,!the!trial!
court! rendered! its! second! contested! Order! denying!
petitioners!Motion!for!Reconsideration.!
ISSUE:!WON!the!search!warrant!issued!was!valid!
HELD:!
The! requisites! of! a! valid! search! warrant! are:!! (1)!
probable! cause! is! present;! (2)! such! presence! is!
determined! personally! by! the! judge;! (3)! the!
complainant! and! the! witnesses! he! or! she! may! produce!
are! personally! examined! by! the! judge,! in! writing! and!
under! oath! or! affirmation;! (4)! the! applicant! and! the!
witnesses! testify! on! facts! personally! known! to! them;!
and!(5)!the!warrant!specifically!describes!the!place!to!be!
searched! and! the! things! to! be! seized.! !In! the! present!
case,! the! search! warrant! is! invalid! because! (1)! the! trial!
court!failed!to!examine!personally!the!complainant!and!
the! other! deponents;! (2)! SPO3! Cicero! Bacolod,! who!
appeared! during! the! hearing! for! the! issuance! of! the!
search! warrant,! had! no! personal! knowledge! that!
petitioners! were! not! licensed! to! possess! the! subject!
firearms;! and! (3)! the- place- to- be- searched- was- notdescribed-with-particularity.!
!
i.
CONCEPT! OF! PROPABLE! CAUSE! IN! SEARCH!
WARRANTS!
!
ILLINOIS!VS!GATES!
Brief!Fact!Summary.!The!police!received!an!anonymous!
letter! outlining! specific! details! about! the! Defendants,!
Gates! and! others! (the! defendants),! plans! to! traffic!
drugs! from! Florida! to! Illinois.! When! the! details! were!
corroborated! by! the! defendants! actions,! police!
obtained! a! search! warrant! and! found! drugs,! weapons!
and! other! contraband! in! the! defendants! home! and!
automobile.!
Synopsis! of! Rule! of! Law.! Where! an! anonymous! tip! is!
corroborated! with! actual! police! findings,! a! totality! of!
the! circumstances! approach! is! an! appropriate! way! of!
determining! probable! cause! instead! of! using! the! twoX
pronged! test! of! veracity/reliability! and! basis! of!
knowledge!from!Spinelli!v.!United!States,!393!U.S.!410!

22! !

(1969).! The! Fourth! Amendment! of! the! United! States!


Constitution! (Constitution)! requires! no! more! than! a!
finding! by! an! issuing! magistrate! that! there! is! a!
substantial! basis! that! a! search! will! uncover! evidence!
of!wrongdoing.!
Facts.!The!police!received!a!highly!detailed!anonymous!
tip! that! the! defendants! were! trafficking! drugs.! The!
police,!following!up!on!the!tip,!observed!the!defendants!
conducting!specific!activities!which!were!outlined!in!the!
tip.! On! the! basis! of! the! tip! and! the! defendants!
corroborating! activities,! the! police! obtained! a! search!
warrant.! Upon! execution! of! the! warrant,! the! police!
found! drugs,! weapons! and! other! contraband! in! the!
defendants!automobile!and!home.!
Issue.! May! a! magistrate! issue! a! valid! warrant! on! the!
basis! of! an! anonymous! tip! where! there! is! no! indicia! of!
the! informers! basis! of! knowledge! if! the! information!
contained! in! the! tip! is! corroborated! with! police!
findings?!
Held.! When! a! court! decides! whether! or! not! to! issue! a!
search! warrant,! the! elements! of! the! informants!
credibility/reliability! and! basis! of! knowledge! are! to!
be!used!as!guides!when!considering!the!totality!of!the!
circumstances! and! are! not! to! be! exclusive!
requirements!applied!in!every!case.!
!
Dissent.!Aguilar!and!the!elaboration!in!Spinelli!sets!forth!
the! analysis! magistrates! should! follow! on!
determinations! of! probable! cause.! To! sufficiently!
uphold! Fourth! Amendment! rights,! magistrates! must!
look! at! both! the! credibility/reliability! and! basis! of!
knowledge! of! the! informant.! Basis! of! knowledge!
cannot!fully!be!supported!solely!on!the!basis!that!some!
factual! assertions! corroborate! with! actual! police!
findings.!
Since! some! of! the! anonymous! tips! were! not!
corroborated!and!actually!proved!false,!the!informants!
credibility/reliability! was! undermined! and! therefore!
the!warrant!should!not!have!been!issued.!Police!cannot!
use! findings! of! an! illegal! search! to! substantiate! a!
previously!issued!warrant.!
Concurrence.!Even!if!the!factual!findings!by!police!were!
only! corroborated! by! innocuous! behavior,! a! valid!
warrant! could! still! have! been! issued! because! the!
defendants! actions! were! suspicious.! The! main! focus!
should! be! whether! there! is! an! inference,! based! upon!
the!suspects!actions,!that!the!informant!is!credible!and!
the!information!was!obtained!in!a!reliable!manner.!
Discussion.! Credibility/reliability! and! basis! of!
knowledge! of! an! informant! are! very! relevant! in!
determining!the!value!of!a!tip.!These!elements!alone!do!
not!form!the!entire!basis!of!inquiry!in!deciding!whether!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 23!
!
probable! cause! exists.! So! long! as! the! magistrate! had! a!
substantial!basis!for!concluding!a!search!would!uncover!
evidence!of!wrongdoing,!the!Fourth!Amendment!is!not!
violated.!
!
PEOPLE!VS!ESTRADA!
The! People! of! the! Philippines,! through! this!
petition! for! review,! seeks! the! reversal! of! the! order! of!
respondent! Judge! Estrella! T.! Estrada,! dated! December!
7,! 1995,! which! granted! private! respondent! Aiden!
Lanuzas!motion!to!quash!Search!Warrant!No.!958!(95),!
as! well! as! the! order! dated! April! 1,! 1996! denying!
petitioners! motion! for! reconsideration! of! the! earlier!
order.!
On! June! 27,! 1995,! Atty.! Lorna! Frances! F.!
Cabanlas,! Chief! of! the! Legal,! Information! and!
Compliance! Division! (LICD)! of! the! Bureau! of! Food! and!
Drugs! (BFAD),! filed! with! the! Regional! Trial! Court! of!
Quezon!City,!Branch!83,!an!application!for!the!issuance!
of! a! search! warrant! against! Aiden! Lanuza! of! 516! San!
Jose! de! la! Montana! Street,! Mabolo,! Cebu! City,! for!
violation! of! Article! 40! (k)! of! Republic! Act! 7394! (The!
Consumer!Act!of!the!Philippines).!
In! her! application! for! search! warrant,! Atty.!
Cabanlas!alleged,!among!others,!as!follows:!
1.!On!June!5,!1995,!in!my!official!capacity!as!Attorney!V!
and!Chief!of!LICD,!I!received!reports!from!SPO4!Manuel!
P.! Cabiles! of! the! Regional! Intelligence! Group! IV,!
Intelligence!Command!of!the!PNP!that!certain!
1.a.!Aiden!Lanuza!of!516!San!Jose!de!la!Montana!Street,!
Mabolo,! Cebu- City- sold! to! said! Officer! Cabiles! various!
drug! products! amounting! to! Seven! Thousand! Two!
Hundred! Thirty! Two! Pesos! (P! 7,232.00)! on! May! 29,!
1995;!
1.b.!Said!Aiden!Lanuza!or!her!address!at!516!San!Jose!de!
la!Montana!Street,!Mabolo,!Cebu!City!has!no!license!to!
operate,! distribute,! sell! or! transfer! drug! products! from!
the!BFAD;!
1.c.!Distribution,!sale!or!offer!for!sale!or!transfer!of!drug!
products! without! license! to! operate! from! BFAD! is! in!
violation! of! Art.! 40! (k)! of! RA! 7394! (or! the! Consumer!
Act).!
2.! In! support! of! the! report,! the! subscribed! affidavit! of!
Mr.! Cabiles,! his! report! and! the! various! drug! products!
sold! and! purchased! contained! in! a! (sic)! plastic! bags!
marked! Lanuza! Bag! 1! of! 1! and! Lanuza! Bag! 2! of! 2! were!
enclosed;! and! the! same! are! likewise! submitted!
herewith.!
xxx!xxx!xxx.![if!!supportFootnotes][1][endif]!(Emphasis!supplied)!

The! application,! however,! ended! with! the!


statement!that!the!warrant!is!to!search!the!premises!of!
another!person!at!a!different!address:!
3.! This! is! executed! to! support! affiants! application! for! a!
search! warrant! on! the! premises! of! Belen! Cabanero! at!
New! Frontier! Village,! Talisay! Cebu.[if! !supportFootnotes][2][endif](Emphasis!supplied)!
In! support! of! the! application,! the! affidavit! of!
SPO4! Manuel! P.! Cabiles,! a! member! of! the! Regional!
Intelligence!Group!IV!of!the!PNP!Intelligence!Command,!
Camp! Vicente! Lim,! Canlubang,! Laguna,! was! attached!
thereto,!wherein!he!declared!that:!
1.! Upon! the! request! for! assistance! by! BFAD,! he!
conducted! surveillance! for! persons! distributing,! selling!
or!transferring!drug!products!without!license!to!operate!
from!BFAD.!
2.!On!May!29,!1995,!a!certain!Aiden!Lanuza!of!516!San!
Jose! de! la! Montana! St.,! Mabolo,! Cebu! City! sold! to! him!
various!drug!products!amounting!to!P7,232.00!and!
3.! Upon! further! verification! in! the! BFAD! registry! of!
licensed!persons!or!premises,!the!said!person!and!place!
have!in!fact!no!license!to!operate.!
4.! Earlier! than! May! 29,! 1995,! affiant! saw! a! delivery! of!
drug!products!from!the!residence!of!Mrs.!Lanuza!in!516!
San! Jose! de! la! Montana! St.,! Mabolo,! Cebu! City! to!
another!person.!
5.!Accompanying!this!affidavit!are!the!various!products!
sold! to/and! purchased! by! the! affiant! contained! in! two!
(2)! plastic! bags! marked! Lanuza! Bag! 1! of! 1! and! Lanuza!
Bag!2!of!2.!
This! is! executed! in! support! of! the! affiants! report! to!
BFAD! and! for! whatever! legitimate! purpose! this! may!
serve.-[if!!supportFootnotes][3][endif]-(Emphasis!supplied)!
The! BFAD! also! submitted! with! the! application! a!
copy!of!the!sketch[if!!supportFootnotes][4][endif]!of!the!location!of!
Aiden!Lanuzas!residence!at!her!stated!address.!
On! the! same! day! the! application! was! filed,! the!
respondent! Judge! issued! Search! Warrant! No.! 958! (95),!
which!reads!in!full:!
REPUBLIC!OF!THE!PHILIPPINES!
REGIONAL!TRIAL!COURT!
NATIONAL!CAPITAL!JUDICIAL!REGION!
BRANCH!83!QUEZON!CITY!
PEOPLE!OF!THE!PHILIPPINES,!Plaintiff,!
X!versus!X!SEARCH!WARRANT!NO.!958!(95)!
AIDEN!LANUZA,!
Defendant.!
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX!
SEARCH!WARRANT
-

23!

It! appears! to! the! satisfaction! of! this! Court,! after!


examining! under! oath! Atty.! Lorna! Frances! F.! Cabanlas,!
Chief!of!the!Legal!Information!and!Compliance!Division!
(LICD)!of!the!Bureau!of!Food!and!Drugs!(BFAD)!and!her!
witness,!Manuel!P.!Cabiles,!member!of!the!Intelligence!
Group! IV,! Intelligence! Command,! PNP,! Camp! Vicente!
Lim,! Canlubang,! Laguna,! that! there! are! reasonable!
grounds! to! believe! that! a! violation! of! Article! 40(k)! in!
relation! to! Article! 41! of! Republic! Act! No.! 7394!
(Consumer! Act)! has! been! committed! or! about! to! be!
committed!and!there!are!good!and!sufficient!reasons!to!
believe! that! Ms.! Aiden! Lanuza! of! 516! San! Jose- dela!
Montana! Street,! Cebu! City! has! in! her! possession! and!
control! at! said! address! the! following! described!
properties:!
medicines! and! drugs! of! undetermined! quantity! among!
which! are! Bricanyl! Tablet,! Bisolvon! Tablet,! Buscopan!
Tablet,! Buscopan! Ampoule,! Mucosolvan! Ampoule,!
Persantin! Tablet,! Tegretol! Tablet,! PZAXCiba! Tablet,!
Voltaren! Tablet,! Zantac! Ampoule,! Ventolin! Tablet,!
Ventolin! Inhaler,! Dermovate! Cream,! Fortum! Vial,!
Zinacef! Vial,! Feldene! 1M! Ampoule,! Norvasoc! Tablet,!
Bactrim! Forte! Tablet,! Rochephin! Vial,! Tilcotil! Tablet,!
Librax!Tablet,!Methergin!Tablet!and!Tagamet!Tablet!
which! she! is! selling,! distributing! and! transferring!
without! the! necessary! license! from! the! Department! of!
Health.!
You! are! hereby! commanded! to! make! an! immediate!
search!at!any!time!of!the!DAY!or!NIGHT!of!the!premises!
aboveXdescribed! and! forthwith! seize! and! take!
possession! of! the! undetermined! amount! of! drugs! and!
medicines!subject!of!the!offense!and!to!bring!the!same!
to!this!Court!to!be!dealt!with!as!the!law!directs.!
You! are! further! directed! to! submit! a! return! of! this!
Search!Warrant!within!ten!(10)!days!from!today.!
This!Search!Warrant!is!valid!within!a!period!of!ten!(10)!
days!from!the!date!of!issue.!
GIVEN! UNDER! THE! HAND! AND! SEAL! of! this! Court! this!
27th!day!of!June!1995!at!Quezon!City.!
(Sgd.)ESTRELLA!T.!ESTRADA!
econd!Vice!Executive!Judge[if!!supportFootnotes][5][endif]!
Emphasis!supplied)!
On!June!28,!1995,!the!search!warrant!was!served!
at! private! respondent! Lanuzas! residence! at! the!
indicated! address! by! a! composite! team! of! policemen!
from! the! PNP! 7th! Criminal! Investigation! Command,!
Camp!Sotero!Cabahug,!Cebu!City.!
How! the! search! warrant! was! implemented! was!
briefly!
narrated!
in!
the!
Joint!
Affidavit,[if!
!supportFootnotes][6][endif]
! dated! June! 29,! 1995,! of! SPO2!

24! !

Fructuoso! Bete,! Jr.! and! SPO2! Marckbilly! Capalungan,!


both! members! of! the! search! and! seizure! team.! They!
stated!in!their!affidavit!that!their!team,!armed!with!the!
search!warrant,!conducted!a!raid!at!the!premises!of!one!
AIDEN! LANUZA! of! 516! San! Jose! de! la! Montana! Street,!
Cebu! City! x! x! x;! that! the! raid! was! witnessed! by! Luis!
Rivera,! Demetrio! Panimdim! and! Francisco! Ojales,! both!
(sic)! Brgy.! Tanod! of! Kasambagan,! Cebu! City;! that! the!
service! of! the! (search)! warrant! resulted! in! the!
confiscation! of! fiftyXtwo! (52)! cartoons! (sic)! of! assorted!
medicines! from! the! possession! and! control! of! AIDEN!
LANUZA;! and! that! the! said! items! were! brought! to! the!
7CICRO! office! for! detailed! inventory! headed! by! Atty.!
Lorna! F.! Cabanlas,! Chief! of! the! Legal! Information- and!
Compliance! Division! of! the! BFAD,! Manila.[if!
!supportFootnotes][7][endif]
!(Emphasis!supplied)!
The! present! petition,! however,! narrates! a!
different!account!of!what!actually!happened!during!the!
implementation! of! the! search! warrant.! Paragraph! 5! of!
the! petition! states:! At! the! commencement! of! the!
search,! the! members! of! the! team! discovered! that! the!
premises! described! as! 516! San! Jose! de! la! Montana! St.,!
Mabolo,!Cebu!City!was!actually!a!five!thousand!(5,000)!
square!meter!compound!containing!at!least!fifteen!(15)!
structures! which! are! either! leased! residences,! offices,!
factories,! workshops! or! warehouse.! The! policemen!
proceeded! to! search! the! residence! of! private!
respondent!Lanuza!at!Lot!No.!41!of!said!address.!Finding!
no! drug! products! thereat,! they! proceeded! to! search! a!
nearby! warehouse- at! Lot! No.! 38! within! the! same!
compound- and! address! above! stated.- This! search!
yielded!fiftyXtwo!(52)!cartons!of!assorted!drug!products!
which! were! then! inventoried! in! due! course.! x! x! x.[if!
!supportFootnotes][8][endif]
-(Emphasis!supplied)!
In! an! order[if! !supportFootnotes][9][endif]! dated! July! 3,!
1995,!the!respondent!Judge!noted!the!inventory!of!the!
seized!drugs!and!authorized!the!BFAD!to!retain!custody!
of!the!same,!to!have!samples!of!the!drugs!analyzed!and!
be! brought! to! the! registered! drug! manufacturers! for!
parallel!testing.!
On!
S August! 22,! 1995,! private! respondent! Aiden!
Lanuza! filed! a! verified! motion[if! !supportFootnotes][10][endif]!
praying!
( that! Search! Warrant! No.! 958! (95)! be! quashed!
and!that!the!seized!articles!be!declared!inadmissible!in!
any!proceeding!and!ordered!returned!to!the!warehouse!
owned!by!Folk!Arts!Export!&!Import!Company!located!at!
Lot! No.! 38! inside! the! compound! at! 516! San! Jose! de! la!
Montana!Street,!Cebu!City.!The!motion!is!based!on!the!
grounds! that! the! search! warrant! is! illegal! and! null! and!
void!because:!(1)!it!was!applied!to!search!the!premises!
of!one!Belen!Cabanero!at!New!Frontier!Village,!Talisay,!
Cebu,!but!was!issued!to!search!the!residence!of!private!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 25!
!
respondent!Aiden!Lanuza!at!516!San!Jose!de!la!Montana!
Street,! Cebu! City;! (2)! it! was! issued! for! a! nonXexisting!
offense;!(3)!Atty.!Lorna!Frances!F.!Cabanlas!was!not!duly!
authorized! by! applicant! BFAD! to! apply! therefor;! (4)! it!
failed! to! particularly! describe! the! place! to! be! searched!
and!the!things!to!be!seized;!(5)!the!applicant's!witnesses!
had! no! personal! knowledge! of! the! facts! upon! which! it!
was! issued;! and! (6)! its! implementation! was!
unreasonable!as!it!was!enforced!on!a!different!or!wrong!
place! which! was! lawfully! occupied! by! a! different! or!
wrong!person.[if!!supportFootnotes][11][endif]!
Atty.! Lorna! Frances! Cabanlas,! who! appeared! for!
the! BFAD,! opposed[if! !supportFootnotes][12][endif]! the! motion! to!
quash! the! search! warrant,! to! which! the! private!
respondent!countered!with!a!reply.!
After!the!contending!parties!had!submitted!their!
respective!positions!without!further!oral!arguments,!the!
respondent! Judge! issued! the! assailed! order[if!
!supportFootnotes][13][endif]
! dated! December! 7,! 1995,! quashing!
Search! Warrant! No.! 958! (95).! Accordingly,! the! order!
dated! July! 3,! 1995! was! revoked! and! all! the! articles!
seized! were! declared! inadmissible! in! any! and! all!
proceedings! against! private! respondent! Aiden! Lanuza.!
Also,!the!BFAD!was!ordered!to!return!at!its!expense!all!
the!seized!items!to!the!warehouse!of!Folk!Arts!Import!&!
Export! Company! at! Lot! No.! 38,! 516! San! Jose! de! la!
Montana! St.,! Mabolo,! Cebu! City! within! a! period! of!
fifteen! (15)! days! from! notice! of! the! said! order.[if!
!supportFootnotes][14][endif]
!
Petitioner's! motion! for! reconsideration! of! the!
December! 7,! 1995! order! was! denied! in! an! order[if!
!supportFootnotes][15][endif]
! dated! April! 1,! 1996,! impelling!
petitioner!to!file!the!present!petition!asserting!that!the!
respondent!Judge!erred:!
a)! In! holding! that! the! defect! appearing! in! BFAD's!
application!for!a!search!warrant!is!so!"grave"!in!nature!
as! to! warrant! quashal! of! the! search! warrant! issued!
thereunder,!considering!that!such!variance!is!actually!a!
harmless!clerical!error.!
b)!In!holding!that!Atty.!Cabanlas!was!not!authorized!by!
the! BFAD! to! apply! for! a! search! warrant! concerning! the!
unlicensed! distribution! of! drugs,! considering! that! the!
grant! of! BFAD! authorization! upon! her! to! investigate!
fake,! misbranded,! adulterated! or! unregistered! drugs!
necessarily! contemplates! the! authority! to! investigate!
the!unlicensed!activities!above!noted.!
c)!In!holding!that!applicant!BFAD!had!failed!to!discharge!
the!burden!of!proving!probable!cause!for!issuance!of!a!
search!warrant,!by!failing!to!present!documentary!proof!

indicating!that!private!respondent!had!no!license!to!sell!
or! distribute! drug! products,! considering! that! under! the!
authority! of! Carillo' v.' People! (229! SCRA! 386)! the! BFAD!
only!had!the!burden!of!proving!the!negative!ingredient!
of!the!offense!charged!on!the!basis!of!the!best!evidence!
procurable!under!the!circumstances.!
d)! In! holding! that! the! place! sought! to! be! searched! had!
not! been! described! with! sufficient! particularity! in! SW!
No.!958!(95),!considering!that!Aiden!Lanuza's!residence!
at!Lot!No.!41,!516!San!Jose!de!la!Montana!St.,!Mabolo,!
Cebu! City! was! not! so! conspicuously! or! notoriously!
represented!to!the!public!as!such!by!her!as!to!contradict!
the!investigating!and!serving!officers'!perception!of!the!
outward!appearance!of!her!dwelling,!which!led!them!to!
believe! that! the! more! general! address! of! 516! San! Jose!
de! la! Montana! St.,! Mabolo,! Cebu! City! referred! to! her!
dwelling.!
e)! In! ordering! the! return! of! the! things! seized,! the!
possession! of! which! is!
prohibited.[if!!supportFootnotes][16][endif]!
We! granted! the! petitioners! application! for! the!
issuance! of! a! temporary! restraining! order! in! a!
resolution[if!!supportFootnotes][17][endif]!dated!June!26,!1996!and!
restrained! the! implementation! of! the! assailed! orders,!
effective!immediately!and!until!further!orders!from!this!
Court.!
Private! respondent! Aiden! Lanuza! later! filed! her!
comment[if! !supportFootnotes][18][endif]! on! the! petition,! but!
petitioner's! reply! thereto! was! not! admitted! by! this!
Court!in!a!resolution[if!!supportFootnotes][19][endif]!dated!January!
13,! 1997,! for! failure! by! the! Solicitor! General! to! file! the!
same! within! his! first! extension! of! thirty! (30)! days,! that!
was! granted,! but! with! a! warning! that! no! further!
extension!would!be!given.!Instead!of!filing!his!reply,!the!
Solicitor! General! asked! for! two! (2)! more! extensions! of!
time,!which!were!denied.!
Now! to! the! assigned! errors! of! the! respondent!
Judge!raised!by!petitioner.!
The! requirements! for! the! issuance! of! a! search!
warrant!are!inscribed!in!Section!2,!Article!III!of!the!1987!
Constitution,!to!wit:!
"SEC.! 2.! THE! RIGHT! OF! THE! PEOPLE! TO! BE! SECURE! IN!
THEIR! PERSONS,! HOUSES,! PAPERS,! AND! EFFECTS!
AGAINST! UNREASONABLE! SEARCHES! AND! SEIZURES! OF!
WHATEVER! NATURE! AND! FOR! ANY! PURPOSE! SHALL! BE!
INVIOLABLE,!AND!NO!SEARCH!WARRANT!OR!WARRANT!
OF! ARREST! SHALL! ISSUE! EXCEPT! UPON! PROBABLE!

25!

CAUSE!TO!BE!DETERMINED!PERSONALLY!BY!THE!JUDGE!
AFTER! EXAMINATION! UNDER! OATH! OR! AFFIRMATION!
OF! THE! COMPLAINANT! AND! THE! WITNESSES! HE! MAY!
PRODUCE,! AND- PARTICULARLY! DESCRIBING! THE! PLACE!
TO!BE!SEARCHED!AND!THE!PERSONS!OR!THINGS!TO!BE!
SEIZED."!(Emphasis!supplied)!
In! quashing! the! subject! search! warrant,! it! is! the!
finding!of!the!respondent!Judge!that!the!application!for!
its! issuance! suffered! from! a! grave! defect,! "which!
escaped!(her)!attention,"!considering!that!it!was!applied!
to! search! the! premises! of! one! Belen! Cabanero! at! New!
Frontier!Village,!Talisay,!Cebu,!but!was!issued!to!search!
the! residence! of! herein! private! respondent! Aiden!
Lanuza! at! 516! San! Jose! de! la! Montana! St.,! Cebu! City.[if!
!supportFootnotes][20][endif]
!
We!nonetheless!find!such!error!in!the!application!
for!search!warrant!a!negligible!defect.!
The! title! of! the! questioned! application,! which!
reads:!
"PEOPLE!OF!THE!PHILIPPINES,!Plaintiff,!
X!versus!X!SEARCH!WARRANT!NO.!958!(95)!
AIDEN!LANUZA,!For:!Violation!of!Article!
516!San!Jose!de!la!40!(k)!in!relation!to!
Montana!Street,!Mabolo,!Article!41!of!Republic!
Cebu!City,!Act!No.!7394!(or!the!
Defendant.!Consumer!Act).!
x!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!X!
X! X! X! X! X! X! X! X! X! X! X! X! X! X! X! X! X! Xx"[if!
!supportFootnotes][21][endif]
!(Emphasis!supplied)!
and! the! allegations! contained! therein,! pertinent!
portions!of!which!we!quote:!
1.!On!June!5,!1995,!in!my!official!capacity!as!Attorney!V!
and!Chief!of!LICD,!I!received!reports!from!SPO4!Manuel!
P.! Cabiles! of! the! Regional! Intelligence! Group! IV,!
Intelligence!Command!of!the!PNP!that!certain!
1.a.!Aiden!Lanuza!of!516!San!Jose!de!la!Montana!Street,!
Mabolo,! Cebu! City! sold! to! said! Officer! Cabiles! various!
drug! products! amounting! to! Seven! Thousand! Two!
Hundred! Thirty! Two! Pesos! (P! 7,232.00)! on! May! 29,!
1995;!
1.b.!Said!Aiden!Lanuza!or!her!address!at!516!San!Jose!de!
la!Montana!Street,!Mabolo,!Cebu!City!has!no!license!to!
operate,! distribute,! sell! or! transfer! drug! products! from!
the!BFAD;!
x!x!x!x!x!x!x!x!x!
2.! In! support! of! the! report,! the! subscribed! affidavit! of!
Mr.! Cabiles,! his! report! and! the! various! drug! products!
sold! and! purchased! contained! in! a! (sic)! plastic! bags!
marked! Lanuza! Bag! 1! of! 1! and! Lanuza! Bag! 2! of! 2! were!
enclosed;! and! the! same! are! likewise! submitted!

26! !

herewith.!
x! x! x! x! x! x! x! x! x.!

[if! !supportFootnotes][22][endif]

! (Emphasis!
supplied)!
unmistakably! reveal! that! the! said! application! was!
specifically! intended! against! private! respondent! Aiden!
Lanuza! of! 516! San! Jose! de! la! Montana! Street,! Mabolo,!
Cebu! City.! She! has! been! the! only! one! identified! in! the!
application,! as! well! as! in! the! aforequoted! affidavit! of!
SPO4! Manuel! Cabiles! upon! which! the! application! was!
based,! as! having! allegedly! sold! to! said! SPO4! Cabiles!
various!drugs!amounting!to!P7,232.00!on!May!29,!1995,!
without! any! license! to! do! so,! in! alleged! violation! of!
Article! 40! (k)! of! R.A.! 7394.! It! is! noteworthy! that,! as!
stated! in! the! aboveXquoted! paragraph! 2! of! the!
application,!the!plastic!bags!which!contained!the!seized!
drugs! and! which! were! submitted! together! with! the!
application,! were! marked! as! "Lanuza! Bag! 1! of! 1"! and!
"Lanuza- Bag! 2! of! 2."! These! markings! with! the! name!
"Lanuza"! obviously! refer! to! no! other! than! the! herein!
private! respondent.! And! when! the! respondent! Judge!
issued!the!search!warrant,!it!was!directed!solely!against!
private! respondent! Aiden! Lanuza! at! her! address:! 516!
San!Jose!de!la!Montana!Street,!Mabolo,!Cebu!City.!
The! Solicitor! General! explained! the! error! in! the!
application! by! saying! that! on! the! same! day! applicant!
Atty.! Lorna! Frances! Cabanlas! filed! the! questioned!
application! on! June! 27,! 1995,! another! application! for!
search! warrant! was! also! filed! against! one! Belen!
Cabanero! at! her! residence! at! New! Frontier! Village,!
Talisay,! Cebu! City.! This! can! be! deduced! from! the!
following! examination! conducted! by! respondent! Judge!
on!Atty.!Cabanlas:!
"(COURT)!
Q.!And!who!is!your!respondent?!
A.! Mrs.! Aiden! Lanuza! and! the! other! one! is! Belen!
Cabanero.!
Q.!Where!are!they!situated?!
A.! Mrs.! Lanuza! is! situated! in! No.! 516! San! Jose! de! la!
Montana!Street,!Mabolo,!Cebu!City.!
Q.!About!the!other?!
A.!New!Frontier!Village,!Talisay,!Cebu.!
Q.! Do! you! have! any! specific! address! at! New! Frontier!
Village?!
A.!It!was!reported!by!Mr.!Manuel!Cabiles.!
Q.!Will!he!be!testifying?!
A.!Yes!Ma'am.!Your!Honor,!this!is!the!vicinity!of!the!New!
Frontier!Village,!Cebu!(witness!presenting!a!sketch)!(sic)!
Q.!How!about!this!San!Jose!de!la!Montana.!This!is!just!in!
Cebu!City?!
A.!At!516!San!Jose!de!la!Montana!Street,!Mabolo,!Cebu!
City."[if!!supportFootnotes][23][endif]!
From! the! foregoing! discussion,! it! is! obvious! that!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 27!
!
the! name! and! address! of! one! Belen! Cabanero! were!
erroneously!copied!in!paragraph!3!of!the!application!in!
question.! Such! defect,! as! intimated! earlier,! is! not! of!
such!a!gravity!as!to!call!for!the!invalidation!of!the!search!
warrant.!
There! are,! however,! two! (2)! serious! grounds! to!
quash!the!search!warrant.!
Firstly,!we!cannot!fault!the!respondent!Judge!for!
nullifying! the! search! warrant!as! she! was! not! convinced!
that! there! was! probable! cause! for! its! issuance! due! to!
the! failure! of! the! applicant! to! present! documentary!
proof! indicating! that! private! respondent! Aiden! Lanuza!
had!no!license!to!sell!drugs.!
It!must!be!noted!that!in!the!application!for!search!
warrant,!private!respondent!is!charged!with!the!specific!
offense! of! selling! drugs! without! the! required! license!
from!the!Department!of!Health,!which!is!in!violation!of!
Article!40!(k)!of!R.!A.!7394,!and!penalized!under!Article!
41! thereof.! The! said! application! was! supported! by! the!
affidavit!of!SPO4!Manuel!Cabiles!where,!in!paragraph!3!
thereof,!he!declared!that!he!made!a!"verification!in!the!
BFAD! registry! of! licensed! persons! or! premises"! and!
discovered! that! private! respondent! Aiden! Lanuza! had!
"no!license"!to!sell!drugs.!
We! agree! with! the! respondent! Judge! that!
applicant! Atty.! Lorna! Frances! Cabanlas! should! have!
submitted! documentary! proof! that! private! respondent!
Aiden! Lanuza! had! no! such! license.! Although! no!
explanation! was! offered! by! respondent! Judge! to!
support! her! posture,! we! hold! that! to! establish! the!
existence! of! probable! cause! sufficient! to! justify! the!
issuance! of! a! search! warrant,! the! applicant! must! show!
facts!and!circumstances!which!would!lead!a!reasonably!
discreet!and!prudent!man!to!believe!that!an!offense!has!
been! committed! and! that! the! objects! sought! in!
connection! with! the! offense! are! in! the! place! sought! to!
be!searched."[if!!supportFootnotes][24][endif]!
The! facts! and! circumstances! that! would! show!
probable!cause!must!be!the!best!evidence!that!could!be!
obtained! under! the! circumstances.! The! introduction! of!
such!evidence!is!necessary!especially!in!cases!where!the!
issue! is! the! existence! of! the! negative! ingredient! of! the!
offense!charged!X!for!instance,!the!absence!of!a!license!
required! by! law,! as! in! the! present! case! X! and! such!
evidence! is! within! the! knowledge! and! control! of! the!
applicant!who!could!easily!produce!the!same.!But!if!the!
best! evidence! could! not! be! secured! at! the! time! of!
application,!the!applicant!must!show!a!justifiable!reason!
therefor! during! the! examination! by! the! judge.! The!

necessity! of! requiring! stringent! procedural! safeguards!


before! a! search! warrant! can! be! issued! is! to! give!
meaning! to! the! constitutional! right! of! a! person! to! the!
privacy!of!his!home!and!personalties.!As!well!stated!by!
this! Court! through! former! Chief! Justice! Enrique!
Fernando!
in!
Villanueva'
vs.'
Querubin:[if!
!supportFootnotes][25][endif]
!
It! is! deference! to! ones! personality! that! lies! at! the! core!
of! this! right,! but! it! could! be! also! looked! upon! as! a!
recognition! of! a! constitutionally! protected! area,!
primarily! ones! home! but! not! necessarily! thereto!
confined! (Cf.! Hoffa! v.! United! States,! 385! U.S.! 293!
[1966]).! What! is! sought! to! be! guarded! is! a! mans!
prerogative! to! choose! who! is! allowed! entry! to! his!
residence.!In!that!haven!of!refuge,!his!individuality!can!
assert! itself! not! only! in! the! choice! of! who! shall! be!
welcome! but! likewise! in! the! kind! of! objects! he! wants!
around! him.! There! the! state,! however! powerful,! does!
not!as!such!have!access!except!under!the!circumstances!
above! noted,! for! in! the! traditional! formulation,! his!
house,!however!humble,!is!his!castle.!Thus!is!outlawed!
any! unwarranted! intrusion! by! government,! which! is!
called!upon!to!refrain!from!any!invasion!of!his!dwelling!
and!to!respect!the!privacies!of!his!life!(Cf.!Schmerber!v.!
California,!384!US!757,!Brennam,!J.!and!Boyd!v.!United!
States,!116!US!616,!630).!In!the!same!vein,!Landynski!in!
his! authoritative! work,! Search! and! Seizure! and! the!
Supreme! Court! (1966),! could! fitly! characterize! this!
constitutional! right! as! the! embodiment! of! a! spiritual!
concept:! the! belief! that! to! value! the! privacy! of! home!
and! person! and! to! afford! its! constitutional! protection!
against!the!long!reach!of!government!is!no!less!than!to!
value! human! dignity,! and! that! his! privacy! must! not! be!
disturbed! except! in! case! of! overriding! social! need,! and!
then! only! under! stringent! procedural! safeguards! (Ibid,!
p.!47).!(Emphasis!supplied)!
In! the! case! at! bar,! the! best! evidence! procurable!
under! the! circumstances! to! prove! that! private!
respondent!Aiden!Lanuza!had!no!license!to!sell!drugs!is!
the! certification! to! that! effect! from! the! Department! of!
Health.! SPO4! Manuel! could! have! easily! procured! such!
certification! when! he! went! to! the! BFAD! to! verify! from!
the!registry!of!licensed!persons!or!entity.!No!justifiable!
reason!was!introduced!why!such!certification!could!not!
be!secured.!Mere!allegation!as!to!the!nonXexistence!of!a!
license! by! private! respondent! is! not! sufficient! to!
establish! probable! cause! for! a! search! warrant.! The!
presumption! of! regularity! cannot! be! invoked! in! aid! of!
the! process! when! an! officer! undertakes! to! justify! it.[if!

27!

!supportFootnotes][26][endif]

! We! apply! by! analogy! our! ruling! in!


