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I n t e r n at I o n a l n u m I s m at I c c o m m I s s I o n

SURVEY OF
NUMISMATIC RESEARCH
2008-2013
General Editors
Carmen Arnold-Biucchi Maria Caccamo Caltabiano
Sub-editors
Roger Bland, Hubert Emmerig, Stefan Heidemann, Miguel Ibez Artica,
Hortensia von Roten, Marguerite Spoerri, Tuukka Talvio, Franois Thierry, Julio
Torres, Lucia Travaini, David Wigg-Wolf, Bernward Ziegaus

International Association of Professional Numismatists


Special Publication 16
Taormina, 2015

All rights reserved by


The International Numismatic Council
and
The International Association of Professional Numismatists

___________________________________________
2015 - Arbor Sapientiae Editore S.r.l.
Via Bernardo Barbiellini Amidei, 80
00168 Roma (Italia) - tel. 06 83798683
www.arborsapientiae.com
info@arborsapientiae.com
redazione@arborsapientiae.com
ISBN: 978-88-97805-42-7

TA B LE OF C ON TE N TS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface
Arne Kirsch, Eric McFadden
IntroduzIone generale / general IntroductIon
Maria Caccamo Caltabiano and Carmen Arnold-Biucchi

IX
XI

ANTIQUITY
IntroductIon / eInleItung
Marguerite Spoerri Butcher and Bernward Ziegaus
Monetary InstruMents In antIquIty before coInage
John H. Kroll
la Pennsula IbrIca
Manuel Gozalbes
MassalIa, PenIsola ItalIca, Magna grecIa
Renata Cantilena
sIcIlIa
Lavinia Sole
balkanrauM und nrdlIches schwarzMeergebIet
Ulrike Peter und Vladimir F. Stolba
greece froM the archaIc through the hellenIstIc PerIod
Selene E. Psoma
asIa MInor In the archaIc and classIcal PerIods
Koray Konuk
lasIe MIneure hellnIstIque
Marie-Christine Marcellesi
cyPrus
Evangeline Markou
the levant
Danny Syon
les sleucIdes
Frdrique Duyrat
the coInage of arabIa before IslaM
Peter G. van Alfen
battrIana e PartIa
Fabrizio Sinisi
the PtoleMIes
Catharine Lorber
carthage et lafrIque du nord
Laurent Callegarin
the roMan rePublIc
Bernhard E. Woytek and Richard B. Witschonke ()
froM augustus to coMModus
Richard Abdy
de PertInaX la reforMe de dIocltIen (193-294)
Vincent Drost
late antIquIty (294-491)
David Wigg-Wolf
les Monnayages ProvIncIauX : les ProvInces occIdentales
Laurent Callegarin, Suzanne Frey-Kupper et Vincent Genevive
ProvIncIal coInages: eastern ProvInces
Dario Calomino and Marguerite Spoerri Butcher
kelten
Stefan Krmniceck, Virgil Mihailescu-Brliba, Jir Militk, Sylvia Nieto-Pelletier
und Bernward Ziegaus

2
5
8
17
28
39
59
83
93
107
111
126
132
135
142
152
161
180
195
210
220
228
244

MEDIEVAL AND MODERN WESTERN COINAGES


IntroductIon
Hubert Emmerig and Lucia Travaini
byzantIuM
Pagona Papadopoulou
ItalIa, v-X secolo, 2000 - 2013 (vandalI InclusI)
Alessia Rovelli
vIsIgotos
Ruth Pliego-Vzquez
the MerovIngIan sectIon of the early MedIeval coInages
Arent Pol
the carolIngIans
Simon Coupland
deutschland
Hendrik Mkeler und Michael Matzke
sterreIch
Hubert Emmerig
Schweiz Suisse Svizzera
Benedikt Zch
france Xe-XXe s.
Marc Bompaire
ItalIa: XI-XXI secolo
Lorenzo Passera e Andrea Saccocci
Pennsula IbrIca
Albert Estrada-Rius
the low countrIes
Arent Pol
england, wales and scotland: MedIeval
Martin Allen
england, wales and scotland: Modern
Robert Thompson
denMark and Iceland
Jens Christian Moesgaard
norway
Terje Masterud Hellan
sweden
Frdric Elfver
fInland
Tuukka Talvio
Poland
Borys Paszkiewicz
the baltIc regIon
Ivar Leimus
russIa: the MedIaeval and early Modern tIMes (9th17th cent.)
Peter G. Gaidukov and Ivan V. Volkov
russIa: the IMPerIal PerIod (18thearly 20th cent.)
Alexander V. Khramenkov and Ivan V. Volkov
czech rePublIc slovak rePublIc
Roman Zaoral
hungary
Csaba Tth
greece
Panagiotis G. Kokkas
Modern coIns of cyPrus (18782008)
Eleni Zapiti
crusader coInage 2002-2013
Julian Baker

280
281
298
303
305
310
313
328
333
341
359
380
397
402
414
419
421
424
426
428
436
442
453
460
469
472
476
478

ISLAMIC, ASIAN AND AFRICAN COINAGES


La Numismatique de LOrieNt NON-musuLmaN
IntroductIon
Franois Thierry
sasanIan nuMIsMatIcs
Nikolaus Schindel
nuMIsMatIque kouchane
Osmund Bopearachchi
vorIslaMIsche nuMIsMatIk In MIttelasIen
Larisa Baratova
nuMIsMatIque de lInde du sud et du srI lanka
Osmund Bopearachchi
nuMIsMatIque chInoIse
Franois Thierry
nuMIsMatIque du vIetnaM et de lIndochIne
Franois Thierry, Nguyn Thy H et Emmanuel Poisson
recent research In the fIeld of JaPanese nuMIsMatIc hIstory
Sakuraki Shinichi
aksuMIte coIns
Vincent West
isLamic sectiON: the mediterraNeaN, WesterN eurasia, ceNtraL asia aNd Later sOuth asia
IntroductIon, MaPPIng the fIeld
Stefan Heidemann
Pre-reforM coInage
Stefan Heidemann
the uMayyad and abbasId calIPhate, and Its regIonal successors untIl the buwayhIds
Stefan Heidemann
al-andalus
Alberto Canto
north afrIca and MuslIM sIcIly
Stefan Heidemann
Egypt and Bild al-Shm (from thE fimidS/SEljqS to thE mamlkS)
Stefan Heidemann
arabIan PenInsula, yeMen and east afrIca (Post-classIcal PerIod)
Stefan Heidemann
Pre-ottoMan anatolIa
Stefan Heidemann
the ottoMan eMPIre
Stefan Heidemann
iraq, iran and afghaniStan (from thE SEljqS to thE 19th century)
Stefan Heidemann
EaStErn EuropE and thE CauCaSuS (from thE SEljqS to thE 19th century)
Vladimir Nastich
golden horde and Its successors
Vladimir Nastich
central asIa
Vladimir Nastich

