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PROBLEM 3.

5
KNOWN: Thermal conductivities and thicknesses of original wall, insulation layer, and glass layer.
Interior and exterior air temperatures and convection heat transfer coefficients.
FIND: Heat flux through original and retrofitted walls.
SCHEMATIC:
Glass, kg = 1.4 W/mK
Insulation, ki = 0.029 W/mK
T,i =22C
hi = 5 W/m2K

T,o = - 20C
ho = 25 W/m2K
Sheathing, ks = 0.1 W/mK

Ls = 25 mm
Li = 25 mm
Lg = 5 mm

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction, (2) Steady-state conditions, (3) Constant


properties, (4) Negligible contact resistances.
ANALYSIS: The original wall with convection inside and outside can be represented by the
following thermal resistance network, where the resistances are each for a unit area:

Ti

1/hi

Ls/ks

1/ho

T,o

Thus the heat flux can be expressed as


q

T ,i T ,o
22C ( 20C)

85.7 W/m 2
1 Ls 1
1
0.025 m
1

hi k s ho 5 W/m 2 K 0.1 W/m K 25 W/m 2 K

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The retrofitted wall has three layers. The thermal circuit can be represented as follows:

Ti

1/hi

Ls/ks

Li/ki

Lg/kg

1/ho

T,o

Thus the heat flux can be expressed as


q

T ,i T ,o
1 Ls Li Lg 1

hi k s ki k g ho

22C ( 20C)

31.0 W/m 2
1
0.025 m
0.025 m
0.005 m
1

5 W/m 2 K 0.1 W/m K 0.029 W/m K 1.4 W/m K 25 W/m 2 K

COMMENTS: The heat flux has been reduced to approximately one-third of the original value
because of the increased resistance, which is mainly due to the insulation layer.

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PROBLEM 3.10
KNOWN: A layer of fatty tissue with fixed inside temperature can experience different
outside convection conditions.
FIND: (a) Ratio of heat loss for different convection conditions, (b) Outer surface
temperature for different convection conditions, and (c) Temperature of still air which
achieves same cooling as moving air (wind chill effect).
SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction through a plane wall, (2) Steady-state


conditions, (3) Homogeneous medium with constant properties, (4) No internal heat
generation (metabolic effects are negligible), (5) Negligible radiation effects.
PROPERTIES: Table A-3, Tissue, fat layer: k = 0.2 W/mK.
ANALYSIS: The thermal circuit for this situation is

Hence, the heat rate is


=
q

Ts,1 T
Ts,1 T
=
.
R tot
L/kA + 1/ hA

Therefore,
L 1
k + h
windy

qcalm
.
=
qwindy
L 1
k + h
calm
Applying a surface energy balance to the outer surface, it also follows that
qcond = qconv .
Continued

PROBLEM 3.10 (Cont.)


Hence,

k
Ts,1 Ts,2 = h Ts,2 T
L
k
T +
Ts,1
hL
Ts,2 =
.
k
1+
hL

To determine the wind chill effect, we must determine the heat loss for the windy day and use
it to evaluate the hypothetical ambient air temperature, T , which would provide the same
heat loss on a calm day, Hence,
=
q

Ts,1 T
Ts,1 T
=
L 1
L 1
k + h
+
windy k h calm

From these relations, we can now find the results sought:


0.003 m
1
+
qcalm
0.2 W/m K 65 W/m 2 K 0.015 + 0.0154
(a)
=
=
0.003 m
1
qwindy
0.015 + 0.04
+
0.2 W/m K 25 W/m 2 K
qcalm
= 0.553
qwindy

<

15 C +
(b)

Ts,2

calm

0.2 W/m K

25 W/m 2 K ( 0.003 m )

= 22.1 C
0.2 W/m K
1+
25 W/m 2 K ( 0.003 m )

(c)

windy

0.2 W/m K

36 C

65 W/m 2 K ) ( 0.003m )
(
=
1+

<

15 C +
Ts,2

36 C

0.2 W/m K

10.8 C

<

(65 W/m2 K ) (0.003m )

=
T
36 C ( 36 + 15 ) C

( 0.003/0.2 + 1/ 25) =
56.3 C
( 0.003 / 0.2 + 1/ 65)

COMMENTS: The wind chill effect is equivalent to a decrease of T s,2 by 11.3C and
-1

increase in the heat loss by a factor of (0.553) = 1.81.