20 ' Century' Fox' Film' Corporation' vs.' Court' of' Appeals,'
et.'al.:[if!!supportFootnotes][27][endif]!
The!presentation!of!the!master!tapes!of!the!copyrighted!
films! from! which! the! pirated! films! were! allegedly!
copied,! was! necessary! for! the! validity! of! search!
warrants!against!those!who!have!in!their!possession!the!
pirated! films.! The! petitioners! argument! to! the! effect!
that!the!presentation!of!the!master!tapes!at!the!time!of!
application! may! not! be! necessary! as! these! would! be!
merely! evidentiary! in! nature! and! not! determinative! of!
whether! or! not! a! probable! cause! exists! to! justify! the!
issuance!of!the!search!warrants!is!not!meritorious.!The!
court! cannot! presume! that! duplicate! or! copied! tapes!
were! necessarily! reproduced! from! master! tapes! that! it!
owns.!
The! application! for! search! warrants! was! directed!
against! video! tape! outlets! which! allegedly! were!
engaged! in! the! unauthorized! sale! and! renting! out! of!
copyrighted! films! belonging! to! the! petitioner! pursuant!
to!P.D.!49.!
The!essence!of!a!copyright!infringement!is!the!similarity!
or!at!least!substantial!similarity!of!the!purported!pirated!
works! to! the! copyrighted! work.! Hence,! the! applicant!
must! present! to! the! court! the! copyrighted! films! to!
compare! them! with! the! purchased! evidence! of! the!
video!tapes!allegedly!pirated!to!determine!whether!the!
latter! is! an! unauthorized! reproduction! of! the! former.!
This!linkage!of!the!copyrighted!films!to!the!pirated!films!
must! be! established! to! satisfy! the! requirements! of!
probable!cause.!Mere!allegations!as!to!the!existence!of!
the! copyrighted! films! cannot! serve! as! basis! for! the!
issuance!of!a!search!warrant.!(Emphasis!supplied)!
Secondly,! the! place! sought! to! be! searched! had!
not! been! described! with! sufficient! particularity! in! the!
questioned! search! warrant,! considering! that! private!
respondent!Aiden!Lanuza's!residence!is!actually!located!
at!Lot!No.!41,!516!San!Jose!de!la!Montana!St.,!Mabolo,!
Cebu! City,! while! the! drugs! sought! to! be! seized! were!
found! in! a! warehouse! at! Lot- No.! 38! within! the! same!
compound.!The!said!warehouse!is!owned!by!a!different!
person.! Again,! the! respondent! Judge! is! correct! on! this!
point.!
This! Court! has! held! that! the! applicant! should!
particularly! describe! the! place! to! be! searched! and! the!
person!or!things!to!be!seized,!wherever!and!whenever!it!
is! feasible.[if! !supportFootnotes][28][endif]! In! the! present! case,! it!
must! be! noted! that! the! application! for! search! warrant!
was!accompanied!by!a!sketch[if!!supportFootnotes][29][endif]of!the!
compound!at!516!San!Jose! de! la! Montana! St.,! Mabolo,!
Cebu!City.!The!sketch!indicated!the!2Xstorey!residential!
house!of!private!respondent!with!a!large!"X"!enclosed!in!
th

28! !

a!square.!Within!the!same!compound!are!residences!of!
other! people,! workshops,! offices,! factories! and!
warehouse.!With!this!sketch!as!the!guide,!it!could!have!
been! very! easy! to! describe! the! residential! house! of!
private!respondent!with!sufficient!particularity!so!as!to!
segregate! it! from! the! other! buildings! or! structures!
inside! the! same! compound.! But! the! search! warrant!
merely!indicated!the!address!of!the!compound!which!is!
516!San!Jose!de!la!Montana!St.,!Mabolo,!Cebu!City.!This!
description! of! the! place! to! be! searched! is! too! general!
and! does! not! pinpoint! the! specific! house! of! private!
respondent.!Thus,!the!inadequacy!of!the!description!of!
the! residence! of! private! respondent! sought! to! be!
searched! has! characterized! the! questioned! search!
warrant! as! a! general! warrant,! which! is! violative! of! the!
constitutional!requirement.!
While! the! questioned! search! warrant! had! all! the!
characteristic! of! a! general! warrant,! it! was! correctly!
implemented.! For,! the! searching! team! went! directly! to!
the! house! of! private! respondent! Aiden! Lanuza! located!
at! Lot! No.! 41! inside! the! compound! known! as! 516! San!
Jose!de!la!Montana!Street,!Mabolo,!Cebu!City.!However,!
the! team! did! not! find! any! of! the! drug! products! which!
were! the! object! of! the! search.! Frustrated,! and!
apparently! disappointed,! the! team! then! proceeded! to!
search!a!nearby!warehouse!of!Folk!Arts!Export!&!Import!
Company!owned!by!one!David!Po!located!at!Lot!No.!38!
within! the! same! compound.! It! was! in! the! warehouse!
that! drug! products! were! found! and! seized! which! were!
duly!receipted.!In!the!Joint!Affidavit!of!SPO2!Fructuoso!
Bete,! Jr.! and! SPO2! Markbilly! Capalungan,! members! of!
the!searching!team,!is!a!statement!that!the!confiscated!
52! cartons! of! assorted! medicines! were! found! in! the!
possession! and! control! of! private! respondent! Aiden!
Lanuza.!This!is!a!blatant!falsehood!and!is!aggravated!by!
the! fact! that! this! was! committed! by! officers! sworn! to!
uphold!the!law.!In!searching!the!warehouse!of!Folk!Arts!
Export!&!Import!Company!owned!by!one!David!Po,!the!
searching! team! went! beyond! the! scope! of! the! search!
warrant.!As!the!trial!court!aptly!observed:!
x!x!x.!The!verified!motion!to!quash!and!reply!also!show!
that! the! search! at! the! house! of! defendantXmovant!
yielded!negative!result!and!the!confiscated!articles!were!
taken! from! another! place! which! is! the! warehouse! of!
Folk! Arts! Import! and! Export! Company! owned! by!
another!person.!In!the!return!of!the!search!warrant,!it!is!
stated! that! Search! Warrant! No.! 958! (95)! was! served! at!
the! premises! of! 516! San! Jose! dela! Montana! St.,! Cebu!
City! and! that! during! the! search,! drug! products! were!
found!and!seized!therefrom!which!were!duly!receipted.!
Accompanying! said! return! is! the! Joint! Affidavit! of! two!
(2)! members! of! the! searching! team,! namely:! SPO2!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 29!
!
Froctuoso!Bete!and!SPO2!Markbilly!Capalingan,!both!of!
the! 7th! Criminal! Investigation! Command,! PNP,! with!
station!at!Camp!Sotero!Cabahug,!Gerardo!Avenue,!Cebu!
City!which!also!mentioned!only!the!address!as!516!San!
Jose! dela! Montana! St.,! Mabolo,! Cebu! City! and! the!
confiscation! of! 52! cartoons(sic)! of! assorted! medicines!
purportedly! from! the! possession! and! control! of!
defendantXmovant.!However,!as!indicated!in!the!sketch!
attached!to!the!application!for!search!warrant,!said!Folk!
Arts!Import!and!Export!Company!is!owned!by!one!David!
Po,! which! is! a! concrete! proof! that! the! searching! team!
exceeded! their! authority! by! conducting! a! search! not!
only! in! the! residence! of! defendantXmovant! Lanuza! but!
also! in! another! place! which! the! applicant! itself! has!
identified!as!belonging!to!another!person,!David!Po.!The!
foregoing!are!strong!reasons!to!support!the!conclusion!
that!there!has!been!an!unreasonable!search!and!seizure!
which! would! warrant! the! quashal! of! the! search!
warrant.[if!!supportFootnotes][30][endif]!
The!respondent!Judge!acted!correctly!in!granting!
the!motion!to!quash!the!search!warrant.!
WHEREFORE,! the! petition! is! hereby! DENIED.! The!
Temporary! Restraining! Order! issued! in! a! resolution!
dated!June!26,!1996!is!hereby!LIFTED.!
SO-ORDERED.!
!
PEOPLE!VS!SYJUCO!
Facts:!
The! crime! alleged! is! fraud! of! revenue! against! the!
Government.! Pursuant! to! a! search! warrant! issued,! the!
officers! searched! the! building! occupied! by! Santiago! Sy!
Juco.! In! the! process,! the! authorities! seized,! among!
others,!an!art!metal!filing!cabinet!claimed!by!Atty.!Remo!
to! be! his! and! contained! some! letters,! documents! and!
papers!belonging!to!his!clients.!Also,!books!belonging!to!
Salakam!Lumber!Co.,!Inc.,!were!seized.!
Issue:!
!1.!Is!the!search!warrant!in!question!valid!or!not,!taking!
into! consideration! the! provisions! of! the! law! and! of! the!
Constitution!relative!thereto?!
2.!Does!the!art!metal!filing!cabinet!seized!by!the!agents!
of!the!Bureau!of!Internal!Revenue!belong!to!Santiago!Sy!
Juco!or!to!Teopisto!B.!Remo?!
Ruling:!
The!search!and!seizure!was!not!valid.!It!is!not!stated!in!
the! affidavit! that! the! books,! documents! or! records!
referred!to!therein!are!being!used!or!are!intended!to!be!
used! in! the! commission! of! fraud! against! the!
Government! and,! notwithstanding! the! lack! of! such!

allegation;! the! warrant! avers! that! they! are! actually!


being!used!for!such!purpose.!
Also,! it! assumes! that! the! entire! building! is! occupied! by!
Santiago! Sy! Juco,! when! the! only! ground! upon! which!
such! assumption! is! based! is! the! BIR! agent's! statement!
which!is!mere!hearsay!(coming!from!an!informant)!and!
when!in!fact!part!thereof!was!occupied!by!Atty.!Remo.!
It!was!not!asked!that!the!things!belonging!to!Atty.!Remo!
and!to!others!also!be!searched!and!seized.!
For!all!the!foregoing!reasons,!and!finding!that!the!errors!
assigned! by! the! appellant! are! very! well! founded,! the!
appealed! judgment! is! reversed,! and! it! is! ordered! that!
the! art! metal! filing! cabinet,! together! with! the! key!
thereof! seized! by! the! internal! revenue! agent! by! virtue!
of! the! judicial! warrant! in! question,! which! is! hereby!
declared! null! and! void,! be! immediately! returned!
unopened! to! the! appellant;! and! that! a! copy! of! this!
decision!be!sent!to!the!SolicitorXGeneral!for!him!to!take!
action,! if! he! deems! it! justified,! upon! careful!
investigation! of! the! facts,! against! the! internal! revenue!
agent! or! agents! who! obtained! and! executed! the!
warrant! in! question,! in! accordance! with! the! provisions!
of!article!129!of!the!Revised!Penal!Code,!without!special!
pronouncement!as!to!costs.!
!!
!
BURGOS!VS!CHIEF!OF!STAFF!(SUPRA)!
!
STONEHILL!VS!DIOKNO!(SUPRA)!
!
COLUMBIA!PICTURES!INC!VS!CA(1994)!
Facts: 07!April!1998:!NBI!filed!with!the!RTC!of!Pasig!3!
applications! for! SW! against! private! respondent!
(Tube! Video! Enterprises! ! Edward! C.! Cham;!
Blooming!Rose!Tape!Center!!Ma.!Jajorie!T.!Uy;!
Video! Channel! ! Lydia! Nabong)! charging! them!
with! violations! of! Sec.! 56! of! PD! 49! (Decree! on!
the! Protection! of! Intellectual! Property)! as!
amended!by!PD!1988.!
RTC! Judge! Austria! consolidated! the! 3!
applications! and! conducted! a! joint! hearing!
where!she!made!a!personal!examination!of!the!
applicant!(NBI!Agent!Reyes)!and!his!witnesses.!
Finding! just! and! probable! cause,! Judge! Austria!
issued!the!search!warrants.!
Private! Respondents! filed! their! Motion! to!
Quash!the!SW!citing!as!grounds!that!there!was!
no!probable!cause;!the!films!in!question!are!not!

29!

protected! by! PD! 1988! in! that! they! were! never!


registered!in!the!National!Library!as!a!condition!
precedent! to! the! availment! of! the! protection;!
the!Motion!Picture!Association!of!America!have!
not! proven! nor! established! their! ownership!
over!the!films;!etc.!
Judge!Austria!reversed!her!former!stand!initially!
finding! probable! cause! for! the! issuance! of! the!
search!warrants!and!ordered!their!quashal:!
o Private! complainants! uncertain! of! their!
ownership!over!the!titles;!
o Complainants! did! not! comply! with! the!
requirement! that! master! tapes! should!
be!presented!during!the!application!for!
search!warrants;!
o Complainants!failed!to!comply!with!the!
deposit! and! registration! requirements!
of!PD!49!as!amended!by!PD!1988.!
Judge! Austria! also! ordered! the! return! of! the!
items!seized!by!virtue!of!the!warrants.!
CA!affirmed!the!quashal!of!the!SWs.!

!
Issue:! WON! the! SWs! were! issued! with! probable! cause.!
NO!
!
Ratio:!
BASIC!REQUIREMENT!for!the!validity!of!search!warrants!
(in! cases! of! this! nature)! is! the- presentation- of- themaster- tapes- of- the- copyrighted- films- from- which- thepirated- films- are- supposed- to- have- been- copied! (20th!
Century!Fox!Film!Corp.!vs.!CA,!164!SCRA!655).!
!
The!essence!of!a!copyright!infringement!is!the!similarity!
or!at!least!substantial!similarity!of!the!purported!pirated!
works! to! the! copyrighted! work.! Hence,! the! applicant!
must! present! to! the! court! the! copyrighted! films! to!
compare! them! with! the! purchased! evidence! of! the!
video!tapes!allegedly!pirated!to!determine!whether!the!
latter! is! an! unauthorized! reproduction! of! the! former.!
This!linkage!of!the!copyrighted!films!to!the!pirated!films!
must! be! established! to! satisfy! the! requirements! of!
probable!cause.!Mere!allegations!as!to!the!existence!of!
the! copyrighted! films! cannot! serve! as! basis! for! the!
issuance!of!a!search!warrant.!
!
According!to!the!CA,!in!which!the!SC!concurs:!
It! is! not! correct! to! say! that! "the! basic!
fact"!to!be!proven!to!establish!probable!
cause! in! the! instant! cases! is! not! the!
"unauthorized! transfer"! of! a! motion!
picture! that! has! been! recorded! but! the!
"sale,! lease,! or! distribution! of! pirated!

30! !

video!tapes!of!copyrighted!films."!
!
In! applying! for! the! search! warrants! the!
NBI! charged! violation! of! the! entire!
provisions! of! Section! 56! of! P.D.! No.! 49!
as! amended! by! P.D.No.! 1988.! This!
included! not! only! the! sale,! lease! or!
distribution! of! pirated! tapes! but! also!
the!transfer!or!causing!to!be!transferred!
of! any! sound! recording! or! motion!
picture!or!other!audio!visual!work.!
!
But!even!assuming,!as!appellants!argue,!
that!only!the!sale,!lease,!or!distribution!
of! pirated! video! tapes! is! involved,! the!
fact! remains! that! there! is! need! to!
establish!probable!cause!that!the!tapes!
being! sold,! leased! or! distributed! are!
pirated! tapes,! hence! the! issue! reverts!
back! to! the! question! of! whether! there!
was! unauthorized! transfer,! directly! or!
indirectly,! of! a! sound! recording! or!
motion! picture! or! other! audio! visual!
work!that!has!been!recorded!
!
Petitions!denied.!
!
!
!
!
COLUMBIA!PICTIRES!ENTERTAINMENT!VS!CA!(1996)!
In!1986,!the!Videogram!Regulatory!Board!(VRB)!applied!
for! a! warrant! against! Jose! Jinco! (Jingco),! owner! of!
Showtime! Enterprises!! for! allegedly! pirating! movies!
produced! and! owned! by! Columbia! Pictures! and! other!
motion! picture! companies.! Jingco! filed! a! motion! to!
quash! the! search! warrant! but! the! same! was! denied! in!
1987.!Subsequently,!Jinco!filed!an!Urgent!Motion!to!Lift!
the! Search! Warrant! and! Return! the! Articles! Seized.! In!
1989,! the! RTC! judge! granted! the! motion.! The! judge!
ruled!that!based!on!the!ruling!in!the!1988!case!of!20th'
Century' Fox' Film' Corporation' vs' CA,! before! a! search!
warrant! could! be! issued! in! copyright! cases,! the! master!
copy!of!the!films!alleged!to!be!pirated!must!be!attached!
in!the!application!for!warrant.!
ISSUE:-Whether!or!not!the!20th!Century!Fox!ruling!may!
be!applied!retroactively!in!this!case.!
HELD:- No.! In! 1986,! obviously! the! 1988! case! of! 20th!
Century!Fox!was!not!yet!promulgated.!The!lower!court!
could! not! possibly! have! expected! more! evidence! from!
the!VRB!and!Columbia!Pictures!in!their!application!for!a!
search! warrant! other! than! what! the! law! and!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 31!
!
jurisprudence,!then' existing' and' judicially' accepted,!
required!with!respect!to!the!finding!of!probable!cause.!
The!Supreme!Court!also!revisited!and!clarified!the!ruling!
in!the!20th!Century!Fox!Case.!It!is!evidently!incorrect!to!
suggest,!as!the!ruling!in!20th'Century'Fox'may!appear!to!
do,! that! in! copyright! infringement! cases,! the!
presentation! of! master! tapes! of! the! copyright! films! is!
always!necessary!to!meet!the!requirement!of!probable!
cause!for!the!issuance!of!a!search!warrant.!It!is!true!that!
such! master! tapes! are! object! evidence,! with! the! merit!
that! in! this! class! of! evidence! the! ascertainment! of! the!
controverted! fact! is! made! through! demonstration!
involving! the! direct! use! of! the! senses! of! the! presiding!
magistrate.!Such!auxiliary!procedure,!however,!does!not!
rule! out! the! use! of! testimonial! or! documentary!
evidence,! depositions,! admissions! or! other! classes! of!
evidence! tending! to! prove! the!factum' probandum,'
especially! where! the! production! in! court! of! object!
evidence! would! result! in! delay,! inconvenience! or!
expenses!out!of!proportion!to!is!evidentiary!value.!
In! fine,! the! supposed'pronouncement'in! said! case!
regarding! the! necessity! for! the! presentation! of! the!
master!tapes!of!the!copyXrighted!films!for!the!validity!of!
search! warrants! should! at! most! be! understood! to!
merely! serve! as! a! guidepost! in! determining! the!
existence! of! probable! cause! in! copyXright! infringement!
cases!where'there'is'doubt'as'to'the'true'nexus'between'
the' master' tape' and' the' pirated' copies.! An! objective!
and! careful! reading! of! the! decision! in! said! case! could!
lead!to!no!other!conclusion!than!that!said!directive!was!
hardly! intended! to! be! a! sweeping! and! inflexible!
requirement! in! all! or! similar! copyright! infringement!
cases.!
!!
!
II.
DETERMINING!PROBABLE!CAUSE!
A.!PERSON!RESPONSIBLE!
!
CONSTI! 1987! ARTICLE! III! Section! 2.! The! right! of! the!
people! to! be! secure! in! their! persons,! houses,! papers,!
and!effects!against!unreasonable!searches!and!seizures!
of! whatever! nature! and! for! any! purpose! shall! be!
inviolable,! and! no! search! warrant! or! warrant! of! arrest!
shall! issue! except! upon! probable! cause! to! be!
determined! personally! by! the! judge! after! examination!
under! oath! or! affirmation! of! the! complainant! and! the!
witnesses! he! may! produce,! and! particularly! describing!
the!place!to!be!searched!and!the!persons!or!things!to!be!
seized.!

!
RULE! 126:! Section- 4.! Requisites' for' issuing' search'
warrant.! ! A! search! warrant! shall! not! issue! except!
upon! probable! cause! in! connection! with! one! specific!
offense!to!be!determined!personally!by!the!judge!after!
examination! under! oath! or! affirmation! of! the!
complainant! and! the! witnesses! he! may! produce,! and!
particularly!describing!the!place!to!be!searched!and!the!
things! to! be! seized! which! may! be! anywhere! in! the!
Philippines.!
!
B.!PROCESS!
!
RULE! 126! Section- 5.! Examination' of' complainant;!
record.! ! The! judge! must,! before! issuing! the! warrant,!
personally! examine! in! the! form! of! searching! questions!
and! answers,! in! writing! and! under! oath,! the!
complainant!and!the!witnesses!he!may!produce!on!facts!
personally! known! to! them! and! attach! to! the! record!
their! sworn! statements,! together! with! the! affidavits!
submitted!
!
PAPER!INDUSTRY!CORP!VS!CA!(SUPRA)!
!
ROAN!V!GONZALES!
FACTS:!The!challenged!search!warrant!was!issued!by!the!
respondent! judge! on! May! 10,! 1984.!! The! petitioner's!
house! was! searched! two! days! later! but! none! of! the!
articles! listed! in! the! warrant! was! discovered.! However,!
the!officers!conducting!the!search!found!in!the!premises!
one! Colt! Magnum! revolver! and! eighteen! live! bullets!
which! they! confiscated.! They! are! now! the! bases! of! the!
charge!against!the!petitioner.!
Respondent! Judge! said! that! when! PC! Capt.! Mauro! P.!
Quinosa! personally! filed! his! application! for! a! search!
warrant! on! May! 10,! 1984,! he! appeared! before! him! in!
the! company! of! his! two! (2)! witnesses,! Esmael! Morada!
and!Jesus!Tohilida,!both!of!whom!likewise!presented!to!
him! their! respective! affidavits! taken! by! Pat.! Josue! V.!
Lining,!a!police!investigator.!As!the!application!was!not!
yet!subscribed!and!sworn!to,!he!proceeded!to!examine!
Captain! Quillosa! on! the! contents! thereof! to! ascertain,!
among! others,! if! he! knew! and! understood! the! same.!
Afterwards,! he! subscribed! and! swore! to! the! same!
before!him.!
!
ISSUE:!Whether!the!Respondent!Judge!failed!to!comply!
with! the! proper! procedure! in! issuing! the! Search!
Warrant.!

31!

!
HELD:! Yes,! mere! affidavits! of! the! complainant! and! his!
witnesses! are! thus! not! sufficient.! The! examining! Judge!
has! to! take! depositions! in! writing! of! the! complainant!
and!the!witnesses!he!may!produce!and!attach!them!to!
the! record.! Such! written! deposition! is! necessary! in!
order!that!the!Judge!may!be!able!to!properly!determine!
the!existence!or!nonXexistence!of!the!probable!cause,!to!
hold! liable! for! perjury! the! person! giving! it! if! it! will! be!
found!later!that!his!declarations!are!false.!
We,! therefore,! hold! that! the! search! warrant! is! tainted!
with! illegality! by! the! failure! of! the! Judge! to! conform!
with!the!essential!requisites!of!taking!the!depositions!in!
writing!and!attaching!them!to!the!record,!rendering-thesearch-warrant-invalid.-(See!Rule!126,!Sec!4)!
The! respondent! judge! also! declared! that! he! "saw! no!
need! to! have! applicant! Quillosa's! deposition! taken!
considering! that! he! was! applying! for! a! search! warrant!
on! the! basis! of! the! information! provided! by! the!
witnesses!whose!depositions!had!already!been!taken!by!
the!undersigned.!
In! other! words,! the! applicant! was! asking! for! the!
issuance! of! the! search! warrant! on! the! basis! of! mere!
hearsay! and! not! of! information! personally! known! to!
him,!as!required!by!settled!jurisprudence.!
!
ALIH!VS!CASTRO!
Respondents! who! were! members! of! the! Philippine!
marine! and! defense! forces! raided! the! compound!
occupied! by! petitioner! in! search! of! loose! firearms,!
ammunitions!and!explosives.!!A!shootXout!ensued!after!
petitioners! resisted! the! intrusion! by! the! respondents,!
killing! a! number! of! men.! The! following! morning,! the!
petitioners! were! arrested! and! subjected! to! finger!
printing,! paraffin! testing!! and! photographing! despite!
their! objection.! Several! kinds! of! rifle,! grenades! and!
ammunitions!were!also!confiscated.!
!
The!petitioners!filed!an!injunction!suit!with!a!prayer!to!
have! the! items! illegally! seized! returned! to! them! and!
invoked!the!provisions!on!the!Bill!of!Rights!
!
The!respondents!admitted!that!the!operation!was!done!
without! a! warrant! but! reasoned! that! they! were! acting!
under!superior!orders!and!that!operation!was!necessary!
because! of! the! aggravation! of! the! peace! and! order!
problem!!due!to!the!assassination!of!the!city!mayor.!
!
Issue:!
Whether!or!not!the!seizing!of!the!items!and!the!taking!
of! the! fingerprints! and! photographs! of! the! petitioners!
and! subjecting! them! to! paraffin! testing! are! violative! of!

32! !

the! bill! of! Rights! and! are! inadmissible! as! evidence!


against!them.!
!
Held:!
The! court! held! that! superior! orders! nor! the! suspicion!
that! the! respondents! had! against! petitioners! did! not!
excuse! the! former! from! observing! the! guaranty!
provided! for! by! the! constitution! against! unreasonable!
searches! and! seizure.! The! petitioners! were! entitled! to!
due!process!and!should!be!protected!from!the!!arbitrary!
actions! of! those! tasked! to! execute! the! law.!
Furthermore,!there!was!no!showing!that!the!operation!
was! urgent! nor! was! there! any! showing! of! the!
petitioners! as! criminals! or! fugitives! of! justice! to! merit!
approval!by!virtue!of!Rule!113,!Section!5!of!the!Rules!of!
Court.!
!
The! items! seized,! having! been! the! fruits! of! the!
poisonous! tree! were! held! inadmissible! as! evidence! in!
any! proceedings! against! the! petitioners.! The! operation!
by!the!respondents!was!done!without!a!warrant!and!so!
the! items! seized! during! said! operation! should! not! be!
acknowledged! in! court! as! evidence.! But! said! evidence!
should!remain!in!the!custody!of!the!law!(custodia!egis).!
!
However,! as! to! the! issue! on! fingerXprinting,!
photographing! and! paraffinXtesting! as! violative! of! the!
provision!against!selfXincrimination,!the!court!held!that!
the! prohibition! against! selfXincrimination! applies! to!
testimonial!compulsion!only.!As!Justice!Holmes!put!it!in!
Holt!v.!United!States,!18!The!prohibition!of!compelling!
a!man!in!a!criminal!court!to!be!a!witness!against!himself!
is! a! prohibition! of! the! use! of! physical! or! moral!
compulsion!to!extort!communications!from!him,!not!an!
exclusion! of! his! body! as! evidence! when! it! may! be!
material.!
!
III.
DESCRIPTION!OF!THING!BEING!SEIZED!
!
!
KHO!VS!MACALINTAL!
On!May!15,!1990,!NBI!Agent!Max!B.!Salvador!applied!for!
the! issuance! of! search! warrants! by! the! respondent!
Judge! against! Banjamin! V.!Kho,!!now! petitioner,!!in! his!
residence! at! No.! 45! Bb.! Ramona! Tirona! St.,! BF!
Homes,!!Phase!I,!Paranaque.!!On!the!same!day,!Eduardo!
T.! Arugay,! another! NBI! agent,! applied! with! the! same!
court! for! the! issuance! of! search! warrants! against! the!
said!petitioner!in!his!house!at!No.!326!McDivitt!St.,!Bgy.!
Moonwalk,! Paranaque.!!The! search! warrants! were!
applied! for! after! teams! of! NBI! agents! had! conducted! a!
personal! surveillance! and! investigation! in! the!!two!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 33!
!
houses! referred! to! on! the! basis! of! confidential!
information! they! received!!that! the! said! places! were!
being! used!!as! storage! centers! for! unlicensed! firearms!
and! chopXchop! vehicles.! On! the! same! day,! the!
respondent!Judge!conducted!the!necessary!examination!
of! the! applicants! and! their! witnesses,! after! which! he!
issued!Search!Warrant!Nos.!90X11,!90X12,!90X13,!90X14,!
and!90X15.!
On!the!following!day,!May!16,!1990,!NBI!conducted!the!
simultaneous! searches! on! the! said! residences! of! the!
petitioner! (Kho)! and! they! were! able! to! confiscate! the!
above! mention! objects! stated! in! the! warrant! and! the!
simultaneous!searches!also!resulted!in!the!confiscation!
of!various!radio!and!telecommunication!equipment.!The!
confiscated! items! were! verified! in! Camp! Crame! and!
were!proven!that!all!of!them!are!unlicensed.!
Petitioner!(Kho)!question!the!validity!of!the!warrant!and!
filed!a!Motion!to!Quash!the!previous!decision.!
ISSUES:!
1.!!!!!!! Whether! or! not! the! issuance! of! the! search!
warrant!by!the!respondent!Judge!valid?!
2.!!!!!!!Whether!or!not!the!Motion!to!Quash!filed!by!the!
petitioner! (Kho)! alleging! that! there! was! an! abuse!
enforcement!of!the!challenge!search!warrant!valid?!
3.!!!!!!!Whether!or!not!the!!Petitioners!sought!to!restrain!
the! respondent! National! Bureau! of! Investigation! (NBI)!
from!!using! the! objects!!seized!!by! virtue! of! such!
warrants!in!any!case!or!cases!filed!or!to!be!filed!against!
them!and!to!return!immediately!the!said!items!valid.!
RULING:!
------ The! Court! believes,! and! so! holds,! that! the! said!
warrants! comply! with! Constitutional! and! statutory!
requirements.!!The!law!does!not!require!that!the!things!
to! be! seized! must! be! described! in! precise! and! minute!
detail!as!to!leave!no!room!for!doubt!on!the!part!of!the!
searching! authorities.!Otherwise,! it! would! be! virtually!
impossible!for!the!applicants!to!obtain!a!warrant!as!they!
would! not! know! exactly! what! kind! of! things! they! are!
looking!for.!!Since!the!element!of!time!is!very!crucial!in!
criminal!cases,!the!effort!and!time!spent!in!researching!
on! the! details! to! be! embodied! in! the! warrant! would!
render!the!purpose!of!the!search!nugatory.!
------ The! question! of! whether! there! was! abuse! in! the!
enforcement! of! the! challanged! search! warrants! is! not!
within! the! scope! of! a! Motion! to! Quash.!In! a! Motion! to!
Quash,!what!is!assailed!is!the!validity!of!the!issuance!of!
the!warrant.!!The!manner!of!serving!the!warrant!and!of!
effecting! the! search! are! not! an! issue! to! be! resolved!
here.!!As! aptly! opined! and! ruled! by! the! respondent!

Judge,!petitioners!have!remedies!under!pertinent!penal,!
civil!and!administrative!laws!for!their!problem!at!hand,!
which! cannot! be! solved! by! their! present! motion! to!
quash.!
Considering!that!cases!for!Illegal!Possession!of!Firearms!
and! Explosives! and! Violation! of! Section! 3! in! relation! to!
Section! 14! of! Republic! Act! No.! 6539,! otherwise! known!
as! the! AntiXCarnapping! Act! of! 1972,! have! been!
instituted! against! the! petitioners,! the! petition! for!
mandamus! with! preliminary! and! mandatory! injunction!
to! return! all! objects! seized! and! to! restrain! respondent!
NBI! from! using! the! said! objects! as! evidence,! has!
become!moot!and!academic.!
WHEREFORE,!for!want!of!merit!and!on!the!ground!that!
it!has!become!moot!and!academic,!the!petition!at!bar!is!
hereby!!DISMISSED.!!No!pronoucement!as!to!costs.!
!
iv.!DESCRIPTION!OF!PLACE!TO!BE!SEARCHED!
!
PAPER!INDUSTRIES!V!ASUNCION!(SUPRA)!
!
D. PROPERTY!TO!BE!SEIZED!
!
RULE!126!Section-3.!Personal'property'to'be'seized.!!A!
search!warrant!may!be!issued!for!the!search!and!seizure!
of!personal!property:!
(a)!Subject!of!the!offense;!
(b)!Stolen!or!embezzled!and!other!proceeds,!or!fruits!of!
the!offense;!or!
(c)! Used! or! intended! to! be! used! as! the! means! of!
committing!an!offense.!(!
!
!
PEOPLE!VS!SYJUCO!(SUPRA)!
!
BURGOS!VS!CHIEF!OF!STAFF!(SUPRA)!
!
E. FORM!AND!CONTENT!OF!WARRANT;!LIFETIME!
!
RULE!126!
Section- 1.!Search'warrant'defined.!!A!search!warrant!
is!an!order!in!writing!issued!in!the!name!of!the!People!
of! the! Philippines,! signed! by! a! judge! and! directed! to! a!
peace! officer,! commanding! him! to! search! for! personal!
property! described! therein! and! bring! it! before! the!
court.!(1)!
Section-6.!Issuance'and'form'of'search'warrant.!!If!the!
judge! is! satisfied! of! the! existence! of! facts! upon! which!
the!application!is!based!or!that!there!is!probable!cause!

33!

to! believe! that! they! exist,! he! shall! issue! the! warrant,!
which! must! be! substantially! in! the! form! prescribed! by!
these!Rules.!
Section- 10.! Validity' of' search' warrant.! ! A! search!
warrant! shall! be! valid! for! ten! (10)! days! from! its! date.!
Thereafter!it!shall!be!void.!
!
BACHE!VS!RUIZ!
On! 24! Feb! 1970,! Commissioner! Vera! of! Internal!
Revenue,! wrote! a! letter! addressed! to! J! Ruiz! requesting!
the!issuance!of!a!search!warrant!against!petitioners!for!
violation!of!Sec!46(a)!of!the!NIRC,!in!relation!to!all!other!
pertinent! provisions! thereof,! particularly! Sects! 53,! 72,!
73,!208!and!209,!and!authorizing!Revenue!Examiner!de!
Leon! make! and! file! the! application! for! search! warrant!
which!was!attached!to!the!letter.!The!next!day,!de!Leon!
and!his!witnesses!went!to!CFI!Rizal!to!obtain!the!search!
warrant.!At!that!time!J!Ruiz!was!hearing!a!certain!case;!
so,!by!means!of!a!note,!he!instructed!his!Deputy!Clerk!of!
Court!to!take!the!depositions!of!De!Leon!and!Logronio.!
After! the! session! had! adjourned,! J! Ruiz! was! informed!
that! the! depositions! had! already! been! taken.! The!
stenographer! read! to! him! her! stenographic! notes;! and!
thereafter,!J!Ruiz!asked!respondent!Logronio!to!take!the!
oath!and!warned!him!that!if!his!deposition!was!found!to!
be!false!and!without!legal!basis,!he!could!be!charged!for!
perjury.! J!! Ruiz! signed! de! Leons! application! for! search!
warrant! and! Logronios! deposition.! The! search! was!
subsequently!conducted.!
ISSUE:- Whether! or! not! there! had! been! a! valid! search!
warrant.!
HELD:-The!SC!ruled!in!favor!of!Bache!on!three!grounds.!
1.!! J! Ruiz! failed! to! personally! examine! the! complainant!
and!his!witness.!
Personal! examination! by! the! judge! of! the! complainant!
and! his! witnesses! is! necessary! to! enable! him! to!
determine!the!existence!or!nonXexistence!of!a!probable!
cause.!
2.!! The! search! warrant! was! issued! for! more! than! one!
specific!offense.!
The! search! warrant! in! question! was! issued! for! at! least!
four! distinct! offenses! under! the! Tax! Code.! As! ruled! in!
Stonehill! Such! is! the! seriousness! of! the! irregularities!
committed! in! connection! with! the! disputed! search!
warrants,!that!this!Court!deemed!it!fit!to!amend!Section!
3!of!Rule!122!of!the!former!Rules!of!Court!that!a!search!
warrant! shall! not! issue! but! upon! probable! cause! in!
connection!with!one!specific!offense.!Not!satisfied!with!
this!qualification,!the!Court!added!thereto!a!paragraph,!
directing! that! no! search! warrant! shall! issue! for! more!
than!one!specific!offense.!
3.!!The!search!warrant!does!not!particularly!describe!the!

34! !

things!to!be!seized.!
The!documents,!papers!and!effects!sought!to!be!seized!
are!described!in!the!Search!Warrant!
Unregistered! and! private! books! of! accounts! (ledgers,!
journals,!columnars,!receipts!and!disbursements!books,!
customers! ledgers);! receipts! for! payments! received;!
certificates! of! stocks! and! securities;! contracts,!
promissory! notes! and! deeds! of! sale;! telex! and! coded!
messages;! business! communications,! accounting! and!
business! records;! checks! and! check! stubs;! records! of!
bank! deposits! and! withdrawals;! and! records! of! foreign!
remittances,!covering!the!years!1966!to!1970.!
The! description! does! not! meet! the! requirement! in! Art!
III,!Sec.!1,!of!the!Constitution,!and!of!Sec.!3,!Rule!126!of!
the! Revised! Rules! of! Court,! that! the! warrant! should!
particularly!describe!the!things!to!be!seized.!
A! search! warrant! may! be! said! to! particularly! describe!
the! things! to! be! seized! when! the! description! therein! is!
as! specific! as! the! circumstances! will! ordinarily! allow! or!
when!the!description!expresses!a!conclusion!of!fact!not!
of! law! by! which! the! warrant! officer! may! be! guided! in!
making! the! search! and! seizure! or! when! the! things!
described!are!limited!to!those!which!bear!direct!relation!
to!the!offense!for!which!the!warrant!is!being!issued!
!
MUSTANG!LUMBER!VS!CA!
Petitioner! was! duly! registered! as! a! lumber! dealer! with!
the!Bureau!of!Forest!Development.!The!Special!Actions!
and! Investigation! Division! of! the! DENR! were! informed!
that!a!huge!stockpile!of!narra!flitches,!shorts,!and!slabs!
were!seen!inside!the!lumberyard!of!the!petitioner.!The!
SAID! organized! a! team! of! foresters! and! policemen! and!
sent! it! to! conduct! surveillance.! In! the! course! thereof,!
the! team! members! saw! coming! out! from! the!
lumberyard!the!petitioner's!truck!loaded!with!lauan!and!
almaciga!lumber!of!assorted!sizes!and!dimensions.!Since!
the!driver!could!not!produce!the!required!invoices!and!
transport! documents,! the! team! seized! the! truck!
together! with! its! cargo! and! impounded! them! at! the!
DENR! compound.! The! team! was! not! able! to! gain! entry!
into! the! premises! because! of! the! refusal! of! the! owner.!
The!team!was!able!to!secure!a!search!warrant.!By!virtue!
thereof,! the! team! seized! on! that! date! from! the!
petitioner's!lumberyard!four!truckloads!of!narra!shorts,!
trimmings,! and! slabs;! a! negligible! number! of! narra!
lumber;! and! approximately! 200,000! board! feet! of!
lumber!and!shorts!of!various!species!including!almaciga!
and! supa.! On! 4! April! 1990,! the! team! returned! to! the!
premises! of! the! petitioner's! lumberyard! and! placed!
under!administrative!seizure!the!remaining!stockpile!of!
almaciga,!supa,!and!lauan!lumber!with!a!total!volume!of!
311,000! board! feet! because! the! petitioner! failed! to!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 35!
!
produce! upon! demand! the! corresponding! certificate! of!
lumber! origin,! auxiliary! invoices,! tally! sheets,! and!
delivery! receipts! from! the! source! of! the! invoices!
covering! the! lumber! to! prove! the! legitimacy! of! their!
source!and!origin.!Parenthetically,!it!may!be!stated!that!
under! an! administrative! seizure! the! owner! retains! the!
physical! possession! of! the! seized! articles.! Only! an!
inventory! of! the! articles! is! taken! and! signed! by! the!
owner! or! his! representative.! The! owner! is! prohibited!
from! disposing! them! until! further! orders.! On! 10! April!
1990,! counsel! for! the! petitioner! sent! a! letter! to! the!
Chief!of!SAID!Robles!requesting!an!extension!of!fifteen!
days! to! produce! the! required! documents! covering! the!
seized! articles! because! some! of! them,! particularly! the!
certificate! of! lumber! origin,! were! allegedly! in! the!
Province! of! Quirino.! Robles! denied! the! petition.!
Subsequently,! the! Sec.! of! DENR! Factoran! issued! an!
order!confiscating!the!woods!seized!in!the!truck!of!the!
petitioner!as!well!as!those!found!in!their!lumberyard.!
Issue:!!
Whether! or! not! that! a! lumber! cannot! be! considered! a!
timber!and!that!petitioner!should!not!be!held!for!illegal!
logging.!
Held:!
The! foregoing! disquisitions! should! not,! in! any! manner,!
be! construed! as! an! affirmance! of! the! respondent!
Judge's! conclusion! that! lumber! is! excluded! from! the!
coverage! of! Section! 68! of! P.D.! No.! 705,! as! amended,!
and!thus!possession!thereof!without!the!required!legal!
documents!is!not!a!crime.!On!the!contrary,!the!SC!rules!
that! such! possession! is! penalized! in! the! said! section!
because! lumber! is! included! in! the! term! timber.! The!
Revised! Forestry! Code! contains! no! definition! of! either!
timber!or!lumber.!While!the!former!is!included!in!forest!
products! as! defined! in! paragraph! (q)! of! Section! 3,! the!
latter!is!found!in!paragraph!(aa)!of!the!same!section!in!
the! definition! of! "Processing! plant,"! which! reads:!
Processing! plant! is! any! mechanical! setXup,! machine! or!
combination!of!machine!used!for!the!processing!of!logs!
and! other! forest! raw! materials! into! lumber,! veneer,!
plywood,! wall! bond,! block! board,! paper! board,! pulp,!
paper! or! other! finished! wood! products.! This! simply!
means! that! lumber! is! a! processed! log! or! processed!
forest! raw! material.! Clearly,! the! Code! uses! the! term!
lumber! in! its! ordinary! or! common! usage.! In! the! 1993!
copyright! edition! of! Webster's! Third! New! International!
Dictionary,! lumber! is! defined,! inter! alia,! as! "timber! or!
logs! after! being! prepared! for! the! market."! Simply! put,!
lumber!is!a!processed!log!or!timber.!It!is!settled!that!in!

the!absence!of!legislative!intent!to!the!contrary,!words!
and! phrases! used! in! a! statute! should! be! given! their!
plain,! ordinary,! and! common! usage! meaning.! And!
insofar! as! possession! of! timber! without! the! required!
legal! documents! is! concerned,! Section! 68! of! P.D.! No.!
705,!as!amended,!makes!no!distinction!between!raw!or!
processed!timber.!
!
!
F. VALIDITY!OF!WARRANT!
STONEHILL!VS!DIOKNO!(SUPRA)!
!
PEOPLE!VS!ESTRADA!(SUPRA)!
!
PEOPLE!VS!CA!(SUPRA)!
!
2. WARRANTLESS!
A. SEARCH!INCIDENT!TO!LAWFUL!ARREST!
RULE! 126! Section- 13.! Search' incident' to' lawful'
arrest.! ! A! person! lawfully! arrested! may! be!
searched!for!dangerous!weapons!or!anything!which!
may! have! been! used! or! constitute! proof! in! the!
commission!of!an!offense!without!a!search!warrant.!!
!
US!VS!VERDUGOXURQUIDEZ!
FACTS!
Rene! Martin! VerdugoXUrquidez! was! a! citizen! and!
resident! of! Mexico.! In! cooperation! with! the! Drug!
Enforcement! Agency! (DEA),! Mexican! police! officers!
apprehended! and! transported! him! to! the! U.S.! border,!
where! he! was! arrested! for! various! narcoticsXrelated!
offenses.! Following! his! arrest,! a! DEA! agent! sought!
authorization! to! search! VerdugoXUrquidez's! residences!
for! evidence.! The! Director! General! of! the! Mexican!
Federal! Judicial! Police! authorized! the! searches,! but! no!
search! warrant! from! a! U.S.! magistrate! was! ever!
received.! At! trial,! the! district! court! granted! VerdugoX
Urquidez's! motion! to! suppress! the! evidence! on! the!
ground!that!the!search!violated!the!Fourth!Amendment!
to!the!Federal!Constitution.!
!
ISSUE:!Does!the!Fourth!Amendment!apply!to!the!search!
and! seizure! by! United! States! agents! of! property! that! is!
owned! by! a! nonresident! alien! and! located! in! a! foreign!
country?!
!
HELD:!No.!The!text!of!the!Fourth!Amendment!concerns!
"the! people,"! suggesting! a! concern! with! persons! who!
are!part!of!the!national!community,!as!contrasted!with!

35!

aliens! without! any! substantial! connection! to! the! U.S.!


Moreover,! extraterritorial! aliens! are! not! even! entitled!
to! rights! under! the! Fifth! Amendment,! which! speaks! in!
the! relatively! more! universal! term! of! "person."! And!
nonX"fundamental"! rights! are! not! even! guaranteed! to!
inhabitants! of! unincorporated! territories! under! U.S!
sovereign! control,! much! less! aliens.! Therefore,! any!
restrictions! on! searches! and! seizures! of! nonresident!
aliens! and! their! foreign! property! must! be! imposed! by!
the!
political!
branches!
through!
diplomatic!
understanding,!treaty!or!legislation.!
!
PEOPLE!VS!PADILLA!
Facts:! HighXpowered! firearms! with! live! ammunitions!
were! found! in! the! possession! of! petitioner! Robin!
Padilla:!
(1)!!!!One!.357!Caliber!revolver,!Smith!and!Wesson,!SNX
32919!with!six!(6)!live!ammunitions;!
(2)!!!!One!MX16!Baby!Armalite!rifle,!SNXRP!131120!with!
four! (4)! long! and! one! (1)! short! magazine! with!
ammunitions;!
(3)!!!!One! .380! Pietro! Beretta,! SNXA! 35723! Y! with! clip!
and!eight!(8)!ammunitions;!and!
(4)!!!!Six! additional! live! double! action! ammunitions! of!
.38!caliber!revolver.!
Appellant! voluntarily! surrendered! item! no.! 3.!and! a!
black!bag!containing!two!additional!long!magazines!and!
one!short!magazine.!
PNP! Chief! Espino,! Record! Branch! of! the! Firearms! and!
Explosives!Office!issued!a!Certification!which!stated!that!
the!three!firearms!confiscated!from!appellant,!an!MX16!
Baby!armalite!rifle!SNXRP!131280,!a!.357!caliber!revolver!
Smith! and! Wesson! SN! 32919! and! a! .380! Pietro! Beretta!
SNXA35720,!were!not!registered!in!the!name!of!Robin!C.!
Padilla.!!A! second! Certification! stated! that! the! three!
firearms! were! not! also! registered! in! the! name! of!
Robinhood!C.!Padilla.!
Issue:! !Whether! or! not! his! arrest! was! illegal! and!
consequently,! the! firearms! and! ammunitions! taken! in!
the! course! thereof! are! inadmissible! in! evidence! under!
the!exclusionary!rule!
Held:! No.! !There! is! no! dispute! that! no! warrant! was!
issued! for! the! arrest! of! petitioner,! but! that!per' se!did!
not!make!his!apprehension!at!the!Abacan!bridge!illegal.!
Warrantless! arrests! are! sanctioned! in! the! following!
instances:!
Sec.! 5.!!Arrest' without' warrant;' when' lawful.! ! A!
peace!officer!or! a!private' person!may,! without! a!
warrant,!arrest!a!person:!
(a)!!When,! in! his! presence,! the! person! to! be! arrested!
has!committed,!is!actually!committing,!or!is!attempting!
to!commit!an!offense;!