496
496
497
502
508
512
514
521
525
529
531
531
533
533
534
535
535
535
535
536
536
536
537
538

OCEANIA AND THE NEW WORLD. EL NUEVO MUNDO: AMRICA Y OCEANA


IntroduccIon
Julio Torres y Miguel Ibaez
oceanIa
Walter R. Bloom
unIted states and canada
Alan M. Stahl
MXIco, centroaMrIca y sudaMrIca
Julio Torres y Miguel Ibaez

594
595
607
611

MEDALS
IntroductIon
Tuukka Talvio
denMark
Else Rasmussen
sweden
Marie-Astrid Voisin-Pelsdonk
fInland
Outi Jrvinen
norway
Anette Sttem
great brItaIn and Ireland
Henry Flynn
belgIuM, the netherlands and luXeMbourg
Jan Pelsdonk
france
Ins Villela-Petit
Portugal
Maria Rosa Figueiredo
esPaa
Javier Gimeno
ItalIa
Valentina Casarotto & Valeria Vettorato
deutschland
Martin Hirsch
swItzerland suIsse
Gilles Perret
sterreIch
Elmar Frschl
Poland
Witold Garbaczewski
czech rePublIc
Tomas Kleisner
hungary
Lajos Pallos
croatIa
Ivan Mirnik
serbIa
Marija Mari Jerini
russIa and the cIs countrIes
Lidia Dobrovolskaya
unIted states and canada
Alan M. Stahl
oceanIa
Walter R. Bloom

622
623
624
626
628
630
634
646
650
653
660
678
686
690
696
701
704
709
713
716
725
728

GENERAL
the hIstory of nuMIsMatIcs and collectIons
Christian Edmond Dekesel
analyses lMentaIres, MtallograPhIques et IsotoPIques
Maryse Blet-Lemarquand & Sylvia Nieto-Pelletier
Museen und saMMlungen
Hortensia von Roten
nuMIsMatIc lIterature and the Internet
Thijs Verspagen
nuMIsMatIcs, coMPuters and the Internet
Daniel E.J. Pett

734
743
751
757
761

PREFACE

The International Association of Professional Numismatists (IAPN) is once again pleased to


sponsor the publication of the Survey of Numismatic Research, and to support the INCs longstanding
efforts to encourage scholarship and foster cooperation among numismatists.
Since the Renaissance, numismatists have taken great care in the preservation, study, and display
of coins. The fascination of coins as historical and artistic objects has captivated generations from all
walks of life: academia and commerce; royal and common; men, women, and children.
In recent years, as coins have come to be more widely perceived as national cultural patrimony, and
as more nations have claimed them as part of their heritage, this age-old pursuit has been changing.
We would like to take this opportunity to say a few words about these developments and about the
role of the trade.
Nations have an indisputable right and duty to protect their heritage, and the IAPN fully supports
that. But the increasingly widespread practice of declaring coins as national patrimony, precluding
their export and seeking their repatriation, threatens to undermine the traditional international trade
and the ability of individuals and institutions to assemble systematic collections of the sort that have
long provided the basis for numismatic study. Even common and well-known coins are now classiied
as national treasures. Many such coins have been traded unencumbered for centuries, although they
were almost never published in auction catalogues or price lists so pedigrees can rarely be established.
The new restrictions are disrupting the legitimate trade, sometimes resulting in the coniscation of
items without evidence that they were illegally excavated or illegally exported. Disagreement over the
propriety of these restrictions has polarized the positions and exacerbated the relationships amongst
scholars, dealers and collectors. The IAPN supports the legitimate international trade as a fundamental
tradition of numismatics, while striving to create an atmosphere of collaboration that will beneit all
involved.
The IAPN is a non-proit organization of the leading international numismatic irms founded
in 1951. It was formed in the aftermath of World War II to help reestablish relationships amongst
professional numismatists that had been badly frayed during years of conlict. The objectives of the
IAPN are the development of a healthy and prosperous numismatic trade conducted according to
the highest standards of business ethics and commercial practice, the encouragement of scientiic
research and the propagation of numismatics, and the creation of lasting and friendly relations amongst
professional numismatists around the world.
The IAPN has 105 member irms in twenty-three (23) countries. Each of these members has
subscribed to the associations code of ethics, which stipulates that members agree To guarantee that
good title accompanies all items sold, and never knowingly deal in any numismatic items stolen from
private or public collections or reasonably suspected to be the direct products of illicit excavations
in contravention of national cultural heritage legislation. Members who have been found in
contravention of this requirement have been given the choice of either resigning voluntarily or being
suspended and the IAPN takes this obligation seriously.
Recently introduced trade restraints trade restraints and acquisition guidelines not only result in
questionable impediments to private commerce, but also have a direct impact on museums, limiting
their acquisition of coins. The IAPN recognizes the crucial role that museums play as repositories of
our numismatic heritage, and as centers of research and education, and it is our view that museums
should be able to continue to build their numismatic collections with appropriate acquisitions. The
great museum collections of today were the great private collections of past eras.
IAPN members fully recognize the value of recording the context of inds. IAPN members have
traditionally worked with scholars and museum curators to record the content of hoards. The success of
the system in the United Kingdom, along with the Portable Antiquities Scheme in England and Wales,

IX

could serve as models for other countries where much valuable information is being lost unnecessarily
through the lack of appropriate incentives to inders.
No fewer than ten IAPN member irms act as publishers of numismatic books as an adjunct to their
primary business as numismatic auction houses. Without their continued support, much numismatic
scholarship would never be published. The IAPN directly supports numismatic research through its
publications program, annual book prize, and funding of the Survey of Numismatic Research since
1979. The IAPN also seeks to suppress the trade in forgeries and reports stolen coins to its members
so they can be recovered. Its forgery research has worked best when done in close collaboration with
institutional numismatics. It is our hope that the cooperation shown in this area can be extended to
the area of cultural patrimony and that all parties will work together to create acceptable standards
advancing the study and appreciation of historical coins and the preservation of archaeological context.
More about the IAPN may be found on the internet at http://www.iapn-coins.org.

