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Paper Recycling Technology

Dr. Richard A. Venditti


Dept. of Wood and Paper Science
North Carolina State University

Dr. Richard Venditti


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Faculty member in the Wood and Paper Science Dept at


NCSU
PhD in Chemical Engineering, BS in Pulp and Paper Science
and Chemical Engineering
Research areas:

Classes Taught:

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Paper recycling
Utilization of forest/agricultural materials for new applications
Process Control
Unit Operations for Pulp and Paper
Paper Recycling (Distance)

Director of Hands On Workshop for Pulp and Paper Basics,


co-sponsored through TAPPI, on-campus and in-mill
Technical services projects for over 20 companies

Dr. Richard Venditti:


Research Projects in Paper Recycling
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The detection of adhesive contaminants, tracking through


mills
The changes in fibers upon recycling
Automatic sorting of recovered papers
Flotation deinking surfactants
Agglomeration deinking
Screening phenomena and pressure sensitive adhesives
Deposition of adhesive contaminants
Alternate recycling processes

Ultrasonic deinking
Supercritical carbon dioxide to extract wax from OCC

Course Outline
The Paper Recycling US Industry
z Contaminants
z Effect of Recycling on Fibers/Paper
z Unit Operations
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Pulping,

Cleaning, Screening, Washing,


Flotation, Dispersion, Bleaching,

Image Analysis, Deinking Chemicals


z System Design
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Course Activities
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Viewing of the Videos of Lectures

Base lectures by Venditti


Guest lectures from industry leaders
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Reading assignments from Recycled Fiber and


Deinking, Book 7 of the Series: Papermaking
Science and Technology
Reading assignments: selected research papers
Homeworks: 6 assignments
Final Project: Literature Review and Research
Proposal

Course Objectives
Broad understanding of paper
recycling science and technology
z Develop an expertise in a selected
research topic in paper recycling
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Critical Issues in Recycling:


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Going deeper into the wastepaper stream


=> poor quality material
Meeting paper specifications, which are
getting more stringent
Increased demands for paper from
emerging countries
Environmentally benign operations at the
same time both of the above are being
satisfied

Recovered fiber, not


Wastepaper

Recovered Fiber, not


Wastepaper
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Learning objectives
Understand

the trends of paper recycling in

the industry
Identify the major grades of recovered fiber
Identify the major types of contaminants in
recovered fiber

Global Paper and Board Demand


Overall Positive Growth

Slide by: Richard B. Phillips, PhD


Adjunct Professor WPS NCSU

Source: RISI

GDP Growth Major World Economies


China, Eastern Europe Dynamic Growth Regions
China
Eastern
Europe

Slide by: Richard B. Phillips, PhD


Adjunct Professor WPS NCSU

Source: RISI

Paper & Paperboard Consumption vs GDP


Increases with Wealth Levels Off

Slide by: Richard B. Phillips, PhD


Adjunct Professor WPS NCSU

Source: 2007 FAO Forest Resource Assessment

Asian Supply has Grown to Match Demand


Little Incentive for others to develop export strategy

Slide by: Richard B. Phillips, PhD


Adjunct Professor WPS NCSU

Source: RISI

Use of Recovered Paper


Growing in China, Europe flat in USA

Slide by: Richard B. Phillips, PhD


Adjunct Professor WPS NCSU

Source: RISI

Use of Recovered fiber Flat in USA


Moving increasingly to Asia

Slide by: Richard B. Phillips, PhD


Adjunct Professor WPS NCSU

Source: RISI

Recycled Fiber Definitions


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Secondary Fiber: fibers that have previously been


used in a manufacturing process and have been
reclaimed as raw material for another process.
Pre-consumer waste: any waste, printed or
unprinted, generated in the fabrication or
conversion of finished paper. Before use by a
consumer as a final end product.
Post-consumer waste: Paper that has passed
through the end usage as a consumer product.
Internal broke: off-specification paper that is
repulped and used at the same site, not considered
secondary fiber.

Recycled Fiber Definitions


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Recovery Rate (RR)

how much paper is diverted from landfill

Tons of Wastepaper Collected


RR = 100%
Tons of Paper Consumed

Utilization Rate (UR)

fraction of recycled fibers contained in paper

Tons of Wastepaper Consumed at Mills


UR = 100%
Tons of Paper Produced

Supply1
(000
tons)

Recover
ed (000
tons)

Recover
y Rate2

1993

91,538

35,460

38.70%

1994

95,718

39,691

41.50%

1995

95,971

42,189

44.00%

1996

94,529

43,076

45.60%

1997

99,557

43,989

44.20%

1998

101,183

45,076

44.60%

1999

105,316

46,818

44.50%

2000

102,810

47,311

46.00%

2001

97,395

46,996

48.30%

2002

98,949

47,645

48.20%

2003

98,016

49,255

50.30%

2004

101,882

50,287

49.40%

2005

99,618

51,272

51.50%

2006

100,198

53,488

53.40%

Source: AF&PA, 2006 Recovered


Paper Annual Statistics

Utilization of Recovered Paper in the US

Source: AF&PA, 2006 Recovered


Paper Annual Statistics

Paper
Recovered
(000 tons)

Paper
Landfilled
(000 tons)