36! !

(b)!!When! an! offense! has! in! fact! just! been! committed,!


and! he! has! personal! knowledge! of! facts! indicating! that!
the!person!to!be!arrested!has!committed!it.!
(c)!!When! the! person! to! be! arrested! is! a! prisoner! who!
has!escaped!from!a!penal!establishment!or!place!where!
he! is! serving! final! judgment! or! temporarily! confined!
while! his! case! is! pending,! or! has! escaped! while! being!
transferred!from!one!confinement!to!another.!
Paragraph! (a)! requires! that! the! person! be! arrested! (i)!
after! he! has! committed! or! while! he! is! actually!
committing! or! is! at! least! attempting! to! commit! an!
offense,! (ii)! in! the! presence! of! the! arresting! officer! or!
private!person.!Both!elements!concurred!here,!as!it!has!
been!established!that!petitioners!vehicle!figured!in!a!hit!
and! run! ! an! offense! committed! in! the! presence! of!
Manarang,!a!private!person,!who!then!sought!to!arrest!
petitioner.!!It! must! be! stressed! at! this! point! that!
presence! does! not! only! require! that! the! arresting!
person! sees! the! offense,! but! also! when! he! hears! the!
disturbance! created! thereby! AND! proceeds! at! once! to!
the! scene.!As! testified! to! by! Manarang,! he! heard! the!
screeching! of! tires! followed! by! a! thud,! saw! the!
sideswiped! victim! (balut!vendor),! reported! the! incident!
to! the! police! and! thereafter! gave! chase! to! the! erring!
Pajero! vehicle! using! his! motorcycle! in! order! to!
apprehend!its!driver.!!After!having!sent!a!radio!report!to!
the! PNP! for! assistance,! Manarang! proceeded! to! the!
Abacan! bridge! where! he! found! responding! policemen!
SPO2! Borja! and! SPO2! Miranda! already! positioned! near!
the!bridge!who!effected!the!actual!arrest!of!petitioner.!
Petitioner! would! nonetheless! insist! on! the! illegality! of!
his! arrest! by! arguing! that! the! policemen! who! actually!
arrested! him! were! not! at! the! scene! of! the! hit! and!
run.!We! beg! to! disagree.!!That! Manarang! decided! to!
seek! the! aid! of! the! policemen! (who! admittedly! were!
nowhere! in! the! vicinity! of! the! hit! and! run)! in! effecting!
petitioners! arrest,! did! not! in! any! way! affect! the!
propriety! of! the! apprehension.! It! was! in! fact! the! most!
prudent!action!Manarang!could!have!taken!rather!than!
collaring! petitioner! by! himself,! inasmuch! as! policemen!
are!unquestionably!better!trained!and!wellXequipped!in!
effecting! an! arrest! of! a! suspect! (like! herein! petitioner)!
who! ,! in! all! probability,! could! have! put! up! a! degree! of!
resistance! which! an! untrained! civilian! may! not! be! able!
to!contain!without!endangering!his!own!life.!!Moreover,!
it! is! a! reality! that! curbing! lawlessness! gains! more!
success! when! law! enforcers! function! in! collaboration!
with! private! citizens.!!It! is! precisely! through! this!
cooperation,! that! the! offense! herein! involved!
fortunately! did! not! become! an! additional! entry! to! the!
long!list!of!unreported!and!unsolved!crimes.!
It!is!appropriate!to!state!at!this!juncture!that!a!suspect,!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 37!
!
like! petitioner! herein,! cannot! defeat! the! arrest! which!
has! been! set! in! motion! in! a! public! place! for! want! of! a!
warrant!as!the!police!was!confronted!by!an!urgent!need!
to!render!aid!or!take!action.!The!exigent!circumstances!
of!!hot!pursuit,!a!fleeing!suspect,!a!moving!vehicle,!the!
public! place! and! the! raining! nighttime! ! all! created! a!
situation! in! which! speed! is! essential! and! delay!
improvident.!The! Court! acknowledges! police! authority!
to! make! the! forcible! stop! since! they!had' more' than'
mere' reasonable' and' articulable!suspicion!that! the!
occupant! of! the! vehicle! has! been! engaged! in! criminal!
activity.!Moreover,!
when!
caught!
in!flagrante'
delicto'with! possession! of! an! unlicensed! firearm! (Smith!
&! Wesson)! and! ammunition! (MX16! magazine),!
petitioners! warrantless! arrest! was! proper! as! he! was!
again! actually! committing! another! offense! (illegal!
possession!of!firearm!and!ammunitions)!and!this!time!in!
the!presence!of!a!peace!officer.!
Besides,! the! policemens! warrantless! arrest! of!
petitioner! could! likewise! be! justified! under! paragraph!
(b)! as! he! had! in! fact! just! committed! an! offense.!!There!
was! no! supervening! event! or! a! considerable! lapse! of!
time! between! the! hit! and! run! and! the! actual!
apprehension.!!Moreover,! after! having! stationed!
themselves! at! the! Abacan! bridge! in! response! to!
Manarangs! report,! the! policemen! saw! for! themselves!
the! fast! approaching! Pajero! of! petitioner,!its! dangling!
plate!number!(PMA!777!as!reported!by!Manarang),!and!
the! dented! hood! and! railings! thereof.!These! formed!
part!of!the!arresting!police!officers!personal!knowledge!
of! the! facts! indicating! that! petitioners! Pajero! was!
indeed! the! vehicle! involved! in! the! hit! and! run!
incident.!Verily! then,! the! arresting! police! officers! acted!
upon!verified!personal!knowledge!and!not!on!unreliable!
hearsay!information.!
Furthermore,! in! accordance! with! settled! jurisprudence,!
any!objection,!defect!or!irregularity!attending!an!arrest!
must! be! made! before! the! accused! enters! his!
plea.!Petitioners! belated! challenge! thereto! aside! from!
his!failure!to!quash!the!information,!his!participation!in!
the! trial! and! by! presenting! his! evidence,! placed! him!
in!estoppel!to! assail! the! legality! of! his! arrest.!Likewise,!
by! applying! for! bail,! petitioner! patently! waived! such!
irregularities!and!defects.!
We! now! go! to! the! firearms! and! ammunitions! seized!
from! petitioner! without! a! search! warrant,! the!
admissibility!in!evidence!of!which,!we!uphold.!
The! five! (5)! wellXsettled! instances! when! a! warrantless!
search!and!seizure!of!property!is!valid,!are!as!follows:!

warrantless! search! incidental! to! a! lawful! arrest!


recognized! under! Section! 12,! Rule! 126! of! the!
Rules!of!Court!and!by!prevailing!jurisprudence,!
Seizure! of! evidence! in! plain! view,! the! elements!
of!!which!are:!
(a).!!!!!!!!a!prior' valid' intrusion!based! on! the! valid!
warrantless! arrest! in! which! the! police! are! legally!
present!in!the!pursuit!of!their!official!duties;!
(b).!!!!!!!!the! evidence! was!inadvertently!discovered!by!
the!police!who!had!the!right!to!be!where!they!are;!
(c).!!!!!!!!the! evidence! must! be! immediately! apparent,!
and!
(d).!!!!!!!!plain! view! justified! mere!seizure!of! evidence!
without!further!search.!
3 search! of! a! moving! vehicle.!Highly! regulated! by! the!
government,! the! vehicles! inherent! mobility!
reduces! expectation! of! privacy! especially! when!
its! transit! in! public! thoroughfares! furnishes! a!
highly! reasonable! suspicion! amounting! to!
probable! cause! that! the! occupant! committed! a!
criminal!activity.!
4 consented!warrantless!search,!and!
5 customs!search.!
In! conformity! with! respondent! courts! observation,! it!
indeed! appears! that! the! authorities! stumbled! upon!
petitioners! firearms! and! ammunitions! without! even!
undertaking!any!active!search!which,!as!it!is!commonly!
understood,!is!a!prying!into!hidden!places!for!that!which!
is! concealed.!The! seizure! of! the! Smith! &! Wesson!
revolver! and! an! MX16! rifle! magazine! was! justified! for!
they! came! within! plain! view! of! the! policemen!
who!inadvertently'discovered!the!revolver!and!magazine!
tucked! in! petitioners! waist! and! back! pocket!
respectively,! when! he! raised! his! hands! after! alighting!
from! his! Pajero.!!The! same! justification! applies! to! the!
confiscation! of! the! MX16! armalite! rifle! which!
was!immediately' apparent!to! the! policemen! as! they!
took! a! casual! glance! at! the! Pajero! and! saw! said! rifle!
lying!horizontally!near!the!drivers!seat.!Thus!it!has!been!
held!that:!
(W)hen! in! pursuing! an! illegal! action! or! in! the!
commission!of!a!criminal!offense,!the!.!.!.!police!officers!
should! happen! to! discover! a! criminal! offense! being!
committed!by!any!person,!they!are!not!precluded!from!
performing! their! duties! as! police! officers! for! the!
apprehension! of! the! guilty! person! and! the! taking! of!
the!corpus!delicti.!
Objects! whose! possession! are! prohibited! by! law!
inadvertently!found!in!plain!view!are!subject!to!seizure!

37!

even!without!a!warrant.!
With! respect! to! the! Berreta! pistol! and! a! black! bag!
containing! assorted! magazines,! petitioner! voluntarily!
surrendered! them! to! the! police.!This! latter! gesture! of!
petitioner! indicated! a! waiver! of! his! right! against! the!
alleged!search!and!seizure,!and!that!his!failure!to!quash!
the! information! estopped! him! from! assailing! any!
purported!defect.!
Even! assuming!!that! the! firearms! and! ammunitions!
were! products! of! an! active! search! done! by! the!
authorities!on!the!person!and!vehicle!of!petitioner,!their!
seizure! without! a! search! warrant! nonetheless! can! still!
be!justified!under!a!search!!incidental!to!a!lawful!arrest!
(first!instance).!!Once!the!lawful!arrest!was!effected,!the!
police! may! undertake! a! protective! search!of! the!
passenger! compartment! and! containers! in! the!
vehicle!which! are! within! petitioners! grabbing! distance!
regardless! of! the! nature! of! the! offense.!This! satisfied!
the! twoXtiered! test! of! an! incidental! search:! (i)! the! item!
to! be! searched! (vehicle)! was! within! the! arrestees!
custody!or!area!of!immediate!control!and!(ii)!the!search!
was!contemporaneous!with!the!arrest.!The!products!of!
that!search!are!admissible!evidence!not!excluded!by!the!
exclusionary! rule.!!Another! justification! is! a! search! of! a!
moving! vehicle! (third! instance).!!In! connection!
therewith,! a! warrantless! search! is! constitutionally!
permissible! when,! as! in! this! case,! the! officers!
conducting! the! search! have! reasonable! or! probable!
cause! to! believe,! before! the! search,! that! either! the!
motorist! is! a! lawXoffender! (like! herein! petitioner! with!
respect! to! the! hit! and! run)! or! the! contents! or! cargo! of!
the!vehicle!are!or!have!been!instruments!or!the!subject!
matter!or!the!proceeds!of!some!criminal!offense.!
!
!
PEOPLE!VS!CHUA!HO!SAN!
In!response!to!reports!of!rampant!smuggling!of!firearms!
and!other!contraband,!Chief!of!Police!Jim!Lagasca!Cid!of!
Bacnotan! Police! Station,! La! Union! began! patrolling! the!
Bacnotan! coastline! with! his! officers.! While! monitoring!
the! coastal! area! of! Barangay! Bulala,! he! intercepted! a!
radio! call! at! around! 12:45! p.m.! from! Barangay! Captain!
Juan! Almoite! of! Barangay! Tammocalao! requesting! for!
police!assistance!regarding!an!unfamiliar!speedboat!the!
latter! had! spotted.! According! to! Almoite,! the! vessel!
looked! different! from! the! boats! ordinarily! used! by!
fisherfolk! of! the! area! and! was! poised! to! dock! at!
Tammocalao!shores.!Cid!and!six!of!his!men!led!by!SPO1!
Reynoso!Badua,!proceeded!immediately!to!Tammocalao!
beach! and! there! conferred! with! Almoite.! Cid! then!
observed! that! the! speedboat! ferried! a! lone! male!
passenger,! who! was! later! identified! as! Chua! Ho! San.!

38! !

When! the! speed! boat! landed,! the! male! passenger!


alighted,! carrying! a! multicolored! strawbag,! and! walked!
towards! the! road.! Upon! seeing! the! police! officers,! the!
man!changed!direction.!Badua!held!Chuas!right!arm!to!
prevent! him! from! fleeing.! They! then! introduced!
themselves! as! police! officers;! however,! Chua! did! not!
understand! what! theyre! saying.! And! by! resorting! of!
sign! language,! Cid! motioned! with! his! hands! for! the!
man!to!open!his!bag.!The!man!acceded!to!the!request.!
The! said! bag! was! found! to! contain! several! transparent!
plastics! containing! yellowish! crystalline! substances,!
which! was! later! identified! to! be! methamphetamine!
hydrochloride! or! shabu.! Chua! was! then! brought! to!
Bacnotan!Police!Station,!where!he!was!provided!with!an!
interpreter!to!inform!him!of!his!constitutional!rights.!
ISSUE:! Whether! or! not! the! warrantless! arrest,! search!
and!seizure!conducted!by!the!Police!Officers!constitute!
a!valid!exemption!from!the!warrant!requirement.!
RULING:!The!Court!held!in!the!negative.!
The! Court! explains! that! the! Constitution! bars! State!
intrusions! to! a! person's! body,! personal! effects! or!
residence! except! if! conducted! by! virtue! of! a! valid! of! a!
valid! search! warrant! issued! in! accordance! with! the!
Rules.!However,!warrantless!searches!may!be!permitted!
in!the!following!cases,!to!wit:!
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

search!of!moving!vehicles,!!
seizure!in!plain!view,!!
customs!searches,!!
waiver!or!consent!searches,!!
stop!and!frisk!situations!(Terry!search),!and!!
search!incidental!to!a!lawful!arrest.!

It!is!required!in!cases!of!in'flagrante'delicto'that!the!
arresting! officer! must! have! personal! knowledge! of!
such! facts! or! circumstances! convincingly! indicative!
or! constitutive! of! probable! cause.! Probable! cause!
means!a!reasonable!ground!of!suspicion!supported!
by! circumstances! sufficiently! strong! in! themselves!
to! warrant! a! cautious! man's! belief! that! the! person!
accused! is! guilty! of! the! offense! with! which! he! is!
charged.! In! the! case! at! bar,! there! are! no! facts! on!
record! reasonably! suggestive! or! demonstrative! of!
CHUA's!participation!in!on!going!criminal!enterprise!
that! could! have! spurred! police! officers! from!
conducting! the! obtrusive! search.! CHUA! was! not!
identified! as! a! drug! courier! by! a! police! informer! or!
agent.! The! fact! that! the! vessel! that! ferried! him! to!
shore! bore! no! resemblance! to! the! fishing! boats! of!
the! area! did! not! automatically! mark! him! as! in! the!
process!of!perpetrating!an!offense.!With!these,!the!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 39!
!
Court! held! that! there! was! no! probable! cause! to!
justify!a!search!incidental!to!a!lawful!arrest.!
The! Court! likewise! did! not! appreciate! the!
contention! of! the! Prosecution! that! there! was! a!
waiver! or! consented! search.! If! CHUA! could! not!
understand!what!was!orally!articulated!to!him,!how!
could! he! understand! the! police's! "sign! language?"!
More! importantly,! it! cannot! logically! be! inferred!
from! his! alleged! cognizance! of! the! "sign! language"!
that! he! deliberately,! intelligently,! and! consciously!
waived!his!right!against!such!an!intrusive!search.!
Finally,! being! a! forbidden! fruit,! the! subject!
regulated! substance! was! held! to! be! inadmissible! in!
evidence.!!
Hence,! the! accused! was! acquitted! as! the! evidence!
was! not! sufficient! to! establish! guilt! beyond!
reasonable!doubt.!
!
!
OCA!VS!BARRON!
Judge! Barron! was! arrested! during! an! entrapment!
operation! when! he! tried! to! solicit! bribes! from! an!
American! national! in! exchange! for! ruling! in! the! latters!
favor!in!a!pending!case.!
In! his! defense,! respondent! judge! proferred! several!
arguments! to! support! his! innocence! to! wit:! (1)! what!
happened! was! not! an! entrapment! but! a! frameXup;! (2)!
that!he!never!made!any!gesture!of!voluntarily!accepting!
the! bribe! money! flourescent! powder! notwithstanding;!
(3)! the! NBI! relied! on! the! signal! of! David! Crear,! not! on!
their! personal! discernment! of! what! transpired! in! the!
car;! and! (4)! that! his! car! was! subjected! to! an! illegal!
search! by! the! NBI! agents.! In! addition! to! the!
aforementioned! arguments,! the! respondent! judge! also!
presented! the! affidavits[of! Judge! Teopisto! Calumpang!
and!SPO!Avelino!Burlaza.!
Held:!! Judge! dismissed.!! A! judge! should! always! be! a!
symbol! of! rectitude! and! propriety,! comporting! himself!
in!a!manner!that!will!raise!no!doubt!whatsoever!about!
his!honesty.!!The!conduct!of!respondent!shows!that!he!
can! be! influenced! by! monetary! considerations.!! His! act!
of!demanding!and!receiving!money!from!a!partyXlitigant!
constitutes! serious! misconduct! in! office.!! It! is! this! kind!
of! gross! and! flaunting! misconduct,! no! matter! how!
nominal!the!amount!involved,!which!erodes!the!respect!
for!the!law!and!the!courts.!
In! an! effort! to! escape! criminal! liability,! the!

respondent! judge! shifts! the! burden! on! the! NBI! by!


raising!the!defense!of!frameXup.!FrameXup!as!a!defense!
has! been! invariably! viewed! by! this! Court! with! disfavor!
for!it!can!just!easily!be!concocted!but!is!quite!difficult!to!
prove.And! the! defense! of! frameXup! must! be! proved! by!
clear!and!convincing!evidence!because!it!is!of!the!same!
category! as! alibi.In! the! case! at! bar,! the! respondent!
judge! failed! to! present! any! convincing! evidence! to!
substantiate!his!claim.!He!advances!the!theory!that!the!
NBI! had! carefully! mapped! out! a! frameXup! operation!
against!him!as!a!retaliatory!measure!for!all!those!cases!
which!the!NBI!had!filed!and!for!which!he!(Judge!Barron)!
caused! the! dismissal! thereof.! This! cannot! be! given!
credence.! There! is! no! evidence! on! record! that! NBI!
harboured! a! personal! grudge! against! the! respondent!
judge.! Clearly! what! transpired! was! an! entrapment! and!
not! a! frameXup! as! claimed! by! respondent.! Entrapment!
has!received!judicial!sanction!as!long!as!it!is!carried!out!
with!due!regard!to!Constitutional!and!legal!safeguards.!
Furthermore,! there! is! no! scintilla! of! evidence! that! the!
manner! by! which! the! NBI! agents! conducted! the!
operation!was!tainted!with!illegality.!This!Court!has!held!
in!case!of!Mallari'vs.'Court'of'Appealsthat!Absent!strong!
and! convincing! proof! to! the! contrary,! this! Court! is!
bound! by! the! presumption! that! the! arresting! officers!
were!aware!of!the!legal!mandates!in!effecting!an!arrest!
and!strictly!complied!with!the!same.!
The! respondent! judge! insinuates! that! the! search!
conducted! on! his! car! was! illegal.! We! do! not! think! so.!
Where! the! arrest! of! the! accused! was! lawful,! having!
been!caught!in!flagrante'delicto,!there!is!no!need!for!a!
warrant!for!the!seizure!of!the!fruit!of!the!crime!as!well!
as! for! the! body! search! upon! him,! the! same! being!
incidental!to!a!lawful!arrest.There!being!a!lawful!arrest!
upon! the! person! of! the! respondent! judge,! the! NBI!
agents! were! authorized! to! conduct! a! warrantless!
search.! In! People) vs.) De) Lara,! we! held:! A!
contemporaneous! search! may! be! conducted! upon! the!
person! of! the! arrestee! and! the! immediate! vicinity!
where!the!arrest!was!made.!
We! have! previously! held! that! the! warrantless! search!
incidental! to! a! lawful! arrest! authorizes! the! arresting!
officer! to! make! a! search! upon! a! person! of! the! person!
arrested.! Moreover,! the! individual! being! arrested! may!
be! frisked! for! concealed! weapons! that! may! be! used!
against! the! arresting! officer! and! all! unlawful! articles!
found! in! his! person,! or! within! his! immediate! control!
may!be!seized.!
!

39!

!
CHIMNEL!VS!CALIFORNIA!
rief! Fact! Summary.! The! defendant,! Chimel! (the!
defendant),! was! arrested! inside! his! home! and! police!
asked! him! for! consent! to! search! the! home.! The!
defendant! refused! the! request.! The! police! proceeded!
nonetheless,!incident!to!the!lawful!arrest!and!searched!
in!different!rooms.!The!police!also!had!the!defendants!
wife! open! various! dresser! drawers! and! remove! their!
contents.!
!
Synopsis! of! Rule! of! Law.! Incident! to! a! lawful! arrest,! a!
search! of! any! area! beyond! the! arrestees! immediate!
control,!is!unlawful!under!the!Fourth!Amendment!of!the!
United!States!Constitution!(Constitution),!unless!there!
is! a! clear! danger! that! evidence! may! be! destroyed! or!
concealed!or!there!is!an!imminent!threat!of!harm!to!the!
arresting!officers.!
Facts.! The! police! came! to! Defendants! home! with! an!
arrest!warrant!for!an!alleged!burglary.!The!police!asked!
permission! to! look! around! the! house.! The! defendant!
refused!the!request!and!the!police!proceeded!to!search!
the! home! anyways.! The! police! also! made! the!
defendants! wife! remove! contents! of! various! dresser!
drawers.!The!police!seized!coins!and!medals!which!were!
later!used!to!convict!the!defendant!of!burglary.!
!
Issue.!Where!a!defendant!is!lawfully!arrested!inside!his!
home,! is! a! warrantless! search! of! the! area! beyond! the!
defendants!immediate!control!constitutional?!
Held.! Any! search! in! an! arrestees! home! beyond!
arrestees! person! and! the! area! within! his! immediate!
control! is! unreasonable! under! the! Fourth! Amendment!
of!the!Constitution.!
!
Dissent.! Where! there! is! probable! cause! to! search! and!
there! is! a! clear! danger! that! the! items! which! are! the!
subject! of! the! search! may! be! removed! prior! to! police!
obtaining!a!search!warrant,!a!warrantless!search!of!the!
area! beyond! an! arrestees! immediate! control! is!
reasonable! under! the! Fourth! Amendment! of! the!
Constitution.!
!
Concurrence.! Given! the! variety! of! circumstances! which!
police! encounter,! this! decision! will! create! additional!
burdens! on! law! enforcement.! Whether! or! not! the!
warrant! requirement! will! protect! individual! rights! in!
each!and!every!local!situation!is!uncertain.!
Discussion.! Contemporaneous! searches! incident! to! a!
lawful!arrest!are!reasonable!to!seize!weapons!as!well!as!
prevent! the! destruction! or! concealment! of! evidence.!
Searches! beyond! the! scope! of! these! justifications! are!

40! !

unreasonable! under! the! Fourth! Amendment! of! the!


Constitution.!
!
!
NOLASCO!VS!PANO!(1987)!
Facts:!
The! ! case! ! at! ! bar! ! is! ! for! ! the! ! motion! ! for! ! partial!!
reconsideration!!of!!both!petitioners!and!respondents!of!
the!SCs!decision!that!the!questioned!search!warrant!by!
petitioners! is! null! and! void,! that! respondents! are!
enjoined!from!introducing!!evidence!!using!!such!!search!!
warrant,!!but!!such!!personalities!obtained!!would!!still!!
be!!retained,!!without!!prejudice!!to!!petitioner!!AguilarX
Roque.!!Respondents!contend!that!the!search!!warrant!
is! valid! and! that! it! should! ! be! ! considered! ! in! ! the!!
context!!of!!the!!crime!!of!!rebellion,!!where!!the!warrant!
was! based.! ! Petitioners! on! the! other! hand,! on! the! part!
of! petitioner! AguilarXRoque,! ! contend! ! that! ! a! ! lawful!!
search! ! would! ! be! ! justified! ! only! ! by! ! a! lawful! ! arrest.!!!!
And!!since!!there!!was!!illegal!!arrest!!of!!AguilarXRoque,!!
the!search!!was!!unlawful!!and!!that!!the!!personalities!!
seized!!during!!the!!illegal!search!should!be!returned!to!
the! petitioner.! ! The! respondents,! in! defense,! concede!
that! the! search! warrants! were! null! and! void! but! the!
arrests!were!not.!!!
Issue:!WON!the!articles!seized!were!illegally!obtained.!
Ruling:!Yes.!
RD:! ! "Any! evidence! obtained! in! violation! of! this! .! .! .!
section! shall! be! inadmissible! for! ! any! ! purpose! ! in! ! any!!
proceeding"! ! (Sec.! ! 4[2]).! ! This! ! constitutional! mandate!
expressly! adopting! the! exclusionary! rule! has! proved! by!
historical!experience!!to!!be!!the!!only!!practical!!means!!
of! ! enforcing! ! the! ! constitutional! injunction! ! against!!
unreasonable!!searches!!and!!seizures!!by!!outlawing!!all!
evidence! illegally! seized! and! thereby! removing! the!
incentive! on! the! part! of! state! ! and! ! police! ! officers! ! to!!
disregard!!such!!basic!!rights.!!What!the!plain!language!
of! the! Constitution! mandates! is! beyond! the! power! of!
the! courts! to! change! or! ! modify.! ! All! the! articles! thus!!
seized! ! fag! ! under! ! the! ! exclusionary! rule! totally! and!
unqualifiedly! and! cannot! be! used! against! any! of! the!
three!petitioners.!
!
!
!
NOLASCO!VS!PANO!(1985)!
FACTS:! Milagros! AguilarXRoque! was! arrested! together!
with! Cynthia! Nolasco! by! the! Constabulary! Security!
Group! (CSG).! Milagros! had! been! wanted! as! a! high!
ranking! officer! of! the! CPP.! The! arrest! took! place! at!
11:30!a.m.!of!August!6,!1984.!At!noon!of!the!same!day,!
her! premises! were! searched! and! 428! documents,! a!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 41!
!
portable!typewriter!and!2!boxes!were!seized.!
Earlier! that! day,! Judge! Cruz! Pao! issued! a! search!
warrant! to! be! served! at! AguilarXRoques! leased!
residence! allegedly! an! underground! house! of! the!
CPP/NPA.! On! the! basis! of! the! documents! seized,!
charges! of! subversion! and! rebellion! by! the! CSG! were!
filed! by! but! the! fiscals! office! merely! charged! her! and!
Nolasco! with! illegal! possession! of! subversive! materials.!
AguilarXRoque!asked!for!suppression!of!the!evidence!on!
the! ground! that! it! was! illegally! obtained! and! that! the!
search! warrant! is! void! because! it! is! a! general! warrant!
since! it! does! not! sufficiently! describe! with! particularity!
the! things! subject! of! the! search! and! seizure,! and! that!
probable! cause! has! not! been! properly! established! for!
lack! of! searching! questions! propounded! to! the!
applicants!witness.!
ISSUE:!WON!the!search!warrant!was!valid?!
HELD:!
NO.!Section!3,!Article!IV!of!the!Constitution,!guarantees!
the! right! of! the! people! to! be! secure! in! their! persons,!
houses,! papers! and! effects! against! unreasonable!
searches! and! seizures! of! whatever! nature! and! for! any!
purpose.! It! also! specifically! provides! that! no! Search!
Warrant! shall! issue! except! upon! probable! cause! to! be!
determined! by! the! Judge! or! such! other! responsible!
officer! as! may! be! authorized! by! law,! after! examination!
under! oath! or! affirmation! of! the! complainant! and! the!
witnesses! he! may! produce,! and! particularly! describing!
the!place!to!be!searched!and!the!things!to!be!seized.!
It!is!at!once!evident!that!the!foregoing!Search!Warrant!
authorizes! the! seizure! of! personal! properties! vaguely!
described!and!not!particularized.!It!is!an!allX!embracing!
description! which! includes! everything! conceivable!
regarding! the! Communist! Party! of! the! Philippines! and!
the!National!Democratic!Front.!It!does!not!specify!what!
the! subversive! books! and! instructions! are;! what! the!
manuals!not!otherwise!available!to!the!public!contain!to!
make!them!subversive!or!to!enable!them!to!be!used!for!
the! crime! of! rebellion.! There! is! absent! a! definite!
guideline!to!the!searching!team!as!to!what!items!might!
be! lawfully! seized! thus! giving! the! officers! of! the! law!
discretion! regarding! what! articles! they! should! seize! as,!
in! fact,! taken! also! were! a! portable! typewriter! and! 2!
wooden!boxes.!
It- is- thus- in- the- nature- of- a- general- warrant- andinfringes- on- the- constitutional- mandate- requiringparticular-description-of-the-things-to-be-seized.-In-therecent-rulings-of-this-Court,-search-warrants-of-similardescription- were- considered- null- and- void- for- being-

too-general.!
!
!
POSADAS!VS!CA!
Members!of!the!Integrated!National!Police!(INP)!of!the!
Davao!Metrodiscom!assigned!with!the!Intelligence!Task!
Force,! Pat.! Ursicio! Ungab! and! Pat.! Umbra! Umpar!
conducted! surveillance! along! Magallanes! Street,! Davao!
City.! While! in! the! vicinity! of! Rizal! Memorial! Colleges!
they! spotted! petitioner! carrying! a! "buri"! bag! and! they!
noticed!him!to!be!acting!suspiciously.!They!approached!
the!petitioner!and!identified!themselves!as!members!of!
the!INP.!Petitioner!attempted!to!flee!but!his!attempt!to!
get! away! was! unsuccessful.! They! then! checked! the!
"buri"! bag! of! the! petitioner! where! they! found! one! (1)!
caliber! .38! Smith! &! Wesson! revolver! with! Serial! No.!
770196,! two! (2)! rounds! of! live! ammunition! for! a! .38!
caliber!gun,!a!smoke!(tear!gas)!grenade,!and!two!(2)!live!
ammunitions! for! a! .22! caliber! gun.! They! brought! the!
petitioner!to!the!police!station!for!further!investigation.!
In! the! course! of! the! same,! the! petitioner! was! asked! to!
show! the! necessary! license! or! authority! to! possess!
firearms! and! ammunitions! found! in! his! possession! but!
he! failed! to! do! so.! He! was! then! taken! to! the! Davao!
Metrodiscom! office! and! the! prohibited! articles!
recovered!from!him!were!indorsed!to!M/Sgt.!Didoy!the!
officer! then! on! duty.! He! was! prosecuted! for! illegal!
possession!of!firearms!and!ammunitions!in!the!Regional!
Trial!Court!of!Davao!City.!
!
!
Issue:-Whether!or!Not!the!warantless!search!is!valid.!
!
!
Held:!In!justifying!the!warrantless!search!of!the!buri!bag!
then! carried! by! the! petitioner,! argues! that! under!
Section! 12,! Rule! 136! of! the! Rules! of! Court! a! person!
lawfully! arrested! may! be! searched! for! dangerous!
weapons!or!anything!used!as!proof!of!a!commission!of!
an!offense!without!a!search!warrant.!It!is!further!alleged!
that!the!arrest!without!a!warrant!of!the!petitioner!was!
lawful!under!the!circumstances.!
!
in!the!case!at!bar,!there!is!no!question!that,!indeed,!it!is!
reasonable!considering!that!it!was!effected!on!the!basis!
of! a! probable! cause.! The! probable! cause! is! that! when!
the!petitioner!acted!suspiciously!and!attempted!to!flee!
with! the! buri! bag! there! was! a! probable! cause! that! he!
was! concealing! something! illegal! in! the! bag! and! it! was!

41!

the! right! and! duty! of! the! police! officers! to! inspect! the!
same.!
!
It! is! too! much! indeed! to! require! the! police! officers! to!
search! the! bag! in! the! possession! of! the! petitioner! only!
after!they!shall!have!obtained!a!search!warrant!for!the!
purpose.! Such! an! exercise! may! prove! to! be! useless,!
futile!and!much!too!late.!
!
Clearly,! the! search! in! the! case! at! bar! can! be! sustained!
under! the! exceptions! heretofore! discussed,! and! hence,!
the! constitutional! guarantee! against! unreasonable!
searches!and!seizures!has!not!been!violated.!
!
!
MALACAT!VS!CA!
On! August! 29,! 1990! at! about! 6:30! in! the! evening,!
allegedly! in! response! to! bomb! threats! reported! seven!
days! earlier,! Rodolfo! Yu! of! the! Western! Police! District,!
Metropolitan! Police! Force! of! the! Integrated! National!
Police,!Police!Station!No.!3,!Quiapo,!Manila,!was!on!foot!
patrol! with! three! other! police! officers! (all! of! them! in!
uniform)!along!Quezon!Boulevard,!Quiapo,!Manila,!near!
the!Mercury!Drug!store!at!Plaza!Miranda.!They!chanced!
upon! two! groups! of! MuslimXlooking! men,! with! each!
group,! comprised! of! three! to! four! men,! posted! at!
opposite!sides!of!the!corner!of!stop!and!frisk,!where!a!
warrant! and! seizure! can! be! effected! without!
necessarily! being! preceded! by! an! arrest! and! whose!
object!is!either!to!maintain!the!status!quo!momentarily!
while! the! police! officer! seeks! to! obtain! more!
information;!and!that!the!seizure!of!the!grenade!from!
Malacat!was!incidental!to!a!lawful!arrest.!The!trial!court!
thus! found! Malacat! guilty! of! the! crime! of! illegal!
possession! of! explosives! under! Section! 3! of! PD! 1866,!
and!sentenced!him!to!suffer!the!penalty!of!not!less!than!
17!years,!4!months!and!1!day!of!Reclusion!Temporal,!as!
minimum,! and! not! more! than! 30! years! of! Reclusion!
Perpetua,! as! maximum.! On! 18! February! 1994,! Malacat!
filed!a!notice!of!appeal!indicating!that!he!was!appealing!
to!the!Supreme!Court.!However,!the!record!of!the!case!
was! forwarded! to! the! Court! of! Appeals! (CAXGR! CR!
15988).!In!its!decision!of!24!January!1996,!the!Court!of!
Appeals!affirmed!the!trial!court.!Manalili!filed!a!petition!
for!review!with!the!Supreme!Court.!
Issue:!
Whether!the!search!made!on!Malacat!is!valid,!pursuant!
to!the!exception!of!stop!and!frisk.!
Ruling:!
The! trial! court! ruled! that! the! warrantless! search! and!
seizure! of! petitioner! was! akin! to! a! stop! and! frisk,!
where! a! warrant! and! seizure! can! be! effected! without!

42! !

necessarily! being! preceded! by! an! arrest! and! whose!


object!is!either!to!maintain!the!status!quo!momentarily!
while! the! police! officer! seeks! to! obtain! more!
information.!Probable!cause!was!not!required!as!it!was!
not!certain!that!a!crime!had!been!committed,!however,!
the! situation! called! for! an! investigation,! hence! to!
require! probable! cause! would! have! been! premature.!
The! RTC! emphasized! that! Yu! and! his! companions! were!
confronted! with! an! emergency,! in! which! the! delay!
necessary! to! obtain! a! warrant,! threatens! the!
destruction!of!evidence!and!the!officers!had!to!act!in!
haste,! as! petitioner! and! his! companions! were! acting!
suspiciously,! considering! the! time,! place! and! reported!
cases!of!bombing.!!Further,!petitioners!group!suddenly!
ran! away! in! different! directions! as! they! saw! the!
arresting!officers!approach,!thus!it!is!reasonable!for!an!
officer! to! conduct! a! limited! search,! the! purpose! of!
which!is!not!necessarily!to!discover!evidence!of!a!crime,!
but! to! allow! the! officer! to! pursue! his! investigation!
without!fear!of!violence.!The!trial!court!then!ruled!that!
the! seizure! of! the! grenade! from! petitioner! was!
incidental!to!a!lawful!arrest,!and!since!petitioner!later!
voluntarily!admitted!such!fact!to!the!police!investigator!
for! the! purpose! of! bombing! the! Mercury! Drug! Store,!
concluded! that! sufficient! evidence! existed! to! establish!
petitioners!guilt!beyond!reasonable!doubt.!
WHEREFORE,! the! challenged! decision! of! the!
Seventeenth!Division!of!the!Court!of!Appeals!in!CAXG.R.!
CR!No.!15988!is!SET!ASIDE!for!lack!of!jurisdiction!on!the!
part! of! said! Court! and,! on! ground! of! reasonable!
doubt,!!the!decision!of!10!February!1994!of!Branch!5!of!
the! Regional! Trial! Court! of! Manila! is! REVERSED! and!
petitioner! SAMMY! MALACAT! y! MANDAR! is! hereby!
ACQUITTED! and! ORDERED! immediately! released! from!
detention,! unless! his! further! detention! is! justified! for!
any!other!lawful!cause.!
!
B. CONSENTED!SEARCH!
PEOPLE!VS!MALASUGUI!
Facts:!On-March!5,!1935,!Tan!Why,!a!Chinese!merchant,!
a! resident! of! Cotabato,! a! victim! of! robbery! was! found!
lying! on! the! ground,! with! several! wounds! in! the! head,!
on! a! path! leading! to! the! barrio! of! Carcar,! Cotabato.!
Shortly! before! the! victims! death! he! was! able! to!
mention! the! appellants! first! name,! Kagui,! ! when! he!
was!asked!about!assailant.!Appellant! was! later! searched! by! the! investigating!
police,!without!opposition!or!protest!on!his!part,!and!it!
was! discovered! that! he! also! had! the! victims!
pocketbook,! containing! P92! in! bills,! the! victims!
identification!card!and!a!memorandum!of!amounts!with!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 43!
!
some! Chinese! characters.! In! one! of! the! pockets! of! his!
pants!was!found!some!change,!making!the!total!amount!
of! money! found! in! his! possession! P92.68.! The! said!
search! was! conducted! after! the! appellant! had!
voluntarily!produced!the!bracelets!Exhibit!A!and!placed!
them!on!Lieutenant!Jacaria's!table,!because,!upon!being!
asked! if! he! had! anything,! he! tremblingly! answered! in!
the!negative.!
The! appellant! testified! at! the! trial! that! Lieutenant!
Jacaria! and! Sergeant! Urangut! had! forcibly! and! through!
intimidation! taken! from! him! the! bracelets! the!
pocketbook! and! all! the! money! which! he! and! that,! but!
for!the!printing!thereon,!the!identification!card!found!in!
the! pocketbook! then! was! blank! and! there! was! no!
memorandum! of! the! kind,! in! Tan! Why's! handwriting,!
inside! the! pocketbook,! thereby,! insinuating! that! it! was!
Lieutenant! Jacaria! who! typed! or! caused! to! be!
typewritten! on! the! card! Tan! Why's! name! and! personal!
data! and! who! placed! the! memorandum! in! the!
pocketbook.!
Issue:! WON! the! ! search! and! seizure! conducted! on! the!
accused!legal?!
ruling:- - Yes.! The! SC! held! that! When! the! search! of! the!
person! detained! or! arrested! and! the! seizure! of! the!
effects! found! in! his! possession! are! incidental! to! an!
arrest!made!in!conformity!with!the!law,!they!cannot!be!
considered! unreasonable,! much! less! unlawful.! To! hold!
that! no! criminal! can,! in! any! case,! be! arrested! and!
searched! for! the! evidence! and! tokens! of! his! crime!
without!a!warrant,!would!be!to!leave!society,!to!a!large!
extent,!at!the!mercy!of!the!shrewdest,!the!most!expert,!
and! the! most! depraved! of! criminals,! facilitating! their!
escape!in!many!instances.!
The! record! shows! that! before! proceeding!
with! the! trial! in! the! lower! court,! the! appellant!
asked! for! the! return! of! said! effects! to! him! on! the!
ground!that!they!were!unlawfully!taken!away!from!
him.!Leaving!aside!the!foregoing!considerations,!his!
testimony!cannot!prevail!against!nor!is!it!sufficient!
to! counteract! that! of! the! government! witnesses,!
Lieutenant! Jacaria! and! Sergeant! Urangut,! who!
testified! that! when! Lieutenant! Jacaria! asked! him!
what! other! things! he! carried,! after! having!
voluntarily! placed! the! two! pairs! of! bracelets,!
Exhibit! A,! on! the! table,! and! Sergeant! Urangut! felt!
his! body,! he! did! not! show! the! least! opposition.! It!

follows,!therefore,!that!the!lower!court!committed!
no! error! in! accepting! as! evidence! the! items! taken!
from! the! accused,! not! only! because! the! appellant!
did!not!object!to!the!taking!thereof!from!him!when!
searched,!but!also!because!the!effects!found!in!his!
possession! of! a! person! detained! or! arrested! are!
perfectly! admissible! as! evidence! against! him,! if!
they! constitute! the!corpus' delicti!or! are! pertinent!
or! relevant! thereto.! It! is! certainly! repugnant! to!
maintain! the! opposite! view! because! it! would!
amount!to!authorizing!the!return!to!the!accused!of!
the! means! of! conviction! seized! from! him,!
notwithstanding! their! being! eloquent! proofs! of!
crime,! for! him! to! conceal,! destroy! or! otherwise!
dispose!of,!in!order!to!assure!his!impunity.!
!
!
!
ALVAREZ!VS!CFI!
acts:!The!AntiXUsury!Board!of!the!Department!of!Justice!
presented! to! Judge! David! a! sworn! affidavit! that! a!
certain! Narciso! Alvarez! is! in! possession! of! books,!
receipts,!chits,!lists!used!by!him!as!money!lender/usurer!
charging! usurious! rates! in! violation! of! law.! Affiant!
Almeda,! chief! of! the! task! force,! didnt! say! that! the!
information! was! based! on! his! personal! knowledge! but!
was! only! received! by! him! from! a! reliable! source.!
Subsequently,!the!judge!issued!the!warrant!ordering!the!
search! of! Alvarez! house.! On! June! 4,! 1936,! the! agents!
raided!the!subject!place!and!seized!different!documents!
namely,! banknotes,! bankbooks,! stubs,! cashbooks,! bills!
of! lading,! credit! receipts,! etc.!! Thereafter,! the! articles!
seized! was! not! brought! immediately! to! the! custody! of!
the! judge! who! issued! the! SW.! Alvarez! moved! that! the!
agents!of!the!Board!be!declared!guilty!of!contempt!and!
prays! that! all! articles! in! question! be! returned! to! him!
because!the!SW!issued!was!illegal.!!On!the!other!hand,!
the! AntiXUsury! Board! pleaded! that! they! be! allowed! to!
retain! custody! of! the! articles! seized! for! further!
investigation.! When! the! judge! sustained! the! latters!
motion.! Alvarez! elevated! the! matter! to! the! SC! and!
prayed! that! the! search! warrant! as! well! as! the! order! of!
the! judge! authorizing! the! AntiXUsury! Board! to! retain!
custody!be!declared!null!and!void.!
Issue:!Whether!the!SW!issued!by!the!judge!is!illegal!for!
having! solely! as! basis! the! affidavit! of! Agent! Almeda! in!
whose!oath!the!latter!declared!that!he!had!no!personal!
knowledge!of!the!facts!which!were!to!serve!as!basis!for!
the! issuance! of! the! warrant! but! he! had! knowledge!