Arne Kirsch
President

Eric McFadden
Immediate Past President

INTRODUZIONE GENERALE /GENERAL INTRODUCTION


Maria Caccamo Caltabiano and Carmen Arnold-Biucchi

Following the trend of previous years, this


new volume of the Survey attests to a considerable
increase in the output of scholarly publications
in the ield of numismatics. In particular we can
see a welcome growth of contributions from
our colleagues in Eastern Europe, in Turkey and
also in the New World. We can observe a more
focused effort compared to the past, in publishing
and cataloguing coins from private and public
collections, as well as exhibition catalogues.
There is a renewed interest in coins mentioned in
the literary and epigraphical sources, and for the
medieval period for those registered in archives
and oficial documents. As in other ields, the
history of collecting has attracted attention, jointly
with the history of numismatics and numismatists.
There are many works of synthesis, contributions
on speciic aspects of a single coinage or mint,
notices of new types or specimens that came to
light in excavations or appeared on the market
and in auction catalogues. Metal analyses using
different methods are becoming the norm not only
to determine the composition of coins but also to
help establishing their chronology.
While on one hand there seems to be a
dearth of comprehensive mint studies based on
die comparison, on the other, coin circulation
has become one of the most frequent topics
of numismatic conferences and research,
documenting new hoards and excavation inds,
and generating an interest in the economic
and political history of the regions under
examination. These quick publications of new
discoveries, however, often result in very short
analyses of one or two pages that can fragment
our knowledge and hinder the historical
interpretation of the various contexts of the
documents under consideration.
In general we can note a new shift to put
traditional technical studies into the broader
historical framework of political, sociological
and economic disciplines. Some studies tried
to place coin inds from a single site within
economic regions in order to determine speciic

Confermando il trend evidenziato negli anni


precedenti, anche il nuovo volume del Survey
registra un considerevole incremento della produzione scientiica nellambito degli studi numismatici. Cresce, in particolare, il contributo alla
Numismatica dei colleghi dei paesi dellEuropa
dellest e della Turchia, ma anche del cosiddetto
Nuovo Mondo. Maggiore impegno, rispetto al
passato, stato dedicato alla pubblicazione dei
materiali, di Cataloghi di collezioni pubbliche e
private, di Mostre. Ma maggiore considerazione
hanno anche avuto le monete citate nelle fonti
letterarie ed epigraiche, e - per let medievale quelle registrate nei documenti di archivio.
Linteresse si rivolto alla storia del collezionismo, ma contemporaneamente anche alla storia
della numismatica e dei numismatici. Numerosi
sono stati i lavori di sintesi, i contributi su aspetti
peculiari di una singola monetazione, le segnalazioni di nuovi tipi e di varianti provenienti da
scavi o comparsi in cataloghi di vendita. Si sono
intensiicati gli esami della composizione metallica delle monete, anche ai ini di una loro possibile determinazione cronologica.
Mentre si registra la carenza di studi fondati
sulla raccolta e la ricostruzione della sequenza
dei conii, prevale in assoluto nella ricerca e nei
convegni - lattenzione alla circolazione monetale, con esame di tesoretti e di rinvenimenti
nel contesto archeologico, e il contemporaneo
interesse per la storia economica e politica delle
aree esaminate. In diversi casi, tuttavia, la rapida
pubblicazione dei rinvenimenti si esprime in articoli di breve respiro (anche una o due pagine)
che frammentano le conoscenze e non sempre
concorrono alla storicizzazione dei documenti
pubblicati.
In generale, si nota come sia stata avvertita
la necessit di inserire i tradizionali studi tecnici allinterno di cornici storiche sviluppate nel
campo delle scienze politiche, sociologiche ed
economiche. In alcuni casi si anche tentato di
inserire i rinvenimenti del singolo sito allinterno
di aree economiche, in cui possibile osservare

XI

speciici modelli di circolazione della moneta.


Particolare considerazione stata riservata alla
distribuzione geograica e temporale dei rinvenimenti monetali, con interessanti ricadute sul piano storico, che hanno evidenziato, ad esempio,
limportanza delle monetazioni non-romane
per leconomia monetaria di Roma nellAsia
Minore tardo-ellenistica.
Matura la curiosit e lo spirito dosservazione
per tutti gli elementi che connotano la moneta,
dal metallo alla tecnica per coniarla, ai tipi, agli
epiteti regali o imperiali, ai segni di controllo e
allindicazione delle date. Migliora in generale,
sul piano metodologico, lapertura ad altre discipline. Si fa strada la Cognitive Numismatics che,
con metodo multidisciplinare, integra le diverse
fonti abbandonando la Narrative Numismatics
fatta di ricostruzioni tradizionali.
Si nota lemergere di gruppi di giovani storici
delleconomia interessati ad esaminare la funzione
economica e sociale della moneta. Ampio spazio si
comincia a dare al dato monetario nella ricostruzione dei processi storico-economici, soprattutto per
let medievale, dimostrando la sostanziale unitariet della triade formata dal contesto economico,
dalla politica monetaria e dalla produzione della
moneta. Lapprofondimento delle analisi concorre
a recuperare realt inora poco attenzionate come
- ad esempio - il ruolo dei santuari nelleconomia
monetaria inglese di et medievale. Oppure, per le
et antiche, il ruolo del bronzo dalle fasi premonetali ad et pi tarde. In particolare, la nostra attenzione stata attirata dalla problematica testimonianza
epigraica di stateres chalkou (stateri di bronzo),
che se da un lato possono testimoniare levoluzione economica ed istituzionale che si accompagna
alla diffusione della moneta, dallaltro ci appaiono
frutto di processi svalutativi ed inlazionistici che
ben conosciamo nellet moderna. Processi che
rivelano situazioni debitorie e di impoverimento
conseguenti allaffermarsi di domini imperialistici
e a stati di guerra.
Da segnalare, in generale, ci sembra anche limportanza dei lavori di equipes, comunicati in contesti o Atti congressuali, o realizzati quali parte di
opere pi ampie. Ne sono pregevole esempio i due
volumi su Le zecche Italiane ino allUnit (Roma,
2011) coordinati ed editi da Lucia Travaini.
Oltre a quello economico il secondo dominio particolarmente riconsiderato stato quello delliconograia monetale. Nellambito della
monetazione greca i tipi monetali sono stati let-