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PROBLEM 3.20

KNOWN: Window surface area and thickness, inside and outside heat transfer coefficients, outside
and passenger compartment temperatures.
FIND: Heat loss through the windows for high and low inside heat transfer coefficients.
SCHEMATIC:
T,o = 32C
ho = 90 W/m2K

t = 4 mm
qconv,o
qcond
qconv,i

T,i = 22C
hi = 5 or 15 W/m2K

Glass, A = 2.6m2

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state, one-dimensional conduction. (2) Constant properties. (3)


Negligible radiation.
PROPERTIES: Table A.3, glass (T = 300 K): k = 1.4 W/mK.
ANALYSIS: The thermal circuit is
T,i = 22C

T,o = 32C
q
1

hi A

kA

ho A

from which the heat transfer rate through the windows for h i = 15 W/m2K is
q=

T,o T,i
1
t
1
+
+

hi A kA ho A

( 32 22 ) C

1
410-3 m
1
+
+

2
2
2
2
2

1.4 W/m K2.6 m


90 W/m K2.6m
15 W/m K 2.6 m

= 333 W
Repeating the calculation for h i = 5 W/m2K yields q = 121 W

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Continued

PROBLEM 3.20 (Cont.)


COMMENTS: (1) Assuming an air conditioner COP of 3, controlling the airflow in the passenger
cabin to reduce the interior convection heat transfer coefficient will reduce the power consumed by the
air conditioner by P = (333 W 121 W)/3 = 71 W. (2) A smaller air conditioner can be utilized with
the lower interior heat transfer coefficient. This will both (a) reduce the cost of the air conditioner and
(b) reduce the amount of refrigerant in the air conditioning unit. Reduction in the amount of refrigerant
used will also reduce the level of refrigerant that might leak from the system, potentially reducing
greenhouse gas emissions. (3) The individual resistance values are R conv,i = 0.026 K/W, R cond = 0.0011
K/W, and R conv,o = 0.0043 K/W for h i = 15 W/m2K.

PROBLEM 3.31
KNOWN: Size and surface temperatures of a cubical freezer. Materials, thicknesses and interface
resistances of freezer wall.
FIND: Cooling load.
SCHEMATIC:
Lins = 100 mm
Freezer

Lst = 6.35 mm

Lal = 6.35 mm

Ts,o = 22oC

Cork

Ts,i = -6oC

Rt,c = 2.5x10-4 m2-K/W


W=3m

Ts,i
q

Lal/kal

Rt,c

Rt,c
Lins/kins

Ts,o
Lst/kst

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state, (2) One-dimensional conduction, (3) Constant properties.


PROPERTIES: Table A-1, Aluminum 2024 (~267K): kal = 173 W/mK. Table A-1, Carbon steel
AISI 1010 (~295K): kst = 64 W/mK. Table A-3 (~300K): kins = 0.039 W/mK.
ANALYSIS: For a unit wall surface area, the total thermal resistance of the composite wall is

L
L
L
R tot al R t,c ins R t,c st
k al
k ins
k st

R tot

0.00635m
m2 K
0.100m
m2 K
0.00635m
2.5 104

2.5 104

173 W / m K
W
0.039 W / m K
W
64 W / m K

R tot 3.7 105 2.5 104 2.56 2.5 104 9.9 10 5 m 2 K / W 2.56 m 2 K / W
Hence, the heat flux is

22 6 C
Ts,o Ts,i
W

10.9
2
R tot
2.56 m K / W
m2

and the cooling load is

q As q 6 W 2 q 54m 2 10.9 W / m 2 590 W

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COMMENT: Thermal resistances associated with the cladding and the adhesive joints are negligible
compared to that of the insulation.