43!

thereof!only!through!information!secured!from!a!person!
whom!he!considered!reliable.!
Ruling:-Section! 1,! paragraph! 3,! of! Article! III! of! the!
Constitution! and! Section! 97! of! General! Orders! 58!
require! that! there! be! not! only! probable! cause! before!
the! issuance! of! a! search! warrant! but! that! the! search!
warrant! must! be! based! upon! an! application! supported!
by! oath! of! the! applicant! and! the! witnesses! he! may!
produce.! In! its! broadest! sense,! an! oath! includes! any!
form!of!attestation!by!which!a!party!signifies!that!he!is!
bound! in! conscience! to! perform! an! act! faithfully! and!
truthfully;! and! it! is! sometimes! defined! as! an! outward!
pledge!given!by!the!person!taking!it!that!his!attestation!
or! promise! is! made! under! an! immediate! sense! of! his!
responsibility!to!God.!The- oath- required- must- refer- tothe-truth-of-the-facts-within-the-personal-knowledge-ofthe- petitioner- or- his- witnesses,- because- the- purposethereof- is- to- convince- the- committing- magistrate,- notthe- individual- making- the- affidavit- and- seeking- theissuance- of- the- warrant,- of- the- existence- of- probablecause.! The- true- test- of- sufficiency- of- an- affidavit- towarrant-issuance-of-a-search-warrant-is-whether-it-hasbeen- drawn- in- such- a- manner- that- perjury- could- becharged-thereon-and-affiant-be-held-liable-for-damagescaused.! The! affidavit,! which! served! as! the! exclusive!
basis! of! the! search! warrant,! is! insufficient! and! fatally!
defective! by! reason! of! the! manner! in! which! the! oath!
was! made,! and! therefore,! the! search! warrant! and! the!
subsequent!seizure!of!the!books,!documents!and!other!
papers! are! illegal.! Further,! it! is! the! practice! in! this!
jurisdiction! to! attach! the! affidavit! of! at! least! the!
applicant! or! complainant! to! the! application.! It! is!
admitted!that!the!judge!who!issued!the!search!warrant!
in! this! case,! relied! exclusively! upon! the! affidavit! made!
by! agent! Almeda! and! that! he! did! not! require! nor! take!
the! deposition! of! any! other! witness.! The! Constitution!
does!not!provide!that!it!is!of!an!imperative!necessity!to!
take! the! depositions! of! the! witnesses! to! be! presented!
by! the! applicant! or! complainant! in! addition! to! the!
affidavit!of!the!latter.!The!purpose!of!both!in!requiring!
the!presentation!of!depositions!is!nothing!more!than!to!
satisfy! the! committing! magistrate! of! the! existence! of!
probable! cause.! Therefore,! if! the! affidavit! of! the!
applicant! or! complainant! is! sufficient,! the! judge! may!
dispense!with!that!of!other!witnesses.!Inasmuch!as!the!
affidavit! of! the! agent! was! insufficient! because! his!
knowledge! of! the! facts! was! not! personal! but! merely!
hearsay,! it! is! the! duty! of! the! judge! to! require! the!
affidavit! of! one! or! more! witnesses! for! the! purpose! of!
determining!the!existence!of!probable!cause!to!warrant!
the! issuance! of! the! search! warrant.! When! the! affidavit!
of!the!applicant!or!complainant!contains!sufficient!facts!

44! !

within!his!personal!and!direct!knowledge,!it!is!sufficient!
if!the!judge!is!satisfied!that!there!exists!probable!cause;!
when! the! applicants! knowledge! of! the! facts! is! mere!
hearsay,!the!affidavit!of!one!or!more!witnesses!having!a!
personal! knowledge! of! the! facts! is! necessary.! Thus! the!
warrant! issued! is! likewise! illegal! because! it! was! based!
only!on!the!affidavit!of!the!agent!who!had!no!personal!
knowledge!of!the!facts!
!
1. PEACEFUL! SUBMISSION! NOT! CONSENT! TO!
SEARCH!
GARCIA!VS!LOCSIN!
Facts:!Mariano!G.!Almeda,!an!agent!of!the!AntiXUsuary!
Board,!obtained!from!the!justice!of!the!peace!of!Tarlac,!
a!search!warrant!commanding!any!officer!of!the!law!to!
search! the! person,! house! or! store! of! the! petitioner! at!
Victoria,! Tarlac,! for! certain! books,! lists,! chits,! receipts,!
documents!and!other!papers!relating!to!her!activities!as!
usurer.!The! search! warrant! was! issued! upon! an!
affidavit!given!by!the!said!Almeda.!
On! the! same! date,! the! said! Mariano! G.! Almeda,!
accompanied! by! a! captain! of! the! Philippine!
Constabulary,! went! to! the! office! of! the! petitioner! in!
Victoria,!Tarlac!and,!after!showing!the!search!warrant!to!
the!petitioners!bookkeeper,!Alfredo!Salas,!and,!without!
the!presence!of!the!petitioner!who!was!ill!and!confined!
at!the!time,!proceeded!with!the!execution!thereof!
The! papers! and! documents! seized! were! kept! for! a!
considerable!length!of!time!by!the!AntiXUsury!Board!and!
thereafter! were! turned! over! by! it! to! the! respondent!
fiscal!who!subsequently!filed!six!separate!criminal!cases!
against! the! herein! petitioner! for! violation! of! the! AntiX
Usury!Law.!
The! legality! of! the! search! warrant! was! challenged! by!
counsel! for! the! petitioner! in! the! six! criminal! cases! and!
the! devolution! of! the! documents! demanded.! The!
respondent! Judge! denied! the! petitioners! motion! for!
the! reason! that! though! the! search! warrant! was! illegal,!
there!was!a!waiver!on!the!part!of!the!petitioner.!
HELD:!Freedom! from! unreasonable! searches! and!
seizures! is! declared! a! popular! right! and! for! a! search!
warrant!to!be!valid,!(1)!it!must!be!issued!upon!probable!
cause;!(2)- the- probable- cause- must- be- determined- bythe-judge-himself-and-not-by-the-applicant-or-any-otherperson;!(3)!in!the!determination!of!probable!cause,!the!
judge! must! examine,! under! oath! or! affirmation,! the!
complainant! and! such! witnesses! as! the! latter! may!
produce;! and! (4)! the! warrant! issued! must! particularly!
describe!the!place!to!be!searched!and!persons!or!things!
to!be!seized.!
In-the-instant-case-the-existence-of-probable-cause-wasdetermined- not- by- the- judge- himself- but- by- the-

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 45!
!
applicant.-All-that-the-judge-did-was-to-accept-as-truethe-affidavit-made-by-agent-Almeda.-He-did-not-decidefor- himself.! It! does! not! appear! that! he! examined! the!
applicant! and! his! witnesses,! if! any.! Even! accepting! the!
description! of! the! properties! to! be! seized! to! be!
sufficient!and!on!the!assumption!that!the!receipt!issued!
is! sufficiently! detailed! within! the! meaning! of! the! law,!
the! properties! seized! were! not! delivered! to! the! court!
which!issued!the!warrant,!as!required!by!law.!
Instead,! they! were! turned! over! to! the! resp.! provincial!
fiscal! &! used! by! him! in! building! up! cases! against!
petitioner.!Considering!that!at!the!time!the!warrant!was!
issued,! there! was! no! case! pending! against! the!
petitioner,! the! averment! that! the! warrant! was! issued!
primarily!for!exploration!purposes!is!not!without!basis.!
!
2. EFFECT!OF!VOLUNTARY!SURRENDER!
PEOPLE!VS!AGBOT!
Charged! with! murder! in! the! Court! of! First! Instance! of!
Davao! Oriental,! Antonio! Agbot! was,! after! due! trial,!
convicted!of!the!crime!charged,!and!sentenced!to!death!
and! ordered! to! indemnify! the! heirs! of! the! deceased,!
Leona! Agbot! Subat,! in! the! sum! of! P12,000.00.! Hence!
this!mandatory!review!of!the!death!sentence.:onad!
The! facts! upon! which! appellant! was! convicted,! as!
quoted!from!the!Peoples!brief!are!as!follows:!
At! about! 4:00! oclock! in! the! afternoon! of! October! 8,!
1972,!the!accused!Antonio!Agbot!went!to!the!
house! of! his! sister! Leona! Agbot,! married! to!
Asisclo! Subat,! in! sitio! Panganudan,! barrio!
Lamiawan,! Carraga,! Davao! Oriental,! and!
demanded!from!her!the!return!of!his!twelveX
year! old! daughter! Milagrosa,! who! bad! been!
under! the! care! and! custody! of! Leona! Agbot!
Subat! since! she! was! two! years! old.! Leona!
refused!to!surrender!the!child!to!the!accused!
because!of!her!sacrifices!and!expenses!in!the!
upbringing! and! education! of! Milagrosa.! The!
accused! left! angrily,! saying! ! tighten! your!
belt,! a! phrase! which,! in! the! custom! of! the!
Mandayan!tribe!to!which!they!belong,!meant!
something! bad! will! be! forthcoming! to! you!
not!
long!
from!
now.! !chanroblesvirtualawlibrary(tsn,! pp.!
45X47,!Mar.!26,!1973).!
At! about! 7:30! oclock! in! the! evening! of! October! 8,!
1972,! while! Asisclo! Subat! and! Francisco!
Baucan,!stepXson!of!the!victim,!were!relaxing!
at!the!porch!of!their!house,!and!Leona!Agbot!

Subat!was!preparing!supper!in!the!kitchen,!a!
gun! explosion! was! heard.! Asisclo! Subat! and!
Francisco! Baucan! tried! to! ascertain! where!
the! gun! report! came! from.! Suddenly,!
Francisco! called! out! X! Mama,! mama,!
directing! his! call! to! his! stepXmother! Leona!
Subat! who! came! rushing! from! the! kitchen,!
wounded!and!bleeding!on!the!right!breast.!In!
a! few! seconds,! the! latter! dropped! on! the!
floor!and!expired.!cranad(tsn,!pp.!48X50,!Mar.!
26,!1973).!
At! about! 5:00! oclock! in! the! following! morning,!
October!9,!1972,!Francisco!Baucan,!who!was!
a! councilor! of! the! place,! went! to! barrio!
captain! Pacifico! Sobiaco! and! reported! the!
incident.!The!latter!sent!a!note!to!Patrolman!
Manuel!Quiros!who!was!assigned!in!a!nearby!
police! checkpoint! and,! together,! they!
proceeded! to! the! house! of! the! victim.!
cranad(tsn,! pp.! 5X6,! Mar.! 26,! 1973)! A! joint!
investigation! was! conducted! by! Sobiaco! and!
Pat.! Quiros.! They! found! the! cadaver! already!
dressed! up! and! ready! for! burial.! They! also!
saw! gunshot! wounds! on! the! right! breast! of!
the! deceased.! cranad(tsn,! pp.! 6X7,! id.)!
Patrolman! Quiros! drew! a! sketch! cranad(Exh.!
D)!indicating!the!place!where!the!victim!was!
found! dead! and! the! location! of! the! wounds!
sustained! by! the! deceased.! cranad(tsn,! pp.!
117X118,! June! 21,! 1973)! No! postXmortem!
examination! was! conducted! on! the! cadaver!
of!Leona!Subat.!
While!thus!conducting!their!investigation!in!the!house!
of!the!victim,!the!accused!arrived!thereat!and!
admitted!to!Sobiaco!that!he!was!the!one!who!
shot! the! victim! using! a! paltik! shotgun.!
cranad(tsn,! pp.! 11X12,! 16X18,! Mar.! 26,! 1973)!
Whereupon,! Sobiaco! ordered! two! of! his!
barrio! councilmen,! Luis! Ligasan! and! Adolfo!
Benaming,! who! were! present! to! proceed! to!
the!house!of!the!accused!and!get!the!firearm.!
After! getting! the! firearm,! the! same! was!
shown!to!the!accused!who!identified!it!as!the!
weapon! he! used! in! shooting! the! deceased.!
cranad(tsn,! pp.! 8X13,! Mar.! 26,! 1973)!
Thereafter,! Barrio! Captain! Sobiaco! turned!
over!the!shotgun!and!empty!shell,!as!well!as!
the! person! of! the! accused! to! Patrolman!
Quiros!cranad(tsn,!pp.!23X24,!Mar.!26,!1973).!

45!

On! October! 16,! 1972,! appellant! executed! an!


extrajudicial! confession! before! the! police!
authorities! of! Caraga! cranad(Exh.! C)! which!
was! subscribed! and! sworn! to! by! him! before!
Municipal! Judge! Manuel! B.! Castro.!
cranad(tsn,! pp.! 107X108,! June! 21,! 1973;! pp.!
34X35,!Mar.!26,!1973)!
From! the! fact! that! no! postXmortem! examination! was!
made,! nor! was! a! ballistic! examination! conducted,!
appellant!would!dispute!the!sufficiency!of!the!evidence!
to!support!his!conviction.!Thus,!he!would!claim!that!no!
competent! proof! was! adduced! that! the! wounds! were!
caused! by! a! gunshot,! or! that! assuming! that! they! were,!
the! homeXmade! gun! cranad(paltik)! belonging! to!
appellant!was!the!gun!that!fired!the!shots.:onad!
That!a!gun!explosion!was!heard!just!seconds!before!the!
deceased! was! wounded! while! she! was! alone! in! the!
kitchen!is!by!itself!an!almost!undisputable!evidence!that!
the!wounds!were!caused!by!that!same!gunshot.!No!one!
was!seen!near!her!who!could!have!inflicted!the!wounds!
with!a!weapon!that!could!find!its!mark!only!if!the!victim!
was! within! physical! reach! of! the! assailant.! Only! a! gun!
could! have! caused! the! wounds! which! can! reach! its!
target!even!from!an!appreciable!distance.!
The!wounds!themselves,!as!seen!by!the!state!witnesses,!
particularly! Barrio! Captain! Pacifico! Sobiaco! and!
Patrolman! Manuel! Quiros,! were! readily! described! by!
them! as! gunshot! wounds,! one! as! big! as! one! and! oneX
half! inches! in! diameter! and! six! cranad(6)! smaller! ones!
obviously! caused! by! pellets! of! a! bullet! fired! from!
appellants! kind! of! a! gun,! a! shotgun.! There! can! hardly!
be! any! ground! for! doubt! as! to! their! competence! in!
identifying! the! wounds! as! caused! by! a! gun! as!
distinguished! from! one! caused! by! a! sharpXbladed!
weapon,!much!less!a!blunt!instrument.!The!existence!of!
exits!of!the!wounds,!as!testified!to!by!Patrolman!Quiros!
1! bolsters! the! conclusion! or! finding! that! the! wounds!
sustained!by!the!victim!were!gunXinflicted.!
In! an! effort! to! discredit! the! testimony! of! Patrolman!
Quiros! and! Barrio! Captain! Sobiaco,! appellant! points! to!
Patrolman! Quiros! allegedly! saying! that! he! saw! one!
cranad(1)! big! penetrating! wound! while! Barrio! Captain!
Sobiaco,! as! well! as! Asisclo! Subat,! declared! he! saw! six!
cranad(6).! An! examination! of! Patrolman! Quiros!
testimony! will! show! that! he! did! NOT! say! that! he! saw!
only! one! cranad(1)! wound! with! no! other! wounds!
sustained! by! the! deceased.! The! small! wounds! caused!
evidently!by!tiny!pellets!bursting!out!of!a!shotgun!bullet!
may! not! have! been! noticed! by! Patrolman! Quiros,! and!
so,! he! made! mention! only! of! the! one! cranad(1)! big!
penetrating!wound.!
The! lack! of! ballistic! examination! can! neither! detract!

46! !

from! the! weight! of! the! evidence! presented! showing!


that! appellants! gun! was! the! offending! weapon.! It! fits!
the! nature! of! the! wounds! inflicted! on! the! deceased,!
being! a! shotgun! whose! bullet! emits! pellets,! and! the!
empty! shell! which! was! found! with! the! shotgun!
cranad(paltik)! taken! from! appellants! house.! Ballistic!
experts! are! not! needed! to! establish! the! relation!
between!the!wounds!and!appellants!paltik!shotgun!in!
the!face!of!the!evidence!that!the!weapon!is!admittedly!
one! that! belonged! to! appellant,! and! the! empty! shell!
found!in!his!house!even!smelled!gun!powder!which!was!
proof! of! recent! firing.! The! shotgun! cranad(Exh.! A)! and!
the! empty! shell! cranad(Exh.! B)! were! indeed! retrieved!
from!appellants!house!the!morning!following!the!night!
of! the! shooting! made! possible! by! appellants! own!
admission!of!authorship!of!the!shooting,!without!which!
these! objects! could! not! have! been! traced! to,! and!
recovered!from,!his!house.!
Appellants! denial! of! having! made! the! foregoing!
admission!and!of!having!mentioned!anything!about!the!
shotgun!to!Barrio!Captain!Sobiaco!is!unworthy!of!belief.!
If! he! did! not! make! the! admission! when! confronted! by!
the!barrio!captain!at!the!victims!own!house,!how!could!
the! two! cranad(2)! barrio! councilmen,! Luis! Ligasan! and!
Adolfo!Benaning,!have!been!sent!to!recover!appellants!
firearm!at!the!latters!house?!A!fact!related!to!what!part!
the! weapon! had! in! the! killing! and! the! person! who!
actively!played!the!role!in!using!it,!must!have!surfaced.!
No! other! fact! suggests! itself! more! than! the! appellants!
owning! the! shooting! when! confronted! by! the! barrio!
captain! to! whom! report! of! the! shooting! had! been!
earlier! made,! and! to! whom! the! only! suspect! was!
mentioned,! together! with! the! circumstance! that! drew!
suspicion! to! appellant! ! the! threat! of! harm! befalling!
the!deceased!with.!the!meaningful!words!tighten!your!
belt.!
The!verity!of!appellants!admission!of!guilt!having!been!
firmly! established,! the! contention! that! the! confiscation!
or!seizure!of!the!gun!was!illegal,!there!being!no!search!
warrant! and! its! use! as! evidence! is! not! permissible,!
clearly!becomes!devoid!of!factual!or!legal!basis.!With!his!
confessions,! his! voluntarily! surrendering! the! weapon!
with! which! he! committed! the! offense! would! be! but! a!
natural! consequence! of! his! having! admitted! guilt.! The!
taking! of! the! gun! from! his! house! was,! therefore,! with!
consent! and! acquiescence! that! would! not! constitute! a!
violation! of! the! constitutional! guaranty! against! the!
admissibility! of! illegally! seized! objects! as! evidence!
against!an!accused.!2!
Appellants! claim! of! his! confession! having! been!
extracted! by! force! and! maltreatment! would,! likewise,!
be!completely!unbelievable.!Having!readily!admitted!his!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 47!
!
guilt! when! confronted! by! the! investigators! right! in! the!
house! of! the! victim,! the! very! presence! of! his! own!
departed! sister! lying! in! state! perhaps! unnerving! him! in!
his!vile!desire!to!conceal!the!truth,!how!could!he!still!try!
to!deny!and!turn!back!from!his!earlier!admission!made!
to! a! barrio! official! when! he! later! was! formally!
investigated! by! the! police?! No! less! than! the! Municipal!
Judge! Manuel! B.! Castro,! testified! to! appellant! having!
answered! in! the! affirmative! when! asked! if! he! was!
willing!to!swear!to!the!truth!of!his!confession.!3!
The! confession! itself,! by! the! facts! with! which! it! is! so!
replete,!which!appellant!alone!could!have!supplied!and!
the! obvious! attempt! to! mitigate! his! liability! by! alleging!
that! the! did! not! act! in! fit! of! vengeance! because! the!
victim! was! the! one! who! ordered! the! killing! of! his!
brother! Ansog! Agbot,! bears! the! earmarks! of!
voluntariness.!4!The!police!investigators!could!not!have!
just!conceived!of!this!alleged!fact!from!pure!imagination!
to! be! placed! in! appellants! confession,! considering! the!
extreme! improbability! of! a! sister! order! the! killing! of! a!
brother.!For!the!motive!of!the!killing,!what!should!have!
found! its! way! to! the! confession! is! the! incident! just!
before! the! shooting! when! appellant! hurled! a! threat! at!
his! sister,! as! narrated! by! the! victims! husband! to! the!
barrio! captain,! had! appellant! not! been! allowed! full!
freedom!to!tell!his!story.:onad!
With! appellants! confession! fulfilling! all! elements! of!
admissibility,! and! supported! as! it! is! by! independent!
evidence!of!corpus!delicti,!which!is!the!fact!of!the!crime!
having! been! committed,! 5! together! with! the! finding! in!
appellants! house! of! the! weapon! that! undisputably!
inflicted!the!fatal!wounds!sustained!by!the!deceased,!it!
would! be! futile! to! argue! against! the! sufficiency! of! the!
evidence! to! prove! guilt! beyond! reasonable! doubt,! as!
counsel! had! tried! to! do,! and! commendably! so,! had! it!
not! been! for! his! manifest! misreading! of! the! evidence.!
Thus,! he! would! aver! that! corpus! delicti! has! not! been!
proven!6!when!the!fact!of!death!due!to!foul!means!has!
been! so! undeniably! established! by! the! lifeless! body!
bearing! wounds! that! undisputably! caused! the! death! to!
the!victim.!
The! crime! committed! is! murder,! qualified! by! treachery!
and! with! the! aggravating! circumstances! of! dwelling! 7!
and! relationship,! the! victim! being! the! sister! of!
appellant.!8!
Evident! premeditation! cannot! be! appreciated! against!
appellant! it! appearing! that! no! time! sufficient! for! calm!
reflection!of!the!consequences!of!the!crime!committed!
intervened! between! planning! and! execution.! 9! Neither!

sex! could! be! taken! against! appellant! there! being! no!


proof! that! there! was! deliberate! intention! to! offend! or!
insult!the!sex!of!the!victim.!10!
While! lack! of! instruction! may! not! be! appreciated! in!
favor!of!appellant!as!argued!by!counsel,!the!offense!of!
taking! ones! life! being! forbidden! by! natural! law! and!
therefore! within! the! instinctive! knowledge! and! feeling!
of!any!human!being!not!deprived!of!reason!11!appellant!
being! a! member! of! the! cultural! minority! may! be!
considered! in! his! favor,! pursuant! to! Sec.! 106! of! the!
Administrative! Code! of! Mindanao! and! Sulu! and! entitle!
him,! regardless! of! the! attending! circumstances,! to! life!
imprisonment!instead!of!death.!12!It!is!no!legal!obstacle!
to! accord! to! him! this! benefit! of! the! law! because! he!
failed! to! invoke! same! in! the! court! a! quo,! for! in! an!
appeal! of! a! criminal! case,! same! is! thrown! open! for! a!
complete! review! of! all! errors,! by! commission! or!
omission,!as!may!be!imputable!to!the!trial!court.!
WHEREFORE,! the! judgment! of! conviction! is! affirmed,!
but! the! death! sentence! is! hereby! reduced! to! life!
imprisonment,! taking! also! into! account! the! length! of!
time! he! had! already! been! in! the! death! row.! Cost! de!
oficio.!
!
3. EFFECTS!OF!POSTING!BAIL!
RULE!126!!
Section- 14.! Motion' to' quash' a' search' warrant' or' to'
suppress'evidence;'where'to'file.!!A!motion!to!quash!a!
search! warrant! and/or! to! suppress! evidence! obtained!
thereby! may! be! filed! in! and! acted! upon! only! by! the!
court! where! the! action! has! been! instituted.! If! no!
criminal!action!has!been!instituted,!the!motion!may!be!
filed!in!and!resolved!by!the!court!that!issued!the!search!
warrant.! However,! if! such! court! failed! to! resolve! the!
motion! and! a! criminal! case! is! subsequent! filed! in!
another!court,!the!motion!shall!be!resolved!by!the!latter!
court.!
RULE!114!
Section-26.!Bail'not'a'bar'to'objections'on'illegal'arrest,'
lack' of' or' irregular' preliminary' investigation.! ! An!
application! for! or! admission! to! bail! shall! not! bar! the!
accused!from!challenging!the!validity!of!his!arrest!or!the!
legality!of!the!warrant!issued!therefor,!or!from!assailing!
the! regularity! or! questioning! the! absence! of! a!
preliminary! investigation! of! the! charge! against! him,!
provided! that! he! raises! them! before! entering! his! plea.!
The!court!shall!resolve!the!matter!as!early!as!practicable!
but!not!later!than!the!start!of!the!trial!of!the!case.!
!

47!

C. STOP! AND! FRISK! AUTOMOBILE! ROADBLOCKS,!


AND!OTHER!LESS!INTRUSIVE!SEARCHES!
!
TERRY!V!OHIO!
Brief!Fact!Summary.! The! Petitioner,!John!W.!Terry!(the!
Petitioner),! was! stopped! and! searched! by! an! officer!
after! the! officer! observed! the! Petitioner! seemingly!
casing! a! store! for! a! potential! robbery.! The! officer!
approached! the! Petitioner! for! questioning! and! decided!
to!search!him!first.!
!
Synopsis! of! Rule! of! Law.! An! officer! may! perform! a!
search! for! weapons! without! a! warrant,! even! without!
probable! cause,! when! the! officer! reasonably! believes!
that!the!person!may!be!armed!and!dangerous.!
!
Facts.! The! officer! noticed! the! Petitioner! talking! with!
another! individual! on! a! street! corner! while! repeatedly!
walking! up! and! down! the! same! street.! The! men! would!
periodically! peer! into! a! store! window! and! then! talk!
some! more.! The! men! also! spoke! to! a! third! man! whom!
they! eventually! followed! up! the! street.! The! officer!
believed! that! the! Petitioner! and! the! other! men! were!
casing! a! store! for! a! potential! robbery.! The! officer!
decided!to!approach!the!men!for!questioning,!and!given!
the! nature! of! the! behavior! the! officer! decided! to!
perform!a!quick!search!of!the!men!before!questioning.!
A!quick!frisking!of!the!Petitioner!produced!a!concealed!
weapon!and!the!Petitioner!was!charged!with!carrying!a!
concealed!weapon.!
!
Issue.!Whether!a!search!for!weapons!without!probable!
cause! for! arrest! is! an! unreasonable! search! under! the!
Fourth! Amendment! to! the! United! States! Constitution!
(Constitution)?!
Held.! The! Supreme! Court! of! the! United! States!
(Supreme! Court)! held! that! it! is! a! reasonable! search!
when! an! officer! performs!a! quick! seizure! and! a! limited!
search! for! weapons! on! a! person! that! the! officer!
reasonably! believes! could! be! armed.! A! typical! beat!
officer! would! be! unduly! burdened! by! being! prohibited!
from! searching! individuals! that! the! officer! suspects! to!
be!armed.!
Discussion.! The! facts! of! the! case! are! important! to!
understand! the! Supreme! Courts! willingness! to! allow!
the! search.! The! suspicious! activity! was! a! violent! crime,!
armed! robbery,! and! if! the! officers! suspicions! were!
correct! then! he! would! be! in! a! dangerous! position! to!
approach! the! men! for! questioning! without! searching!
them.!The!officer!also!did!not!detain!the!men!for!a!long!
period!of!time!to!constitute!an!arrest!without!probable!
cause.!

48! !

!
2ND!DIGEST!
Facts:- Martin! McFadden,! a! Cleveland! police! detective,!
on! a! downtown! beat! which! he! had! been! patrolling! for!
many!years,!observed!two!strangers!(Terry!and!Richard!
Chilton)! on! a! street! corner.! He! saw! them! proceed!
alternately! back! and! forth! along! an! identical! route,!
strolling!down!Huron!Road,!pausing!to!stare!in!the!same!
store! window,! which! they! did! for! a! total! of! about! 24!
times.!Each!completion!of!the!route!was!followed!by!a!
conference! between! the! two! on! a! corner,! at! one! of!
which! they! were! joined! by! a! third! man! (Katz)! who! left!
swiftly.!Suspecting!the!two!men!of!"casing!a!job,!a!stickX
up,"!the!officer!followed!them!and!saw!them!rejoin!the!
third! man! a! couple! of! blocks! away! in! front! of! a! store.!
The!officer!approached!the!three,!identified!himself!as!a!
policeman,!and!asked!their!names.!The!men!"mumbled!
something,"! whereupon! McFadden! spun! Terry! around,!
patted! down! his! outside! clothing,! and! found! in! his!
overcoat! pocket,! but! was! unable! to! remove,! a! pistol.!
The! officer! ordered! the! three! into! the! store.! He!
removed! Terry's! overcoat,! took! out! a! revolver,! and!
ordered! the! three! to! face! the! wall! with! their! hands!
raised.! He! patted! down! the! outer! clothing! of! Chilton!
and! Katz! and! seized! a! revolver! from! Chilton's! outside!
overcoat! pocket.! He! did! not! put! his! hands! under! the!
outer! garments! of! Katz! (since! he! discovered! nothing! in!
his! patXdown! which! might! have! been! a! weapon),! or!
under! Terry's! or! Chilton's! outer! garments! until! he! felt!
the! guns.! The! three! were! taken! to! the! police! station.!
Terry!and!Chilton!were!charged!with!carrying!concealed!
weapons.!The!defense!moved!to!suppress!the!weapons.!
Though! the! trial! court! rejected! the! prosecution! theory!
that!the!guns!had!been!seized!during!a!search!incident!
to! a! lawful! arrest,! the! court! denied! the! motion! to!
suppress! and! admitted! the! weapons! into! evidence! on!
the! ground! that! the! officer! had! cause! to! believe! that!
Terry! and! Chilton! were! acting! suspiciously,! that! their!
interrogation!was!warranted,!and!that!the!officer!for!his!
own! protection! had! the! right! to! pat! down! their! outer!
clothing! having! reasonable! cause! to! believe! that! they!
might! be! armed.! The! court! distinguished! between! an!
investigatory! "stop"! and! an! arrest,! and! between! a!
"frisk"! of! the! outer! clothing! for! weapons! and! a! fullX
blown! search! for! evidence! of! crime.! Terry! and! Chilton!
were! found! guilty,! an! intermediate! appellate! court!
affirmed,! and! the! State! Supreme! Court! dismissed! the!
appeal!on!the!ground!that!"no!substantial!constitutional!
question"!was!involved.!!
Issue:- Whether! it! is! always! unreasonable! for! a!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 49!
!
policeman!to!seize!a!person!and!subject!him!to!a!limited!
search! for! weapons! unless! there! is! probable! cause! for!
an!arrest.!!
Held:- The! Fourth! Amendment! right! against!
unreasonable!searches!and!seizures,!made!applicable!to!
the! States! by! the! Fourteenth! Amendment,! "protects!
people,! not! places,"! and! therefore! applies! as! much! to!
the! citizen! on! the! streets! as! well! as! at! home! or!
elsewhere.! The! issue! in! this! case! is! not! the! abstract!
propriety! of! the! police! conduct! but! the! admissibility!
against! petitioner! of! the! evidence! uncovered! by! the!
search! and! seizure.! The! exclusionary! rule! cannot!
properly! be! invoked! to! exclude! the! products! of!
legitimate! and! restrained! police! investigative!
techniques;! and! this! Court's! approval! of! such!
techniques! should! not! discourage! remedies! other! than!
the! exclusionary! rule! to! curtail! police! abuses! for! which!
that! is! not! an! effective! sanction.! The! Fourth!
Amendment!applies!to!"stop!and!frisk"!procedures!such!
as! those! followed! here.! Whenever! a! police! officer!
accosts!an!individual!and!restrains!his!freedom!to!walk!
away,!he!has!"seized"!that!person!within!the!meaning!of!
the! Fourth! Amendment.! A! careful! exploration! of! the!
outer! surfaces! of! a! person's! clothing! in! an! attempt! to!
find! weapons! is! a! "search"! under! that! Amendment.!
Where!a!reasonably!prudent!officer!is!warranted!in!the!
circumstances!of!a!given!case!in!believing!that!his!safety!
or! that! of! others! is! endangered,! he! may! make! a!
reasonable! search! for! weapons! of! the! person! believed!
by! him! to! be! armed! and! dangerous! regardless! of!
whether!he!has!probable!cause!to!arrest!that!individual!
for!crime!or!the!absolute!certainty!that!the!individual!is!
armed.! Though! the! police! must! whenever! practicable!
secure! a! warrant! to! make! a! search! and! seizure,! that!
procedure!cannot!be!followed!where!swift!action!based!
upon! onXtheXspot! observations! of! the! officer! on! the!
beat! is! required.! The! reasonableness! of! any! particular!
search! and! seizure! must! be! assessed! in! light! of! the!
particular! circumstances! against! the! standard! of!
whether! a! man! of! reasonable! caution! is! warranted! in!
believing!!
!
!
DELAWARE!VS!PROUSE!
A! Delaware! patrolman! stopped! William! Prouse's! car! to!
make!a!routine!check!of!his!driver's!license!and!vehicle!
registration.! The! officer! had! not! observed! any! traffic!

violation! or! suspicious! conduct! on! the! part! of! Prouse.!


After!stopping!the!car,!the!officer!uncovered!marijuana.!
The!marijuana!was!later!used!to!indict!Prouse.!
!
ISSUE:! Did! the! officer's! search! of! Prouse's! automobile!
constitute! an! unreasonable! search! and! seizure! under!
the!Fourth!Amendment?!
!
HELD:!Yes.!In!an!8XtoX1!decision,!the!Court!held!that!the!
privacy! interests! of! travelers! outweighed! the! state!
interests! in! discretionary! spot! checks! of! automobiles.!
The! Court! found! that! random! checks! made! only!
marginal! contributions! to! roadway! safety! and!
compliance! with! registration! requirements;! less!
intrusive! means! could! have! been! used! to! serve! the!
same!ends.!Officers!must!be!held!to!a!"probable!cause"!
standard! for! searches,! otherwise! individuals! would! be!
subject! to! "unfettered! governmental! intrusion"! each!
time!they!entered!an!automobile.!
!
CABALLES!VS!CA!
Facts:- About! 9:15! p.m.! of! 28! June! 1989,! Sgt.! Victorino!
Noceja! and! Pat.! Alex! de! Castro,! while! on! a! routine!
patrol! in! Barangay! Sampalucan,! Pagsanjan,! Laguna,!
spotted! a! passenger! jeep! unusually! covered! with!
"kakawati"!leaves.!Suspecting!that!the!jeep!was!loaded!
with! smuggled! goods,! the! two! police! officers! flagged!
down!the!vehicle.!The!jeep!was!driven!by#Rudy#Caballes#
y" Taio." When" asked" what" was" loaded" on" the" jeep," he"
did! not! answer,! but! he! appeared! pale! and! nervous.!
With! Caballes'! consent,! the! police! officers! checked! the!
cargo! and! they! discovered! bundles! of! 3.08! mm!
aluminum/galvanized! conductor! wires! exclusively!
owned! by! National! Power! Corporation! (NAOCOR).! The!
conductor! wires! weighed! 700! kilos! and! valued! at!
P55,244.45.! Noceja! asked! Caballes! where! the! wires!
came!from!and!Caballes!answered!that!they!came!from!
Cavinti,! a! town! approximately! 8! kilometers! away! from!
Sampalucan.! Thereafter,! Caballes! and! the! vehicle! with!
the! highX! voltage! wires! were! brought! to! the! Pagsanjan!
Police! Station.! Danilo! Cabale! took! pictures! of! Caballes!
and! the! jeep! loaded! with! the! wires! which! were! turned!
over! to! the! Police! Station! Commander! of! Pagsanjan,!
Laguna.! Caballes! was! incarcerated! for! 7! days! in! the!
Municipal! jail.! Caballes! was! charged! with! the! crime! of!
theft! in! an! information! dated! 16! October! 1989.! During!
the!arraignment,!Caballes!pleaded!not!guilty!and!hence,!
trial! on! the! merits! ensued.! On! 27! April! 1993,! Regional!

49!

Trial! Court! of! Santa! Cruz,! Laguna! rendered! judgment,!


finding!Caballes,!guilty!beyond!reasonable!doubt!of!the!
crime!of!theft.!In!a!resolution!dated!9!November!1998,!
the! trial! court! denied! Caballes'! motion! for!
reconsideration.!The!Court!of!Appeals!affirmed!the!trial!
court! decision! on! 15! September! 1998.! Caballes!
appealed!the!decision!by!certiorari.!!
Issue:- Whether! Caballes! passive! submission! to! the!
statement!of!Sgt.!Noceja!that!the!latter!"will!look!at!the!
contents!of!his!vehicle!and!he!answered!in!the!positive"!
be! considered! as! waiver! on! Caballes! part! on!
warrantless!search!and!seizure.!!
Held:- Enshrined! in! our! Constitution! is! the! inviolable!
right! of! the! people! to! be! secure! in! their! persons! and!
properties! against! unreasonable! searches! and! seizures,!
as! defined! under! Section! 2,! Article! III! thereof.! The!
exclusionary! rule! under! Section! 3(2),! Article! III! of! the!
Constitution!bars!the!admission!of!evidence!obtained!in!
violation! of! such! right.! The! constitutional! proscription!
against! warrantless! searches! and! seizures! is! not!
absolute! but! admits! of! certain! exceptions,! namely:! (1)!
warrantless! search! incidental! to! a! lawful! arrest!
recognized! under! Section! 12,! Rule! 126! of! the! Rules! of!
Court! and! by! prevailing! jurisprudence;! (2)! seizure! of!
evidence!in!plain!view;!(3)!search!of!moving!vehicles;!(4)!
consented! warrantless! search;! (5)! customs! search;! (6)!
stop! and! frisk! situations! (Terry! search);! and! (7)! exigent!
and! emergency! circumstances.! In! cases! where! warrant!
is! necessary,! the! steps! prescribed! by! the! Constitution!
and! reiterated! in! the! Rules! of! Court! must! be! complied!
with.! In! the! exceptional! events! where! warrant! is! not!
necessary! to! effect! a! valid! search! or! seizure,! or! when!
the! latter! cannot! be! performed! except! without! a!
warrant,!what!constitutes!a!reasonable!or!unreasonable!
search! or! seizure! is! purely! a! judicial! question,!
determinable!from!the!uniqueness!of!the!circumstances!
involved,!including!the!purpose!of!the!search!or!seizure,!
the!presence!or!absence!of!probable!cause,!the!manner!
in!which!the!search!and!seizure!was!made,!the!place!or!
thing! searched! and! the! character! of! the! articles!
procured.! It! is! not! controverted! that! the! search! and!
seizure! conducted! by! the! police! officers! was! not!
authorized! by! a! search! warrant.! The! mere! mobility! of!
these! vehicles,! however,! does! not! give! the! police!
officers! unlimited! discretion! to! conduct! indiscriminate!
searches!without!warrants!if!made!within!the!interior!of!
the! territory! and! in! the! absence! of! probable! cause.!
Herein,! the! police! officers! did! not! merely! conduct! a!
visual! search! or! visual! inspection! of! Caballes'! vehicle.!
They! had! to! reach! inside! the! vehicle,! lift! the! kakawati!