pattern of coin circulation. Particular attention


was given to the geographical and temporal
distribution of coin inds that resulted in
interesting repercussion at the historical level,
for instance the importance of non-Roman
coins for the monetary economy of Rome in
Hellenistic Asia Minor.
There is a growing interest and keener
spirit of observation of all the elements that
deine coins, from the metal to the technique
of striking, the types, the royal and imperial
epithets, the control marks and the indication of
dates. A broader awareness of other disciplines
is leading towards better methodologies. The
introduction of Cognitive Numismatics based
on interdisciplinary approaches combines the
different sources, replacing the traditional
reconstructions of Narrative Numismatics.
Groups of young economic historians
interested in the economic and social function
of money are emerging. Especially in the ield
of medieval numismatics, more room is given
to the monetary factor in the reconstruction
of economic developments, which shows the
fundamental equivalence of the triad established
by the economic context, the monetary policy
and the production of money. The in-depth
examination of this kind of analyses brings
out realities previously unnoticed such as, for
instance, the role of sanctuaries in the English
monetary economy of the middle ages, or for
antiquity, the importance of bronze from the premonetary phases of coinage until the later periods.
Speciically, attention is drawn to the problematic
epigraphic evidence for stateres chalkou (bronze
staters) that on one hand can attest to economic
development following the spread of coinage, but
on the other seems to be the result of devaluations
and inlationist methods well-known in modern
times. These practices reveal states of debt and
impoverishment caused by the establishment of
imperialistic dominions and wars.
Worth noting in general is the importance
of team publications resulting from meetings
and symposia or achieved within broader work
projects. Exemplary of what can be accomplished
in this way for instance are the two volumes Le
zecche Italiane ino allUnit (Rome, 2011)
coordinated and edited by Lucia Travaini.
Besides the focus on coin circulation and the
economy, there has been a signiicant resurgence
of interest for monetary iconography. In Greek

XII

ti soprattutto quali simboli dellidentit statale,


alla luce delle pratiche cultuali e dei miti che
compongono il mondo del sacro.
Liconograia, relativamente poco indagata
ino a qualche decennio fa, divenuta oggetto di
numerosi articoli che esaminano il rapporto fra
potere centrale e utenti della moneta. Alliconograia molti autori del presente Survey hanno dedicato paragrai speciici, coerenti con lassunto
che lunico elemento che distingue un quantitativo
di metallo a peso dalla moneta esclusivamente
limmagine che la connota, segno visibile dellautorit emittente e garante del suo potere dacquisto, ma anche eficace veicolo di comunicazione.
Linteresse per lesame e la storicizzazione delle
iconograie monetali cresciuto soprattutto in relazione all ambito orientale (monetazione seleucide, persiana, tolemaica correlate a regni e personaggi storici che consentono di esaltare il legame
intercorrente fra scelte iconograiche e processi
di autolegittimazione e autorappresentazione).
Ma anche in relazione alla monetazione romanoimperiale liconograia stata esaminata notando
come luso delle tradizioni iconograiche sia stato
applicato ad intenzioni politiche e personali, con
messaggi speciici rivolti spesso sia alle regioni
che alle legioni. Continua linteresse per i tipi architettonici, sicuramente fra i soggetti pi antichi
ad essere esaminati nellambito degli studi iconograici. Si insiste non soltanto sul simbolismo di
legittimazione ma anche sul rapporto fra moneta
e identit civica o statuale, con la distinzione di
quanto si registra nelle zone centrali del potere sia regale che imperiale - rispetto alle periferie. Si
evidenzia, in particolare, lattenzione non soltanto
al tipo monetario singolo ma al programma iconograico adottato dalla singola citt o dallautorit al potere; si delinea anche la valorizzazione del
signiicato politico (e non solo economico) che
riveste luso di iconograie di altre citt, di stati
o di regni stranieri. Ad esempio, diversi lavori si
sono interessati alla fusione ellenistica tra gli
elementi tipologici greci e quelli orientali, testimoniata dalle monetazioni puniche. Un fenomeno
particolarmente evidente al tempo della seconda
guerra punica nella monetazione dei Barcidi e in
quella dellItalia e della Sicilia sotto il controllo
cartaginese, in evidente contrapposizione con lesperienza italo-romana. Anche lampia ripresa e
limitazione dei tipi monetali tolemaici in diverse citt del Mediterraneo, ha orientato un cono di
luce sulla politica espansionistica dei Tolemei e

numismatics, coin types have generally been


interpreted as symbols of civic identity in the
light of cult practices and of the myths that form
the realm of the sacred.
Iconography, which had not received
particular attention in numismatics until some
decades ago, has now become the topic of
numerous articles that examine the relation
between the central authority and those who
used coins. Many authors cited in the present
Survey offer detailed studies, derived from
the premise that what distinguishes a piece
of metal from a coin is solely the image that
characterizes it as visible mark of the issuing
authority guaranteeing its legal tender, and is
also a powerful means of communication. The
interest for the examination and historization
of coin iconography grew in particular for the
Eastern coinages, those of the Seleucids, the
Persians and the Ptolemies that relate to the
reigns of historical rulers, and best reveal the
link between the choice of coin types and selflegitimation and self-representation. Studies
of Roman imperial coin types as well have
shown how the use of certain iconographic
traditions served personal political purposes,
with speciic messages to the regions and the
legions. Architectural types have fascinated
scholars since the beginnings of numismatics
and continue to attract interest. Other
research focuses not only on the symbolism
of legitimation but also on the relation
between coinage and civic and state identity,
differentiating the centers of power regal or
imperial from peripheral areas. We note in
particular not only interest in the individual
single coin type but in the whole iconographic
program adopted by a speciic city or ruler,
and there is a deeper understanding of the
political reasons (besides the economic ones)
for using coin types from other cities or states
and from foreign rulers. Several works, for
instance, explored the Hellenistic fusion
of Greek and Oriental iconographies in Punic
coinages. This phenomenon manifests itself
particularly during the second Punic War in
the coinage of the Barcids and in those of Italy
and of Sicily under Carthaginian authority,
in strong contrast with the Italo-Roman
developments. The wide-ranging use and
imitation of Ptolemaic coin types in several
cities around the Mediterranean shed light on

XIII

the expansionistic policy of the Ptolemies and


on the extensive circulation of their currency
despite the absence of Ptolemaic coin inds in
these regions.
In addition we note with a certain satisfaction
how other colleagues are beginning to use the
term monetary language and to consider coins
as an indispensable primary historical source
when put into their economic and political context
and interpreted with the appropriate iconological
code. This of course without underestimating
the importance of the numerous contributions
in the ield of medals that pertain to art history
and the transmission of images: such studies
revealed unexpected historical implications like
the reconstruction of the history of medicine in
Peru through medals.
Finally, there has been no lack of interest,
especially in New World numismatics, in what
can be deined as exonumia: trade tokens,
merchant tokens, i.e. tokens of cooperatives,
public service companies, city halls, and public
and private companies. Though on one hand
such objects might be more relevant for the
history of collecting, in the modern world they
raise important economic issues pertaining
both to the conventional aspects of money and
coins, as to the question of what the measure of
wealth in the modern world is or ought to be.
If todays monetized economy allows money to
generate money, using both labor and material
goods, the old problem of what the measure of
value is or ought to be, recaptures our attention,
not in an abstract sense but in concrete relation
to local products. Hence the existence of bread
and mild tokens on Australia, and perhaps not
coincidentally an interest in the study of premonetary objects in Mexico, Central and South
America.
The scholarly numismatic output reviewed
in the present volume of the Survey attests to
the breath of innumerable possibilities in which
the study of coins and coin-like objects can
contribute to our knowledge of the history and
cultures of the world. Numismatists have always
been aware of the value of their investigations
and methodology. The challenging task in front
of us, however, remains our ability to convey the
results and discoveries of numismatic research
to our colleagues in related ields. Some still
consider numismatics a subsidiary, fringe
discipline. Our aim must be to disseminate

