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Tutorial 1
1) Explain how dietary reference values (DRVs) can be used to:
a) determine whether a population is at risk of a nutritional deficiency or not (show it in a
(3 marks)
b) verify if the health claim low fat milk or 70% RNI Ca on the food pack is correct
2) State other uses of DRVs
3) State other nutritional requirements and explain their importance?
4) Explain 4 factors that influence our food intake (6 marks)

Tutorial 2
1) Explain beneficial effects and disadvantages of high dietary fibre intake.
2) Explain the mechanisms behind 3 roles for each of the following nutrients in health:
carbohydrates, proteins and fats
3) State the energy values for carbohydrates, fats and proteins (3 marks)
4) Discuss three (3) dietary recommendations for energy intake from each macronutrient
(6 marks)
5) Explain how macronutrients are used to produce energy during:
a. a physical activity
b. periods of low food intake (e.g. starvation, hunger strike, fasting, gastroenteritis,
6) Explain what happens in the following groups of people which causes or prevents the
termination of physical exercise
a. Non-regular trainers
b. Regular trainers
Tutorial 3: Fats
1) Draw (predict) the structural formulas for the following fatty acids:
a. Trans-oleic acid = C18:1 (n-9)
b. DHA = C22:6 (n-3)
c. Linoleic acid = C18:2 (n-6)
d. Alpha-linolenic acid= C18:3 (n-3)

Interpret their chemical formulas (4 marks each)

What are their main food sources and physiological functions?
How do non-essential fatty acids (Non-EFAs) differ from essential fatty acids (EFAs)?
Name the only two (2) EFAs

6) A long chain fatty acid called eicosa-pentanoic acid (EPA) has gained a lot of attention in
nutrition due to its recently discovered health benefits in the development of the retina and
nervous system in infants, and it has the following chemical formula: C20:5 (n-3).
a) Interpret its chemical formula (3 marks)
b) Predict (by drawing) its structural formula using the system of nomenclature (2 marks)
Tutorial 4: Proteins
Given the following R-groups or side chains for the following amino acids:




R = -CH2-OH



R = -CH2-CH2-S-CH2


Glutamic acid

R = -(CH2)2-COOH



R = -CH2-C-O-NH2



R = -CH3



R = -CH2-



R = -CH2OH


Draw the complete structural formulas for the amino acids

Categorise them into groups based on the nature of the side chains
Using f. and g. deduce what happens in a genetic disease called phenylketouria (PKU)
When a polypeptide of a protein loses its three-dimensional structure (e.g. when someone
makes raw meat into braii), that process is called:
a) Cell differentiation
b) Desaturation
c) Denaturation
d) Demineralization

a) What is a limiting amino acid?
b) What is a complementary food?
c) What determines whether a protein being synthesised will be a low or high quality
Tutorial 5: Healthy eating
1) How does the Plate model differ from the Food pyramid?
2) What are the advantages and disadvantages of each?
3) Why is it that the Food pyramid gives a range of no. of serving sizes e.g. Cereal group 6 -11
servings per day?

4) Foods at the apex of the food pyramid should be consumed sparingly. What does that
5) What are the healthy lifestyles? Name two (2) of them.
Tutorial 6: Fat soluble vitamins
1) Which of the following is not a fat soluble vitamin?

Vitamin A
Vitamin C
Vitamin K
Vitamin E

2) Explain what happens during deficiency and toxicity of vitamins A, D, E and K.

3) State deficiency symptoms of all fat soluble vitamins
4) Which of the following fat soluble vitamins can play an anti-oxidant role?

Vitamin K
Vitamin D
Vitamin A
Vitamin E

5) Which of the following nutrient is not an anti-oxidant?


