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Young Scientist . #4 (63) .

April 2014
fisamment. Cela s'explique par le faible dveloppement des
infrastructures touristiques, par des investissements insuffisants, par l'absence des mcanismes efficaces de la motivation du petit et du moyen business, par une insuffisamment
haute qualit du service et par d'autres raisons.
Analysant l'exprience trangre tudie on peut proposer certaines variantes de l'amlioration de la situation du
tourisme en rgion de Rostov.
Par exemple, d'aprs l'exprience du Mexique il est possible de mettre en oeuvre les programmes rgionaux et nationaux du dveloppement du tourisme qui contribueront
amliorer l'image de la rgion sur les marchs touristiques
nationaux ainsi qu' internationaux.

Other

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Utilisant l'exprience du dveloppement du tourisme en


Chine il est possible de rgler la coopration avec les organisations mondiales du premier plan qui soient capables d'assurer la rgion le soutien de diffrents niveaux.
En ce qui concerne la gestion du tourisme, il est rationnel
de suivre l'exemple de la Rpublique Sud-Africaine et de
crer une entit distincte du gouvernement qui soit engag
de rgler les liens entre le business priv dans le tourisme et
les organismes du pouvoir d'tat.
Ainsi, l'utilisation d'une varit de mthodes dans leurs
ensemble selon un schma strict assurera le dveloppement
continu du tourisme dans la rgion de Rostov et dans la Fdration de Russie.

Rfrences:
1.
2.
3.

,.. []/... .: , 2002. 409 .


,.., .. []/... .: , 2002. 464.
,.. : [ ]/ . URL: http://tourlib.net/statti_tourism/burkov.
htm
4. (2011
2018)[ ]: 2 2011.
5. 20112016[ ]: 16.09.2010 187

Pancreatic and renal biopsy for research: back to the indications


, ,
(. )

he study[1] was reported as the first one to collect larger


samples of pancreatic tissue from recent onset type 1 diabetic patients. Laparascopic pancreatic biopsies had been
performed earlier[2]. Here follows a comment on renal and
pancreatic biopsy studies, performed in the course of the
pancreatic blood shunting into the systemic blood flow in insulin-dependent diabetics[3] by the same researchers, who
developed the concept of hypoplastic renal dysplasia[47].
This latter condition was described as follows: Racemosely
arranged glomeruli with single capillary loops, abundant
rounded cells freely lying in the cavity of a capsule; single
mesangial cells; irregular enlargement, loosening, and thinning of the basement membrane[4], narrow extracapillary
space, glomeruli having irregular form and singular capillary
loops or total absence of capillaries[4, 5]. The descriptions
could have been partly based on tangential sections of glomeruli (Fig. 1,3) or artifacts (Fig. 2a).
The authors of[4] were advised at that time that the concept of hypoplastic renal dysplasia should be verified on autopsy or nephrectomy material counting percentages of
glomeruli with single capillary loops (Fig. 1,3)[4]; but
it has not been done, and the concept has been persisting.

For example, hypoplastic dysplasia was diagnosed as a principal renal condition in 8 from 34 patients aged 954 years
with nephrotic syndrome and histologically minimal glomerular changes[6]. At the same time, Alport syndrome was not
mentioned among 4440 cases, diagnosed by renal biopsy at
the same institution, overviewed in[8]. The concept of hypoplastic dysplasia as a special form of nephropathy[4], discussed with clinicians performing biopsies, could have interfered with the diagnosis of Alport syndrome, having certain
ultrastructural features in common with hypoplastic dysplasia as per[46]. Differential diagnosis of hypoplastic dysplasia with Alport syndrome was not mentioned in[46].
Note that Alport syndrome has significant genetic implications. Moreover, indications for renal and pancreatic biopsies applied by the same authors in research[9,10] should be
questioned, considering the questionable morphological descriptions partly cited above. Today, the same authors apply
the term hypoplastic dysplasia to the glomerular changes in
congenital hydronephrosis and other congenital renal conditions (where intra-operative excision renal biopsies have
been collected), interpreting them as inborn nephropathy reportedly affecting a majority of glomeruli[1113]. It

144

. 4 (63) . , 2014 .

Fig. 1. Glomerulus with singular capillary loops () and freely lying podocytes () x1100[4].

Fig. 2. Congenital nephropathy, case 1. a absence of capillary loops in a glomerulus (K), compact arrangement of
undifferentiated cells. Methylene blue-azure II-fuchsin stain. x400; podocytes () with large, pale, eccentrically
located nuclei; large endothelial cells () bulging into the capillary lumen x3200; fragments of disorderly arranged
membrane-like material (MB), a cell with excrescences of cytoplasm () x20800

should be commented that coincidence of two conditions of


different nature: inborn glomerulopathy and hydronephrosis
with secondary pressure atrophy of renal parenchyma appears to be improbable. Other analogous studies were discussed in[14, 15].

The same researchers collected 60 pancreatic excision biopsies 5x5 mm in size[16] in the course of pancreatic blood
shunting into the systemic blood flow in insulin-dependent
diabetics.[3] From 1986 through 1994, 409 of such procedures were performed in type 1 diabetic patients by this

Young Scientist . #4 (63) . April 2014

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Fig. 3. Glomerulus with a singular capillary loop (), abundance of freely lying cells (CK), x1500

research group[3]. From the same patients, 51 renal core


biopsies were collected[16]. Apart from[1725], we have
found in the literature no analogues of this treatment modality of type 1 diabetes. The method was applied also in
type 2 diabetes with severe hypertension[25]. The physiological mechanism, explaining for reported effectiveness of
the shunting in diabetics, was delineated as follows: The
operation allows shunting of the venous blood flowing from
the pancreas into the systemic blood flow, which should reduce the effect of glucagon on the liver, improve the correlation between injected insulin and endogenous glucagon both
in the liver and in peripheral tissues.[3] The anti-diabetic
effect of the above-named surgery was generally moderate
both in humans[3,19] and in preceding experiments[26];
whereas thrombosis-related hazards[18,20], postoperative
acidosis[2123], peritoneal adhesions and other complications[24] were pointed out. Acidosis was designated as
a characteristic phenomenon[21], which agrees with the
known fact that surgical stress can cause hyperglycemia and
ketosis in diabetics[27].
Morphological descriptions of pancreatic and renal biopsies in type 1 diabetes mellitus included the following: islets of Langerhans containing B-cells with destructive
changes[9], presence of endocrine-like cells in the acini

and among the cells of the inter-acinar ducts[28,29], glomerulonephritis and mesangiolysis as consecutive stages
of diabetic glomerulosclerosis[10], frequent mesangial interposition with displacement of mesangial cells to the peripheral capillary loops and formation of double-contour glomerular basement membranes[10,30], which is partly at
variance with usual morphological descriptions[3135].
In particular, glomerulonephritis, if detected in diabetic patients, has been interpreted as a superimposed condition or
a complication[34,35]. Collection of renal biopsies from diabetic patients for research was planned in advance[36].
In conclusion, the purpose of this paper was to remind
that, performing renal or pancreatic biopsy, the risk-tobenefit ratio should be kept as low as possible[14]. In particular, pancreatic biopsy is associated with risks[1,32,37].
Quality of morphological examination should be taken into
account in determining indications to renal and pancreatic biopsies in each particular case. Finally, in the author's
opinion based on the literature overview, indications to the
pancreatic blood shunting into the systemic blood flow in
diabetics have not been sufficiently elaborated, which can
pertain also to angiographic procedures involving catheterization of renal and splenic veins as well as arteriography
described in[3].

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