sullampiezza della diffusione della loro moneta


anche in assenza di speciici rinvenimenti in loco.
Inoltre registriamo con piacere come anche
altri colleghi comincino a parlare di linguaggio
monetale e che considerino la moneta una fonte
storica di primo ordine, solo che la si restituisca al suo contesto economico e politico, e se
ne interpreti il codice di comunicazione iconica.
Tutto ci senza sottovalutare limportante contributo che, sia in campo politico che in quello
della storia dellarte e della comunicazione per
immagini, viene assicurato dai numerosi studi di
medaglistica, che documentano risvolti storici in
ambiti non immaginabili, quale quello della ricostruzione della storia della medicina peruviana
attraverso le medaglie.
Non mancata inine, principalmente nel
Nuovo Mondo, lattenzione ad elementi che possono deinirsi exonumia: trade tokens, merchant
tokens, cio tokens di cooperative, aziende, municipi, differenti servizi pubblici e privati. Anche
se certamente questi oggetti interessano di pi
lambito collezionistico che quello delle istituzioni accademiche tradizionali, essi pongono nel
mondo contemporaneo importanti problemi di
tipo economico che investono sia la cosiddetta
moneta convenzionale, sia linterrogativo su
quale sia o debba essere oggi lunit di misura
della ricchezza. Se lodierna economia monetaria ha consentito che il denaro potesse generare denaro, a prescindere sia dal lavoro che
dallesistenza di beni materiali, si riaffaccia alla
nostra attenzione il grosso problema dellunit
di misura del valore, intesa non in senso astratto
ma con riferimento a quanto viene prodotto localmente. Da qui lesistenza dei bread and milk
tokens australiani e forse, non a caso, anche linteresse che in Messico, Centro America e Sud
America si registra per lo studio degli oggetti
premonetali.
La produzione scientiica censita nel presente
Survey dimostra le innumerevoli potenzialit conoscitive - della storia e della cultura dei popoli insite nella moneta e negli oggetti paramonetali.
Tutti i numismatici ne sono convinti e lo stanno
sperimentando in molteplici campi. Tuttavia,
limpegnativo compito che ancora ci attende
quello di comunicare questo ruolo ai colleghi di
altri settori scientiici che ancora considerano la
numismatica disciplina sussidiaria e di nicchia. Il
nostro obiettivo deve essere quello di allargarne
la conoscenza alle nuove generazioni e al grande

XIV

pubblico. Alla sua comunicazione contribuiscono oggi in misura notevole le crescenti presenze
in rete delle Collezioni di importanti istituzioni
Museali, sia pubbliche che private, che offrono
ricchezza di documentazione ed immagini di
alta qualit. Il ine ultimo sar quello di porre
in connessione i dati numismatici con documenti
di natura diversa, per facilitarne il confronto e
consentirne lo studio globale. Il futuro della Numismatica passa oggi dallapplicazione di metodi conoscitivi a carattere multidisciplinare, ma
anche dallutilizzo dei pi aggiornati strumenti
tecnologici, esso ci appare quindi soprattutto in
mano ai pi giovani. Laccresciuta pubblicazione di dissertazioni dottorali nel nostro campo di
ricerca ci consente di bene sperare anche sulla
loro adeguata preparazione scientiica.

the knowledge of coins both to the next


generation of scholars and to the general public.
Nowadays information communication is made
increasingly easier by the number of public and
private collections available online with full
documentation and high quality images. The
ultimate purpose is to be able to link all the data
together, facilitate comparisons of different
types of documents and allow global studies. The
future of numismatics relies on the application
of multidisciplinary approaches and on the
advances of technological communication in
which the next generation will be well versed.
The increasing number of doctoral dissertation
in our ield is the best omen for the soundness
of the scientiic training.

* * *
Gli Editori Generali desiderano esprimere la
loro gratitudine a tutti i Coeditori e agli Autori
per aver reso possibile la pubblicazione del presente volume, grazie al loro faticoso lavoro e alla
loro puntualit. Ringraziamo anche la IAPN per
il suo costante sostegno al Survey of Numismatic
Research e gli editori di Arbor Sapientiae.

The General Editors wish to express their


gratitude to the all the Sub-Editors and Contributors for making the publication of the present
volume possible by their hard work and punctuality. We also thank the IAPN for its continuous
support of the Survey of Numismatic Research
and the publishers of Arbor Sapientiae.

XV

GENERAL

THE HISTORY OF NUMISMATICS AND OF COLLECTIONS


Christian Edmond Dekesel

During the course of the last seven years two major numismatic symposia dominated the study
of the history of numismatics and collections. In addition a signiicant number of Italian researchers,
more or less independently, unearthed major historical facts concerning the history of numismatics.
Finally the topic of numismatic auction catalogues of the past has come into focus.
The Dresden Congress 2009: Numismatik und Geldgeschichte im Zeitalter der Aufklrung - Numismatics and Monetary History in the Age of Enlightenment
dekesel, in co-operation with dekesel-de ruyck, (18,19,20,21) open the proceedings with a general survey of 18th century numismatic publications in which they presented the vast number of numismatic publications, more than 6,000, in a structured fashion. They added a number of statistically
relevant data in order to offer a better understanding of the whole picture.
One cannot stress enough the importance of individuals for the development of a science. This was
made clear by the following contributions about collectors, dealers and scientists.
luIJt (39) analyses the life and work of Nicolas Chevalier (1661-1720), a merchant who not only
traded in coffee and tea but also in all sorts of artefacts such as medals, etc. He even produced medals
for special occasions and published them. He is a perfect example of the clever business man who
exploited the growing interest in commemorative medals.
SarMant (53) examines the psychological, sociological and intellectual reasons why so many people of all walks of life showed an interest in coins and medals in the 17th and 18th century. In France the
role of the royal household and the academies was instrumental in the elevation of numismatics to the
level of a proper science with its own specialized publications. An intellectual and social elite emerged
and a platform was created where the rich bourgeois, the nobleman and the merchant could meet each
other at a more-or-less equal level, and discuss their new acquisitions.
Overbeck (47 ) focuses on the personality of Johann Alexander Dderlein (1675- 1745). Dderlein
grew up in a family closely related to the Protestant Church. He was educated as a clergyman but became a teacher and later rector of the Latin Gymnasium in Weissenburg. He never regarded himself
as a numismatist. He was nevertheless instrumental in studying the coin-inds in the Limes region of
Franken. His work on bracteates from this area proved to be instrumental in the identiication of these
as coins. All his publications were based on real coin-inds, which he analysed and compared. In doing
this he set the foundations for the scientiic study of medieval numismatics.
ThoMPson (62) presents the igure of Thomas Snelling (1712-1773) who was both a coin-dealer
and a publisher of books about coins. He was mainly concerned with the growing interest in coins
and medals amongst the new intellectual classes and he tried to satisfy their desire for knowledge by
publishing books about these artefacts. He was also the irst person in England to show some interest
in the coinage of Europe.
Woytek (65) examines the life and work of Sigebert Havercamp (1684-1742). Havercamp followed a typical educational track. First he studied theology, only to move at a later stage to Greek
philology. Despite starting his professional career as a clergyman, he kept in contact with university
circles in Leiden. This lead to his promotion to university lecturer for Greek at the age of 36. He came
to numismatics via his philological interests, illustrating his texts with coins. He was also heavily involved with a number of numismatic publications culminating in the publication of the coin collection
of Queen Christina of Sweden in 1742.
SteguweIt (59) presents the portrait collection of Peter Berghaus. Peter Berghaus was the irst to
recognize the importance of the study of numismatists for the history of numismatics. He collected
their portraits, published several articles about their private and public life, and was the instigator of