Vitamin A
Vitamin C
Vitamin E
Vitamin K

6) Children with vitamin A deficiency (VAD) are not vulnerable to:

a) measles
b) infections of the respiratory tract
c) rickets
d) xerophthalmia

7) Explain, with an example, how vitamin A plays its role in;

a) vision
b) cell differentiation
(3 marks each)
8) Which of the following is not a mechanism through which vitamin D can increase calcium
(Ca) levels in the blood? Vitamin D:
a) in the small intestine stimulates synthesis of Ca-binding proteins

b) in the liver promotes destruction of excess phosphorus (P)

c) facilitates the release of Ca and P from the bone
d) in the kidney promotes Ca reabsorption into the blood
a) Explain how vitamin D from food sources and from the sun combine in the body
(3 marks)
b) Explain how in-active form of vitamin D (Vitamin D3) is activated in the body?
(3 marks)
c) How is vitamin D important in ensuring calcium homeostasis when blood Ca level is
(3 marks)
d) Explain how vitamin D increases blood Ca levels through its effect on these target
organs; intestines, bone and kidneys
(6 marks)
Tutorial 7: Water soluble vitamins
1. Which of the following is a water soluble vitamin?

Vitamin A
Vitamin E
Vitamin K
Vitamin C

2. The deficiency disease for thiamin is:

a) beriberi
b) pellagra
c) rickets
d) kwashiorkor
3) Vitamin B1, B2 and B3 are required for:
a) playing antioxidant roles in the body
b) the activation of glutathione reductase
c) macronutrient metabolism and energy release
d) acting as coenzymes such as Flavin Adenosine Dinucleotide (FAD)
4) The deficiency of the following vitamins can lead to the accumulation of homocysteine
that results in the risk of atherosclerosis, except:
vitamin B6
vitamin B12
folic acid
vitamin B3
5) Which one of the following is false about macrocytic anaemia?
a) developing red blood cells (RBCs) cannot divide because the bone marrow cannot
make DNA such as in folic acid deficiency

b) developing RBCs grow bigger than normal, hence they are termed megaloblasts
c) megaloblasts mature to become larger than normal matured RBCs (macrocytes)
d) macrocytes are released into the blood resulting in few mature RBCs produced, hence
increasing the O2-carrying capacity of the blood
6) Which of the following does not occur in Pernicious anaemia?
a) Inability to absorb vitamin B12
b) Inability to digest vitamin B12
c) The body destroys its own intrinsic factor as part of an auto-immune response
d) There is no factor to bind vitamin B12 to form the vitamin-intrinsic factor complex
7) Which of the following is an indicator for protein metabolism?
a) Sodium-potassium balance
b) Acid-base balance
c) Nitrogen balance
d) Calcium-phosphorus balance
8) Which of the following are not true about pantothenic acid? It:
a) is derived from the widespread sources in nature, hence it has widespread bodily
b) is a component of Acetyl co-enzyme A, hence it is involved in release of energy from
catabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats
c) initiates the Krebs cycle and release Adenosine tri-Phosphate (ATP)
d) is the starting substance for bio-synthesis of compounds with antioxidant capacity
9) Population groups most likely to be at risk of scurvy include the following, except:
a) refugees or people in relief camps where the diet does not provide adequate vitamin C
b) teenagers who generally consume highly refined diets
c) smokers due to exposure to free radicals from the smoke
d) adults due to their generalized increased needs compared to teenagers
10) Why are vitamin B complexes classed or grouped together. Give two (2) reasons. (2 marks)
11) Describe the pattern of dermatitis caused by deficiencies of:
a) Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
b) Vitamin B3 (niacin)
Read the passage below and answer questions 12 and 13.
Mr. X reports to be experiencing progressive fatigue and weakness, recurrent opening of wounds,
bleeding gum, delayed wound healing, etc.
12) What is he deficient of?
a) Vitamin K
b) Vitamin A
c) Calcium

d) Vitamin C
13) What disease conditions is he presenting?
a) Keratomalacia
b) Spontaneous bleeding
c) Scurvy
d) Tetany
Tutorial 8: Minerals
1) Which of the following is a transport protein for iron (Fe)?
a) Ferritin
b) Hemosiderin
c) Transferrin
d) Siderosis
2) How is excess zinc intake associated with:
a) copper absorption
b) iron metabolism (3 marks each)
3) State two (2) practical applications/nutritional practices associated with the following
a) Fe
b) Cu
c) Iodine (I)
d) Ca
(2 marks each)