PROBLEM 3.48
KNOWN: Inner and outer radii of a tube wall which is heated electrically at its outer surface
and is exposed to a fluid of prescribed h and T. Thermal contact resistance between heater
and tube wall and wall inner surface temperature.
FIND: Heater power per unit length required to maintain a heater temperature of 25C.
SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) One-dimensional conduction, (3) Constant


properties, (4) Negligible temperature drop across heater.
ANALYSIS: The thermal circuit has the form

Applying an energy balance to a control surface about the heater,


q qa qb
To Ti
T T
q
o
ln ro / ri
1/h Do
R t,c
2 k

25 10 C
25-5 C

q=

ln 75mm/25mm
m K 1/ 100 W/m 2 K 0.15m
0.01

2 10 W/m K
W

q 728 1649 W/m


q=2377 W/m.

COMMENTS: The conduction, contact and convection resistances are 0.0175, 0.01 and
0.021 m K/W, respectively,

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PROBLEM 3.55
concentric
KNOWN: Long rod experiencing uniform volumetric generation of thermal energy, q,
with a hollow ceramic cylinder creating an enclosure filled with air. Thermal resistance per unit
length due to radiation exchange between enclosure surfaces is R rad . The free convection
2

coefficient for the enclosure surfaces is h = 20 W/m K.


FIND: (a) Thermal circuit of the system that can be used to calculate the surface temperature of the
rod, Tr; label all temperatures, heat rates and thermal resistances; evaluate the thermal resistances; and
(b) Calculate the surface temperature of the rod.
SCHEMATIC:

Rod
q = 2x106 W/m3
Air space
h = 20 W/m2-K
Rrad = 0.30 m-K/W

Dr

Di

Do

Dr = 20 mm
Di = 40 mm
Do = 120 mm
To = 25oC

Tr
Ti

Ceramic, k = 1.75 W/m-K

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) One-dimensional, radial conduction through the
hollow cylinder, (3) The enclosure surfaces experience free convection and radiation exchange.
ANALYSIS: (a) The thermal circuit is shown below. Note labels for the temperatures, thermal
resistances and the relevant heat fluxes.
Enclosure, radiation exchange (given):

R rad 0.30 m K / W

Enclosure, free convection:

1
1

0.80 m K / W
2
h D r 20 W / m K 0.020m
1
1
R cv,cer

0.40 m K / W
2
h Di 20 W / m K 0.040m
R cv,rod

Ceramic cylinder, conduction:

R cd

n D o / Di
2 k

n 0.120 / 0.040
2 1.75 W / m K

0.10 m K / W

The thermal resistance between the enclosure surfaces (r-i) due to convection and radiation exchange
is

1
1
1

R enc R rad R cv,rod R cv,cer


1
1

R enc

0.30 0.80 0.40

m K / W 0.24 m K / W

The total resistance between the rod surface (r) and the outer surface of the cylinder (o) is

R tot R enc R cd 0.24 0.1 m K / W 0.34 m K / W

Continued

PROBLEM 3.55 (Cont.)

Tr

Rrad

Ti

Rcd

To = 25oC

CV

Eg
Rcv,rod

Rcv,cer
Too

(b) Overall energy balance on rod

(a) Thermal circuit

(b) From an energy balance on the rod (see schematic) find Tr.

E in E out E gen 0

q q 0

Tr Ti / R tot q D r2 / 4 0

Tr 25 K / 0.34 m K / W 2 106 W / m3 0.020m 2 / 4 0

Tr 239C

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COMMENTS: In evaluating the convection resistance of the air space, it was necessary to define an
average air temperature (T) and consider the convection coefficients for each of the space surfaces.
As youll learn later in Chapter 9, correlations are available for directly estimating the convection
coefficient (henc) for the enclosure so that qcv = henc (Tr Ti).

PROBLEM 3.68
KNOWN: Dimensions of spherical, stainless steel liquid oxygen (LOX) storage container. Boiling
point and latent heat of fusion of LOX. Environmental temperature.
FIND: Thermal isolation system which maintains boil-off below 1 kg/day.
SCHEMATIC:

r1 = 0.395 m
LOX, Tbp = 90 K, hfg = 213 KJ/kg

r2 = 0.40 m

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional, steady-state conditions, (2) Negligible thermal resistances


associated with internal and external convection, conduction in the container wall, and contact between
wall and insulation, (3) Negligible radiation at exterior surface (due to low emissivity insulation
selected), (4) Constant insulation thermal conductivity.
PROPERTIES: Table A.1, 304 Stainless steel (T = 100 K): ks = 9.2 W/mK; Table A.3, Reflective,
aluminum foil-glass paper insulation (T = 150 K): ki = 0.000017 W/mK (see choice of insulation
below).
ANALYSIS: The heat gain associated with a loss of 1 kg/day is
1kg day
fg
q mh
2.13 105 J kg 2.47 W
86, 400 s day