734

several symposia about the history of numismatics. It was the privilege of the Mnzkabinett of the
Berliner Staatliche Sammlungen Preussischer Kulturbesitz to acquire the Berghaus collection which
can now be the subject of further study.
Numismatics is not a science which is studied in an isolated area. From the start the study of numismatics was always incorporated in a wider framework of culture, trade, art and history. Within the
framework of this congress, attention has been paid to the development of numismatic science in two
major centres of European intellectual activities, i. e. Paris and Vienna.
guIlleMaIn (29) examines the inluence of the Jesuits on the development of numismatics in
France. From their numismatic publications we see that they were active throughout Europe. There
were no national or language borders for the members of the order as they had educational establishments all over Europe and moved freely from one to the other. They did not leave us very important
numismatic collections but all their educational centres had small numismatic collections used to illustrate their teaching. The Jesuits promoted an interest in numismatics among their pupils, so spreading
a general interest among the population in both ancient and modern coins as well as in medals.
SzaIvert (61) illustrates the role of the scientiic study of numismatics in Vienna. Again Jesuits
played a signiicant role. Both in their colleges and at the University of Vienna they were involved in
the study of numismatics. In secondary schools coins and medals were used to illustrate and explain
historical facts. This often became the basis for further interest and study.
Numismatics is a science that is in its irst phase heavily dependent on the direct study of coins and
medals. In the second phase it relies on the publication of that basic material in an organized form.
In order to be able study numismatics a great number of coins and published tracts must be brought
together by a collector or by a public institution. During the course of history nearly all private collections were dispersed or incorporated into public collections. This process led to enormous national
collections which form the backbone of scientiic numismatic research today. This is further helped by
the fact that many countries nowadays have treasuretrove laws which ensure that inds are registered
and documented within the framework of national institutions.
DarnIs (16) analyses the role of the Monnaie de Paris in the progressive assignment of irst-class
artists in the production of coins and medals. The high artistic standards of the Monnaie de Paris in the
ield of medallic art gave many great sculptors the chance to realize their designs. These artists were
then also asked to get involved in the design of coins, which led to landmark efigies which determine
our view of the French coinage.
Jensen (35) makes it clear that the 18th century was the real starting point of the Danish national collection. During that century many private collections and parts of the royal collection
were added to the national collection of coins, medals and gems. The collection of Greek coins is
one of the largest of Europe thanks to the contribution of King Christian IX who, due to inancial
dificulties, was forced to leave his collection to the nation. The continuous support of Danish
collectors also contributed greatly to the stature of the national Danish coin-cabinet as it is today. Horsnaes (34) gives an insight into the construction, design and development of the Danish
Royal Coin Cabinet at Rosenborg Castle in Copenhagen. The coin cabinet was built in the 1780s
with the aim to house the royal collection of coins, medals and gems. Special cabinets were designed to exhibit the treasures. Now the whole collection belongs to the National Museum, but is
still partially housed at the castle.
hassMann and WInter (30) elaborates on the situation of the Imperial Coin Cabinet in Vienna in
the 18th century that housed, already then, an enormous collection. It was typical for the attitude of
the imperial household that internationally renowned numismatists were invited to study its contents
and publish the collections. Carl Gustav Herae (1671-1725) and Valentin Jamerey Duval (1695-1775)
followed each other as directors of the Imperial Cabinet. After the dissolution or suppression of the
Jesuits, it was the former Jesuit Joseph Hilarius Eckhel (1737-1798) who took over the direction of
the cabinet and revolutionised the study of ancient numismatics with his monumental publication
Doctrina numorum veterum.
WallensteIn (63) illustrates the role and function of the dukes of Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg in the
establishment of the coin cabinet of Friedenstein Castle in Gotha in the irst part of the 18th century.