50! !

leaves! and! look! inside! the! sacks! before! they! were! able!
to! see! the! cable! wires.! It! thus! cannot! be! considered! a!
simple!routine!check.!Also,!Caballes'!vehicle!was!flagged!
down! because! the! police! officers! who! were! on! routine!
patrol!became!suspicious!when!they!saw!that!the!back!
of!the!vehicle!was!covered!with!kakawati!leaves!which,!
according! to! them,! was! unusual! and! uncommon.! The!
fact!that!the!vehicle!looked!suspicious!simply!because!it!
is! not! common! for! such! to! be! covered! with! kakawati!
leaves! does! not! constitute! "probable! cause"! as! would!
justify! the! conduct! of! a! search! without! a! warrant.! In!
addition,! the! police! authorities! do! not! claim! to! have!
received! any! confidential! report! or! tipped! information!
that! petitioner! was! carrying! stolen! cable! wires! in! his!
vehicle! which! could! otherwise! have! sustained! their!
suspicion.!Philippine!jurisprudence!is!replete!with!cases!
where! tipped! information! has! become! a! sufficient!
probable! cause! to! effect! a! warrantless! search! and!
seizure.!UnfortunatEly,!none!exists!in!the!present!case.!
Further,! the! evidence! is! lacking! that! Caballes!
intentionally!surrendered!his!right!against!unreasonable!
searches.! The! manner! by! which! the! two! police! officers!
allegedly! obtained! the! consent! of! Caballes! for! them! to!
conduct! the! search! leaves! much! to! be! desired.! When!
Caballes'! vehicle! was! flagged! down,! Sgt.! Noceja!
approached! Caballes! and! "told! him! I! will! look! at! the!
contents!of!his!vehicle!and!he!answered!in!the!positive."!
By! uttering! those! words,! it! cannot! be! said! the! police!
officers! were! asking! or! requesting! for! permission! that!
they!be!allowed!to!search!the!vehicle!of!Caballes.!For!all!
intents! and! purposes,! they! were! informing,! nay,!
imposing!upon!Caballes!that!they!will!search!his!vehicle.!
The! "consent"! given! under! intimidating! or! coercive!
circumstances! is! no! consent! within! the! purview! of! the!
constitutional!guaranty.!In!addition,!in!cases!where!the!
Court!upheld!the!validity!of!consented!search,!it!will!be!
noted!that!the!police!authorities!expressly!asked,!in!no!
uncertain! terms,! for! the! consent! of! the! accused! to! be!
searched.! And! the! consent! of! the! accused! was!
established! by! clear! and! positive! proof.! Neither! can!
Caballes'!passive!submission!be!construed!as!an!implied!
acquiescence! to! the! warrantless! search.! Casting! aside!
the!cable!wires!as!evidence,!the!remaining!evidence!on!
record! are! insufficient! to! sustain! Caballes'! conviction.!
His! guilt! can! only! be! established! without! violating! the!
constitutional!right!of!the!accused!against!unreasonable!
search!and!seizure.!
!
VALMONTE!VS!DE!VILLA!
On!20!January!1987,!the!National!Capital!Region!District!
Command!(NCRDC)!was!activated!pursuant!to!Letter!of!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 51!
!
Instruction! 02/87! of! the! Philippine! General!
Headquarters,! AFP,! with! the! mission! of! conducting!
social,! economic! and! political! development! of! the!
National!Capital!Region.!1!As!part!of!its!duty!to!maintain!
peace! and! order,! the! NCRDC! installed! checkpoints! in!
various! parts! of! Valenzuela,! Metro! Manila.! Ricardo! C.!
Valmonte! and! the! Union! of! Lawyers! and! Advocates! for!
People's! Right! (ULAP)! filed! a! petition! for! prohibition!
with! preliminary! injunction! and/or! temporary!
restraining!order!witht!the!Supreme!Court,!seeking!the!
declaration!of!checkpoints!in!Valenzuela,!Metro!Manila!
or! elsewhere,! as! unconstitutional! and! the! dismantling!
and!banning!of!the!same!or,!in!the!alternative,!to!direct!
the! respondents! to! formulate! guidelines! in! the!
implementation! of! checkpoints,! for! the! protection! of!
the! people.! They! aver! that,! because! of! the! installation!
of! said! checkpoints,! the! residents! of! Valenzuela! are!
worried! of! being! harassed! and! of! their! safety! being!
placed! at! the! arbitrary,! capricious! and! whimsical!
disposition! of! the! military! manning! the! checkpoints,!
considering! that! their! cars! and! vehicles! are! being!
subjected!to!regular!searches!and!checkXups,!especially!
at! night! or! at! dawn,! without! the! benefit! of! a! search!
warrant!and/or!court!order.!Their!alleged!fear!for!their!
safety! increased! when,! at! dawn! of! 9! July! 1988,!
Benjamin!Parpon,!a!supply!officer!of!the!Municipality!of!
Valenzuela,!Bulacan,!was!gunned!down!allegedly!in!cold!
blood! by! the! members! of! the! NCRDC! manning! the!
checkpoint! along! McArthur! Highway! at! Malinta,!
Valenzuela,! for! ignoring! and/or! refusing! to! submit!
himself! to! the! checkpoint! and! for! continuing! to! speed!
off! inspire! of! warning! shots! fired! in! the! air.! Valmonte!
also!claims!that,!on!several!occasions,!he!had!gone!thru!
these! checkpoints! where! he! was! stopped! and! his! car!
subjected! to! search/checkXup! without! a! court! order! or!
search! warrant.! They! further! contend! that! the! said!
checkpoints!give!Gen.!Renato!de!Villa!and!the!National!
Capital!Region!District!Command!a!blanket!authority!to!
make! searches! and/or! seizures! without! search! warrant!
or! court! order! in! violation! of! the! Constitution.! In! the!
Supreme! Court's! decision! dated! 29! September! 1989,!
Valmontes!and!ULAPs!petition!for!prohibition,!seeking!
the! declaration! of! the! checkpoints! as! unconstitutional!
and! their! dismantling! and/or! banning,! was! dismissed.!
Valmonte!and!ULAP!filed!the!motion!and!supplemental!
motion!for!reconsideration!of!said!decision.!!
Issue:-Whether!checkpoints!serve!as!a!blanket!authority!
for! government! officials! for! warrantless! search! and!

seizure!and,!thus,!are!violative!of!the!Constitution.!!
Held:- Nowhere! in! the! Supreme! Court's! decision! of! 24!
May! 1990! did! the! Court! legalize! all! checkpoints,! i.e.! at!
all! times! and! under! all! circumstances.! What! the! Court!
declared!is,!that!checkpoints!are!not!illegal!per!se.!Thus,!
under!exceptional!circumstances,!as!where!the!survival!
of! organized! government! is! on! the! balance,! or! where!
the! lives! and! safety! of! the! people! are! in! grave! peril,!
checkpoints! may! be! allowed! and! installed! by! the!
government.! Implicit! in! this! proposition! is,! that! when!
the!situation!clears!and!such!grave!perils!are!removed,!
checkpoints! will! have! absolutely! no! reason! to! remain.!
Recent! and! onXgoing! events! have! pointed! to! the!
continuing!validity!and!need!for!checkpoints!manned!by!
either!military!or!police!forces.!Although!no!one!can!be!
compelled,! under! our! libertarian! system,! to! share! with!
the! present! government! its! ideological! beliefs! and!
practices,!or!commend!its!political,!social!and!economic!
policies! or! performance;! one! must! concede! to! it! the!
basic! right! to! defend! itself! from! its! enemies! and,! while!
in! power,! to! pursue! its! program! of! government!
intended!for!public!welfare;!and!in!the!pursuit!of!those!
objectives,! the! government! has! the! equal! right,! under!
its! police! power,! to! select! the! reasonable! means! and!
methods! for! best! achieving! them.! The! checkpoint! is!
evidently!one!of!such!means!it!has!selected.!Admittedly,!
the! routine! checkpoint! stop! does! intrude,! to! a! certain!
extent,! on! motorist's! right! to! "free! passage! without!
interruption",!but!it!cannot!be!denied!that,!as!a!rule,!it!
involves!only!a!brief!detention!of!travellers!during!which!
the! vehicle's! occupants! are! required! to! answer! a! brief!
question! or! two.! For! as! long! as! the! vehicle! is! neither!
searched!nor!its!occupants!subjected!to!a!body!search,!
and! the! inspection! of! the! vehicle! is! limited! to! a! visual!
search,! said! routine! checks! cannot! be! regarded! as!
violative! of! an! individual's! right! against! unreasonable!
search.!These!routine!checks,!when!conducted!in!a!fixed!
area,! are! even! less! intrusive.! Further,! vehicles! are!
generally! allowed! to! pass! these! checkpoints! after! a!
routine! inspection! and! a! few! questions.! If! vehicles! are!
stopped!and!extensively!searched,!it!is!because!of!some!
probable!cause!which!justifies!a!reasonable!belief!of!the!
men!at!the!checkpoints!that!either!the!motorist!is!a!lawX
offender!or!the!contents!of!the!vehicle!are!or!have!been!
instruments! of! some! offense.! By! the! same! token,! a!
warrantless! search! of! incoming! and! outgoing!
passengers,! at! the! arrival! and! departure! areas! of! an!
international! airport,! is! a! practice! not! constitutionally!

51!

objectionable! because! it! is! founded! on! public! interest,!


safety,! and! necessity.! Lastly,! the! Court's! decision! on!
checkpoints!does!not,!in!any!way,!validate!nor!condone!!
security!operations!within!its!area!of!responsibility!and!
peripheral! areas,! for! the! purpose! of! establishing! an!
effective! territorial! defense,! maintaining! peace! and!
order,! and! providing! an! atmosphere! conducive! to! the!
abuses! committed! by! the! military! manning! the!
checkpoints.! The! Court's! decision! was! concerned! with!
power,! i.e.! whether! the! government! employing! the!
military!has!the!power!to!install!said!checkpoints.!Once!
that!power!is!acknowledged,!the!Court's!inquiry!ceases.!
True,! power! implies! the! possibility! of! its! abuse.! But!
whether! there! is! abuse! in! a! particular! situation! is! a!
different! "ball! game"! to! be! resolved! in! the!
constitutional! arena.! In! any! situation,! where! abuse!
marks! the! operation! of! a! checkpoint,! the! citizen! is! not!
helpless.!For!the!military!is!not!above!but!subject!to!the!
law.!And!the!courts!exist!to!see!that!the!law!is!supreme.!
Soldiers,! including! those! who! man! checkpoints,! who!
abuse! their! authority! act! beyond! the! scope! of! their!
authority!and!are,!therefore,!liable!criminally!and!civilly!
for!their!abusive!acts.!!
!
MANALILI!VS!CA!
At!about!2:10!p.m.!of!11!April!1988,!policemen!from!the!
AntiXNarcotics! Unit! of! the! Kalookan! City! Police! Station!
were! conducting! a! surveillance! along! A.! Mabini! street,!
Kalookan! City,! in! front! of! the! Kalookan! City! Cemetery.!
The!policemen!were!Pat.!Romeo!Espiritu!and!Pat.!Anger!
Lumabas! and! a! driver! named! Arnold! Enriquez! was!
driving!a!Tamaraw!vehicle!which!was!the!official!car!of!
the!Police!Station!of!Kalookan!City.!The!surveillance!was!
being! made! because! of! information! that! drug! addicts!
were! roaming! the! area! in! front! of! the! Kalookan! City!
Cemetery.! Upon! reaching! the! Kalookan! City! Cemetery,!
the! policemen! alighted! from! their! vehicle.! They! then!
chanced! upon! a! male! person! in! front! of! the! cemetery!
who! appeared! high! on! drugs.! The! male! person! was!
observed! to! have! reddish! eyes! and! to! be! walking! in! a!
swaying!manner.!When!this!male!person!tried!to!avoid!
the! policemen,! the! latter! approached! him! and!
introduced!themselves!as!police!officers.!The!policemen!
then!asked!the!male!person!what!he!was!holding!in!his!
hands.! The! male! person! tried! to! resist.! Pat.! Romeo!
Espiritu!asked!the!male!person!if!he!could!see!what!said!
male! person! had! in! his! hands.! The! latter! showed! the!
wallet!and!allowed!Pat.!Romeo!Espiritu!to!examine!the!
same.!Pat.!Espiritu!took!the!wallet!and!examined!it.!He!
found! suspected! crushed! marijuana! residue! inside.! He!

52! !

kept! the! wallet! and! its! marijuana! contents.! The! male!


person! was! then! brought! to! the! AntiXNarcotics! Unit! of!
the! Kalookan! City! Police! Headquarters! and! was! turned!
over!to!Cpl.!Wilfredo!Tamondong!for!investigation.!Pat.!
Espiritu! also! turned! over! to! Cpl.! Tamondong! the!
confiscated! wallet! and! its! suspected! marijuana!
contents.! The! man! turned! out! to! be! Alain! Manalili! y!
Dizon.! On! 11! April! 1988,! Manalili! was! charged! by!
Assistant! Caloocan! City! Fiscal! E.! Juan! R.! Bautista! with!
violation! of! Section! 8,! Article! II! of! Republic! Act! 6425.!
Upon! his! arraignment! on! 21! April! 1988,! Manalili!
pleaded!"not!guilty"!to!the!charge.!With!the!agreement!
of! the! public! prosecutor,! Manalili! was! released! after!
filing! a! P10,000.00! bail! bond.! After! trial! in! due! course,!
the! Regional! Trial! Court! of! Caloocan! City,! Branch! 124,!
acting!as!a!Special!Criminal!Court,!rendered!on!19!May!
1989! a! decision! convicting! appellant! of! illegal!
possession! of! marijuana! residue.! Manalili! remained! on!
provisional! liberty.! Atty.! Benjamin! Razon,! counsel! for!
the! defense,! filed! a! Notice! of! Appeal! dated! 31! May!
1989.!On!19!April!1993,!the!Court!of!Appeals!denied!the!
appeal!and!affirmed!the!trial!court.!The!appellate!court!
denied! reconsideration! via! its! Resolution! dated! 20!
January! 1994.! Manalili! filed! a! petition! for! review! on!
certiorari!before!the!Supreme!Court.!!
Issue:- Whether! a! search! and! seizure! could! be! effected!
without! necessarily! being! preceded! by! an! arrest.!
Held:-In!the!landmark!case!of!Terry!vs.!Ohio,!a!stopXandX
frisk! was! defined! as! the! vernacular! designation! of! the!
right! of! a! police! officer! to! stop! a! citizen! on! the! street,!
interrogate!him,!and!pat!him!for!weapon(s).!In!allowing!
such!a!search,!the!interest!of!effective!crime!prevention!
and! detection! allows! a! police! officer! to! approach! a!
person,! in! appropriate! circumstances! and! manner,! for!
purposes! of! investigating! possible! criminal! behavior!
even! though! there! is! insufficient! probable! cause! to!
make!an!actual!arrest.!What!justified!the!limited!search!
was!the!more!immediate!interest!of!the!police!officer!in!
taking! steps! to! assure! himself! that! the! person! with!
whom! he! was! dealing! was! not! armed! with! a! weapon!
that!could!unexpectedly!and!fatally!be!used!against!him.!
It! did! not,! however,! abandon! the! rule! that! the! police!
must,! whenever! practicable,! obtain! advance! judicial!
approval! of! searches! and! seizures! through! the! warrant!
procedure,! excused! only! by! exigent! circumstances.! In!
Philippine! jurisprudence,! the! general! rule! is! that! a!
search! and! seizure! must! be! validated! by! a! previously!
secured! judicial! warrant;! otherwise,! such! search! and!
seizure! is! unconstitutional! and! subject! to! challenge.!
Section!2,!Article!III!of!the!1987!Constitution,!gives!this!
guarantee.! This! right,! however,! is! not! absolute.! The!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 53!
!
recent! case! of! People! vs.! Lacerna! enumerated! five!
recognized! exceptions! to! the! rule! against! warrantless!
search! and! seizure,! viz.:! "(1)! search! incidental! to! a!
lawful! arrest,! (2)! search! of! moving! vehicles,! (3)! seizure!
in!plain!view,!(4)!customs!search,!and!(5)!waiver!by!the!
accused!themselves!of!their!right!against!unreasonable!
search! and! seizure."! In! People! vs.! Encinada,! the! Court!
further! explained! that! in! these! cases,! the! search! and!
seizure! may! be! made! only! with! probable! cause! as! the!
essential! requirement.! StopXandXfrisk! has! already! been!
adopted! as! another! exception! to! the! general! rule!
against!a!search!without!a!warrant.!In!Posadas!vs.!Court!
of! Appeals,! the! Court! held! that! there! were! many!
instances!where!a!search!and!seizure!could!be!effected!
without!necessarily!being!preceded!by!an!arrest,!one!of!
which!was!stopXandXfrisk.!To!require!the!police!officers!
to!search!the!bag!only!after!they!had!obtained!a!search!
warrant!might!prove!to!be!useless,!futile!and!much!too!
late!under!the!circumstances.!In!such!a!situation,!it!was!
reasonable! for! a! police! officer! to! stop! a! suspicious!
individual!briefly!in!order!to!determine!his!identity!or!to!
maintain! the! status! quo! while! obtaining! more!
information,! rather! than! to! simply! shrug! his! shoulders!
and! allow! a! crime! to! occur.! Herein,! Patrolman! Espiritu!
and! his! companions! observed! during! their! surveillance!
that! Manalili! had! red! eyes! and! was! wobbling! like! a!
drunk! along! the! Caloocan! City! Cemetery,! which!
according! to! police! information! was! a! popular! hangout!
of!drug!addicts.!From!his!experience!as!a!member!of!the!
AntiXNarcotics! Unit! of! the! Caloocan! City! Police,! such!
suspicious! behavior! was! characteristic! of! drug! addicts!
who! were! "high."! The! policemen! therefore! had!
sufficient!reason!to!stop!Manalili!to!investigate!if!he!was!
actually! high! on! drugs.! During! such! investigation,! they!
found!marijuana!in!his!possession.!The!search!was!valid,!
being!akin!to!a!stopXandXfrisk.!!
!
!
PEOPLE!VS!LASERNA!
Exceptions!to!the!rule!against!warrantless!arrest;!Search!
of! luggage! inside! a! vehicle! requires! existence! of!
probable! cause;! Consented! search! valid! if! intelligently!
made;! To! be! punishable,! to! give! away! a! prohibited!
drug! should! be! with! the! intent! to! transfer! ownership;!
Elements! of! illegal! sale! of! prohibited! drugs;! Criminal!
intent! need! not! be! proved! in! prosecution! of! acts! mala!
prohibita! ;! Intent! to! perpetrate! the! act,! not! intent! to!
commit! the! crime! necessary! in! prosecution! of! acts!

prohibited!by!special!lawsFacts:!
Noriel! and! Marlon! Lacerna! were! inside! a! taxi!
when! the! group! of! Police! Officer! Carlito! Valenzuela! of!
the! Western! Police! District! signaled! the! taxi! driver! to!
park! by! the! side! of! the! road! in! lieu! of! a! police!
checkpoint.! P03! Valenzuela! asked! permission! to! search!
the! vehicle.! The! officers! went! about! searching! the!
luggages! in! the! vehicle.! They! found! 18! blocks! wrapped!
in! newspaper! with! a! distinct! smell! of! marijuana!
emanating!from!it.!When!the!package!was!opened,!P03!
Valenzuela! saw! dried! marijuana! leaves.! According! to!
Noriel! and! Marlon,! the! bag! was! a! padala! of! their!
uncle.! Marlon! admitted! that! he! was! the! one! who! gave!
the!18!bundle!blocks!of!marijuana!to!his!cousin!Noriel!as!
the!latter!seated!at!rear!of!the!taxi!with!it.!!He!however!
denied!knowledge!of!the!contents!of!the!package.!
!
Marlon! was! charged! before! the! RTC! for! giving!
away! marijuana! to! another.! Noriel! on! the! other! hand!
was! acquitted! for! insufficiency! of! evidence.! The! court!
noticed!that!Noriel!manifested!probinsyano!traits!and!
was,!thus,!unlikely!to!have!dealt!in!prohibited!drugs.!
!
Marlon! objected! on! the! RTCs! decision,! stating!
that! the! lower! court! erred! in! saying! that! the! act! of!
giving!away!to!another!is!not!defined!under!R.A.!6425!
or! the! Dangerous! Drugs! Act.! He! also! said! that! he! was!
not! aware! of! the! contents! of! the! plastic! bag! given! to!
him! by! his! uncle.! Marlon! also! raised! that! his! right!
against!warrantless!arrest!and!seizure!was!violated.!
!
Held:Exceptions-to-the-rule-against-warrantless-arrest1.!Five!generally!accepted!exceptions!to!the!rule!against!
warrantless! arrest! have! been! judicially! formulated! as!
follows:!!
!
(1)!search!incidental!to!a!lawful!arrest!
!
(2)!search!of!moving!vehicles!
!
(3)!seizure!in!plain!view,!
!
!(4)!customs!searches,!
!
!(5)! waiver! by! the! accused! themselves! of! their!
right!against!unreasonable!search!and!seizure.!!
2.! Search! and! seizure! relevant! to! moving! vehicles! are!
allowed!in!recognition!of!the!impracticability!of!securing!
a! warrant! under! said! circumstances.! In! such! cases,!
however,! the! search! and! seizure! may! be! made! only!
upon! probable! cause,! i.e.,! upon! a! belief,! reasonably!
arising! out! of! circumstances! known! to! the! seizing!
officer,!that!an!automobile!or!other!vehicle!contains!an!
item,!article!or!object!which!by!law!is!subject!to!seizure!

53!

and!destruction.!Military!or!police!checkpoints!have!also!
been! declared! to! be! not! illegal! per! se! as! long! as! the!
vehicle! is! neither! searched! nor! its! occupants! subjected!
to! body! search,! and! the! inspection! of! the! vehicle! is!
merely!visual.!!
Search-of-luggage-inside-a-vehicle-requires-existence-ofprobable-cause3.!In!this!case,!the!taxi!was!validly!stopped!at!the!police!
checkpoint.! Such! search! however! is! limited! to! visual!
inspections! without! occupants! being! subjected! to! a!
physical!or!body!searches.!A!search!of!a!luggage!inside!
the! vehicle! should! require! the! existence! of! probable!
cause.!
4.!In!several!decisions,!there!was!probable!cause!in!the!
following!instances:!
!
(a)! where! the! distinctive! odor! of! marijuana!
emanated!from!the!plastic!bag!carried!by!the!accused!
!
(b)! where! an! informer! positively! identified! the!
accused! who! was! observed! to! have! been! acting!
!
suspiciously!
!
(c)! where! the! accused! fled! when! accosted! by!
policemen!
!
(d)! where! the! accused! who! were! riding! a!
jeepney!were!stopped!and!searched!by!policemen!who!
!
had! earlier! received! confidential! reports! that!
said! accused! would! transport! a! large! quantity! of!
!
marijuana!!
!
(e)! where! the! moving! vehicle! was! stopped! and!
searched! on! the! basis! of! intelligence! information!
!
and! clandestine! reports! by! a! deep! penetration!
agent! or! spy! one! who! participated! in! the! drug!
!
smuggling! activities! of! the! syndicate! to! which!
the! accused! belonged! that! said! accused! were!
!
bringing!prohibited!drugs!into!the!country.!
5.! Probable! cause! in! this! case! is! not! evident.! The! mere!
act!of!slouching!in!the!seat!when!the!taxi!passed!along!
P03! Valenzuelas! checkpoint! does! not! constitute!
probable!cause!to!justify!search!and!seizure.!
Consented-search-valid-if-intelligently-made6.! Aniag,' Jr.' vs.' COMELEC! outlawed! a! search! based! on!
an! implied! acquiescence,! because! such! acquiescence!
was! not! consent! within! the! purview! of! the!
constitutional! guaranty,! but! was! merely! passive!
conformity! to! the! search! given! under! intimidating! and!
coercive!circumstances.!
7.! In! this! case,! Marlon! ! was! "urbanized! in! mannerism!
and! speech"! when! he! expressly! said! that! he! was!
consenting!to!the!search!as!he!allegedly!had!nothing!to!
hide!and!had!done!nothing!wrong.!This!declaration!is!a!
confirmation! of! his! intelligent! and! voluntary!
acquiescence!to!the!search.!The!marijuana!bricks!were,!
therefore,! obtained! legally! through! a! valid! search! and!

54! !

seizure,!thus!admissible.!!
To- be- punishable,- to- give- away- a- prohibited- drugshould-be-with-the-intent-to-transfer-ownership8.!As!distinguished!from!"delivery,"!which!is!an!incident!
of!sale,!"giving!away"!is!a!disposition!other!than!a!sale.!
It!is,!therefore,!an!act!short!of!a!sale!which!involves!no!
consideration.!The!prohibited!drug!becomes!an!item!or!
merchandise!presented!as!a!gift!or!premium!(giveaway),!
where!ownership!is!transferred.!!
9.! By! merely! handing! the! plastic! bag! to! Noriel,! Marlon!
cannot!be!punished!for!giving!away!marijuana!as!a!gift!
or! premium! to! another.! ! Intent! to! transfer! ownership!
should!be!proven.!
!Elements-of-illegal-sale-of-prohibited-drugs10.! The! elements! of! illegal! possession! of! prohibited!
drugs!are!as!follows!
!
!(a)! the! accused! is! in! possession! of! an! item! or!
object!which!is!identified!to!be!a!prohibited!drug!
!
(b)!such!possession!is!not!authorized!by!law!
!
!(c)! the! accused! freely! and! consciously!
possessed!the!prohibited!drug.!
11.!Evidence!established!beyond!reasonable!doubt!that!
Marlon! was! in! possession! of! the! plastic! bag! containing!
the!prohibited!drugs!without!the!requisite!authority.!He!
cannot! deny! knowledge! of! the! package! as! its! smell! is!
pervasive.!!!
Criminal- intent- need- not- be- proved- in- prosecution- ofacts-mala-prohibita12.! Criminal! intent! need! not! be! proved! in! the!
prosecution!of!acts!mala!prohibita.!The!prohibited!act!is!
so!injurious!to!the!public!welfare!that,!regardless!of!the!
person's!intent,!it!is!the!crime!itself.!!
Intent-to-perpetrate-the-act,-not-intent-to-commit-thecrime- necessary- in- prosecution- of- acts- prohibited- byspecial-laws13.!Intent!to!commit!the!crime!and!intent!to!perpetrate!
the! act! must! be! distinguished.! A! person! may! not! have!
consciously! intended! to! commit! a! crime;! but! if! he! did!
intend! to! commit! an! act,! and! that! act! is,! by! the! very!
nature! of! things,! the! crime! itself,! then! he! can! be! held!
liable!for!the!malum!prohibitum.!!
14.! The! rule! is! that! in! acts! mala! in! se! there! must! be! a!
criminal! intent,! but! in! those! mala! prohibita! it! is!
sufficient! if! the! prohibited! act! was! intentionally!
done.!Thus!in!illegal!possession!of!prohibited!drugs,!the!
prosecution! is! thus! not! excused! from! proving! that! the!
act! was! done! freely! and! consciously,! which! is! an!
essential!element!of!the!crime.!!
15.! In! this! case,! Marlon! failed! to! overcome! the!
presumption! of! his! knowledge! of! the! contents! of! the!
package.!He!was!thus!held!liable!for!illegal!possession!of!
prohibited!drugs.!!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 55!
!
!
!
D. MOVING!VEHICLES/!HOT!PURSUIT!
!
CAROLL!VS!US!
The- National- Prohibition- Act,- also- known- as- theVolstead- Act,! was! passed! by! Congress! in! 1919! and!
prohibited! the! manufacturing,! transportation,! and! sale!
of! alcoholic! beverages.! On! January! 16,! 1920,! the!
Volstead! Act! came! into! force! as! the! Eighteenth!
Amendment,!later!repealed!in!1933!by!the!TwentyXfirst!
Amendment.!
George! Carroll! and! John! Kiro! were! indicted! and!
convicted! for! transporting! intoxicating! spirituous! liquor!
in!an!automobile!in!the!amount!of!68!quarts!of!whiskey!
and! gin! in! violation! of! the! National! Prohibition! Act.!
Carroll! and! Kiro! contended! that! the! search! of! their!
automobile! and! the! discovery! of! the! alcohol! was! the!
product! of! an! illegal! search! and! seizure! in! violation! of!
their!Fourth!Amendment!rights.!
On- September- 21,- 1921,! three! men,! Carroll,! Kiro,! and!
Kruska! entered! an! apartment! in! Grand! Rapids,!
Michigan,!and!met!three!undercover!federal!prohibition!
agents,!Cronewett,!Scully,!and!Thayer.!Cronewett,!using!
an!alias,!was!introduced!to!Carroll!and!Kiro,!and!stated!
he! wanted! to! buy! three! cases! of! whiskey.! Carroll! and!
Kiro!stated!that!they!had!to!go!east!of!Grand!Rapids!to!
obtain!the!alcohol!and!would!be!back!in!about!an!hour.!
After! the! time! had! passed,! Kruska! returned! in! an!
Oldsmobile! roadster,! the! registration! number! of! which!
Cronewett! noted,! and! stated! they! could! not! get! the!
alcohol!that!night!but!would!return!the!following!day!to!
deliver!it.!The!sellers!never!returned.!
Cronewett-and-his-colleagues-maintained-patrol-on-theroad- between- Grand- Rapids- and- Detroit,! looking! for!
violators!of!the!National!Prohibition!Act!as!part!of!their!
regular! duties.! On! October! 6,! 1921,! Carroll! and! Kiro!
passed! Cronewett! and! Scully,! who! were! breaking! for!
lunch,!in!the!same!Oldsmobile!Roadster!the!agents!had!
noticed!a!month!prior.!The!agents!engaged!in!a!pursuit,!
but!lost!the!men!in!East!Lansing.!More!than!two!months!
later,! on! December! 15,! 1921,! Carroll! and! Kiro! again!
passed! the! agents.! This! time! the! agents! were! able! to!
catch!the!two!men!east!of!Grand!Rapids.!Upon!stopping!
them,! the! agents! searched! the! roadster! and! found! 68!
bottles!of!liquor!behind!the!upholstery!of!the!seats.!The!
two!men!were!arrested.!
The- question- before- the- Supreme- Court- was- whetherthe- search- and- seizure- of- the- alcohol- in- this- case-

violated- Carroll- and- Kiros- Fourth- Amendment- rights.!


Chief! Justice! Taft! delivered! the! opinion! of! the! Court,!
including!an!extensive!review!of!statutory!and!case!law.!
These! references! demonstrated! that! the! guaranty! of!
the! Fourth! Amendment! right! against! illegal! search! and!
seizures!had!long!recognized!a!distinction!between!the!
search! of! a! home! or! structure! and! that! of! a! vehicle! or!
ship.! The! distinction! is! based! on! the! practicability! of!
obtaining! a! search! warrant.! The! Court! demonstrated!
that! it! was! easier! to! obtain! a! warrant! for! a! structure,!
whereas!it!was!not!practicable!to!secure!a!warrant!for!a!
moveable!object!like!a!vehicle,!because!the!vehicle!can!
be! quickly! moved! out! of! the! locality! or! jurisdiction! in!
which!the!warrant!must!be!sought.!
Next-the-Court-determined-under-what-circumstancesa- warrantless- search- of- a- vehicle- might- be- made.!The!
majority! stated! that! it! would! be! intolerable! and!
unreasonable!if!a!prohibition!agent!were!authorized!to!
stop! every! automobile! on! the! chance! of! finding! liquor,!
and!thus!subject!all!persons!lawfully!using!the!highways!
to! the! inconvenience! and! indignity! of! such! a! search.!
Those! entitled! to! use! the! public! highways! have! a! right!
to! free! passage! without! interruption! or! search! unless!
probable! cause! for! believing! that! their! vehicles! are!
carrying! contraband! or! illegal! merchandise! is! known! to!
a! competent! official! who! is! authorized! to! make!
searches.!In!this!case,!the!agents!had!probable!cause!or!
reasonable! basis! to! believe! that! Caroll! and! Kiro! were!
transporting!alcohol.!They!appeared!in!the!same!vehicle!
that! they! had! used! in! October;! were! followed! into! a!
neighborhood! notorious! for! manufacturing! and!
importing!illegal!spirits;!and,!had!been!seen!on!different!
occasions! making! the! trip! between! Detroit! and! Grand!
Rapids.!It!was!clear,!according!to!the!Court,!that!in!this!
case! the! officers! had! justification! for! the! search! and!
seizure.! The! facts! and! circumstances! within! their!
knowledge! and! the! trustworthy! information! were!
sufficient!in!themselves!to!establish!a!reasonable!belief!
that! liquor! was! being! transported! in! the! automobile!
which!they!had!stopped!and!searched.!Therefore,!in!this!
case,! Carroll! and! Kiros! Fourth! Amendment! rights! were!
not!violated.!The!search!and!seizure!of!the!vehicle!were!
warranted! by! the! inherent! mobility! of! the! vehicle! and!
by!the!probable!cause!the!officers!had!that!the!two!men!
were!transporting!alcohol.!
!
PAPA!VS!MAGO!
Facts:- Martin! Alagao,! head! of! the! counterXintelligence!

55!

unit! of! the! Manila! Police! Department,! acting! upon! a!


reliable! information! received! on! 3! November! 1966! to!
the! effect! that! a! certain! shipment! of! personal! effects,!
allegedly! misdeclared! and! undervalued,! would! be!
released! the! following! day! from! the! customs! zone! of!
the!port!of!Manila!and!loaded!on!two!trucks,!and!upon!
orders!of!Ricardo!Papa,!Chief!of!Police!of!Manila!and!a!
duly! deputized! agent! of! the! Bureau! of! Customs,!
conducted! surveillance! at! gate! 1! of! the! customs! zone.!
When! the! trucks! left! gate! 1! at! about! 4:30! p.m.! of! 4!
November! 1966,! elements! of! the! counterXintelligence!
unit!went!after!the!trucks!and!intercepted!them!at!the!
Agrifina! Circle,! Ermita,! Manila.! The! load! of! the! two!
trucks,! consisting! of! nine! bales! of! goods,! and! the! two!
trucks,! were! seized! on! instructions! of! the! Chief! of!
Police.!Upon!investigation,!a!person!claimed!ownership!
of! the! goods! and! showed! to! the! policemen! a!
"Statement! and! Receipts! of! Duties! Collected! on!
Informal! Entry! No.! 147X5501",! issued! by! the! Bureau! of!
Customs! in! the! name! of! a! certain! Bienvenido! Naguit.!
Claiming! to! have! been! prejudiced! by! the! seizure! and!
detention! of! the! two! trucks! and! their! cargo,! Remedios!
Mago! and! Valentin! B.! Lanopa! filed! with! the! Court! of!
First!Instance!(CFI)!of!Manila!a!petition!"for!mandamus!
with! restraining! order! or! preliminary! injunction! (Civil!
Case! 67496),! praying! for! the! issuance! of! a! restraining!
order,! ex! parte,! enjoining! the! police! and! customs!
authorities,!or!their!agents,!from!opening!the!bales!and!
examining! the! goods,! and! a! writ! of! mandamus! for! the!
return! of! the! goods! and! the! trucks,! as! well! as! a!
judgment! for! actual,! moral! and! exemplary! damages! in!
their! favor.! On! 10! November! 1966,! Judge! Hilarion!
Jarencio! issued! an! order! ex! parte! restraining! Ricardo!
Papa!(as!Chief!of!Police!of!Manila)!and!Juan!Ponce!Enrile!
(as! Commissioner! of! Customs)! in! Civil! Case! 67496.!
However,! when! the! restraining! order! was! received! by!
Papa.! et.! al.,! some! bales! had! already! been! opened! by!
the!examiners!of!the!Bureau!of!Customs!in!the!presence!
of! officials! of! the! Manila! Police! Department,! an!
assistant! city! fiscal! and! a! representative! of! Remedios!
Mago.!Under!date!of!15!November!1966,!Mago!filed!an!
amended! petition,! including! as! party! defendants!
Collector! of! Customs! Pedro! Pacis! of! the! Port! of! Manila!
and!Lt.!Martin!Alagao!of!the!Manila!Police!Department.!
At! the! hearing! on! 9! December! 1966,! the! lower! court,!
with! the! conformity! of! the! parties,! ordered! that! an!
inventory!of!the!goods!be!made!by!its!clerk!of!court!in!
the! presence! of! the! representatives! of! the! claimant! of!
the! goods,! the! Bureau! of! Customs,! and! the! AntiX!
Smuggling!Center!of!the!Manila!Police!Department.!On!
23! December! 1966,! Mago! filed! an! ex! parte! motion! to!
release! the! goods,! alleging! that! since! the! inventory! of!

56! !

the!goods!seized!did!not!show!any!article!of!prohibited!
importation,! the! same! should! be! released! as! per!
agreement! of! the! parties! upon! her! posting! of! the!
appropriate!bond!that!may!be!determined!by!the!court.!
On! 7! March! 1967,! the! Judge! issued! an! order! releasing!
the! goods! to! Mago! upon! her! filing! of! a! bond! in! the!
amount!of!P40,000.00.!On!13!March!1967,!Papa,!on!his!
own! behalf,! filed! a! motion! for! reconsideration! of! the!
order! of! the! court! releasing! the! goods! under! bond,!
upon!the!ground!that!the!Manila!Police!Department!had!
been!directed!by!the!Collector!of!Customs!of!the!Port!of!
Manila! to! hold! the! goods! pending! termination! of! the!
seizure! proceedings.! Without! waiting! for! the! court's!
action! on! the! motion! for! reconsideration,! and! alleging!
that!they!had!no!plain,!speedy!and!adequate!remedy!in!
the!ordinary!course!of!law,!Papa,!et.!al.!filed!the!action!
for!prohibition!and!certiorari!with!preliminary!injunction!
before!the!Supreme!Court.!!
Held:- The! Chief! of! the! Manila! Police! Department,!
Ricardo! G.! Papa,! having! been! deputized! in! writing! by!
the! Commissioner! of! Customs,! could,! for! the! purposes!
of! the! enforcement! of! the! customs! and! tariff! laws,!
effect! searches,! seizures,! and! arrests,! and! it! was! his!
duty! to! make! seizure,! among! others,! of! any! cargo,!
articles!or!other!movable!property!when!the!same!may!
be! subject! to! forfeiture! or! liable! for! any! fine! imposed!
under! customs! and! tariff! laws.! He! could! lawfully! open!
and! examine! any! box,! trunk,! envelope! or! other!
container! wherever! found! when! he! had! reasonable!
cause! to! suspect! the! presence! therein! of! dutiable!
articles!introduced!into!the!Philippines!contrary!to!law;!
and! likewise! to! stop,! search! and! examine! any! vehicle,!
beast! or! person! reasonably! suspected! of! holding! or!
conveying! such! article! as! aforesaid.! It! cannot! be!
doubted,!therefore,!that!Papa,!Chief!of!Police!of!Manila,!
could!lawfully!effect!the!search!and!seizure!of!the!goods!
in! question.! The! Tariff! and! Customs! Code! authorizes!
him!to!demand!assistance!of!any!police!officer!to!effect!
said!search!and!seizure,!and!the!latter!has!the!legal!duty!
to! render! said! assistance.! This! was! what! happened!
precisely!in!the!case!of!Lt.!Martin!Alagao!who,!with!his!
unit,! made! the! search! and! seizure! of! the! two! trucks!
loaded! with! the! nine! bales! of! goods! in! question! at! the!
Agrifina! Circle.! He! was! given! authority! by! the! Chief! of!
Police! to! make! the! interception! of! the! cargo.! Martin!
Alagao! and! his! companion! policemen! had! authority! to!
effect!the!seizure!without!any!search!warrant!issued!by!
a! competent! court.! The! Tariff! and! Customs! Code! does!
not! require! said! warrant! herein.! The! Code! authorizes!
persons! having! police! authority! under! Section! 2203! of!
the! Tariff! and! Customs! Code! to! enter,! pass! through! or!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 57!
!
search!any!land,!inclosure,!warehouse,!store!or!building,!
not!being!a!dwelling!house;!and!also!to!inspect,!search!
and! examine! any! vessel! or! aircraft! and! any! trunk,!
package,! box! or! envelope! or! any! person! on! board,! or!
stop! and! search! and! examine! any! vehicle,! beast! or!
person! suspected! of! holding! or! conveying! any! dutiable!
or! prohibited! article! introduced! into! the! Philippines!
contrary! to! law,! without! mentioning! the! need! of! a!
search! warrant! in! said! cases.! But! in! the! search! of! a!
dwelling! house,! the! Code! provides! that! said! "dwelling!
house!may!be!entered!and!searched!only!upon!warrant!
issued!by!a!judge!or!justice!of!the!peace."!Except!in!the!
case! of! the! search! of! a! dwelling! house,! persons!
exercising! police! authority! under! the! customs! law! may!
effect! search! and! seizure! without! a! search! warrant! in!
the! enforcement! of! customs! laws.! Herein,! Martin!
Alagao! and! his! companion! policemen! did! not! have! to!
make!any!search!before!they!seized!the!two!trucks!and!
their!cargo.!But!even!if!there!was!a!search,!there!is!still!
authority!to!the!effect!that!no!search!warrant!would!be!
needed! under! the! circumstances! obtaining! herein.! The!
guaranty! of! freedom! from! unreasonable! searches! and!
seizures! is! construed! as! recognizing! a! necessary!
difference! between! a! search! of! a! dwelling! house! or!
other! structure! in! respect! of! which! a! search! warrant!
may! readily! be! obtained! and! a! search! of! a! ship,!
motorboat,! wagon,! or! automobile! for! contraband!
goods,! where! it! is! not! practicable! to! secure! a! warrant,!
because! the! vehicle! can! be! quickly! moved! out! of! the!
locality! or! jurisdiction! in! which! the! warrant! must! be!
sought.! Having! declared! that! the! seizure! by! the!
members!of!the!Manila!Police!Department!of!the!goods!
in! question! was! in! accordance! with! law! and! by! that!
seizure!the!Bureau!of!Customs!had!acquired!jurisdiction!
over!the!goods!for!the!purposes!of!the!enforcement!of!
the! customs! and! tariff! laws,! to! the! exclusion! of! the!
Court!of!First!Instance!of!Manila.!!
!
ALMEIDAXSANCHEZ!VS!US!
Petitioner,!a!Mexican!citizen!and!holder!of!a!valid!work!
permit,! challenges! the! constitutionality! of! the! Border!
Patrol's! warrantless! search! of! his! automobile! 25! air!
miles! north! of! the! Mexican! border.! The! search,! made!
without! probable! cause! or! consent,! uncovered!
marihuana,! which! was! used! to! convict! petitioner! of! a!
federal! crime.! The! Government! seeks! to! justify! the!
search! on! the! basis! of! ! 287(a)(3)! of! the! Immigration!
and! Nationality! Act,! which! provides! for! warrantless!
searches!of!automobiles!and!other!conveyances!"within!

a! reasonable! distance! from! any! external! boundary! of!


the! United! States,"! as! authorized! by! regulations! to! be!
promulgated! by! the! Attorney! General.! The! Attorney!
General's! regulation! defines! "reasonable! distance"! as!
"within!100!air!miles!from!any!external!boundary!of!the!
United!States."!The!Court!of!Appeals!upheld!the!search!
on!the!basis!of!the!Act!and!regulation.!
Held:!The!warrantless!search!of!petitioner's!automobile,!
made! without! probable! cause! or! consent,! violated! the!
Fourth!Amendment.!Pp.!413!U.!S.!269X275.!
(a)! The! search! cannot! be! justified! on! the! basis! of! any!
special! rules! applicable! to! automobile! searches,! as!
probable! cause! was! lacking;! nor! can! it! be! justified! by!
analogy! with! administrative! inspections,! as! the! officers!
had!no!warrant!or!reason!to!believe!that!petitioner!had!
crossed!the!border!or!committed!an!offense,!and!there!
was!no!consent!by!petitioner.!Pp.!413!U.!S.!269X272.!
(b)!The!search!was!not!a!border!search!or!the!functional!
equivalent!thereof.!
!
CABALLES!VS!CA!(SUPRA)!
!
ASUNCION!VS!CA!
On! 6! December! 1993,! in! compliance! with! the! order! of!
the! Malabon! Municipal! Mayor! to! intensify! campaign!
against! illegal! drugs! particularly# at# Barangay# Taong,#
the! Chief! of! the! Malabon! Police! AntiX! Narcotics! Unit!
ordered! his! men! to! conduct! patrol! on! the! area! with!
specific! instruction! to! look! for! a! certain! vehicle! with! a!
certain! plate! number! and! watch! out! for! a! certain! drug!
pusher! named! Vic! Vargas.' Pursuant' thereto,' SPO1'
Advincula,+ PO3+ Parcon,+ PO3+ Pilapil+ and+ a+ police+ aide+
were$ dispatched$ at$ around$ 11:45$ p.m..$ The$ team$
proceeded'to'Barangay'Taong'where'they'were'joined'
by! their! confidential! informant! and! the! latter! informed!
them!that!a!gray"Nissan"car"is"always"parked"therein"for"
the$ purpose$ of$ selling$ shabu.$ While$ patrolling$ along$
Leoo% Street,% the% confidential% informant% pointed% the%
gray!Nissan!car!to!the!policemen!and!told!them!that!the!
occupant! thereof! has! shabu! in! his! possession.! The!
policemen!immediately!flagged!down!the!said!car!along!
First!Street!and!approached!the!driver,!who!turned!out!
to! be! Jose! Maria! Asuncion! y! Marfori,! a! movie! actor!
using! the! screen! name! Vic! Vargas! and! who! is! also!
known! as! Binggoy.! Advincula! then! asked! Asuncion! if!
they! can! inspect! the! vehicle.! As! Asuncion! acceded!
thereto,! Advincula! conducted! a! search! on! the! vehicle!
and! he! found! a! plastic! packet! containing! white!