With an overall temperature difference of T Tbp = 150 K, the corresponding total thermal
resistance is
T 150 K
R tot

60.7 K W
q
2.47 W
The conduction resistance of the steel wall is
R t,cond,s

1 1
1
1
1
4

2.7 10 K W
4 k s r1 r2 4 9.2 W m K 0.395 m 0.40 m
1

With a typical combined radiation and convection heat transfer coefficient of h = 10 W/m2K, the
resistance between the surface and the environment can be estimated as
1
1
R conv,rad

0.05 K W
hAs 10 W/m 2 K 4 0.40 m 2
It is clear that these resistances are insufficient, and reliance must be placed on the insulation. A special
insulation of very low thermal conductivity should be selected. The best choice is a highly reflective
foil/glass matted insulation which was developed for cryogenic applications. It follows that
R t,cond,i 60.7 K W

1 1

1
1
1
1

4 k i r2 r3 4 0.000017 W m K 0.40 m r3

which yields r3 = 0.4021 m. The minimum insulation thickness is therefore = (r3 - r2) = 2.1 mm.
COMMENTS: The heat loss could be reduced well below the maximum allowable by adding more
insulation. Also, in view of weight restrictions associated with launching space vehicles, consideration
should be given to fabricating the LOX container from a lighter material.

PROBLEM 3.82
KNOWN: Diameter, thermal conductivity and microbial energy generation rate in cylindrical hay
bales. Ambient conditions.
FIND: The maximum hay temperature for q = 1, 10, and 100 W/m3.
SCHEMATIC:
Air
T = 0C, h = 25 W/m 2K

Ts

q = 1, 10 or 100 W/m 3
D=2m

k = 0.04 W/mK

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Constant properties, (3) One-dimensional heat
transfer (4) Uniform volumetric generation, (5) Negligible radiation, (6) Negligible conduction to or
from the ground.
PROPERTIES: k = 0.04 W/mK (given).

ANALYSIS: The surface temperature of the dry hay is (Eq. 3.60)


Ts T

o
qr
1W/m 3 1m
0C+
0.02C
2h
2 25W/m 2 K

whereas Ts = 0.2C and 2.0C for the moist and wet hay, respectively.

<
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The maximum hay temperature occurs at the centerline, r = 0. From Eq. 3.58, for the dry hay,
Tmax

o2
qr
1W/m3 (1m)2
Ts
0.02C 6.27C
4k
4 0.04 W/m K

whereas Tmax = 62.7C and 627C for the moist and wet hay, respectively.

<
<

COMMENTS: (1) The hay begins to lose its nutritional value at temperatures exceeding 50C.
Therefore the center of the moist hay bale will lose some of its nutritional value. (2) The center of the
wet hay bale can experience very high temperatures without combusting due to lack of oxygen internal
to the hay bale. However, when the farmer breaks the bale apart for feeding, oxygen is suddenly
supplied to the hot hay and combustion may occur. (3) The outer surface of the hay bale differs by
only 2C from the dry to the wet condition, while the centerline temperature differs by over 600
degrees. The farmer cannot anticipate the potential for starting a fire by touching the outer surface of
the hay bale. (4) See Opuku, Tabil, Crerar and Shaw, Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity
of Timothy Hay, Canadian Biosystems Engineering, Vol. 48, pp. 3.1 - 3.6, 2006 for hay property
information.