735

Through a systematic policy of buying not only single coins but whole collections which were offered
for auction, the coin cabinet acquired an enormous amount of classical and contemporary coins and
medals which made it the third greatest collection in Europe, after Paris and Vienna. Much attention
was paid to the publication of its contents by Christian Sigismund Liebe (1687-1736) in 1730. This
publication was used by the dukes as a public relations tool. It was given to important visitors and
friends, so contributing to the status of the cabinet and its owners.
Grau (27) points out that not only the traditional universities contributed to the study of numismatics in the 18th century. The Bergakademie of the mining university of Freiberg also held an extensive
coin-cabinet, with an adjoining numismatic library, mainly thanks to the Illuminate Abraham Gottlob
Werners (1749-1817). He left his complete collection to the university where it is still housed and
studied. In the 18th century it was mainly used as a didactical instrument for the study of metallurgy
and mineralogy.
arnold (1) analyses the use of the coin and medal cabinet by the Electors of Saxony, who later also
became kings of Poland. Like all ruling families, the Electors of Saxony needed some kind of representative Wunderkammer which was irst used to show off power and wealth but became, during the course
of the 18th century, the subject of scientiic and historic study. This resulted in a number of publications
which put the Dresdner collection at the centre of scientiic numismatic study in Europe. The need for
a bibliographical research instrument led to the publication of a numismatic bibliography in 1801 by
Johann Gottfried Lipsius (1754-1820), who was the director of the Dresdner cabinet at the time.
During the 18th century the study of numismatics developed rapidly. New geographical areas were
explored and the attention of numismatists was drawn towards new periods of time. The methodology
used also changed signiicantly, mainly due to the publication of new inds which led to new insights
concerning the relationship and meaning of coins.
GorInI (26) identiies the discovery of Greek coin hoards in Sicily as the start of the study of Greek
numismatics in Italy. It was Gabriele Lancillotto Castello, Prince of Torremuzza (1727-1794) who played
a key role in this development. At the end of the 18th century Domenico Sestini (1750-1832) proposed a
new geographical order for the description of Greek coins, but his system, which was in competition with
that of Joseph Hilarius Eckhel (1737-1798), was not accepted by other numismatists in Europe.
holsteIn (32) draws attention to a group of coins struck by the Samnitici which were regarded as
unidentiiable Roman coins until the 18th century. Thanks to the publications of Sigebert Havercamp
(1684- 1742), Annibale Olivieri degli Abate Giordani (1708-1789), John Swinton (1703-1777), Joseph Pellerin (1684-1782) and Joseph Hilarius Eckhel (1737-1798) it was possible to identify these
coins and to pinpoint the places where they were minted.
de callata (7) offers extensive written evidence from the 17th and 18th century to prove that Seleucid coinage was seriously studied in the 18th century. Both Jean Foy-Vaillant (1632-1706) and Erasmus Froelich (1700-1758) devoted some of their publications to the study of that coinage. Although
they committed some errors of allocation and chronology, they were nevertheless the irst to point out
the importance of the coinage for the study of the history of the region.
saccoccI (52) rightly mentions that the study of medieval numismatics started quite late in Italy.
The study of ancient, Greek and Roman coinage dominated for ages. It was only in the 18th century
that the study of medieval coinage gained respectability in Italy due to some remarkable inds and to
publications on medieval coins in other European countries.
dykes (23) points out that it was due to the deplorable state of the regal coinage in the fourth quarter of the 18th century that the English population had a need for a small denomination currency for
their daily business. Some enlightened businessmen illed in that need by producing a great variety of
copper tokens which proved so popular that they were taken up by other entrepreneurs and soon were
used all over the country. It was only in 1797 that new regal copper coins were produced by Matthew
Boulton. The new coins gradually replaced tokens, which became sought after collectors items.
As the statistical analysis of 18th century publications makes clear, there were a certain number of
geographical centres of numismatic studies in Europe. These were mainly linked to existing learned
societies or academies in which the members or fellows entertained each other with their latest indings and with the theories they developed from them.

736

burnett (5) and Pagan (48) point out the inluence of the Society of Antiquaries of London for
the history of numismatics. To prove his point Pagan analyses the minute-books of the society which
show that during certain periods of the 18th century numismatic items were discussed at almost every
weekly meetings of the society. It was also the society which took the initiative to publish the tract on
English gold coins by Martin Folkes (1690- 1754) in 1736.
catallI (11) presents the importance of the Accademia Etrusca for the study and circulation of
numismatic studies. The Accademia published a great number of tracts on numismatics in its periodical publication. Some of these publications were later extended into proper books. The Accademia
had many foreign members, of which the majority were numismatists.
eMMerIg (24) examines the numismatic activities of the Churfrstlich-baierische Akademie der
Wissenschaften. Established in 1759 this academy attracted all kinds of people, some of them numismatists. Numismatics was not the main subject of the academy but a considerable number of its members got directly or indirectly involved with numismatics in their general historical studies. Prominent
members such as Philipp Wilhelm Ludwig Fladt (1712- 1786) and Georg Gottlieb Plato (1710-1777),
alias Wild, were well known in the numismatic world.
callegarI (8) explored the role of numismatic publications in the Republic of Venice during the
Enlightenment. The fact that a great number of coin collectors and famous coin collections were to be
found in the Venetian Republic was a driving force behind the production of monumental numismatic
publications there. The University of Padua played a considerable role as well, since it acted as the
University of that Republic. Another reason for the enormous production was the presence of a great
number of printers. Trade relations between the Venetian Republic and the rest of the world led to the
worldwide distribution of Venetian publications thus presenting the Republic as a centre of learning.
Numismatic bibliographies paved the way for progress in numismatic research. Germany played a
key role in that ield. It was there that the major numismatic bibliographies of the 18th century by Franz
Ernst Brckmann (1697- 1753), Johann Christoph Hirsch (1698-1780) and Johann Gottfried Lipsius
(1754-1820) were published. These numismatic bibliographies offered a survey of numismatic research available, and promoted the study of numismatics.
dekesel and dekeselde ruyck (22) examine the life and work of Julius Carl Schlaeger (17061786), who was director of the library and coin cabinet of the dukes of Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg in Friedenstein Castle from 1744 till 1786. He left a considerable number of numismatic manuscripts, including
an extensive numismatic bibliography, but none of them are known to the numismatic world as they were
never published. Schlaeger owned a private numismatic library holding over 6.000 titles, which he sold
to duke Ernst II for 4,000 talers in 1773. He incorporated his former library into the numismatic library
of the ducal coin cabinet, so creating the most important numismatic library of the 18th century.
grund (28) examines the life and work of Johann Gottfried Lipsius (1754-1820), who had the typical career of a scientist working in the collections of the Electors of Saxony. After becoming director
of the Dresdner coin cabinet, he devoted most of his time to the library catalogue of the coin-cabinet.
After its completion he embarked on a much larger project, a general bibliography of all numismatic
publications. Using the numismatic bibliography of Hirsch published in 1760 as his point of departure,
he accomplished a major publication which he called Biliotheca Numaria, published in two volumes
in 1801. The recently discovered third volume shows that he continued to work on the bibliography,
but political circumstances prevented him from publishing the supplement. Lipsius deserves our admiration and gratitude due to the simple fact that his work remained a numismatic bibliographical
authority for a period of two hundred years.
Berlin Symposium 2011: Translatio nummorum Rmische Kaiser in der Renaissance
Organizing a Symposium, bringing together the ine-leur of numismatists and art historians, is
a major feat; having the papers published by a consortium of supporting institutions is a miracle. 25
contributors did their utmost best to present their indings and views upon the use of imperial portraits
of Roman emperors during the Renaissance: Peter & weIsser (50).
In the introduction PfIsterer (51) examines the attitude of the French painter Jean-Simeon Chardin
(1699-1779) whose famous paintings of learned monkeys depict a monkey studying coins. Did Char737