57!

substance! suspected! to! be! methamphetamine!


hydrochloride! beneath! the! driver's! seat.! Asuncion! told!
the!policemen!that!he!just!borrowed!the!said!car!and!he!
is!not!the!owner!thereof.!Asuncion!was!thereafter!taken!
at!the!police!headquarters!for!the!purpose!of!taking!his!
identification.! However,! when! he! was! frisked! by!
Advincula! at! the! headquarters,! the! latter! groped!
something!protruding!from!his!underwear,!which!when!
voluntarily!taken!out!by!the!accused!turned!out!to!be!a!
plastic! packet! containing! white! substance! suspected! to!
be! methamphetamine! hydrochloride.! A! press!
conference! was! conducted! the! following! day! presided!
by!Northern!Police!District!Director!Pureza!during!which!
Asuncion! admitted! that! the! methamphetamine!
hydrochloride!were!for!his!personal!use!in!his!shooting.!
On!the!other!hand,!Asuncion!denied!the!charges!against!
him.! He! claimed! that! on! that! day,! "between! 8:00! and!
9:00!p.m.,!he!was!abducted!at!gun!point!in!front!of!the!
house!where!his!son!lives!by!men!who!turned!out!to!be!
members! of! the! Malabon! Police! AntiXNarcotics! Unit;!
that! he! was! told! to! board! at! the! back! seat! by! the!
policemen! who! took! over! the! wheels;! that! he! acceded!
to!be!brought!at!the!Pagamutang!Bayan!ng!Malabon!for!
drug!test!but!only!his!blood!pressure!was!checked!in!the!
said! hospital;! that! he! was! thereafter! brought! at! the!
Office! of! the! Malabon! Police! AntiXNarcotics! Unit;! and!
that!he!is!not!aware!of!what!happened!at!11:45!p.m.!as!
he! was! then! sleeping! at! the! said! office."! On! 14! June!
1994,!a!decision!was!rendered!by!the!trial!court!finding!
Asuncion!guilty!beyond!reasonable!doubt!of!the!offense!
charged,!adn!sentenced!him!to!suffer!an!indeterminate!
penalty!of!1!year!8!months!and!20!days!as!minimum,!to!
3!years!6!months!and!20!days,!as!maximum,!and!to!pay!
a!fine!of!P3,000.00.!On!29!June!1994,!a!Notice!of!Appeal!
was!filed!and!the!records!of!the!case!were!transmitted!
by! the! trial! court! to! the! Court! of! Appeals.! On! 30! April!
1996! a! decision! was! rendered! by! the! appellate! court,!
modifying! the! penalty! imposed! (reducing! the! sentence!
to!6!months!of!arresto!mayor!in!its!maximum!period!as!
minimum! to! 4! years! and! 2! months! of! prision!
correccional! in! its! medium! period! as! maximum! and!
deleting! the! fine! of! P3,000.00! imposed! on! Asuncion).!
On! 6! August! 1996,! the! Court! of! Appeals! denied! the!
motion! for! reconsideration! filed! by! Asuncion.! Asuncion!
filed!a!petition!for!review!on!certiorari!Supreme!Court.!!

sacred! is! this! right! that! no! less! than! the! fundamental!
law!of!the!land!ordains!it.!However,!the!rule!that!search!
and!seizure!must!be!supported!by!a!valid!warrant!is!not!
absolute.! The! search! of! a! moving! vehicle! is! one! of! the!
doctrinally! accepted! exceptions! to! the! Constitutional!
mandate!that!no!search!or!seizure!shall!be!made!except!
by!virtue!of!a!warrant!issued!by!a!judge!after!personally!
determining! the! existence! of! probable! cause.! The!
prevalent! circumstances! of! the! case! undoubtedly! bear!
out! the! fact! that! the! search! in! question! was! made! as!
regards! a! moving! vehicle! ! Asuncion's! vehicle! was!
"flagged! down"! by! the! apprehending! officers! upon!
identification.! Therefore,! the! police! authorities! were!
justified! in! searching! Asuncion's! automobile! without! a!
warrant! since! the! situation! demanded! immediate!
action.! The! apprehending! officers! even! sought! the!
permission!of!petitioner!to!search!the!car,!to!which!the!
latter! agreed.! As! such,! since! the! shabu! was! discovered!
by! virtue! of! a! valid! warrantless! search! and! Asuncion!
himself! freely! gave! his! consent! to! said! search,! the!
prohibited! drugs! found! as! a! result! were! admissible! in!
evidence.!!
!
ROLDAN!VS!ARCA!

Issue:- Whether! the! search! upon! Asuncions! vehicle! is!


valid.!!

On!20!July!1965,!the!Fisheries!Commissioner!requested!
the! Philippine! Navy! to! apprehend! vessels! Tony! Lex! VI!
and! Tony! Lex! III,! also! respectively! called! Srta.! Winnie!
and! Srta.! Agnes,! for! alleged! violations! of! some!
provisions! of! the! Fisheries! Act! and! the! rules! and!
regulations!promulgated!thereunder.!On!August!5!or!6,!

Held:-WellXentrenched!in!this!country!is!the!rule!that!no!
arrest,!search!and!seizure!can!be!made!without!a!valid!
warrant! issued! by! competent! judicial! authority.! So!

58! !

Facts:-On!3!April!1964,!Morabe,!De!Guzman!&!Company!
filed! with! the! Court! of! First! Instance! (CFI)! of! Manila! a!
civil! case! (56701)! against! Fisheries! Commissioner!
Arsenio!N.!Roldan,!Jr.,!for!the!recovery!of!fishing!vessel!
Tony! Lex! VI! which! had! been! seized! and! impounded! by!
the! Fisheries! Commissioner! through! the! Philippine!
Navy.!On!10!April!1964,!the!company!prayed!for!a!writ!
of! preliminary! mandatory! injunction! with! the! CFI,! but!
said! prayer! was! denied.! On! 28! April! 1964,! the! CFI! set!
aside! its! order! of! 10! April! 1964! and! granted! the!
company's! motion! for! reconsideration! praying! for!
preliminary! mandatory! injunction.! Thus,! the! company!
took! possession! of! the! vessel! Tony! Lex! VI! from! the!
Philippine!Fisheries!Commission!adn!the!Philippine!Navy!
by!virtue!of!the!said!writ.!On!10!December!1964,!the!CFI!
dismissed!Civil!Case!56701!for!failure!of!the!company!to!
prosecute! as! well! as! for! failure! of! the! Commission! and!
the! Navy! to! appear! on! the! scheduled! date! of! hearing.!
The! vessel,! Tony! Lex! VI! or! Srta.! Winnie! however,!
remained!in!the!possession!of!the!company.!!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 59!
!
1965,! the! two! fishing! boats! were! actually! seized! for!
illegal!fishing!with!dynamite.!Fish!caught!with!dynamite!
and!sticks!of!dynamite!were!then!found!aboard!the!two!
vessels.!On!18!August!1965,!the!Fisheries!Commissioner!
requested! the! Palawan! Provincial! Fiscal! to! file! criminal!
charges! against! the! crew! members! of! the! fishing!
vessels.!On!30!September!1965,!there!were!filed!in!the!
CFI!of!Palawan!a!couple!of!informations,!one!against!the!
crew!members!of!Tony!Lex!III,!and!another!against!the!
crew! members! of! Tony! Lex! VI! ! both! for! violations! of!
Act!4003,!as!amended!by!Commonwealth!Acts!462,!659!
and! 1088,! i.e.,! for! illegal! fishing! with! the! use! of!
dynamite.!On!the!same!day,!the!Fiscal!filed!an!ex!parte!
motion!to!hold!the!boats!in!custody!as!instruments!and!
therefore! evidence! of! the! crime,! and! cabled! the!
Fisheries! Commissioner! to! detain! the! vessels.! On!
October! 2! and! 4,! likewise,! the! CFI! of! Palawan! ordered!
the! Philippine! Navy! to! take! the! boats! in! custody.! On! 2!
October! 1965,! the! company! filed! a! complaint! with!
application! for! preliminary! mandatory! injunction! (Civil!
Case! 62799)! with! the! CFI! of! Manila! against! the!
Commission!and!the!Navy.!Among!others,!it!was!alleged!
that! at! the! time! of! the! seizure! of! the! fishing! boats! in!
issue,! the! same! were! engaged! in! legitimate! fishing!
operations! off! the! coast! of! Palawan;! that! by! virtue! of!
the! offer! of! compromise! dated! 13! September! 1965! by!
the!company!to!the!Secretary!of!Agriculture!and!Natural!
Resources,!the!numerous!violations!of!the!Fishery!Laws,!
if!any,!by!the!crew!members!of!the!vessels!were!settled.!
On! 18! October! 1965,! Judge! Francisco! Arca! issued! an!
order! granting! the! issuance! of! the! writ! of! preliminary!
mandatory! injunction! and! issued! the! preliminary! writ!
upon!the!filing!by!the!company!of!a!bond!of!P5,000.00!
for!the!release!of!the!two!vessels.!On!19!October!1965,!
the! Commission! and! the! Navy! filed! a! motion! for!
reconsideration!of!the!order!issuing!the!preliminary!writ!
on!18!October!1965!on!the!ground,!among!others,!that!
on! 18! October! 1965! the! Philippine! Navy! received! from!
the! Palawan! CFI! two! orders! dated! October! 2! and! 4,!
1965! requiring! the! Philippine! Navy! to! hold! the! fishing!
boats! in! custody! and! directing! that! the! said! vessels!
should! not! be! released! until! further! orders! from! the!
Court,! and! that! the! bond! of! P5,000.00! is! grossly!
insufficient!to!cover!the!Government's!losses!in!case!the!
two! vessels,! which! are! worth! P495,000.00,! are! placed!
beyond! the! reach! of! the! Government,! thus! frustrating!
their! forfeiture! as! instruments! of! the! crime.! On! 23!
November!1965,!Judge!Arca!denied!the!said!motion!for!
reconsideration.! The! Commission! and! the! Navy! filed! a!

petition! for! certiorari! and! prohibition! with! preliminary!


injunction! to! restrain! Judge! Arca! from! enforcing! his!
order! dated! 18! October! 1965,! and! the! writ! of!
preliminary!mandatory!injunction!thereunder!issued.!!
Issue:- Whether! the! Fisheries! Commissioner! and! the!
Navy! can! validly! direct! and/or! effect! the! seizure! of! the!
vessels! of! the! company! for! illegal! fishing! by! the! use! of!
dynamite!and!without!the!requisite!licenses.!!
Held:- Section! 4! of! Republic! Act! 3512! approved! on! 20!
March! 1963! empowers! the! Fisheries! Commissioner! to!
carry! out! the! provisions! of! the! Fisheries! Act,! as!
amended,! and! all! rules! and! regulations! promulgated!
thereunder,! to! make! searches! and! seizures! personally!
or! through! his! duly! authorized! representatives! in!
accordance!with!the!Rules!of!Court,!of!"explosives!such!
as! dynamites! and! the! like;! including! fishery! products,!
fishing! equipment,! tackle! and! other! things! that! are!
subject! to! seizure! under! existing! fishery! laws";! and! "to!
effectively! implement! the! enforcement! of! existing!
fishery!laws!on!illegal!fishing."!Paragraph!5!of!Section!4!
of! the! same! Republic! Act! 3512! likewise! transferred! to!
and! vested! in! the! Philippine! Fisheries! Commission! "all!
the! powers,! functions! and! duties! heretofore! exercised!
by! the! Bureau! of! Customs,! Philippine! Navy! and!
Philippine! Constabulary! over! fishing! vessels! and! fishery!
matters."! Section! 12! of! the! Fisheries! Act,! otherwise!
known! as! Republic! Act! 4003,! as! amended,! prohibits!
fishing! with! dynamites! or! other! explosives! which! is!
penalized! by! Section! 76! thereof! "by! a! fine! of! not! less!
than! P1,500.00! nor! more! than! P5,000.00,! and! by!
imprisonment!for!not!less!than!one!(1)!year!and!six!(6)!
months! nor! more! than! five! (5)! years,! aside! from! the!
confiscation! and! forfeiture! of! all! explosives,! boats,!
tackles,!apparel,!furniture,!and!other!apparatus!used!in!
fishing! in! violation! of! said! Section! 12! of! this! Act."!
Section! 78! of! the! same! Fisheries! Law! provides! that! "in!
case! of! a! second! offense,! the! vessel,! together! with! its!
tackle,!apparel,!furniture!and!stores!shall!be!forfeited!to!
the! Government."! The! second! paragraph! of! Section! 12!
also! provides! that! "the! possession! and/or! finding,! of!
dynamite,! blasting! caps! and! other! explosives! in! any!
fishing!boat!shall!constitute!a!presumption!that!the!said!
dynamite!and/or!blasting!caps!and!explosives!are!being!
used! for! fishing! purposes! in! violation! of! this! Section,!
and! that! the! possession! or! discover! in! any! fishing! boat!
or!fish!caught!or!killed!by!the!use!of!dynamite!or!other!
explosives,! under! expert! testimony,! shall! constitute! a!

59!

presumption! that! the! owner,! if! present! in! the! fishing!


boat,! or! the! fishing! crew! have! been! fishing! with!
dynamite!or!other!explosives."!Under!Section!78!of!the!
Fisheries! Act,! as! amended,! any! person,! association! or!
corporation! fishing! in! deep! sea! fishery! without! the!
corresponding! license! prescribed! in! Sections! 17! to! 22!
Article! V! of! the! Fisheries! Act! or! any! other! order! or!
regulation! deriving! force! from! its! provisions,! "shall! be!
punished! for! each! offense! by! a! fine! of! not! more! than!
P5,000.00,! or! imprisonment,! for! not! more! than! one!
year,! or! both,! in! the! discretion! of! the! Court;! Provided,!
That! in! case! of! an! association! or! corporation,! the!
President! or! manager! shall! be! directly! responsible! for!
the!acts!of!his!employees!or!laborers!if!it!is!proven!that!
the! latter! acted! with! his! knowledge;! otherwise! the!
responsibility! shall! extend! only! as! far! as! fine! is!
concerned:! Provided,! further,! That! in! the! absence! of! a!
known! owner! of! the! vessel,! the! master,! patron! or!
person!in!charge!of!such!vessel!shall!be!responsible!for!
any! violation! of! this! Act:! and! Provided,! further,! That! in!
case! of! a! second! offense,! the! vessel! together! with! its!
tackle,!apparel,!furniture!and!stores!shall!be!forfeited!to!
the!Government."!Under!Section!13!of!Executive!Order!
389! of! 23! December! 1950,! reorganizing! the! Armed!
Forces! of! the! Philippines,! the! Philippine! Navy! has! the!
function,! among! others,! "to! assist! the! proper!
governmental!agencies!in!the!enforcement!of!laws!and!
regulations! pertaining! to! Fishing.! Section! 2210! of! the!
Tariff! and! Customs! Code,! as! amended! by! PD! 34! of! 27!
October! 1972,! authorized! any! official! or! person!
exercising! police! authority! under! the! provisions! of! the!
Code,!to!search!and!seize!any!vessel!or!air!craft!as!well!
as!any!trunk,!package,!bag!or!envelope!on!board!and!to!
search!any!person!on!board!for!any!breach!or!violation!
of! the! customs! and! tariff! laws.! Herein,! when! the!
Philippine! Navy,! upon! request! of! the! Fisheries!
Commissioner,!apprehended!on!August!5!or!6,!1965!the!
fishing! boats! Tony! Lex! III! and! Tony! Lex! VI,! otherwise!
known! respectively! as! Srta.! Agnes! and! Srta.! Winnie,!
these! vessels! were! found! to! be! without! the! necessary!
license! in! violation! of! Section! 903! of! the! Tariff! and!
Customs! Code! and! therefore! subject! to! seizure! under!
Section!2210!of!the!same!Code,!and!illegally!fishing!with!
explosives! and! without! fishing! license! required! by!
Sections! 17! and! 18! of! the! Fisheries! Law.! Search! and!
seizure!without!search!warrant!of!vessels!and!air!crafts!
for! violations! of! the! customs! laws! have! been! the!
traditional! exception! to! the! constitutional! requirement!
of! a! search! warrant,! because! the! vessel! can! be! quickly!
moved! out! of! the! locality! or! jurisdiction! in! which! the!
search! warrant! must! be! sought! before! such! warrant!
could!be!secured;!hence!it!is!not!practicable!to!require!a!

60! !

search! warrant! before! such! search! or! seizure! can! be!


constitutionally! effected.! The! same! exception! should!
apply!to!seizures!of!fishing!vessels!breaching!our!fishery!
laws:! They! are! usually! equipped! with! powerful! motors!
that! enable! them! to! elude! pursuing! ships! of! the!
Philippine!Navy!or!Coast!Guard.!!
!
!
PEOPLE!VS!LO!HO!WING!
X! Lo! and! another! one! was! charged! under! Dangerous!
Drugs! Act! for! transporting! shabu.! The! trial! court!
convicted!them.!
X! The! facts! are! the! accused! were! from! China! and! on!
their!way!home,!they!were!apprehended!by!authorities!
and! were! to! be! searched.! The! authorities! found! shabu!
inside! the! tin! cans! which! are! supposed! to! contain! tea.!
The! trial! court! in! convicting! them! said! that! the! search!
and!seizure!was!valid.!
SC:! The! appellant! contends! that! the! authorities! could!
have!procured!a!warrant!search.!As!correctly!averred!by!
appellee,!that!search!and!seizure!must!be!supported!by!
a!valid!warrant!is!not!an!absolute!rule.!There!are!at!least!
three! (3)! wellXrecognized! exceptions! thereto.! As! set!
forth! in! the! case! of! Manipon,! Jr.! vs.! Sandiganbayan,!
these! are:! [1]! a! search! incidental! to! an! arrest,! [2]! a!
search!of!a!moving!vehicle,!and![3]!seizure!of!evidence!
in!plain!view!(emphasis!supplied).!The!circumstances!of!
the! case! clearly! show! that! the! search! in! question! was!
made! as! regards! a! moving! vehicle.! Therefore,! a! valid!
warrant! was! not! necessary! to! effect! the! search! on!
appellant! and! his! coXaccused.! ,! We! cite! with! approval!
the! averment! of! the! Solicitor! General,! as! contained! in!
the!appellee's!brief,!that!the!rules!governing!search!and!
seizure! have! over! the! years! been! steadily! liberalized!
whenever! a! moving! vehicle! is! the! object! of! the! search!
on! the! basis! of! practicality.! This! is! so! considering! that!
before! a! warrant! could! be! obtained,! the! place,! things!
and! persons! to! be! searched! must! be! described! to! the!
satisfaction! of! the! issuing! judgea! requirement! which!
borders! on! the! impossible! in! the! case! of! smuggling!
effected! by! the! use! of! a! moving! vehicle! that! can!
transport! contraband! from! one! place! to! another! with!
impunity.!AFFIRMED.!
!
PEOPLE!VS!BALINGAN!
On! 31! August! 1988,! the! Narcotics! Intelligence! Division!
of! the! Baguio! City! Police! Station! received! a! telephone!
call! from! an! unnamed! male! informant.! He! passed! the!
information!that!Jean!Balingan!y!Bobbonan!was!going!to!
Manila! with! a! bag! filled! with! marijuana.! Acting! on! the!
information,! then! P/Lt.! Manuel! Obrera! formed! a!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 61!
!
surveillance! team! to! monitor! Balingan's! movements.!
The!team!as!deployed!at!different!places!in!Baguio!City,!
including! Balingan's! house! on! Brookside! and! bus!
stations.! Cpl.! Garcia! soon! reported! seeing! Balingan!
move!out!from!her!residence!at!Brookside!and!board!a!
taxicab! which! proceeded! to! the! direction! of! Bonifacio!
Street.!Balingan!was!wearing!a!pink!dress!and!carrying!a!
gray! luggage! with! orange! or! yellow! belts.! She! also!
reported! the! make! and! plate! number! of! the! taxicab!
which! Balingan! boarded.! Upon! receiving! the! report,! Lt.!
Obrera!ordered!Cpl.!Garcia!to!proceed!to!the!Philippine!
Rabbit! Terminal! in! case! Balingan! would! go! there.! Pat.!
Kimay,! who! must! have! intercepted! Cpl.! Garcia's!
message,! also! reported! that! the! taxicab! described! by!
the! latter! passed! along! Bonifacio! Rotunda.! Lt.! Obrera!
instructed! him! to! move! out! and! proceed! to! the! Police!
Checkpoint! at! Kennon! Road! going! to! the! Philippine!
Military! Academy.! From! his! post! at! the! Dangwa! Bus!
Station,! Pat.! Bueno! informed! Lt.! Obrera! that! Balingan!
boarded! a! Dangwa! Bus! with! plate! number! NTUX153!
bound!for!Manila.!Lt.!Obrera!promptly!proceeded!to!the!
bus! station! to! verify! the! report.! There,! he! went! up! the!
bus! described! by! Pat.! Bueno,! and! he! saw! Balingan! on!
the!third!or!fourth!seat!behind!the!driver's!seat.!In!the!
luggage! carrier! above! her! head! was! the! gray! luggage!
earlier! described! by! Cpl.! Garcia.! He! then! left! and!
positioned! himself! with! Ong! at! the! Lakandula! burned!
area!to!wait!for!the!bus!to!depart.!At!about!11:00!a.m.,!
the! bus! moved! out! (on! its! way)! to! Manila! via! Kennon!
Road.!Lt.!Obrera!instructed!Pat.!Kimay,!who!was!at!the!
Kennon! Road! Checkpoint,! to! stop! the! bus! when! it!
reaches! the! place.! Meanwhile,! Lt.! Obrera! and! Lt.! Ong!
tailed! the! bus! at! about! 15! to! 20! meters! behind.! As!
instructed,! Pat.! Kimay! stopped! the! bus! at! the! Kennon!
Road! Checkpoint.! That! was! already! at! 11:30! a.m.! Lt.!
Obrera!and!Pat.!Ong!arrived!at!the!Checkpoint!less!than!
a!minute!after!the!bus!did!and!immediately!boarded!it.!
Lt.! Obrera! announced! a! routinary! checkXup.! Pat.! Ong!
identified!himself!as!a!policeman!to!Balingan!and!asked!
her! permission! to! check! her! luggage,! she! did! not!
respond! and! just! looked! outside! the! window.! He!
opened!the!luggage!in!the!luggage!carrier!overhead!and!
above!Balingan!and!found!suspected!marijuana!in!it.!He!
pulled!out!the!luggage!and!turned!it!over!to!Lt.!Obrera.!
Thereupon,! Lt.! Obrera! tried! to! arrest! Balingan! but! the!
latter! resisted! and! tried! to! bite! his! hand! and!
furthermore! held! tightly! onto! the! window! pane.! Lt.!
Obrera! asked! Pat.! Ong! to! fetch! Cpl.! Garcia! from! the!
Philippine! Rabbit! Terminal! in! the! City! proper,! so! that!

she! would! be! the! one! to! bring! out! Balingan! from! the!
bus.! In! the! meantime,! he! remained! inside! the! bus!
holding! the! confiscated! luggage! while! the! other!
passengers! alighted! from! the! bus.! After! some! 30!
minutes,! Garcia! arrived! and! pulled! Balingan! out! of! the!
bus! and! brought! her! to! the! Baguio! City! Police! Station!
and! there! locked! her! up! in! jail.! On! 24! October! 1988,!
Balingan!was!charged!with!Violation!of!Sec.!4,!Art.!II!of!
Republic!Act!6425,!otherwise!known!as!"The!Dangerous!
Drugs!Act.!On!4!April!1989,!Balingan!was!arraigned!and!
pleaded!not!guilty.!After!trial,!Balingan!was!convicted!by!
the! Regional! Trial! Court! of! Baguio! City,! Branch! 4,! and!
was! sentenced! to! suffer! the! penalty! of! life!
imprisonment;! to! pay! a! fine! of! P20,000.00! without!
subsidiary! imprisonment! in! case! of! insolvency;! and! to!
pay!the!costs.!Balingan!appealed.!!
Issue:- Whether! the! search! conducted! in! the! Dangwa!
bus,! subsequent! to! police! surveillance! pursuant! to! an!
informants!tip,!is!valid.!!
Held:- The! search! and! seizure! herein! happened! in! a!
moving,! public! vehicle.! The! rules! governing! search! and!
seizure! have! over! the! years! been! steadily! liberalized!
whenever! a! moving! vehicle! is! the! object! of! the! search!
on! the! basis! of! practicality.! This! is! so! considering! that!
before! a! warrant! could! be! obtained,! the! place,! things!
and! persons! to! be! searched! must! be! described! to! the!
satisfaction!of!the!issuing!judge!!a!requirement!which!
borders! on! the! impossible! in! the! case! of! smuggling!
effected! by! the! use! of! a! moving! vehicle! that! can!
transport! contraband! from! one! place! to! another! with!
impunity.! A! warrantless! search! of! a! moving! vehicle! is!
justified! on! the! ground! that! "it! is! not! practicable! to!
secure! a! warrant! because! the! vehicle! can! be! quickly!
moved! out! of! the! locality! or! jurisdiction! in! which! the!
warrant! must! be! sought."! Unquestionably,! the!
warrantless! search! herein! is! not! bereft! of! a! probable!
cause.! The! Baguio! INP! Narcotics! Intelligence! Division!
received! an! information! that! Balingan! was! going! to!
transport! marijuana! in! a! bag! to! Manila.! Their!
surveillance! operations! revealed! that! Balingan,! whose!
movements! had! been! previously! monitored! by! the!
Narcotics! Division,! boarded! a! Dangwa! bus! bound! for!
Manila! carrying! a! suspiciousXlooking! gray! luggage! bag.!
When! the! moving,! public! bus! was! stopped,! her! bag,!
upon! inspection,! yielded! marijuana.! Under! those!
circumstances,!the!warrantless!search!of!Balingan's!bag!
was!not!illegal.!!

61!

!
OBRA!VS!CA!
Petitioner! Benjamin! Obra! was! Regional! Director! of! the!
Bureau! of! Mines! and! GeoXSciences! (BMGS)! in! Baguio.!
On!jun!26,!1985,!Jeannette!Grybos!wrote!him!a!letter!on!
behalf! of! the! Gillies! heirs! complaining! that! private!
respondents! (Sps.! James! and! June! Brett)! had! been!
conducting! illegal! mining! activities! in! Bgy.! PalasaXan,!
Mankayan,!Benguet,!belonging!to!Gillies!family.!On!the!
same! day,! Obra! wrote! Brig.! Gen! Tomas! Dumpit1!
requesting! assistance! in! apprehending! a! truck2!
allegedly! used! by! Sps.! Brett! in! illegal! mining.! The! next!
day,! Obra! wrote! Sps! Brett! and! Grybos! informing! them!
that! BMGS! was! going! to! conduct! an! ocular! inspeciton!
and! field! investigation! and! requesting! them! to! be!
present! so! that! all! matters! shall! be! gathered! and!
collated! in! order! for! this! Office! to! take! appropriate!
action.!Elements!of!RUC!under!Maj.!Densen!seized!the!
truck3!as!it!was!entering!Mamakar!mining!area.!It!was!
impounded!by!the!military!and!prevented!from!leaving!
the! area! except! on! mercy! missions4.! Private!
respondents! filed! a! complaint! for! injunction! and!
damages! with! the! RTC! as! the! truck! was! seized! without!
due! provess! in! violation! of! their! constitutional! rights!
under!Art.!32!of!the!Civil!Code.!
ISSUE!
Whether! or! not! petitioners! (Obra! and! Dumpit)! were!
authorized! to! seize! the! vehicle! in! the! absence! of! any!
finding!of!probably!cause!!
HELD!
NO.Although!peittioners!have!authority!to!order!seizure!
and! confiscation! via! PD.! 1281,! Art! IV,! S3! of! the! 1973!
Constitution! merely! validated! the! grant! by! law! to!
nonjudicial! officers! of! the! power! to! issue! warrants! but!
did! not! in! any! way! exempt! them! from! the! duty! of!
determining!the!eixstence!of!probable!cause.!Petitioner!
Obras!letters!to!private!respondents!and!Grybos!clearly!
stated!that!an!investigation!was!to!be!held!on!July!2X5,!
1985! to! determine! the! veracity! of! the! allegations! of!
Grybos! complaint.! His! only! basis! was! an! alleged!
certification!from!the!BMGS!that!no!mining!permit!had!
been!issued!to!the!Sps.!However,!such!certification!was!
not! presented! in! evidence.!The! seizure! cannot! be!
justified! under! the! moving! vehicle! doctrine! as! there! is!
no! existence! of! probable! cause.! The! doctrine! does! not!
give! poblice! officers! umliminted! discretion! to! conduct!
warrantless! searches! of! automobiles! in! the! absence! of!
PC.!Therefore,! the! CA! is! correct! in! affirming! the! RTCs!
decision! that! petitioners! are! liable! for! damages!
(P100,000)!and!attorneys!fees!(P10,000)!in!violation!of!
the!Sps.!Rights!under!Art.!32!of!the!Civil!Code.!
!

62! !

E. IN!PLAIN!SIGHT!
!
HARRIS!VS!US!
Petitioner,! who! sold! illegal! narcotics! at! his! pawnshop!
with! an! unconcealed! semiautomatic! pistol! at! his! side,!
was! arrested! for! violating,! inter' alia,! 18! U.S.C.! !
924(c)(1)(A),! which! provides! in! relevant! part! that! a!
person! who! in! relation! to! a! drug! trafficking! crime! uses!
or!carries!a!firearm!shall,!in!addition!to!the!punishment!
for! such! crime! (i)! be! sentenced! to! a! term! of!
imprisonment!of!not!less!than!5!years;!(ii)!if!the!firearm!
is!brandished,!be!sentenced!to!!not!less!than!7!years;!
and!(iii)!if!the!firearm!is!discharged,!be!sentenced!to!!
not! less! than! 10! years.! Because! the! Government!
proceeded!on!the!assumption!that!the!provision!defines!
a! single! crime! and! that! brandishing! is! a! sentencing!
factor! to! be! found! by! the! judge! following! trial,! the!
indictment! said! nothing! about! brandishing! or!
subsection! (ii),! simply! alleging! the! elements! from! the!
principal!paragraph.!Petitioner!was!convicted.!When!his!
presentence! report! recommended! that! he! receive! the!
7Xyear! minimum! sentence,! he! objected,! arguing! that!
brandishing! was! an! element! of! a! separate! statutory!
offense! for! which! he! was! not! indicted! or! convicted.! At!
the!sentencing!hearing,!the!District!Court!overruled!his!
objection,! found! that! he! had! brandished! the! gun,! and!
sentenced! him! to! seven! years! in! prison.! Affirming,! the!
Fourth! Circuit! rejected! petitioners! statutory! argument!
and! found! that! McMillan! v.! Pennsylvania,! 477! U.S.! 79,!
foreclosed! his! argument! that! if! brandishing! is! a!
sentencing!factor,!the!statute!is!unconstitutional!under!
Apprendi! v.! New' Jersey,' 530! U.S.! 466.! In! Apprendi,! this!
Court!held!that!other!than!the!fact!of!a!prior!conviction,!
any! fact! that! increases! the! penalty! for! a! crime! beyond!
the! prescribed! statutory! maximum! is,! in! effect,! an!
element! of! the! crime,! which! must! be! submitted! to! a!
jury,! and! proved! beyond! a! reasonable! doubt! (and,! in!
federal! prosecutions,! alleged! in! an! indictment! handed!
down! by! a! grand! jury).! But! 14! years! earlier,! McMillan!
sustained!a!statute!that!increased!the!minimum!penalty!
for!a!crime,!though!not!beyond!the!statutory!maximum,!
when! the! judge! found! that! the! defendant! had!
possessed!a!firearm.!
Held:!The!judgment!is!affirmed.!
243!F.3d!806,!affirmed.!
!!!!Justice! Kennedy! delivered! the! opinion! of! the! Court!
with!respect!to!Parts!I,!II,!and!IV,!concluding:!
!!!!1.!As! a! matter! of! statutory! interpretation,!
924(c)(1)(A)! defines! a! single! offense,! in! which!
brandishing! and! discharging! are! sentencing! factors! to!
be! found! by! the! judge,! not! offense! elements! to! be!
found!by!the!jury.!Pp.!49.!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 63!
!
!!!!!!!!(a)!The! prohibitions! structure! suggests! that!
brandishing! and! discharging! are! sentencing! factors.!
Federal!laws!usually!list!all!offense!elements!in!a!single!
sentence! and! separate! the! sentencing! factors! into!
subsections.!Castillo!v.!United'States,!530!U.S.!120,!125.!
The! instant! statutes! lengthy! principal! paragraph! lists!
the! elements! of! a! complete! crime.! Toward! the! end! of!
the! paragraph! is! the! word! shall,! which! often! divides!
offenseXdefining! provisions! from! sentenceXspecifying!
ones.! Jones! v.! United' States,' 526! U.S.! 227,! 233.! And!
following! shall! are! the! separate! subsections,! which!
explain! how! defendants! are! to! be! sentenced.! Thus!
this! Court! can! presume! that! the! principal! paragraph!
defines! a! single! crime! and! its! subsections! identify!
sentencing!factors.!Pp.!45.!
!!!!!!!!(b)!As! Jones! illustrates,! the! statutes! text! might!
provide!evidence!to!the!contrary,!but!the!critical!textual!
clues! here! reinforce! the! singleXoffense! interpretation.!
Brandishing! has! been! singled! out! as! a! paradigmatic!
sentencing! factor,! Castillo,' supra,! at! 126.! Under! the!
Sentencing! Guidelines,! moreover,! brandishing! and!
discharging! are! factors! that! affect! sentences! for!
numerous! crimes.! The! incremental! changes! in! the!
minimum! penalty! at! issue! here! are! precisely! what! one!
would! expect! to! see! in! provisions! meant! to! identify!
matters! for! the! sentencing! judges! consideration.!
Pp.!57.!
!!!!!!!!(c)!The! canon! of! constitutional! avoidancewhich!
provides! that! when! a! statute! is! susceptible! of! two!
constructions,!the!Court!must!adopt!the!one!that!avoids!
grave! and! doubtful! constitutional! questionsplays! no!
role! here.! The! constitutional! principle! that! petitioner!
says!a!singleXoffense!interpretation!of!the!statute!would!
violatethat!any!fact!increasing!the!statutory!minimum!
sentence! must! be! accorded! the! safeguards! assigned! to!
elementswas! rejected! in' McMillan.! Petitioners!
suggestion! that! the! canon! be! used! to! avoid! overruling!
one! of! this! Courts! own! precedents! is! novel! and,! given!
that! McMillan! was! in! place! when! 924(c)(1)(A)! was!
enacted,!unsound.!Congress!would!have!had!no!reason!
to! believe! that! it! was! approaching! the! constitutional!
line! by! following! the! instruction! this! Court! gave! in!
McMillan.!Pp.!79.!
!!!!2.!Reaffirming!McMillan!and!employing!the!approach!
outlined! in! that! opinion,! the! Court! concludes! that!
924(c)(1)(A)(ii)! is! constitutional.! Basing! a! 2Xyear!
increase! in! the! defendants! minimum! sentence! on! a!
judicial! finding! of! brandishing! does! not! evade! the! Fifth!
and! Sixth! Amendments! requirements.! Congress! simply!

dictated! the! precise! weight! to! be! given! to! one!


traditional!sentencing!factor!
!
ROAN!VS!GONZALES!(SUPRA)!
!
PEOPLE!VS!MUSA!
On! 13! December! 1989,! the! Narcotics! Command!
(NARCOM)! in! Zamboanga! City! conducted! surveillance!
and! test! buy! on! a! certain! Mari! Musa! of! Suterville,!
Zamboanga! City.! Information! received! from! civilian!
informer!was!that!this!Mari!Musa!was!engaged!in!selling!
marijuana! in! said! place.! The! Narcom! agent! (Sgt.! Ani)!
was! able! to! buy! one! newspaperXwrapped! dried!
marijuana! for! P10.00,! which! was! turned! over! to! the!
Narcom! office.! The! next! day,! a! buyXbust! was! planned!
with! Sgt.! Ani! being! the! poseurXbuyer.! NARCOM! teams!
proceeded! to! the! target! site! in! 2! civilian! vehicles.! Ani!
gave! Musa! the! P20.00! marked! money.! Musa! returned!
to! his! house! and! gave! Ani! 2! newspaper! wrappers!
containing! dried! marijuana.! The! signal! to! apprehend!
Musa! was! given.! The! NARCOM! team! rushed! to! the!
location! of! Ani,! and! a! NARCOM! officer! (Sgt.! Belarga)!
frisked! Musa! but! did! not! find! the! marked! money.! The!
money! was! given! to! Musas! wife! who! was! able! to! slip!
away.! Later,! Belarga! found! a! plastic! bag! containing!
dried! marijuana! inside! it! somewhere! in! the! kitchen.!
Musa! was! placed! under! arrest! and! was! brought! to! the!
NARCOM! office.! One! newspaperXwrapper! marijuana!
and!the!plastic!bag!containing!more!marijuana!was!sent!
to! the! PC! Crime! Laboratory,! the! test! of! which! gave!
positive! results! for! the! presence! of! marijuana.! On! the!
other! hand,! Mari! Musa! alleged! that! the! NARCOM!
agents,! dressed! in! civilian! clothes,! got! inside! his! house!
without! any! search! warrant,! neither! his! permission! to!
enter! the! house.! The! NARCOM! agents! searched! the!
house! and! allegedly! found! a! red! plastic! bag! whose!
contents,!Mari!Musa!said,!he!did!not!know.!He!also!did!
not! know! if! the! plastic! bag! belonged! to! his! brother,!
Faisal,! who! was! living! with! him,! or! his! father,! who! was!
living! in! another! house! about! ten! armsXlength! away.!
Mari! Musa! was! handcuffed! and! was! taken! to! the!
NARCOM!office!where!he!was!joined!by!his!wife.!Musa!
claimed! that! he! was! subjected! to! torture! when! he!
refused! to! sign! the! document! containing! details! of! the!
investigation.!The!next!day,!he!was!taken!to!the!fiscals!
office! to! which! he! was! allegedly! made! to! answer! to! a!
single! question:! that! if! he! owned! the! marijuana.! He!
allegedly!was!not!able!to!tell!the!fiscal!that!he!had!been!

