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Equation of linear motion.

Motion graphs could be used to study motion:

i) v = u+ at
ii) s =

1
2

iii) s= ut +

A displacement-time graph
Gradient
of the graph is equal to
(u + v)t
the velocity of the object
The horizontal line (Gradient = 0)
1
means object is at rest
2
2 at

iv)v2 = u2 + 2as

negative gradient means object is


moving at opposite direction

A velocity-time graph
Gradient represents the
acceleration of the object
The horizontal line (Gradient = 0)
means object is moving with a
constant velocity
negative gradient means object is
experiencing decceleration

INERTIA
Newtons first law:
Every object continues in its
state of rest of uniform speed
in a straight line unless acted
upon by an external force

-Also known as the law of inertia


Several situation involving inertia:

1.

Mass v.s. inertia


-

2.

The bus started moving forward


Due to the womans body who was at
rest the inertia keep the woman in her
position.
She lurches backwards as the result of
external force applied.

Due to the gravity acting on the coin, the


coin will drop down.
It will not follow the movement of the
card as its original inertia is at rest.
This is due to the short time for the
friction to cause any appreciable
movement of the coin.

An inertia do not have any unit


The mass is a measure for the body
of the inertia
The greater the mass, the larger the
inertia.

1) The bucket with sand will be difficult to push


compared to the empty ones.
2) Due to the larger mass, the sand bucket has a
larger inertia.

3) It is also harder to stop the bucket with sand.

APPLICATION OF INERTIA
I) When chased by a bull, run in a zigzag
pattern. The bull having a bigger inertia will
have difficulty turning around.
2) Branch of an apple tree is shaken to let the
apples fall. The apple which is at rest will
experience strain as the tree moves suddenly. It
breaks away from the branch.
3) Chilli sauce can be forced out from the bottle
with a quick downward motion, followed by a
sudden stop. The sauce will continue its
movement downwards.
4) The heavier the sumo wrestlers, the more
advantageous it is. Bigger inertia resists the
opponent from toppling them over.

WAYS TO REDUCE NEGATIVE EFFECT


OF INERTIA
i) Seat belts
-If the car stops suddenly, the seat belt prevent
driver from being thrown forward.
ii) Airbag system
- Inflates automatically in a collision, preventing
the driver or passenger from crashing into
dashboard.
iii) Strong structure behind the drivers cabin.
- If a lorry stops suddenly, its load will move
forward, causing it to crash into the drivers
cabin. A sturdy metal structure can be place to
prevent this.
iv) Subdivide the mass to reduce inertia.
By dividing the liquid, the inertia of the liquid is
reduced in each container, helping to increase
the impact time when it brakes suddenly.