din want to ridicule the antiquaries or to popularize the study of coins and medals? Pisterer shows
us how the image of the coin collector changes over the centuries. Accordingly he can be art-lover,
scholar or just a lonesome young man as depicted by V. Hammershi in his painting the coin collector from 1904.
Based on the extended correspondence of Andreas Morell (1646-1703) with other European numismatists, kept at the library of Schloss Friedenstein in Gotha, Mulsow (45) analyzes the topics which
kept them occupied. The footnote apparatus of this contribution supersedes the basic text and makes
the reading of it rather complex. ChatzIdakIs (12) examines the inluence of Greek coin images on the
interpretation of antique art in Renaissance drawings. He stresses and illustrates the relationship between
general archeology and numismatics. Kagan (36) also departs from the theme of the symposium by discussing the study of Greek coins in the Renaissance. He points out that Hubertus Goltzius knowledge
of Greek coins was more accurate than that of Roman coins, and sees Golzius as an artisan and not as
scholar. HolsteIn (33) offers an in depth analysis of the coins in Hubertus Goltzius Fasti. His comparative analysis is exemplary, but his belief in the accuracy of the so-called list of 970 numismatists who
Goltzius encountered during his travels leads him to some misinterpretation. Goltzius did not meet most
of the people he listed, and he certainly had no coin collection; the detailed inventories of both his houses
in Antwerp and Bruges bear witness to that. Wrede (66) proves that the Latin Goltzius used was not the
classical type; this supports the point Kagan made that Goltzius was not a scholar. Goltzius was a clever
artisan who was trained by his father in Venlo as a painter and by Lambert Lombard in Lige as an engraver. In Antwerp he learned the printing trade and set up a shop in antiquities together with Abraham
Ortelius. It was Marcus Laurinus, a real scholar, who lured him to Bruges, inanced his printing business
and his travels, and was responsible for most of the texts of his numismatic publications. CaMPbell (10)
and SerafIn, (55) both base their contributions on the manuscripts of Pirro Ligorio (c.1513-1583), a
painter and illustrator who used images of coins on architectural illustrations.
de Callata (6) presents the life and collecting habits of Laevinus Torrentius (Lievin Van der
Beke 1525-1595). Van der Beke was a cleric, who became bishop of Antwerp and was later appointed
Archbishop of the Low Countries, but died before he was inaugurated. All items relating to his coin
collection, inventory, books and letters are still kept at the Royal Library in Brussels. De Callata can
follow the coin collection well into the 19th century. Some of the coins found their way into into the
famous collection of the Prince de Ligne, which still exists today.
Cunnallys (14) introduces us to a collection of numismatic drawings based on the magniicent
coin collection of the Venetian patrician Andrea Loredan. Loredans coin collection was sold to the
Bavarian duke Albrecht in 1567, but seems never to have arrived in Munich, or else disappeared there.
KaMPManns (37) contribution is based on the correspondence of Hans von Schellenberg (1552-1609),
an archeologist and coin collector. He only added a coin collection to his other art collections to be
taken seriously as an antiquarian.
Peter (49) clariies that Roman coins were collected and studied to understand historical events.
She uses the publications of Sebastiano Erizzo (1525-1585) to prove her point. MIttag (42) deals with
contorniate medallions in the history of numismatics and he analyses their role in numismatic books
from 1559 to 1722.
Burnett (4) covers the role of numismatic imagery in the ornamentation of buildings in Northern
Italy in the ifteenth century. Stahl (58) demonstrates how ancient coins inluenced the design of modern coins in the Renaissance. Korbacher (38) presents the role of portraits of Roman emperors in the
art of Pisanello and Leonardo da Vinci.
ChIaI (13) investigates the way several Renaissance authors copied Roman imperial portraits from
each other, irrespective of whether they were genuine or not. EydInger (25) identiies statues, freezes
and engravings of ancient Gods with the help of their efigies on coins. According to AsolatI and CallegarI (2) numismatic illustrations in manuscripts from the Seminario Vescovile of Padua and from
the Biblioteca Querini Stampalia of Venice were not only used to illustrate numismatic books, but also
to produce Paduan medals. Struck (60) refers to the 1555 publication of the Discorsi by Enea Vico
(1523-1570) as the starting point of a critical analysis of the style which was used to represent Roman
emperors and their entourage.

738

MIssere fontana (40) opens a new avenue by stressing the fact that the coin illustrations in books
and manuscripts in the Renaissance were also responsible for the production of a myriad of false coins,
or so-called Paduan copies, which were then used to illustrate other numismatic books. HelMrath
(31) refers to the fascination of both the serial character of coins and of imperial portraits on coins as
a source for the study of classical antiquity and of artistic creativity in the Renaissance. DahMen (15)
goes in the same direction by examining the role of Vittore Pisano (Pisanello) (1390-1455) in the recreation of these ancient portraits. Schulz (54) examines the use of the symbols of the Brutus cult, a
hat and two daggers, throughout the numismatic history as symbols of tyranny and freedom.
The book closes with a short numismatic bibliography of Renaissance numismatic literature (50).
It is clear from the index that some contributions surpass the initial era of the title of the symposium.
This makes the book even more valuable but at the same time more complex. One is confronted with
an abundance of information and superb illustrations. Some contributions, with their overwhelming
amount of footnotes, could easily be turned into fully ledged books.
The Italian factor
Italian scholars play a signiicant role in the study of the history of numismatics. Geographically
one can identify Genoa, Naples, Florence and Padua.
In her book on a Genovese family of merchant-collectors, BedocchI (3) starts off her research with
the famous list of 977 names published in 1563 as an addendum to Hubertus Goltzius book on the
coins of Julius Caesar. Analyzing the role played by that Genovese family, Bedocchi proves that the
famous Goltzius list was more ictional than most people would like to believe. Based on archival material she makes the point that there was no contradiction between trade and culture in the 16th, 17th and
18th century. NaPolItano (46) turned her attention to Hubertus Goltzius (1526-1583) and the role he
played in initiating the study of Greek coins in Magna Graecia. The reasons why Goltzius importance
in this ield has been ignored until recently lies in the fact that his work on the subject lay hidden in a
manuscript deposited at the Plantin-Moretus Museum in Antwerp. NaPolItano was the irst to analyze
it in detail, proving beyond any doubt Goltzius importance for the study of that subject.
In Florence we ind a very active group of numismatic researchers: MIsserI fontana, BaraldI and
zannInI (41) and MolInarI and wIllIaMs (43,44,64) bring to our attention the contents of the Florence
National Museum and the role played by collectors and former curators.
gorInI with his team of numismatic researchers, callegarI and MancInI (9) discovered the will of
Charles Patin. They were able to reconstruct in great detail his art collection and his library. By doing
this they proved that Charles Patin was a real erudite and numismatist.
Finally SPRING (57) offers survey of the great numismatic auction catalogues from 1880-1980,
1880 being the year that numismatic photographs began to appear.

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