63!

maltreated! by! the! NARCOM! agents! because! he! was!


afraid!he!might!be!maltreated!in!the!fiscal's!office.!Mari!
Musa! was! brought! to! the! City! Jail.! Still,! an! information!
against!Musa!was!filed!on!15!December!1989.!Upon!his!
arraignment! on! 11! January! 1990,! Musa! pleaded! not!
guilty.! After! trial! and! on! 31! August! 1990,! the! RTC!
Zamboanga!City!(Branch!XII)!found!him!guilty!of!selling!
marijuana!in!violation!of!Article!II,!Section!4!of!RA!6425.!
Musa!appealed!to!the!Supreme!Court.!!
Issue:- Whether! the! contents! of! the! red! plastic! bag!
found! in! the! kitchen! may! be! admitted! as! evidence! as!
evidence!acquired!incidental!to!a!lawful!arrest.!!
Held:- Warrantless! search! incidental! to! a! lawful! arrest!
authorizes! the! arresting! officer! to! make! a! search! upon!
the!person!of!the!person!arrested.!An!officer!making!an!
arrest!may!take!from!the!person!arrested!and!money!or!
property!found!upon!his!person!which!was!used!in!the!
commission!of!the!crime!or!was!the!fruit!of!the!crime!or!
which! might! furnish! the! prisoner! with! the! means! of!
committing! violence! or! of! escaping,! or! which! may! be!
used! as! evidence! in! the! trial! of! the! cause.! Hence,! in! a!
buyXbust!operation!conducted!to!entrap!a!drugXpusher,!
the! law! enforcement! agents! may! seize! the! marked!
money!found!on!the!person!of!the!pusher!immediately!
after! the! arrest! even! without! arrest! and! search!
warrants.! The! warrantless! search! and! seizure,! as! an!
incident!to!a!suspect's!lawful!arrest,!may!extend!beyond!
the!person!of!the!one!arrested!to!include!the!premises!
or!surroundings!under!his!immediate!control.!Objects!in!
the!"plain!view"!of!an!officer!who!has!the!right!to!be!in!
the!position!to!have!that!view!are!subject!to!seizure!and!
may! be! presented! as! evidence.! When! the! discovery! of!
the!evidence!did!not!constitute!a!search,!but!where!the!
officer! merely! saw! what! was! placed! before! him! in! full!
view,!the!warrantless!seizure!of!the!object!was!legal!on!
the! basis! of! the! "plain! view"! doctrine! and! upheld! the!
admissibility!of!said!evidence.!The!"plain!view"!doctrine,!
however,!may!not!be!used!to!launch!unbridled!searches!
and! indiscriminate! seizures! nor! to! extend! a! general!
exploratory! search! made! solely! to! find! evidence! of!
defendant's! guilt.! The! "plain! view"! doctrine! is! usually!
applied! where! a! police! officer! is! not! searching! for!
evidence! against! the! accused,! but! nonetheless!
inadvertently! comes! across! an! incriminating! object.!
What!the!'plain!view'!cases!have!in!common!is!that!the!
police! officer! in! each! of! them! had! a! prior! justification!
for! an! intrusion! in! the! course! of! which! he! came!
inadvertently! across! a! piece! of! evidence! incriminating!
the! accused.! The! doctrine! serves! to! supplement! the!
prior!justification!!whether!it!be!a!warrant!for!another!

64! !

object,! hot! pursuit,! search! incident! to! lawful! arrest,! or!


some! other! legitimate! reason! for! being! present!
unconnected!with!a!search!directed!against!the!accused!
! and! permits! the! warrantless! seizure.! Of! course,! the!
extension! of! the! original! justification! is! legitimate! only!
where!it!is!immediately!apparent!to!the!police!that!they!
have! evidence! before! them;! the! 'plain! view'! doctrine!
may!not!be!used!to!extend!a!general!exploratory!search!
from! one! object! to! another! until! something!
incriminating!at!last!emerges.!The!"plain!view"!doctrine!
neither! justify! the! seizure! of! the! object! where! the!
incriminating!nature!of!the!object!is!not!apparent!from!
the!"plain!view"!of!the!object.!Thus,!the!exclusion!of!the!
plastic! bag! containing! marijuana! does! not,! however,!
diminish,! in! any! way,! the! damaging! effect! of! the! other!
pieces! of! evidence! presented! by! the! prosecution! to!
prove! that! the! appellant! sold! marijuana,! in! violation! of!
Article!II,!Section!4!of!the!Dangerous!Drugs!Act!of!1972.!
By! virtue! of! the! testimonies! of! Sgt.! Ani! and! T/Sgt.!
Belarga! and! the! two! wrappings! of! marijuana! sold! by!
Musa! to! Sgt.! Ani,! among! other! pieces! of! evidence,! the!
guilt! of! Musa! of! the! crime! charged! has! been! proved!
beyond!reasonable!doubt.!!
!
PEOPLE!VS!DORIA!
In!November!1995,!members!of!the!North!Metropolitan!
District,! Philippine! National! Police! (PNP)! Narcotics!
Command! (Narcom),! received! information! from! 2!
civilian! informants! (CI)! that! one! "Jun"! was! engaged! in!
illegal!drug!activities!in!Mandaluyong!City.!The!Narcom!
agents!decided!to!entrap!and!arrest!"Jun"!in!a!buyXbust!
operation.! As! arranged! by! one! of! the! CI's,! a! meeting!
between! the! Narcom! agents! and! "Jun"! was! scheduled!
on! 5! December! 1995! at! E.! Jacinto! Street! in!
Mandaluyong! City.! On! 5! December! 1995,! at! 6:00! a.m.,!
the! CI! went! to! the! PNP! Headquarters! at! EDSA,!
Kamuning,! Quezon! City! to! prepare! for! the! buyXbust!
operation.! The! Narcom! agents! formed! Team! Alpha!
composed!of!P/Insp.!Nolasco!Cortes!as!team!leader!and!
PO3!Celso!Manlangit,!SPO1!Edmund!Badua!and!four!(4)!
other!policemen!as!members.!P/Insp.!Cortes!designated!
PO3!Manlangit!as!the!poseurXbuyer!and!SPO1!Badua!as!
his! backXup,! and! the! rest! of! the! team! as! perimeter!
security.! Superintendent! Pedro! Alcantara,! Chief! of! the!
North!Metropolitan!District!PNP!Narcom,!gave!the!team!
P2,000.00! to! cover! operational! expenses.! From! this!
sum,! PO3! Manlangit! set! aside! P1,600.00! ! a! one!
thousand!peso!bill!and!six!(6)!one!hundred!peso!bills!!
as!money!for!the!buyXbust!operation.!The!market!price!
of! one! kilo! of! marijuana! was! then! P1,600.00.! PO3!
Manlangit! marked! the! bills! with! his! initials! and! listed!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 65!
!
their!serial!numbers!in!the!police!blotter.!The!team!rode!
in!two!cars!and!headed!for!the!target!area.!At!7:20!a.m.,!
"Jun"!appeared!and!the!CI!introduced!PO3!Manlangit!as!
interested! in! buying! one! (1)! kilo! of! marijuana.! PO3!
Manlangit! handed! "Jun"! the! marked! bills! worth!
P1,600.00.! "Jun"! instructed! PO3! Manlangit! to! wait! for!
him!at!the!corner!of!Shaw!Boulevard!and!Jacinto!Street!
while!he!got!the!marijuana!from!his!associate.!An!hour!
later,! "Jun"! appeared! at! the! agreed! place! where! PO3!
Manlangit,!the!CI!and!the!rest!of!the!team!were!waiting.!
"Jun"!took!out!from!his!bag!an!object!wrapped!in!plastic!
and!gave!it!to!PO3!Manlangit.!PO3!Manlangit!forthwith!
arrested! "Jun"! as! SPO1! Badua! rushed! to! help! in! the!
arrest.! They! frisked! "Jun"! but! did! not! find! the! marked!
bills! on! him.! Upon! inquiry,! "Jun"! revealed! that! he! left!
the! money! at! the! house! of! his! associate! named!
"Neneth."! "Jun"! led! the! police! team! to! "Neneth's"!
house!nearby!at!Daang!Bakal.!The!team!found!the!door!
of! "Neneth's"! house! open! and! at! woman! inside.! "Jun"!
identified! the! woman! as! his! associate.! SPO1! Badua!
asked! "Neneth"! about! the! P1,600.00! as! PO3! Manlangit!
looked! over! "Neneth's"! house.! Standing! by! the! door,!
PO3! Manlangit! noticed! a! carton! box! under! the! dining!
table.!He!saw!that!one!of!the!box's!flaps!was!open!and!
inside! the! box! was! something! wrapped! in! plastic.! The!
plastic!wrapper!and!its!contents!appeared!similar!to!the!
marijuana! earlier! "sold"! to! him! by! "Jun."! His! suspicion!
aroused,!PO3!Manlangit!entered!"Neneth's"!house!and!
took! hold! of! the! box.! He! peeked! inside! the! box! and!
found! that! it! contained! 10! bricks! of! what! appeared! to!
be!dried!marijuana!leaves.!Simultaneous!with!the!box's!
discovery,!SPO1!Badua!recovered!the!marked!bills!from!
"Neneth."!The!policemen!arrested!"Neneth."!They!took!
"Neneth"!and!"Jun,"!together!with!the!box,!its!contents!
and! the! marked! bills! and! turned! them! over! to! the!
investigator! at! headquarters.! It! was! only! then! that! the!
police! learned! that! "Jun"! is! Florencio! Doria! y! Bolado!
while!"Neneth"!is!Violeta!Gaddao!y!Catama.!The!1!brick!
of!dried!marijuana!leaves!recovered!from!"Jun"!plus!the!
10! bricks! recovered! from! "Neneth's"! house! were!
examined!at!the!PNP!Crime!Laboratory.!The!bricks!were!
found! to! be! dried! marijuana! fruiting! tops! of! various!
weights!totalling!7,641.08!grams.!On!7!December!1995,!
Doria!and!Gadda!were!charged!with!violation!of!Section!
4,!in!relation!to!Section!21!of!the!Dangerous!Drugs!Act!
of!1972.!After!trial,!the!Regional!Trial!Court,!Branch!156,!
Pasig! City! convicted! Dorria! and! Gaddao.! The! trial! court!
found! the! existence! of! an! "organized/syndicated! crime!
group"! and! sentenced! both! to! death! and! pay! a! fine! of!

P500,000.00!each.!Hence,!the!automatic!review.!!
Issue:- Whether! the! warrantless! arrests! of! Doria! and!
Gaddao!are!legally!permissible.!!
Held:- It! is! recognized! that! in! every! arrest,! there! is! a!
certain! amount! of! entrapment! used! to! outwit! the!
persons!violating!or!about!to!violate!the!law.!Not!every!
deception!is!forbidden.!The!type!of!entrapment!the!law!
forbids!is!the!inducing!of!another!to!violate!the!law,!the!
"seduction"! of! an! otherwise! innocent! person! into! a!
criminal!career.!Where!the!criminal!intent!originates!in!
the! mind! of! the! entrapping! person! and! the! accused! is!
lured! into! the! commission! of! the! offense! charged! in!
order! to! prosecute! him,! there! is! entrapment! and! no!
conviction! may! be! had.! Where,! however,! the! criminal!
intent! originates! in! the! mind! of! the! accused! and! the!
criminal! offense! is! completed,! the! fact! that! a! person!
acting! as! a! decoy! for! the! state,! or! public! officials!
furnished!the!accused!an!opportunity!for!commission!of!
the! offense,! or! that! the! accused! is! aided! in! the!
commission!of!the!crime!in!order!to!secure!the!evidence!
necessary!to!prosecute!him,!there!is!no!entrapment!and!
the! accused! must! be! convicted.! The! law! tolerates! the!
use!of!decoys!and!other!artifices!to!catch!a!criminal.!The!
warrantless!arrest!of!Doria!is!not!unlawful.!Warrantless!
arrests! are! allowed! in! three! instances! as! provided! by!
Section! 5! of! Rule! 113! of! the! 1985! Rules! on! Criminal!
Procedure,! to! wit:! "A! peace! officer! or! a! private! person!
may,! without! a! warrant,! arrest! a! person:! (a)! When,! in!
his!presence,!the!person!to!be!arrested!has!committed,!
is! actually! committing,! or! is! attempting! to! commit! an!
offense;! (b)! When! an! offense! has! in! fact! just! been!
committed,! and! he! has! personal! knowledge! of! facts!
indicating!that!the!person!to!be!arrested!has!committed!
it;!and!(c)!When!the!person!to!be!arrested!is!a!prisoner!
who! escaped! from! a! penal! establishment! or! place!
where! he! is! serving! final! judgment! or! temporarily!
confined!while!his!case!is!pending,!or!has!escaped!while!
being! transferred! from! one! confinement! to! another.!
xxx"! Under! Section! 5! (a),! as! aboveXquoted,! a! person!
may! be! arrested! without! a! warrant! if! he! "has!
committed,! is! actually! committing,! or! is! attempting! to!
commit!an!offense."!Herein,!Doria!was!caught!in!the!act!
of! committing! an! offense.! When! an! accused! is!
apprehended! in! flagrante! delicto! as! a! result! of! a! buyX
bust! operation,! the! police! are! not! only! authorized! but!
dutyXbound! to! arrest! him! even! without! a! warrant.! The!
warrantless!arrest!of!Gaddao,!the!search!of!her!person!

65!

and!residence,!and!the!seizure!of!the!box!of!marijuana!
and! marked! bills,! however,! are! different! matters.! Our!
Constitution! proscribes! search! and! seizure! without! a!
judicial! warrant! and! any! evidence! obtained! without!
such! warrant! is! inadmissible! for! any! purpose! in! any!
proceeding.! The! rule! is,! however,! not! absolute.! Search!
and! seizure! may! be! made! without! a! warrant! and! the!
evidence! obtained! therefrom! may! be! admissible! in! the!
following! instances:! (1)! search! incident! to! a! lawful!
arrest;!(2)!search!of!a!moving!motor!vehicle;!(3)!search!
in! violation! of! customs! laws;! (4)! seizure! of! evidence! in!
plain! view;! (5)! when! the! accused! himself! waives! his!
right!against!unreasonable!searches!and!seizures.!To!be!
lawful,!the!warrantless!arrest!of!appellant!Gaddao!must!
fall!under!any!of!the!three!(3)!instances!enumerated!in!
Section! 5! of! Rule! 113! of! the! 1985! Rules! on! Criminal!
Procedure.! Gaddao! was! not! caught! redXhanded! during!
the! buyXbust! operation! to! give! ground! for! her! arrest!
under!Section!5!(a)!of!Rule!113.!She!was!not!committing!
any! crime.! Contrary! to! the! finding! of! the! trial! court,!
there!was!no!occasion!at!all!for!Gaddao!to!flee!from!the!
policemen! to! justify! her! arrest! in! "hot! pursuit."! In! fact,!
she! was! going! about! her! daily! chores! when! the!
policemen!pounced!on!her.!Neither!could!the!arrest!of!
Gaddao! be! justified! under! the! second! instance! of! Rule!
113.! "Personal! knowledge"! of! facts! in! arrests! without!
warrant!under!Section!5!(b)!of!Rule!113!must!be!based!
upon!"probable!cause"!which!means!an!"actual!belief!or!
reasonable!grounds!of!suspicion."!Gaddao!was!arrested!
solely!on!the!basis!of!the!alleged!identification!made!by!
her! coXaccused,! Doria.! Save! for! Doria's! word,! the!
Narcom! agents! had! no! reasonable! grounds! to! believe!
that! she! was! engaged! in! drug! pushing.! If! there! is! no!
showing! that! the! person! who! effected! the! warrantless!
arrest! had,! in! his! own! right,! knowledge! of! facts!
implicating!the!person!arrested!to!the!perpetration!of!a!
criminal! offense,! the! arrest! is! legally! objectionable.!
Since! the! warrantless! arrest! of! Gaddao! was! illegal,! it!
follows!that!the!search!of!her!person!and!home!and!the!
subsequent! seizure! of! the! marked! bills! and! marijuana!
cannot!be!deemed!legal!as!an!incident!to!her!arrest.!!
!
!
PEOPLE!VS!BOLASA!
!
An!informer!told!the!police!that!an!illegal!transaction!of!
prohibited! drugs! were! being! conducted! at! a! certain!
house! in! Sta.! Brigida! St.! Karuhatan! Valenzuela! Metro!
Manila.! PO3! Salonga! and! Carizon! together! with! SPO1!
Fernando! Arenas! immediately! proceed! to! the! said!
house.! Upon! reaching! the! house,! they! peeped! through!
a! small! window! and! saw! a! man! and! woman! repacking!

66! !

suspected! marijuana.! They! enter! the! house! and!


introduce!themselves!as!police!officers!and!confiscated!
the! tea! bag! and! other! drug! paraphernalia.Afterwhich,!
the!police!officers!arrested!the!two,Zenaida!Bolasa!and!
Roberto!de!los!Reyes.!Upon!examination!by!the!NBI,!the!
tea! bags! were! confirmed! as! marijuana.! Zenaida! Bolasa!
and!Roberto!de!los!Reyes!were!charged!with!violation!of!
Sec.8!of!Article!II!of!Republic!Act!6425!otherwise!known!
as! Dangerous! Drugs! Act! of! 1972.! The! RTC! convicted!
them!of!the!crime!charged.!Accused!Bolasa!asserts!that!
the!search!and!her!arrest!was!illegal.!She!insists!that!the!
trial! court! should! not! regard! the! testimony! of! PO3!
cCarizon! credible! because! he! does! not! have! personal!
knowledge! regarding! the! conduct! of! the! arrest! and!
search!making!his!testimony!a!hearsay.!Issue:!Whether!
or!not!the!arrest!and!seizure!were!valid!Ruling:!No.!The!
Supreme!Court!held!that!the!arrest!was!invalid!because!
the!arresting!officers!had!no!personal!knowledge!that!at!
the! time! of! their! arrest,! accusedapellants! had! just!
committed,! were! committing! or! about! to! commit! a!
crime.! The! arresting! officers! also! have! no! personal!
knowledge! that! a! crime! was! committed! nor! have! a!
reasonable! ground! to! believe! that! the! accused!
committed!the!crime.!And!accused!appellants!were!not!
prisoners! who! have! escaped! from! a! penal!
establishment.! With! respect! to! the! seizure! of! the! tea!
bags,the! court! held! that! it! is! also! invalid! because! the!
objects! were! not! seized! in! plain! view.! There! was! no!
valid! intrusion! and! the! evidence! was! not! inadvertently!
discovered.! The! police! officers! intentionally! peeped!
through! the! window! to! ascertain! the! activities! of!
appellants! inside! the! room.! In! like! manner,! the! search!
cannot!be!categorized!as!a!search!of!a!moving!vehicle,!a!
consented! warrantless! arrest,! a! customs! search,! or! a!
stop! and! frisk! situations.! The! court! stated! that! the!
arresting! officers! should! have! first! conducted! a!
surveillance! considering! that! the! identities! and!
addressed! of! the! suspected! culprits! were! already!
ascertained.! After! conducting! the! surveillance! and!
determining! the! existence! of! probable! cause,! they!
should!have!secured!a!warrant!prior!to!effecting!a!valid!
arrest!and!seizure.!The!arrest!being!illegal!ab!initio,!the!
accompanying! search! was! also! illegal.! Every! evidence!
thus! obtained! during! the! illegal! search! cannot! be! used!
against!the!accusedXappellants.!The!Court!held!that!the!
State! cannot! in! a! cavalier! fashioni! ntrude! into! the!
persons! of! its! citizens! as! well! as! into! their! houses,!
papers!and!effects.!The!constitutional!provision!protects!
the! privacy! and! sanctity! of! the! person! himself! against!
unlawful!arrests!and!other!forms!of!restraint.!The!Court!
held!that!the!State!cannot!in!a!cavalier!fashioni!ntrude!
into! the! persons! of! its! citizens! as! well! as! into! their!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 67!
!
houses,!papers!and!effects.!The!constitutional!provision!
protects! the! privacy! and! sanctity! of! the! person! himself!
against! unlawful! arrests! and! other! forms! of! restraint!
The! Court! enumerated! the! exceptions! as! follows:! 1.!
Warrantless! search! incidental! to! a! lawful! arrest;! 2.!
Search! of! evidence! in! 9plain! view.9The! elements! of! the!
plain!view!doctrine!are:!(a)!a!prior!valid!intrusion!based!
on! the! valid! warrantless! arrest! in! which! the! policeare!
legally!present!in!the!pursuit!of!their!official!duties;!(b)!
the!evidence!was!inadvertently!discovered!by!the!police!
who! havethe! right! to! be! where! they! are;! (c)! the!
evidence!must!be!immediately!apparent;!and,!(d)!"plain!
view"!justified!mere!seizure!of!evidence!without!further!
search.! 3.! Search! of! a! moving! vehicle.! Highly! regulated!
by! the! government,! the! vehicle9s! inherent! mobility!
reduces! expectation! of! privacy! especially! when! its!
transit! in! public! thoroughfares! furnishes! a! highly!
reasonable! suspicion! amounting! to! probable! causethat!
the! occupant! committed! a! criminal! activity! ;4.!
Consented! warrantless! search! ;5.! Customs! search! ;6.!
Stop! and! Frisk;! and! 7.! Exigent! and! emergency!
circumstances.! Citing! the! Rules! of! Criminal! Procedure!
on! lawful! warrantless! arrest,! the! Court! stated! that! an!
arrest! is! lawful! even! 9in! theabsence! of! a! warrant9! :(a)!
when! the! person! to! be! arrested! has! committed,! is!
actually!committing,!or!is!about!to!commit!an!offense!in!
his! presence;(! b)! when! an! offense! has! in! fact! been!
committed! and! he! has! reasonable! ground! to! believe!
that!the!person!to!be!arrested!hascommitted!it;!and,!(c)!
when! the! person! to! be! arrested! is! a! prisoner! who! has!
escaped!from!a!penal!establishment!or!place!where!he!
is! serving! final! judgment! or! temporarily! confined! while!
his! case! is! pending,! or! has! escaped! while! being!
transferred!from!one!confinement!toanother.!(A!person!
charged!with!an!offense!may!be!searched!for!dangerous!
weapons!or!anything!which!may!be!used!as!proof!of!the!
commission!of!the!offense!
!
f.!private!searches!
!
PEOPLE!VS!MARTI!

to! a! friend! in! Zurich,! Switzerland.! Marti! filled! up! the!


contract! necessary! for! the! transaction,! writing! therein!
his! name,! passport! number,! the! date! of! shipment! and!
the! name! and! address! of! the! consignee,! namely,!
"WALTER! FIERZ,! Mattacketr! II,! 8052! Zurich,!
Switzerland."! Anita! Reyes! did! not! inspect! the! packages!
as! Marti! refused,! who! assured! the! former! that! the!
packages!simply!contained!books,!cigars,!and!gloves!and!
were! gifts! to! his! friend! in! Zurich.! In! view! of! Marti's!
representation,!the!4!packages!were!then!placed!inside!
a!brown!corrugated!box,!with!styroXfoam!placed!at!the!
bottom! and! on! top! of! the! packages,! and! sealed! with!
masking! tape.! Before! delivery! of! Marti's! box! to! the!
Bureau! of! Customs! and/or! Bureau! of! Posts,! Mr.! Job!
Reyes! (proprietor)! and! husband! of! Anita! (Reyes),!
following! standard! operating! procedure,! opened! the!
boxes! for! final! inspection,! where! a! peculiar! odor!
emitted!therefrom.!Job!pulled!out!a!cellophane!wrapper!
protruding! from! the! opening! of! one! of! the! gloves,! and!
took! several! grams! of! the! contents! thereof.! Job! Reyes!
forthwith! prepared! a! letter! reporting! the! shipment! to!
the!NBI!and!requesting!a!laboratory!examination!of!the!
samples! he! extracted! from! the! cellophane! wrapper.! At!
the! Narcotics! Section! of! the! National! Bureau! of!
Investigation!(NBI),!the!box!containing!Marti's!packages!
was! opened,! yielding! dried! marijuana! leaves,! or! cakeX
like! (bricks)! dried! marijuana! leaves.! The! NBI! agents!
made! an! inventory! and! took! charge! of! the! box! and! of!
the! contents! thereof,! after! signing! a! "Receipt"!
acknowledging! custody! of! the! said! effects.! Thereupon,!
the! NBI! agents! tried! to! locate! Marti! but! to! no! avail,!
inasmuch!as!the!latter's!stated!address!was!the!Manila!
Central!Post!Office.!Thereafter,!an!Information!was!filed!
against!Marti!for!violation!of!RA!6425,!otherwise!known!
as! the! Dangerous! Drugs! Act.! After! trial,! the! Special!
Criminal! Court! of! Manila! (Regional! Trial! Court,! Branch!
XLIX)! rendered! the! decision,! convicting! Marti! of!
violation! of! Section! 21! (b),! Article! IV! in! relation! to!
Section! 4,! Article! 11! and! Section! 2! (e)(i),! Article! 1! of!
Republic!Act!6425,!as!amended,!otherwise!known!as!the!
Dangerous!Drugs!Act.!Marti!appealed.!!

On! 14! August! 1987,! Andre! Marti! and! his! commonXlaw!


wife,! Shirley! Reyes,! went! to! the! booth! of! the! Manila!
Packing! and! Export! Forwarders! in! the! Pistang! Pilipino!
Complex,! Ermita,! Manila,! carrying! with! them! 4! giftX
wrapped!packages.!Anita!Reyes!(the!proprietress!and!no!
relation! to! Shirley! Reyes)! attended! to! them.! Marti!
informed!Anita!Reyes!that!he!was!sending!the!packages!

Issue:- Whether! an! act! of! a! private! individual,! allegedly!


in! violation! of! the! accused's! constitutional! rights,! be!
invoked!against!the!State.!!

Held:- In!the!absence!of!governmental!interference,!the!
liberties! guaranteed! by! the! Constitution! cannot! be!
invoked! against! the! State.! The! contraband! herein,!

67!

having! come! into! possession! of! the! Government!


without! the! latter! transgressing! the! accused's! rights!
against!unreasonable!search!and!seizure,!the!Court!sees!
no!cogent!reason!why!the!same!should!not!be!admitted!
against! him! in! the! prosecution! of! the! offense! charged.!
The! mere! presence! of! the! NBI! agents! did! not! convert!
the! reasonable! search! effected! by! Reyes! into! a!
warrantless! search! and! seizure! proscribed! by! the!
Constitution.!Merely!to!observe!and!look!at!that!which!
is! in! plain! sight! is! not! a! search.! Having! observed! that!
which! is! open,! where! no! trespass! has! been! committed!
in! aid! thereof,! is! not! search.! Where! the! contraband!
articles!are!identified!without!a!trespass!on!the!part!of!
the! arresting! officer,! there! is! not! the! search! that! is!
prohibited! by! the! constitution.! The! constitutional!
proscription! against! unlawful! searches! and! seizures!
therefore!applies!as!a!restraint!directed!only!against!the!
government! and! its! agencies! tasked! with! the!
enforcement!of!the!law.!Thus,!it!could!only!be!invoked!
against!the!State!to!whom!the!restraint!against!arbitrary!
and! unreasonable! exercise! of! power! is! imposed.! If! the!
search! is! made! upon! the! request! of! law! enforcers,! a!
warrant! must! generally! be! first! secured! if! it! is! to! pass!
the! test! of! constitutionality.! However,! if! the! search! is!
made! at! the! behest! or! initiative! of! the! proprietor! of! a!
private!establishment!for!its!own!and!private!purposes,!
as! in! the! case! at! bar,! and! without! the! intervention! of!
police!authorities,!the!right!against!unreasonable!search!
and!seizure!cannot!be!invoked!for!only!the!act!of!private!
individual,!not!the!law!enforcers,!is!involved.!In!sum,!the!
protection! against! unreasonable! searches! and! seizures!
cannot! be! extended! to! acts! committed! by! private!
individuals! so! as! to! bring! it! within! the! ambit! of! alleged!
unlawful!intrusion!by!the!government.!!
!
WATERHOUSE!DRUG!VS!NLRC!
Facts:!Antonia! Melodia! Catolico! was! hired! as! a!
pharmacist!by!Waterous!Drug!Corp.!
Catolico! sold! to! YSP! Inc.! 10! bottles! of! Voren! Tablets! at!
P384!per!unit.!However,!the!normal!selling!price!is!P320!
per! unit.! Catolico! overcharged! by! P64! per! unit! for! a!
total!of!P640.!!YSP!sent!a!check!payable!to!Catolico!as!a!
refund! for! the! jackedXup! price.! It! was! sent! in! an!
envelope! addressed! to! her.! Saldana,! the! clerk! of!
Waterous! Drug! Corp.! opened! the! envelope! and! saw!
that!there!was!a!check!for!P640!for!Catolico.!
Waterous! Drug! Corp.! ordered! the! termination! of!
Catolico!for!acts!of!dishonesty.!
NLRC:! Dismissed! the! Petition.! Evidence! of! respondents!
(check!from!YSP)!being!rendered!inadmissible,!by!virtue!
of!the!constitutional!right!invoked!by!complainants.!
Petitioners:!In!the!light!of!the!decision!in!the!People!v.!

68! !

Marti,! !the! constitutional! protection! against!


unreasonable! searches! and! seizures! refers! to! the!
immunity! of! ones! person! from! interference! by!
government!and!cannot!be!extended!to!acts!committed!
by!private!individuals!so!as!to!bring!it!within!the!ambit!
of!alleged!unlawful!intrusion!by!the!government.!
Issue:!W/N!the!check!is!admissible!as!evidence!
Held:!!Yes.!
Ratio:!(People!vs.!Marti)!Marti!ruling:!The-Bill-of-Rightsdoes- not- protect- citizens- from- unreasonable- searchesand-seizures-perpetrated-by-private-individuals.!
It! is! not! true,! as! counsel! for! Catolico! claims,! that! the!
citizens!have!no!recourse!against!such!assaults.!On!the!
contrary,! and! as! said! counsel! admits,! such! an! invasion!
gives! rise! to! both! criminal! and! civil! liabilities.!Despite!
this,!the!SC!ruled!that!there!was!insufficient!evidence!of!
cause! for! the! dismissal! of! Catolico! from! employment!
Suspicion!is!not!among!the!valid!causes!provided!by!the!
Labor!Code!for!the!termination!of!Employment.!
!
G.!EXTRAORDINARY!CIRCUMSTANCES!
PEOPLE!VS!DE!GRACIA!
The!incidents!took!place!at!the!height!of!the!coup!d'etat!
staged! in! December,! 1989! by! ultraXrightist! elements!
headed! by! the! Reform! the! Armed! Forces! MovementX
Soldiers! of! the! Filipino! People! (RAMXSFP)! against! the!
Government.! At! that! time,! various! government!
establishments! and! military! camps! in! Metro! Manila!
were!being!bombarded!by!the!rightist!group!with!their!
"toraXtora"!planes.!At!around!midnight!of!30!November!
1989,! the! 4th! Marine! Battalion! of! the! Philippine!
Marines! occupied! Villamor! Air! Base,! while! the! Scout!
Rangers! took! over! the! Headquarters! of! the! Philippine!
Army,!the!Army!Operations!Center,!and!Channel!4,!the!
government! television! station.! Also,! some! elements! of!
the! Philippine! Army! coming! from! Fort! Magsaysay!
occupied! the! Greenhills! Shopping! Center! in! San! Juan,!
Metro!Manila.!On!1!December!1989,!Maj.!Efren!Soria!of!
the! Intelligence! Division,! National! Capital! Region!
Defense! Command,! was! on! board! a! brown! Toyota! car!
conducting! a! surveillance! of! the! Eurocar! Sales! Office!
located! at! Epifanio! de! los! Santos! Avenue! (EDSA)! in!
Quezon! City,! together! with! his! team! composed! of! Sgt.!
Crispin! Sagario,! M/Sgt.! Ramon! Briones,! S/Sgt.! Henry!
Aquino,! one! S/Sgt.! Simon! and! a! Sgt.! Ramos.! The!
surveillance,! which! actually! started! on! the! night! of! 30!
November! 1989! at! around! 10:00! p.m.,! was! conducted!
pursuant! to! an! intelligence! report! received! by! the!
division! that! said! establishment! was! being! occupied! by!
elements! of! the! RAMXSFP! as! a! communication!
command! post.! Sgt.! Crispin! Sagario,! the! driver! of! the!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 69!
!
car,! parked! the! vehicle! around! 10! to! 15! meters! away!
from!the!Eurocar!building!near!P.!Tuazon!Street,!S/Sgt.!
Henry! Aquino! had! earlier! alighted! from! the! car! to!
conduct! his! surveillance! on! foot.! A! crowd! was! then!
gathered!near!the!Eurocar!office!watching!the!onXgoing!
bombardment! near! Camp! Aguinaldo.! After! a! while! a!
group!of!5!men!disengaged!themselves!from!the!crowd!
and!walked!towards!the!car!of!the!surveillance!team.!At!
that!moment,!Maj.!Soria,!who!was!then!seated!in!front,!
saw! the! approaching! group! and! immediately! ordered!
Sgt.!Sagario!to!start!the!car!and!leave!the!area.!As!they!
passed! by! the! group,! then! only! 6! meters! away,! the!
latter!pointed!to!them,!drew!their!guns!and!fired!at!the!
team,! which! attack! resulted! in! the! wounding! of! Sgt.!
Sagario! on! the! right! thigh.! Nobody! in! the! surveillance!
team! was! able! to! retaliate! because! they! sought! cover!
inside! the! car! and! they! were! afraid! that! civilians! or!
bystanders! might! be! caught! in! the! crossXfire.! As! a!
consequence,!at!around!6:30!a.m.!of!5!December!1989,!
searching! them! composed! of! F/Lt.! Virgilio! Babao! as!
team!leader,!M/Sgt.!Lacdao,!Sgt.!Magallion,!Sgt.!Patricio!
Pacatang,! and! elements! of! the! 16th! Infantry! Battalion!
under! one! Col.! delos! Santos! raided! the! Eurocar! Sales!
Office.!They!were!able!to!find!and!confiscate!6!cartons!
of!MX16!ammunition,!five!bundles!of!CX4!dynamites,!and!
Roberto! Jimena! who! were! janitors! at! the! Eurocar!
building.! They! were! then! made! to! sign! an! inventory,!
written! in! Tagalog,! of! the! explosives! and! ammunition!
confiscated!by!the!raiding!team.!No!search!warrant!was!
secured! by! the! raiding! team! because,! according! to!
them,! at! that! time! there! was! so! much! disorder!
considering!that!the!nearby!Camp!Aguinaldo!was!being!
mopped! up! by! the! rebel! forces! and! there! was!
simultaneous! firing! within! the! vicinity! of! the! Eurocar!
office,! aside! from! the! fact! that! the! courts! were!
consequently! closed.! The! group! was! able! to! confirm!
later! that! the! owner! of! Eurocar! office! is! a! certain! Mr.!
Gutierrez! and! that! de! Gracia! is! supposedly! a! "boy"!
therein.! de! Gracia! was! charged! in! two! separate!
informations! for! illegal! possession! of! ammunition! and!
explosives! in! furtherance! of! rebellion,! and! for!
attempted!homicide!(Criminal!Cases!QX90X11755!and!QX
90X11756,!respectively),!which!were!tried!jointly!by!the!
Regional!Trial!Court!of!Quezon!City,!Branch!103.!During!
the! arraignment,! de! Gracia! pleaded! not! guilty! to! both!
charges.! However,! he! admitted! that! he! is! not!
authorized! to! posses! any! firearms,! ammunition! and/or!
explosive.!The!parties!likewise!stipulated!that!there!was!
a!rebellion!during!the!period!from!November!30!up!to!9!

December! 1989.! On! 22! February! 1991,! the! trial! court!


rendered! judgment! acquitting! de! Gracia! of! attempted!
homicide,! but! found! him! guilty! beyond! reasonable!
doubt!of!the!offense!of!illegal!possession!of!firearms!in!
furtherance!of!rebellion!and!sentenced!him!to!serve!the!
penalty!of!reclusion!perpetua.!De!Gracia!appealed.!!
Issue:- Whether! the! military! operatives! made! a! valid!
search! and! seizure! during! the! height! of! the! December!
1989!coup!detat.!!
Held:- It! is! admitted! that! the! military! operatives! who!
raided! the! Eurocar! Sales! Office! were! not! armed! with! a!
search! warrant! at! that! time.! The! raid! was! actually!
precipitated!by!intelligence!reports!that!said!office!was!
being! used! as! headquarters! by! the! RAM.! Prior! to! the!
raid,! there! was! a! surveillance! conducted! on! the!
premises!wherein!the!surveillance!team!was!fired!at!by!
a! group! of! men! coming! from! the! Eurocar! building.!
When! the! military! operatives! raided! the! place,! the!
occupants!thereof!refused!to!open!the!door!despite!the!
requests! for! them! to! do! so,! thereby! compelling! the!
former!to!break!into!the!office.!The!Eurocar!Sales!Office!
is! obviously! not! a! gun! store! and! it! is! definitely! not! an!
armory! or! arsenal! which! are! the! usual! depositories! for!
explosives! and! ammunition.! It! is! primarily! and! solely!
engaged!in!the!sale!of!automobiles.!The!presence!of!an!
unusual! quantity! of! highXpowered! firearms! and!
explosives! could! not! be! justifiably! or! even! colorably!
explained.! In! addition,! there! was! general! chaos! and!
disorder! at! that! time! because! of! simultaneous! and!
intense!firing!within!the!vicinity!of!the!office!and!in!the!
nearby! Camp! Aguinaldo! which! was! under! attack! by!
rebel! forces.! The! courts! in! the! surrounding! areas! were!
obviously! closed! and,! for! that! matter,! the! building! and!
houses! therein! were! deserted.! Under! the! foregoing!
circumstances,! the! case! falls! under! one! of! the!
exceptions! to! the! prohibition! against! a! warrantless!
search.!In!the!first!place,!the!military!operatives,!taking!
into! account! the! facts! obtaining! in! this! case,! had!
reasonable! ground! to! believe! that! a! crime! was! being!
committed.! There! was! consequently! more! than!
sufficient! probable! cause! to! warrant! their! action.!
Furthermore,! under! the! situation! then! prevailing,! the!
raiding!team!had!no!opportunity!to!apply!for!and!secure!
a!search!warrant!from!the!courts.!The!trial!judge!himself!
manifested!that!on!5!December!1989!when!the!raid!was!
conducted,! his! court! was! closed.! Under! such! urgency!
and! exigency! of! the! moment,! a! search! warrant! could!

69!

lawfully!be!dispensed!with.!!
II.! PROCEDURE! FOR! SERVICE! OF! WARRANT;! POSTX
SERVICE!PROCEDURE!
!
A. SERVICE!WARRANT!
1. Time!of!search!
Rule!126!Section- 9.!Time'of'making'search.!
!The!warrant!must!direct!that!it!be!served!
in! the! day! time,! unless! the! affidavit! asserts!
that!the!property!is!on!the!person!or!in!the!
place!ordered!to!be!searched,!in!which!case!
a!direction!may!be!inserted!that!it!be!served!
at!any!time!of!the!day!or!night!
2. Two!witness!rule!
Rule! 126! Section- 8.! Search' of' house,' room,'
or' premise' to' be' made' in' presence' of' two'
witnesses.! ! No! search! of! a! house,! room,!
or! any! other! premise! shall! be! made! except!
in! the! presence! of! the! lawful! occupant!
thereof! or! any! member! of! his! family! or! in!
the! absence! of! the! latter,! two! witnesses! of!
sufficient! age! and! discretion! residing! in! the!
same!locality!
PEOPLE!VS!GESMUNDO!
According!to!the!prosecution,!in!the!morning!of!Nov.!17,!
1986,! PO! Jose! Luciano! gave! money! and! instructed! his!
civilian! informer! to! buy! marijuana! from! the! accused! at!
the!Cocoland!Hotel.!He!actually!saw!the!accused!selling!
marijuana! to! his! civilian! informer! and! that! same! day!
Luciano!applied!for!a!search!warrant.!
!
About!2pm!that!day,!a!police!raiding!team!armed!with!a!
search!warrant!went!to!the!Brgy!captain!for!them!to!be!
accompanied! in! serving! the! said! warrant! at! the!
residence! of! the! accused.! The! police! was! allowed! to!
enter! the! house! upon! the! strength! of! the! warrant!
shown! to! the! accused.! The! accused! begged! the! police!
not! to! search! and! to! leave! the! house.! The! police! still!
searched! the! house! and! was! led! to! the! kitchen.! She!
pointed! a! metal! basin! on! top! of! a! table! as! the! hiding!
place! of! died! marijuana! flowering! tops! contained! in! a!
plastic! bag! marked! ISETANN.! The! police! also! recovered!
from!a!native!uway!cabinet!dried!marijuana!flowering!
tops!wrapped!in!3!pieces!of!komiks!paper.!!
!
According! to! the! accused,! when! the! police! arrived! at!
her! house,! she! saw! Sgt.! Yte! and! PFC! Jose! Luciano.! She!
invited! Sgt.! Yte! to! enter! her! house! while! Luciano! was!
left! in! the! jeep! that! was! parked! near! the! house.! While!
inside!the!house!Yte!showed!the!accused!something!he!
claimed! as! a! search! warrant,! when! someone! coming!
from! the! kitchen! uttered! eto! na! They! proceeded! to!