PROBLEM 3.96
KNOWN: Cylindrical shell with uniform volumetric generation is insulated at inner surface
and exposed to convection on the outer surface.
h, T and k, (b)
FIND: (a) Temperature distribution in the shell in terms of ri , ro , q,
Expression for the heat rate per unit length at the outer radius, q ro .
SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) One-dimensional radial (cylindrical)


conduction in shell, (3) Uniform generation, (4) Constant properties.
ANALYSIS: (a) The general form of the temperature distribution and boundary conditions
are
T r

q 2
r C1 ln r+C2
4k

dT
q
1
0 ri C1 0
dr r
2k
ri

at r = ri:

C1

at r = ro:

dT
h T ro T
dr r

q 2
r
2k i

surface energy balance

q
q
1
-k ro ri2
ro
2k
2k

q 2 q 2

h ro ri ln ro C2 T
2k
4k

2 2
1 ri qro
ro 2k

qr
C2 o
2h


1 ri ln ro T
2 ro

Hence,

i2 r qr

q 2 2 qr
T r
ro r
ln o
4k
2k ro 2h

2
1 ri T .
ro

<

(b) From an overall energy balance on the shell,


q r E q r 2 r 2 .
r o

o i

<

Alternatively, the heat rate may be found using Fouriers law and the temperature distribution,

2 1
qr
dT
q
i

qr r k 2 ro
0 0 q ro2 ri2
2 kro ro
dr r
2k ro
2k

PROBLEM 3.111
KNOWN: Surface conditions and thickness of a solar collector absorber plate. Temperature of
working fluid.
FIND: (a) Differential equation which governs plate temperature distribution, (b) Form of the
temperature distribution.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) One-dimensional conduction, (3) Adiabatic


bottom surface, (4) Uniform radiation flux and convection coefficient at top, (5) Temperature of
absorber plate at x = 0 corresponds to that of working fluid.
ANALYSIS: (a) Performing an energy balance on the differential control volume,

qx dqrad qx+dx dqconv


where

qx+dx qx dqx / dx dx
dqrad qrad dx
dqconv h T T dx

Hence,

qrad dx= dqx / dx dx+h T T dx.

From Fouriers law, the conduction heat rate per unit width is
q
d 2T h
qx k t dT/dx

T T rad 0.

dx

kT

<

kt

(b) Defining T T , d 2T/dx 2 d 2 / dx 2 and the differential equation becomes,


d 2
dx 2

q
h
rad 0.
kt
kt

It is a second-order, differential equation with constant coefficients and a source term, and its general
solution is of the form
C1e+ x C2e- x S/ 2
1/ 2
where
h/kt ,
S=qrad / kt.
Appropriate boundary conditions are:

0 To T o ,

d /dx x=L 0.

o C1 C 2 S/ 2

Hence,

d /dx x=L C1 e + L C2 e- L 0

C1 0 S/ 2 / 1 e 2 L

Hence,

0 S/ 2

C 2 C1 e 2 L

C 2 0 S/ 2 / 1 e -2 L

e x
e - x

S/ 2 .
2

L
-2

L
1+e

1+e

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PROBLEM 3.132
KNOWN: Thermal conductivity and diameter of a pin fin. Value of the heat transfer coefficient and
fin efficiency.
FIND: (a) Length of fin, (b) Fin effectiveness.
SCHEMATIC:
D = 4 mm

f = 0.65

L
x
k = 160 W/mK
h = 220 W/m2K

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state, one-dimensional conditions, (2) Negligible radiation heat


transfer, (3) Constant properties, (4) Convection from fin tip.
PROPERTIES: Given, Aluminum Alloy: k = 160 W/mK.

ANALYSIS: For an active fin tip, the efficiency may be expressed in terms of the corrected fin
length as:

where

tanh(mLc )
mLc

m hP / kAc 4h / kD 4 220W/m 2 K / 160W/m K 4 103 m 37.1m 1

tanh(37.1m-1 Lc )
which may be solved by trial-and-error (or by using IHT) to
37.1m 1 Lc
yield Lc = 0.0362 m = 36.2 mm. The fin length is therefore, L = Lc D/4 = 0.0362 m 0.004m/4 =

Hence, f 0.65

<

0.0352 m = 35.2 mm.


The fin effectiveness is:

qf
hAc,b b

M tanh( mLc )

hAc,b b

2
3

220W/m K 4 10 m
160W/m K
2

hPkAc ,b tanh( mLc )


hAc,b

2
tanh( mLc )
hD / k

tanh(37.1m 1 36.2 10 3 m) = 23.5

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COMMENTS: The values of the fin effectiveness and fin efficiency are independent of the base or
fluid temperatures.