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# PROBLEM 2.

5
KNOWN: Symmetric shape with prescribed variation in cross-sectional area, temperature
distribution and heat rate.
FIND: Expression for the thermal conductivity, k.
SCHEMATIC:

## ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) One-dimensional conduction in x-direction, (3)

No internal heat generation.
ANALYSIS: Applying the energy balance, Eq. 1.12c, to the system, it follows that, since

E in E out ,
q x Constant f x .
Using Fouriers law, Eq. 2.1, with appropriate expressions for Ax and T, yields

dT
dx
d
K
6000W=-k 1-x m 2 300 1 2x-x 3 .
m
dx
q x k A x

k=

-6000

1-x 300

2 3x 2

20

1 x

2 3x 2

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## COMMENTS: (1) At x = 0, k = 10W/mK and k as x 1. (2) Recognize that the 1-D

assumption is an approximation which becomes more inappropriate as the area change with x, and
hence two-dimensional effects, become more pronounced.

PROBLEM 2.8
KNOWN: Temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity, k(T), for heat transfer through a
plane wall.
FIND: Effect of k(T) on temperature distribution, T(x).
ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction, (2) Steady-state conditions, (3) No internal heat
generation.
ANALYSIS: From Fouriers law and the form of k(T),

qx k

dT
dT
k o aT .
dx
dx

(1)

2
2
The shape of the temperature distribution may be inferred from knowledge of d T/dx = d(dT/dx)/dx.
Since q x is independent of x for the prescribed conditions,

dqx
d
dT
- k o aT 0
dx
dx
dx
2
2
d T
dT
k o aT
a 0.
dx
dx 2
Hence,

d 2T

-a dT

dx 2 k o aT dx

k o aT=k>0

where dT 2
dx 0

## a > 0: d 2 T / dx2 < 0

a = 0: d 2 T / dx2 0
a < 0: d 2 T / dx 2 > 0.

COMMENTS: The shape of the distribution could also be inferred from Eq. (1). Since T decreases
with increasing x,
a > 0: k decreases with increasing x = > | dT/dx | increases with increasing x
a = 0: k = ko = > dT/dx is constant
a < 0: k increases with increasing x = > | dT/dx | decreases with increasing x.

PROBLEM 2.23
KNOWN: Identical samples of prescribed diameter, length and density initially at a uniform
temperature Ti, sandwich an electric heater which provides a uniform heat flux q o for a period of
time to. Conditions shortly after energizing and a long time after de-energizing heater are
prescribed.
FIND: Specific heat and thermal conductivity of the test sample material. From these properties,
identify type of material using Table A.1 or A.2.
SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One dimensional heat transfer in samples, (2) Constant properties, (3)
Negligible heat loss through insulation, (4) Negligible heater mass.
ANALYSIS: Consider a control volume about the samples
and heater, and apply conservation of energy over the time
interval from t = 0 to

E in E out E = E f E i
Pt o 0 Mcp T Ti
where energy inflow is prescribed by the power condition and the final temperature T f is known.
Solving for cp,

cp

Pt o
15 W 120 s

## M T Ti 2 3965 kg/m3 0.0602 / 4 m 2 0.010 m 33.50-23.00 C

<

c p 765 J / kg K
2
where M = V = 2(D /4)L is the mass of both samples. The transient thermal response of the
heater is given by

Continued ..

## PROBLEM 2.23 (Cont.)

1/ 2

t
To t Ti 2qo

cp k
2
t 2qo
k=

cp To t Ti

2 2653 W/m 2

36.0 W/m K
k=
3965 kg/m3 765 J/kg K 24.57 - 23.00 C
30 s

<

where

qo

P
P
15 W

2653 W/m 2 .
2
2
2
2As 2 D / 4
2 0.060 / 4 m

## With the following properties now known,

= 3965 kg/m

cp = 765 J/kgK

k = 36 W/mK

entries in Table A.1 are scanned to determine whether these values are typical of a metallic material.
Consider the following,

## specific heats of both types of materials are of similar magnitude,

the low k value of the sample is typical of poor metallic conductors which generally have
much higher specific heats,

## more than likely, the material is nonmetallic.

From Table A.2, the second entry, polycrystalline aluminum oxide, has properties at 300 K
corresponding to those found for the samples.