70! !

the! kitchen! and! saw! Luciano! holding! a! plastic! bag! with!


four! other! companions.! They! confronted! the! accused!
and! insisted! that! the! bags! belonged! to! her.! Accused!
denied! the! accusation! and! told! them! that! she! doesnt!
know! anything! about! it.! She! was! made! to! sign! a!
prepared! document.! She! was! brought! to! the! police!
station!and!was!detained.!!
!
The!court!renders!judgment!finding!the!accused!guilty.!
!
!
Issue:- Whether! or! Not! the! evidence! was! properly!
obtained!by!the!police.!
!
!
Held:- In! the! investigation! report! prepared! by! Luciano!
stated!that!during!the!search!they!discovered!a!hole!at!
the! backyard! of! the! house! of! the! suspect,! there! was! a!
big!biscuit!can!inside!the!hole!and!on!top!of!the!cover!a!
flower!pot!was!placed!wherein!the!marijuana!was!kept.!
However,! there! was! no! mention! of! any! marijuana!
obtained!from!a!flower!pot!in!any!of!their!testimonies.!
There! were! inconsistencies! insofar! the! prosecution! is!
concerned,! as! to! what! was! recovered! and! where,! the!
trial! court! concluded! that! these! inconsistencies! are!
trivial.! There! must! sufficient! evidence! that! the!
marijuana! was! actually! surrendered! by! the! accused.! As!
held!in!PP!vs.!Remorosa,!Irreconcilable!and!unexplained!
contradictions! in! the! testimonies! of! the! prosecution!
witnesses! cast! doubt! on! the! guilt! of! appellant! and! his!
culpability!to!the!crime!charged.!
!
The! claim! that! the! marijuana! was! planted! was!
strengthen!as!the!police!violated!sec!7,!rule!126!rules!of!
the! court! provides! no! search! of! a! house,! room! or! any!
other!premise!shall!be!made!except!in!the!presence!of!
the! lawful! occupant! thereof! or! any! member! of! his!
family!or!in!the!absence!of!the!latter,!in!the!presence!of!
two! (2)! witnesses! of! sufficient! age! and! discretion!
residing! in! the! same! locality.! This! requirement! is!
mandatory! to! ensure! regularity! in! the! execution! of! the!
search! warrant.! Violation! of! said! rule! is! in! fact!
punishable!under!Article!130!of!the!Revised!Penal!Code.!
!
The! document! (PAGPAPATUNAY)! was! inadmissible! to!
the!court!as!the!accused!was!not!informed!of!her!right!
not!to!sign!the!document!neither!was!she!informed!that!
she!has!the!right!to!the!assistance!of!a!counsel!and!the!
fact!that!it!may!be!used!as!evidence!against!her.!It!was!
not! proved! that! the! marijuana! belonged! to! her.! Not!
only! does! the! law! require! the! presence! of! witnesses!
when!the!search!is!conducted,!but!it!also!imposes!upon!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 71!
!
the! person! making! the! search! the! duty! to! issue! a!
detailed! receipt! for! the! property! seized.! He! is! likewise!
required!to!deliver!the!property!seized!to!the!judge!who!
issued! the! warrant,! together! with! a! true! and! accurate!
inventory!thereof!duly!verified!under!oath.!Again,!these!
duties! are! mandatory! and! are! required! to! preclude!
substitution!of!the!items!seized!by!interested!parties.!
!
The! guilt! of! the! accused! was! has! not! been! established.!
Judgment!is!reversed.!
!
!
3. BREAKING! OF! DOOR! OR! WINDOW! TO!
EFFECT!SEARCH!
RULE! 126! Section- 6.! Issuance' and' form' of'
search'warrant.!!If!the!judge!is!satisfied!of!
the! existence! of! facts! upon! which! the!
application! is! based! or! that! there! is!
probable!cause!to!believe!that!they!exist,!he!
shall! issue! the! warrant,! which! must! be!
substantially! in! the! form! prescribed! by!
these!Rules.!
!
B. POSTXSERVICE!PROCEDURE!
!
PEOPLE!VS!GESMUNDO!(SUPRA)!
!
1. Issuance!of!Receipt!
RULE! 126! Section- 11.! Receipt' for' the' property'
seized.! ! The! officer! seizing! property! under! the!
warrant!must!give!a!detailed!receipt!for!the!same!to!
the! lawful! occupant! of! the! premises! in! whose!
presence! the! search! and! seizure! were! made,! or! in!
the! absence! of! such! occupant,! must,! in! the!
presence!of!at!least!two!witnesses!of!sufficient!age!
and!discretion!residing!in!the!same!locality,!leave!a!
receipt! in! the! place! in! which! he! found! the! seized!
property.!
!
PEOPLE!V!LACBANES!
Facts:! Cesar! Lacbanes! was! convicted! by! the! Palo,!
Leyte! RTC! for! violating! Art.! II! Sec.! 4! of! RA! 6425!
(Dangerous! Drugs! Act).! In! this! appeal! he! claims!
entrapment! was! never! clearly! established! by! the!
prosecution's! evidence.! The! prosecution! relied! on!
the! testimony! of! PFC! Rosales,! member! of! the!
Tacloban! Police! Station! Narcotics! Section.!
!
Events-according-to-Rosales:!his!command!received!

info! that! Lacbanes! had! been! selling! marijuana!


cigarettes! in! Tacloban! City.! Surveillance! was! done,!
then! a! buyXbust! operation! was! set! up.! 4:15!
p.m.,Oct.! 3,! 1986! at! the! corner! of! Burgos! and!
Tarcela! Streets,! Tacloban! City,! their! confidential!
agent! told! PFC! Rosales! and! team! members!
Patrolmen! Arpon! and! Buena,! Sgt.! Madriaga! and! Lt.!
Saranza,! that! he! contacted! Lacbanes.! The! team!
positioned! themselves! to! see! the! sale! clearly.! The!
agent! talked! to! Lacbanes,! handed! him! 2! marked!
P5.00! bills! and! received! suspected! marijuana!
cigarettes.! The! team! approached,! said! they! were!
members! of! the! Narcotics! Section! and! arrested!
Lacbanes.! They! found! the! bills! and! 3! sticks! of!
suspected! marijuana! cigarettes! with! him.! He! was!
brought! to! the! station.! Lacbanes! was! informed! of!
his! rights! prior! to! investigation,! and! he! understood!
them.!He!admitted!that!the!marijuana!with!him!was!
for!sale!and!that!his!friend!was!the!source.!But!they!
forgot!to!put!the!admission!of!guilt!down!in!writing.!
!
Events- according- to- Lacbanes:! he! was! sleeping! at!
home!from!2X4!p.m.,!and!woken!up!by!his!dad,!who!
told! him! that! Lt.! Saranza,! (with! Arpon! and! Buena)!
wanted!to!take!him!to!the!station.!He!was!asked!if!
he!knew!the!whereabouts!of!Cresencio!de!la!Cruz
upon! denial,! he! was! forced! to! sign! a! paper! which!
turned! out! to! be! a! receipt! for! seized! property! (the!
bills! and! marijuana).! He! denied! knowing! Rosales!
and!said!he!was!not!there.!Since!the!agent!was!not!
presented! in! court,! he! also! claims! that! Rosales!
testimony! was! equivalent! to! hearsay,! and! it!
amounted!to!a!violation!of!his!constitutional!right!to!
know! the! witnesses! against! him! and! meet! them! in!
court.!He!also!alleged!that!the!marked!bills!werent!
presented!as!proof!before!the!trial!court.!
!
Issue:!Is-the-conviction-still-valid?!
Held:! Yes.- RTC- AFFIRMED.- The! marked! bills! were!
presented! as! proof! during! Rosales! direct!
examination,!and!the!agents!testimony!would!only!
be! used! to! corroborate! Rosales! testimony,! since!
Rosales! saw! the! entire! exchange! and! the! bills! and!
cigarettes! are! there! as! proof.! The- testimony- of- alone- prosecution- witness,- as- long- as- it- is- positiveand-clear-and-not-arising-from-an-improper-motiveto- impute- a- serious- offense- to- the- accused,deserves- full- credit.! Lacbanes! denial! is! not!

71!

enoughif! he! wanted! to! use! his! alibi! of! being! at!
home,! he! shouldve! presented! his! father! to! testify.!
The! defense! of! frame! up! is! not! valid! here! either!
because! theres! no! clear! or! convincing! evidence! of!
it.! However,! the! Court! said- that- the- receiptpurportedly- signed- by- Lacbanes- was- inadmissibleas- evidence,- because- the- prosecution- failed- toprove- that- he- was- assisted- by- counsel- at- thetimemaking- it- a- violation- of- his- right- to- remainsilent.!
!
!
2. DELIVERY! OF! PROPERTY! AND! INVENTORY;!
RETURN!AND!PROCEEDINGS!ON!THE!RETURN!
!
RULE,! SEC! 126! Section- 12.! Delivery' of' property' and'
inventory' thereof' to' court;' return' and' proceedings'
thereon.! ! (a)! The! officer! must! forthwith! deliver! the!
property! seized! to! the! judge! who! issued! the! warrant,!
together! with! a! true! inventory! thereof! duly! verified!
under!oath.!
(b)! Ten! (10)! days! after! issuance! of! the! search! warrant,!
the! issuing! judge! shall! ascertain! if! the! return! has! been!
made,! and! if! none,! shall! summon! the! person! to! whom!
the!warrant!was!issued!and!require!him!to!explain!why!
no! return! was! made.! If! the! return! has! been! made,! the!
judge!shall!ascertain!whether!section!11!of!this!Rule!has!
been! complained! with! and! shall! require! that! the!
property!seized!be!delivered!to!him.!The!judge!shall!see!
to!it!that!subsection!(a)!hereof!has!been!complied!with.!
(c)! The! return! on! the! search! warrant! shall! be! filed! and!
kept! by! the! custodian! of! the! log! book! on! search!
warrants!who!shall!enter!therein!the!date!of!the!return,!
the!result,!and!other!actions!of!the!judge.!
A' violation' of' this' section' shall' constitute'
contempt'of'court'
PEOPLE!VS!GESMUNDO!(SUPRA)!
!
III.
REMEDIES!
AGAINST!
UNREASONABLE!
SEARCH!AND!SEIZURE!
!
RULE!126!Section-14.!Motion'to'quash'a'search'warrant'
or' to' suppress' evidence;' where' to' file.! ! A! motion! to!
quash! a! search! warrant! and/or! to! suppress! evidence!
obtained! thereby! may! be! filed! in! and! acted! upon! only!
by!the!court!where!the!action!has!been!instituted.!If!no!
criminal!action!has!been!instituted,!the!motion!may!be!
filed!in!and!resolved!by!the!court!that!issued!the!search!
warrant.! However,! if! such! court! failed! to! resolve! the!
motion! and! a! criminal! case! is! subsequent! filed! in!
another!court,!the!motion!shall!be!resolved!by!the!latter!
court!

72! !

!
RA! 8493! Section- 2.- Mandatory) Pre5Trial) in) Criminal)
Cases.! X! In! all! cases! cognizable! by! the! Municipal! Trial!
Court,! Municipal! Circuit! Trial! Court,! Metropolitan! Trial!
Court,!Regional!Trial!Court,!and!the!Sandiganbayan,!the!
justice! or! judge! shall,! after! arraignment,! order! a! preX
trial!conference!to!consider!the!following:!
(a)!Plea!bargaining;!
(b)!Stipulation!of!Facts;!
(c)!Marking!for!identification!of!evidence!of!parties;!
(d)! Waiver! of! objections! to! admissibility! of! evidence;!
and!
(e)! Such! other! matters! as! will! promote! a! fair! and!
expeditious!trial.!
!
RULE!118!
Section- 1.! Pre]trial;! mandatory' in' criminal' cases.! ! In!
all! criminal! cases! cognizable! by! the! Sandiganbayan,!
Regional!Trial!Court,!Metropolitan!Trial!Court,!Municipal!
Trial!Court!in!Cities,!Municipal!Trial!Court!and!Municipal!
Circuit!Trial!Court,!the!court!shall!after!arraignment!and!
within!thirty!(30)!days!from!the!date!the!court!acquires!
jurisdiction! over! the! person! of! the! accused,! unless! a!
shorter!period!is!provided!for!in!special!laws!or!circulars!
of! the! Supreme! Court,! order! a! preXtrial! conference! to!
consider!the!following:!
!(d)!waiver!of!objections!to!admissibility!of!evidence;!
!
!
STONEHILL!VS!DIOKNO!(SUPRA)!
!
!
BACHE!VS!RUIZ!
!
RAKAS!V!ILLINOIS!
Brief! Fact! Summary.! Passengers! in! a! car! attempted! to!
suppress!shotgun!shells!found!in!the!car.!
!
Synopsis! of! Rule! of! Law.! Rights! assured! by! the! Fourth!
Amendment! are! personal! rights! [which]! .! .! .! may! be!
enforced! by! exclusion! of! evidence! only! at! the! instance!
of! one! whose! own! protection! was! infringed! by! the!
search!and!seizure,!not!vicariously.!
Facts.! Police! officers! stopped! a! car! matching! the!
description!of!the!getaway!car!in!a!robbery.!Petitioners!
were!passengers;!neither!owned!the!car.!A!shot!gun!and!
ammunition! were! found! in! the! car.! Petitioners! motion!
to!suppress!was!denied!for!lack!of!standing.!
!
Issue.! [W]hether! standing! [can]! be! established! in! the!
absence!of!ownership!of!the!property!seized.!
eld.! No.! Despite! the! petitioners! arguments,! the! Court!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 73!
!
did!not!accept!the!target!theory,!and!reaffirmed!Jones!
v.! United! States.! The! petitioners! had! no! standing.! The!
Court! further! distinguished! from! Jones! in! that! the!
petitioners!did!no!have!a!legally!sufficient!interest!in!a!
place!other!than!his!own!home.!The!petitioners!could!
[not]! legitimately! expect! privacy! in! the! areas! which!
were!the!subject!of!the!search!and!seizure!each!sought!
to!contest.!
Discussion.!The!capacity!to!claim!the!protection!of!the!
Fourth!Amendment!depends!not!upon!a!property!right!
in!the!invaded!place,!but!upon!whether!the!person!who!
claims!
!
PAPER!INDUSTRIES!CORP!VS!ASUNCION!(SUPRA)!
B. RETURN!OF!PROPERTY!ILLEGALLY!SEIZED!
!
UY!KHEYTHIN!V!VILLAREAL!
XOn!April!30,!1919,!one!Ramon!Gayanilo,!corporal!of!the!
Philippine! Constabulary,! presented! to! the! judge! of! the!
Court!of!First!Instance!of!Iloilo!an!application!for!search!
warrant,! the! said! Ramon! Gayanilo! stating! in! his!
application;!"That!in!the!house!of!Chino!Uy!Kheytin,!Sto.!
Nio! St.,! No.! 20,! Iloilo,! under! the! writing! desk! in! his!
store,!there!is!kept!a!certain!amount!of!opium."!
X!Armed!with!that!search!warrant,!the!respondent!M.!S.!
Torralba,! on! the! same! day! (April! 30th)! searched! the!
house!of!the!petitioner!Uy!Kheytin!and!found!therein!60!
small! cans! of! opium.! They! wanted! to! search! also! the!
bodega! on! the! groundXfloor! of! the! house,! but! Uy!
Kheytin! positively! denied! that! it! was! his! or! that! he!
rented! it.! Lt.! Torralba! wanted! to! be! sure,! and! for! this!
reason,! he! placed! a! guard! in! the! premises! to! see! that!
nothing! was! removed! therefrom,! and! then! went! away!
to!find!out!who!the!owner!of!the!bodega!was.!The!next!
morning! he! learned! from! the! owner! of! the! house,! one!
Segovia,! of! the! town! of! Molo,! that! the! Chinaman! Uy!
Kheytin! was! the! one! who! was! renting! the! bodega.!
Thereupon! Lt.! Torralba! and! his! subordinates! resumed!
the!search!and!then!and!there!found!and!seized!articles!
which!were!all!with!connection!to!the!using!of!opium.!
X! A! criminal! complaint! was! filed! in! the! court! of! the!
justice! of! the! peace! of! Iloilo! against! all! the! petitioners!
herein,! charging! them! with! a! violation! of! the! Opium!
Law.!They!were!duly!arrested.!
XDefendants!urged:!(1)!that!the!search!warrant!of!April!
30! was! illegal! because! the! requisites! prescribed! by! the!
General!Orders!No.!58!had!not!been!complied!with!in!its!
issuance!(specifically'(a)'because'it'was'not'issued'upon'
either'of'the'grounds'mentioned'in'section'96'of'General'

Orders'No.'58,'and'(b)'because'the'judge'who'issued'it'
did' not' determine' the' probable' cause' by' examining'
witnesses' under' oath);' (2)! that! the! searches! and!
seizures!made!on!May!1st!had!been!made!without!any!
semblance! of! authority! and! hence! illegal;! and! (3)! that!
the! seizure! of! the! defendants'! books! and! letters! was! a!
violation! of! the! provisions! of! the! Jones! Law! providing!
that! no! person! shall! be! compelled! to! testify! against!
himself,! and! protecting! him! against! unreasonable!
searches!and!seizures.!
Issue:-WON!the!defendants!positions!are!with!merit.!
Ruling-(s):-1.!That!although!in!the!issuance!of!the!search!warrant!in!
question! the! judge! did! not! comply! with! the!
requirements! of! section! 98! of! General! Orders! No.! 58,!
the! petitioners! are! not! entitled! to! the! return! of! the!
opium! and! its! paraphernalia! which! were! found! and!
seized! under! said! warrant,! and! much! less! are! they!
entitled! to! be! exonerated! because! of! such! omission! of!
the!judge.!
2.!That!the!search!made!on!May!1st!was!a!continuation!
of! the! search! begun! on! the! previous! day,! and,!
therefore,!did!not!require!another!search!warrant.!
3.! That! the! seizure! of! the! petitioner's! books,! letters,!
telegrams,! and! other! articles! which! have! no! inherent!
relation!with!opium!and!the!possession!of!which!is!not!
forbidden! by! law,! was! illegal! and! in! violation! of! the!
petitioners'!constitutional!rights.!
RD:-(Contention!#!1)!!
XSEC.!96.!of!General!Orders!No.!58!provide:!!It!(a!search!
warrant)! may! be! issued! upon! either! of! the! following!
grounds:! 1.! When! the! property! was! stolen! or!
embezzled.! ;! 2.! When! it! was! used! or! when! the! intent!
exists!to!use!it!as!the!means!of!committing!a!felony.!
XSuffice! it! to! say! that,! whatever! may! be! the! technical!
commonXlaw! meaning! of! the! word! "felony",! which! is!
used!in!paragraph!2!of!sec.!96!above!quoted,!the!Court!
believes! it! would! be! the! height! of! absurdity! to! hold,!
upon! technical! grounds,! that! a! search! warrant! is! illegal!
which!is!issued!to!search!for!and!seize!property!the!very!
possession!of!which!is!forbidden!by!law!and!constitutes!
a!crime.!Opium!is!such!property.!
X! SearchXwarrants! have! heretofore! been! allowed! to!
search!for!material!so!kept!as!to!endanger!the!public!
safety.!
X! A! search! warrant! may! be! likened! to! a! warrant! of!
arrest.! The! issuance! of! both! is! restricted! by! the! same!
provision! of! the! Jones! Law! (sec.! 3)! which! is! as! follows:!

73!

That' no' warrant' shall' issue' but' upon' probable' cause,'


supported' by' oath' or' affirmation,' and' particularly'
describing' the' place' to' be' searched' and' the' person' or'
thing'to'be'seized.!
X! In! the! present! case! there! was! an! irregularity! in! the!
issuance! of! the! search! warrant! in! question! in! that! the!
judge! did! not! first! examine! the! complainant! or! any!
witnesses! under! oath.! But! the! property! sought! to! be!
searched! for! and! seized! having! been! actually! found! in!
the! place! described! by! the! complainant,! reasoning! by!
analogy!from!the!case!of!an!improper!arrest,!we!are!of!
the!opinion!that!that!irregularity!is!not!sufficient!cause!
for! ordering! the! return! of! the! opium! found! and! seized!
under!said!warrant,!to!the!petitioners,!and!exonerating!
the!latter.!
(Contention!#!2)!
X!While!it!is!true!that!a!warrant!is!good!for!10!days!after!
the!date!of!issuance,!this!cannot!be!interpreted!to!mean!
that!a!search!warrant!can!be!used!every!day!for!10!days,!
and! for! a! different! purpose! each! day.! This! would! be!
absurd.!
XIt! appears! from! the! oral! evidence! adduced! during! the!
hearing! of! the! petitioners'! motion! in! the! court! below!
that! the! search! for! opium,! the! property! mentioned! in!
the! warrant,! was! not! completed! on! April! 30th;! it! was!
interrupted!by!the!necessity!to!ascertain!who!the!owner!
of! the! bodega! on! the! groundXfloor! was,! because! the!
petitioner! Uy! Kheytin! falsely! disclaimed! ownership!
thereof.!In!other!words,!the!search!of!May!1st!was!not!
made! "for! a! different! purpose,"! nor! could! it! be!
considered! "another! search,"! but! was! really! a!
continuation! of! the! search! begun! on! April! 30th.! This! is!
shown!by!the!fact!that!during!the!interval!between!the!
two!searches!the!premises!in!question!were!guarded!by!
Constabulary!soldiers,!and!the!petitioners!were!made!to!
understand!on!April!30th!that!the!authorities!were!not!
yet! through! with! the! search! and! would! continue! the!
same! as! soon! as! they! found! out! that! the! bodega! was!
also!occupied!by!the!petitioner!Uy!Kheytin.!
(Contention!#!3)!
X! In! order! to! comply! with! the! constitutional! provisions!
regulating!the!issuance!of!search!warrants,!the!property!
to! be! seized! under! a! warrant! must! be! particularly!
described! therein! and! no! other! property! can! be! taken!
thereunder.!
X! That! the! officers! of! the! law! believed! that! the! books,!
papers,! etc.,! which! they! seized! might! be! used! as!
evidence!against!the!petitioners!herein!a!criminal!action!
against! them! for! a! violation! of! the! Opium! Law,! is! no!
reason! or! justification! under! the! law! for! the! seizure:!
First,!because!they!were!not!"particularly!described"!or!
even! mentioned! in! the! search! warrant;! second,!

74! !

because,!even!if!they!had!been!mentioned!in!the!search!
warrant,! they! could! not! be! legally! seized,! for! a! search!
warrant! cannot! be! used! for! the! purpose! of! obtaining!
evidence;! and! third,! because! to! compel! a! person! to!
produce! his! private! papers! to! be! used! in! evidence!
against! him! would! be! equivalent! to! compelling! him! to!
be!a!witness!against!himself.!
!
!
MAGONICA!V!PALACIO!
Facts:! Zacarias! Magoncia! was! arrested! for! the! crime! of!
robbery! gang! committed! in! the! house! of! Hilario!
Enovejas! Ariston! in! the! neighborhood! of! the! town! of!
Asingan,! Pangasinan.! Without! search! warrant,! they!
made! the! seizure,! the! wife! of! accused! rebuked! them!
"why!search!the!house!when!my!husband!is!away?"The!
cops! found! in! the! home! a!paltik!,! shotgun! clandestine!
manufacture! a! hand! grenade,! a! box! that! contained! 42!
bullets!and!some!pieces!of!cotton!cloth!Hilario!Property!
Enovejas,! homeowner! assaulted.! In! this! criminal! case!
for! illegal! possession! of! firearms,! the! defendant! filed! a!
motion!on!January!8,!1947!asking!the!court!to!order!the!
return! of! illegally! seized! the! effects! of! the! four!
policemen!of!Asingan,!Pangasinan!and!an!order!that!the!
Provincial! Prosecutor! desist! from! using! such! defects! as!
evidence! at! the! hearing.!! Confident! reports! received,!
the!Chief!of!Police!instead!of!asking!for!a!search!warrant!
from! a! judge! ordered! four! policemen! recording! the!
defendant's! home! and! found! stolen! pieces! of! fabric!
together!with!a!paltik,!ammunition!and!hand!grenade!
!
!Issue:!WON!the!items!seized!may!be!returned!!
!
Held:!No.!The!search!of!the!house!of!Zachary!Magoncia!
made! by! four! police! officers,! on! orders! of! the! chief! of!
police! of! Asingan,! over! the! objections! of! Magoncia's!
wife!who!protested!that!the!search!was!being!made!in!
her! husband's! absence,! was! absolutely! illegal.!The!
searching! officers! did! not! have! any! search! warrant!
provided.!! In! the! course! of! the! illegal! search,! the!
searching! officers! found! in! Magoncia's! house! to!paltik!,!
a!gun,!a!hand!grenade,!and!a!container!containing!fortyX
two!case!ammunitions,!the!possession!of!all!of!Which!is!
punishable! by! law! and! prohibited.!An! information! for!
illegal! possession! of! firearms! was! filed! against!
Magoncia.!His! motion,! dated! January! 8,! 1947,! praying!
That!the!above!effects!be!returned!to!him.!To!order!the!
return! of! the! prohibited! weapons! to! Magoncia! is! to!
justify! an! illegality! or! criminal! offense.!The! illegality! of!
the!search!is!independent!from!the!illegal!possession!of!
prohibited! arms.!The! illegality! of! the! search! did! not!
make! legal! an! illegal! possession! of! firearms.!! Do! not!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 75!
!
confuse!the!possession!of!a!thing!which!is!susceptible!to!
legal!appropriation!and!is!the!subject!of!free!trade,!like!
watch,!a!box!of!firearms!whose!possession!is!prohibited.!
Possession! of! a! firearm! without! a! license! is! a! flagrant!
violation!of!law!and!is!subject!to!an!arrest!the!possessor!
and!contraband!can!be!seized!!
!
COLLECTOR!VS!VILLALUZ!
Facts:! Petitioner! Collector! of! Customs,! Salvador! T.!
Mascardo! filed! against! Cesar! T.! Makapugay,! a! letter!
complaint!with!respondent!Judge!of!the!Circuit!Criminal!
Court! for! violation! of! NIRC,! Central! Bank! Circular! 265!
and! RA! 1937! claiming! that! Cesar! T.! Makapugay! "with!
malicious! intention! to! defraud! the! government!
criminally,! willfully! and! feloniously! brought! into! the!
country! FORTY! (40)! cartons! of! "untaxed! blue! seal"!
Salem! cigarettes! and! FIVE! (5)! bottles! of! Johny! Walker!
Scotch! Whiskey,! also! "untaxed",! without! the! necessary!
permit! from! the! proper! authorities.! The! respondent!
submitted! a! Baggage! Declaration! Entry! which! did! not!
declare! the! said! articles.! Respondent! Judge! assumed!
jurisdiction!to!conduct!and!did!conduct!the!preliminary!
investigation,!and!on!July!6,!1971,!issued!the!challenged!
order,!dismissing!"the!case!with!prejudice!and!ordering!
the! return! to! private! respondent! the! amount! of!
P2,280.00,!his!passport!No.!AgX2456!FA!X!No.!B103813,!
and! one! (1)! box! of! airXconditioning! evaporator! only,! as!
well! as! the! forfeiture! of! forty! (40)! cartons! of! untaxed!
blue!seal!Salem!cigarettes!and!five!(5)!bottles!of!Johnny!
Walker! Scotch! Whiskey"! (p.! 13,! rec.).! Armed! with! said!
order,! private! respondent! Makapugay! demanded! that!
petitioner! release! the! articles! so! stated.! Petitioner!
Collector! of! Customs! refused! to! obey! the! order! due! to!
the! "prior! institution! of! seizure! proceedings! thereon."!
The! refusal! prompted! respondent! Makapugay! to! file! a!
complaint!for!"Open!Disobedience"!under!Article!231!of!
the! Revised! Penal! Code,! before! the! City! Fiscal! of! Pasay!
City.!Hence,!this!petition!for!certiorari!with!preliminary!
injunction,! seeking! to! annul! and! set! aside! the! order!
dated!July!6,!1971!on!the!ground!that!respondent!Judge!
has!no!power!to!conduct!a!preliminary!investigation!of!
criminal! complaints! directly! filed! with! him,! cannot!
legally!order!the!dismissal!"with!prejudice"!of!a!criminal!
case! after! conducting! a! preliminary! investigation!
thereon,!and!is!without!authority!to!order!the!return!of!
articles! subject! of! seizure! proceedings! before! Customs!
authorities.!In!these!six!cases,!one!common!legal!issue!is!
whether!a!Circuit!Criminal!Court!possesses!the!power!to!
conduct! preliminary! investigations! which! is! significant!

to!determine!whether!items!may!be!returned!or!not.!!
!
Issue:!WON!the!items!seized!may!be!returned!!
!
Held:! The! dismissal! of! a! case,! even! with! prejudice,!
during! the! stage! of! preliminary! investigation! does! not!
bar! subsequent! prosecution! and! conviction! if! the!
evidence! warrants! the! reXfiling! of! the! same! becomes!
next! to! impossible.! For! the! enforcement! of! such! order!
would! virtually! deprive! herein! petitioner! Collector! of!
Customs! of! the! evidence! indispensable! to! a! successful!
prosecution!of!the!case!against!the!private!respondent.!
Worse,! the! order! nullified! the! power! of! seizure! of! the!
customs! official.! Respondent! Judge! ignored! the!
established! principle! that! from! the! moment! imported!
goods! are! actually! in! the! possession! or! control! of! the!
Customs! authorities,! even! if! no! warrant! of! seizure! had!
previously! been! issued! by! the! Collector! of! Customs! in!
connection!with!seizure!and!forfeiture!proceedings,!the!
Bureau! of! Customs! acquires! exclusive! jurisdiction! over!
such! imported! goods! for! the! purpose! of! enforcing! the!
Customs!laws,!subject!to!an!appeal!only!to!the!Court!of!
Tax! Appeals! and! to! final! review! by! the! Supreme! Court.!
Such! exclusive! jurisdiction! precludes! the! Court! of! First!
Instance! as! well! as! the! Circuit! Criminal! Court! from!
assuming! cognizance! of! the! subject! matter! and! divests!
such! courts! of! the! prerogative! to! replevin! properties!
subject! to! seizure! and! forfeiture! proceedings! for!
violation! of! the! Tariff! and! Customs! Code! because!
proceedings! for! the! forfeiture! of! goods! illegally!
imported! are! not! criminal! in! nature! since! they! do! not!
result! in! the! conviction! of! wrongdoer! nor! in! the!
imposition!upon!him!of!a!penalty.!
!
!
MATA!VS!BAYONA!
Soriano! Mata! was! accused! under! Presidential! Decree!
(PD)! 810,! as! amended! by! PD! 1306,! the! information!
against! him! alleging! that! Soriano! Mata! offered,! took!
and!arranged!bets!on!the!Jai!Alai!game!by!"selling!illegal!
tickets!known!as!'Masiao!tickets'!without!any!authority!
from! the! Philippine! Jai! Alai! &! Amusement! Corporation!
or! from! the! government! authorities! concerned."! Mata!
claimed! that! during! the! hearing! of! the! case,! he!
discovered! that! nowhere! from! the! records! of! the! said!
case! could! be! found! the! search! warrant! and! other!
pertinent! papers! connected! to! the! issuance! of! the!
same,! so! that! he! had! to! inquire! from! the! City! Fiscal! its!

75!

whereabouts,! and! to! which! inquiry! Judge! Josephine! K.!


Bayona,! presiding! Jufe! of! the! City! Court! of! Ormoc!
replied,! "it! is! with! the! court".! The! Judge! then! handed!
the! records! to! the! Fiscal! who! attached! them! to! the!
records.! This! led! Mata! to! file! a! motion! to! quash! and!
annul! the! search! warrant! and! for! the! return! of! the!
articles! seized,! citing! and! invoking,! among! others,!
Section!4!of!Rule!126!of!the!Revised!Rules!of!Court.!The!
motion! was! denied! by! the! Judge! on! 1! March! 1979,!
stating! that! the! court! has! made! a! thorough!
investigation! and! examination! under! oath! of! Bernardo!
U.! Goles! and! Reynaldo! T.! Mayote,! members! of! the!
Intelligence! Section! of! 352nd! PC! Co./Police! District! II!
INP;! that! in! fact! the! court! made! a! certification! to! that!
effect;!and!that!the!fact!that!documents!relating!to!the!
search! warrant! were! not! attached! immediately! to! the!
record!of!the!criminal!case!is!of!no!moment,!considering!
that! the! rule! does! not! specify! when! these! documents!
are! to! be! attached! to! the! records.! Mata's! motion! for!
reconsideration! of! the! aforesaid! order! having! been!
denied,! he! came! to! the! Supreme! Court,! with! the!
petition! for! certiorari,! praying,! among! others,! that! the!
Court! declare! the! search! warrant! to! be! invalid! for! its!
alleged! failure! to! comply! with! the! requisites! of! the!
Constitution! and! the! Rules! of! Court,! and! that! all! the!
articles!confiscated!under!such!warrant!as!inadmissible!
as! evidence! in! the! case,! or! in! any! proceedings! on! the!
matter.!!
Issue:- Whether! the! judge! must! before! issuing! the!
warrant! personally! examine! on! oath! or! affirmation! the!
complainant! and! any! witnesses! he! may! produce! and!
take!their!depositions!in!writing,!and!attach!them!to!the!
record,!in!addition!to!any!affidavits!presented!to!him.!!
Held:- Under! the! Constitution! "no! search! warrant! shall!
issue!but!upon!probable!cause!to!be!determined!by!the!
Judge! or! such! other! responsible! officer! as! may! be!
authorized! by! law! after! examination! under! oath! or!
affirmation! of! the! complainant! and! the! witnesses! he!
may! produce".! More! emphatic! and! detailed! is! the!
implementing! rule! of! the! constitutional! injunction,! The!
Rules! provide! that! the! judge! must! before! issuing! the!
warrant! personally! examine! on! oath! or! affirmation! the!
complainant! and! any! witnesses! he! may! produce! and!
take!their!depositions!in!writing,!and!attach!them!to!the!
record,! in! addition! to! any! affidavits! presented! to! him.!
Mere! affidavits! of! the! complainant! and! his! witnesses!
are!thus!not!sufficient.!The!examining!Judge!has!to!take!
depositions! in! writing! of! the! complainant! and! the!
witnesses! he! may! produce! and! to! attach! them! to! the!
record.! Such! written! deposition! is! necessary! in! order!

76! !

that! the! Judge! may! be! able! to! properly! determine! the!
existence! or! nonexistence! of! the! probable! cause,! to!
hold! liable! for! perjury! the! person! giving! it! if! it! will! be!
found! later! that! his! declarations! are! false.! We,!
therefore,! hold! that! the! search! warrant! is! tainted! with!
illegality!by!the!failure!of!the!Judge!to!conform!with!the!
essential! requisites! of! taking! the! depositions! in! writing!
and!attaching!them!to!the!record,!rendering!the!search!
warrant!invalid.!!
!
C. CRIMINAL!LIABILITY!AND!CIVIL!DAMAGES!
!
REVISED!PENAL!CODE!
Section!Two.!!Violation!of!domicile!!
Art.!128.!Violation!of!domicile.!!The!penalty!of!prision!
correccional! in! its! minimum! period! shall! be! imposed!
upon! any! public! officer! or! employee! who,! not! being!
authorized! by! judicial! order,! shall! enter! any! dwelling!
against!the!will!of!the!owner!thereof,!search!papers!or!
other! effects! found! therein! without! the! previous!
consent! of! such! owner,! or! having! surreptitiously!
entered! said! dwelling,! and! being! required! to! leave! the!
premises,!shall!refuse!to!do!so.!!
If!the!offense!be!committed!in!the!nightXtime,!or!if!any!
papers! or! effects! not! constituting! evidence! of! a! crime!
be! not! returned! immediately! after! the! search! made! by!
the!offender,!the!penalty!shall!be!prision!correccional!in!
its!medium!and!maximum!periods.!!
Art.! 129.! Search! warrants! maliciously! obtained! and!
abuse! in! the! service! of! those! legally! obtained.! ! In!
addition!to!the!liability!attaching!to!the!offender!for!the!
commission!of!any!other!offense,!the!penalty!of!arresto!
mayor!in!its!maximum!period!to!prision!correccional!in!
its! minimum! period! and! a! fine! not! exceeding! P1,000!
pesos! shall! be! imposed! upon! any! public! officer! or!
employee! who! shall! procure! a! search! warrant! without!
just! cause,! or,! having! legally! procured! the! same,! shall!
exceed! his! authority! or! use! unnecessary! severity! in!
executing!the!same.!!
Art.! 130.! Searching! domicile! without! witnesses.! ! The!
penalty! of! arresto! mayor! in! its! medium! and! maximum!
periods! shall! be! imposed! upon! a! public! officer! or!
employee!who,!in!cases!where!a!search!is!proper,!shall!
search! the! domicile,! papers! or! other! belongings! of! any!
person,!in!the!absence!of!the!latter,!any!member!of!his!
family,!or!in!their!default,!without!the!presence!of!two!
witnesses!residing!in!the!same!locality.!!

CRIMPROMIDTERMS+CADC- 77!
!
Art.! 206.! Unjust! interlocutory! order.! ! Any! judge! who!
shall!knowingly!render!an!unjust!interlocutory!order!or!
decree! shall! suffer! the! penalty! of! arresto! mayor! in! its!
minimum! period! and! suspension;! but! if! he! shall! have!
acted!by!reason!of!inexcusable!negligence!or!ignorance!
and! the! interlocutory! order! or! decree! be! manifestly!
unjust,!the!penalty!shall!be!suspension.!!
MHP!GARMENTS!V!CA!
MHP!Garments!was!granted!by!the!Boy!Scouts!of!the!
Phils.! an! exclusive! franchise! to! sell! and!
distribute! official! boy! Scout! uniforms,! supplies,!
badges!and!insignias.!It!was!also!given!authority!
to! undertake! the! prosecution! in! court! of! all!
illegal! sources! of! scout! uniforms! and! other!
scouting!supplies.!!!
Accordingly,! MHP! tasked! its! employee,! Larry! de!
Guzman!to!undertake!surveillance!and!report!to!
the!PC!of!the!activities!of!the!respondents!who!
were! reported! to! selling! Scout! uniforms! and!
paraphernalia!without!authority.!!!

The!members!of!the!PC!raiding!team!should!have!been!
included! in! the! complaint! for! violation! of! the!
respondents! constitutional! rights.! Still,! the! omission!
will!not!exculpate!MHP!Garments!and!De!Guzman.!!
TC! was! correct! in! granting! damages! to! respondents.!
MHP!Garments!and!De!Guzman!were!indirectly'involved!
in! transgressing! the! right! of! respondents! against!
unreasonable!searches!and!seizures.!!
Raid! was! conducted! with! the! active! participation! of!
employee! De! Guzman.! He! did! not! lift! a! finger! to! stop!
the!seizure!of!the!boy!and!girl!scout!items.!By!standing!
by! and! apparently! assenting! thereto,! he! was! liable! to!
the!same!extent!as!the!officers!themselves.!!
So! with! the! MHP! Garments! which! even! received! for!
safekeeping! the! goods! unreasonably! seized! by! the! PC!
raiding!team!and!De!Guzman,!and!refused!to!surrender!
them! for! quite! a! time! despite! the! dismissal! of! its!
complaint!against!respondents.!!
If! petitioners! did! not! have! a! hand! in! the! raid,! they!
should! have! filed! a! 3rd! party! complaint! against! the!

De! Guzman! and! 3! constabulary! men! went! to! the!


stores! of! respondents! and! seized! Scout!
uniforms! without! warrant,! causing! commotion!
and!embarassment!to!respondents.!!!

raiding! team! for! contribution! or! any! other! relief.! They!


did!not.!!

Subsequently,! a! criminal! complaint! for! unfair!


competition! was! filed! against! respondents.!
Fiscal!dismissed!the!complaint!and!ordered!the!
return!of!the!seized!articles.!!!

3.!Defamation,!fraud,!and!physical!injuries!!

!Thereafter,! the! respondents! filed! a! civil! case! against!


petitioners!for!sums!of!money!and!damages.!TC!ordered!
petitioners!to!pay.!CA!affirmed.!!

Judgment)affirmed)with)modification.)!

Art.! 33.! In! cases! of! defamation,! fraud,! and! physical!


injuries!a!civil!action!for!damages,!entirely!separate!and!
distinct!from!the!criminal!action,!may!be!brought!by!the!
injured! party.! Such! civil! action! shall! proceed!
independently! of! the! criminal! prosecution,! and! shall!
require!only!a!preponderance!of!evidence.!!

ISSUE:-WON!petitioners!should!be!held!liable!

HELD:-Yes!!

SC!held!that!the!evidence!did!not!justify!the!warrantless!
search!and!seizure!of!respondents!goods:!!

progression! of! time! between! the! receipt! of! the!


information!and!the!raid!of!the!stores!shows!there!was!
sufficient! time! to! apply! for! a! judicial! warrant.!no!
probable!cause!for!the!seizure!!

77!