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PROBLEM 2.30
KNOWN: Temperature distribution in a one-dimensional wall with prescribed thickness and thermal
conductivity.
FIND: (a) The heat generation rate, q& , in the wall, (b) Heat fluxes at the wall faces and relation to q& .
SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) One-dimensional heat flow, (3) Constant
properties.
ANALYSIS: (a) The appropriate form of the heat equation for steady-state, one-dimensional
conditions with constant properties is Eq. 2.21 re-written as

&
q=-k

d dT
dx dx

&
q=-k

d d
d

## a+bx 2 = k [ 2bx ] = 2bk

dx dx
dx

&
q=-2
-2000oC/m 2 50 W/m K=2.0 105 W/m3.

<

(b) The heat fluxes at the wall faces can be evaluated from Fouriers law,

qx ( x ) = k

dT
.
dx x

d
qx ( x ) = k
a+bx 2 = 2kbx.

dx

qx ( 0 ) = 0

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## qx ( L ) = 2kbL=-2 50W/m K -2000oC/m 2 0.050m

qx ( L ) = 10, 000 W/m 2 .
COMMENTS: From an overall energy balance on the wall, it follows that, for a unit area,

&
E& in E& out + E& g = 0
qx ( 0 ) qx ( L ) + qL=0
2
q ( L ) qx ( 0 ) 10, 000 W/m 0
& x
q=
=
= 2.0 105 W/m3.
L
0.050m

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PROBLEM 2.46
KNOWN: Temperature distribution in steam pipe insulation.
FIND: Whether conditions are steady-state or transient. Manner in which heat flux and heat rate
SCHEMATIC:

## ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction in r, (2) Constant properties.

ANALYSIS: From Equation 2.26, the heat equation reduces to

1 T 1 T
.
r

r r r t
Substituting for T(r),

1 T 1 C1

r 0.
t r r r

<

q r k

T
C
k 1 .
r
r

<

## At any radial location, the heat rate is

q r 2rLq r 2kC1L
Hence, qr is independent of r.

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COMMENTS: The requirement that qr is invariant with r is consistent with the energy conservation
requirement. If qr is constant, the flux must vary inversely with the area perpendicular to the direction
of heat flow. Hence, q r varies inversely with r.

PROBLEM 2.57
KNOWN: Plane wall, initially at a uniform temperature, is suddenly exposed to convective heating.
FIND: (a) Differential equation and initial and boundary conditions which may be used to find the
temperature distribution, T(x,t); (b) Sketch T(x,t) for these conditions: initial (t 0), steady-state, t
, and two intermediate times; (c) Sketch heat fluxes as a function of time for surface locations; (d)
3
Expression for total energy transferred to wall per unit volume (J/m ).
SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction, (2) Constant properties, (3) No internal heat
generation.
ANALYSIS: (a) For one-dimensional conduction with constant properties, the heat equation has the
form,

2T

1 T

x2 t

and the
conditions are:

Initial, t 0 : T x,0 Ti

## Boundaries: x=0 T/ x)0 0

x=L k T/ x) L = h T L,t T

uniform
convection

## (b) The temperature distributions are shown on the sketch.

Note that the gradient at x = 0 is always zero, since this boundary is adiabatic. Note also that the
gradient at x = L decreases with time.
(c) The heat flux, qx x,t , as a function of time, is shown on the sketch for the surfaces x = 0 and x
= L.

Continued

## For the surface at x 0, qx 0, t 0 since it is adiabatic. At x = L and t = 0, qx L,0 is a

maximum (in magnitude)

qx L,0 h T L,0 T
where T(L,0) = Ti. The temperature difference, and hence the flux, decreases with time.
(d) The total energy transferred to the wall may be expressed as

Ein qconv As dt
0

T T L,t dt
0

Ein hAs

Dividing both sides by AsL, the energy transferred per unit volume is

Ein h
T T L,t dt
V
L 0

J/m3

COMMENTS: Note that the heat flux at x = L is into the wall and is hence in the negative x
direction.