1993

35,460

38,399

1994

39,691

38,118

1995

42,189

36,118

1996

43,076

34,331

1997

43,989

37,174

1998

45,077

38,329

1999

46,818

41,255

2000

47,311

39,568

2001

46,996

35,894

2002

47,645

37,601

2003

49,255

36,032

2004

50,287

39,107

2005

51,272

36,846

2006

53,488

35,660

Source: AF&PA, 2006 Recovered


Paper Annual Statistics

Pkging Material
Recovered, 2006
Paper
Glass
Metal
Plastic
Other
Total

22.9
2.8
2.2
1.3
1.3
30.5

(000,000 tons)

Source: AF&PA, 2006 Recovered


Paper Annual Statistics

Source: AF&PA, 2006 Recovered


Paper Annual Statistics

Exports and Imports of Recovered Paper


18

Exports
Imports

16

Millions of Tons

14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
1990

1992

1994

1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

Year

Recovered Paper Statistical Highlights, 2005 Edition, AF&PA

2006

Major Recovered Paper Grades


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Mixed Papers: mixed papers, low quality office


waste, magazines, catalogs, telephone directories,
recycled boxboard cuttings, tissue paper
converting scraps if mainly composed of recycled
fiber, mill wrappers, specialty grades, all other
grades not specified
Newspapers: old newspapers, special news,
groundwood computer printout, coated
groundwood sections, publication blanks, mixed
groundwood and flyleaf shavings

Major Recovered Paper Grades


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Corrugated: old corrugated containers, container


cuttings, kraft paper and bags, old solid fiber
containers, kraft bag clippings, carrier stock and
its clippings
Pulp Substitutes and high grade deinking:
bleached chemical pulped office papers and CPO
suitable for deinking, or as a pulp substitute if
unprinted, bleached sulfite and sulfate cuttings
including tissue paper converting scrap if
predominantly composed of bleached chemical
pulp fiber, coated book stock

Grades of Recovered Paper


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Mixed Paper
Super Mixed Paper
Boxboard Cuttings
Mill Wrappers
News
Special News
Special News De-ink Quality
Over-Issue News]
Magazines
Corrugated Containers
Double Sorted Corrugated
New Double-Lined Kraft Corrugated Cuttings
Used Brown Kraft
Mixed Kraft Cuttings
Carrier Stock
New Colored Kraft
Grocery Bag Scrap
Kraft Multi-Wall Bag Scrap
New Brown Kraft Envelope Cuttings
Mixed Groundwood Shavings
Telephone Directories
White Blank News
Groundwood Computer Printout

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Publication Blanks
Flyleaf Shavings
Coated Soft White Shavings
Hard White Shavings
Hard White Envelope Cuttings
New Colored Envelope Cuttings
Semi Bleached Cuttings
Manila Tabulating Cards
Sorted Office Paper
Sorted Colored Ledger
Manifold Colored Ledger
Sorted White Ledger
Manifold White Ledger
Computer Printout
Coated Book Stock
Coated Groundwood Sections
Printed Bleached Board Cuttings
Misprinted Bleached Board
Unprinted Bleached Board
#1 Bleached Cup Stock
#2 Printed Bleached Cup Stock
Unprinted Bleached Plate Stock
Printed Bleached Stock

Scrap Specifications Circular, Guidelines for .Paper Stock


By: Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries, Inc.

Definitions
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Outthrow:

Prohibitive Material:

all papers that are so manufactured or treated or are in such a


form as to be unsuitable for consumption as the grade
specified
material in excess of specified maximum make the recovered
paper unusable as the grade specified
Any materials that may be damaging to the equipment

News, De-ink Quality #7. Consists of sorted, fresh


newspapers, not sunburned, containing not more than the
normal amount of rotogravure and colored sections.

Prohibitive Materials
Total Outhrows may not exceed

None Permitted
of 1%

Scrap Specifications Circular, Guidelines for .Paper Stock


By: Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries, Inc.

Recovery of Paper and Paperboard (000 tons)


Export/

Grade-Year

At
mills

Molded Prod

OCC-1993
OCC-2006
ONP-1990
ONP-2006

13.5
20.0
3.8
5.5

2.3/0
5.2/0
0.9/0.7
2.5/1.5

Total
Total
Recov Supply

RR%

15.9
25.2
5.5
9.6

59.1
76.4
35.0
72.3

26.9
33.0
15.9
13.2

Mixed-1993

5.3

Mixed-2006

12.7

49

Pulp Sub-1993

3.3

100

Pulp Sub-2006

2.4

100

HG DI-1993

3.7

100

HG DI-2006

3.6

100
Source: AF&PA, 2006 Recovered
Paper Annual Statistics

16.4 million t/yr

7.0 million

Source: AF&PA, 2006 Recovered


Paper Annual Statistics

4.2 million

3.5 million

1.6 million

Ctn Bd
NP
Packg
Ind Cvt
Paper Bd
Tissue
Export
Other
Total

15,153
0
398
3,946
167
5,218
303
25,185

(000 tons)

Source: AF&PA, 2006 Recovered


Paper Annual Statistics

Ctn Bd
RecPBd
Tissue
News
P&W
Other
Export
Total

1
1,172
698
3,213
353
1,615
2,513
9,565

(000 tons)

Source: AF&PA, 2006 Recovered


Paper Annual Statistics

Newsprint
Tissue
P&W
Other
Export
Total

380
2,680
1,200
1,000
7,300
15,690

(000 tons)

Source: AF&PA, 2006 Recovered


Paper Annual Statistics

Recovered Paper Prices, $/ton


US Paper Spot Market
Prices May 24, 2007
Corrugated Container
Old Newsprint
Boxboard
Old Magazines
Mixed Paper
Sorted Office Paper
White Ledger
White Envelope

105
85
71
19
28
104
266
370

ScrapIndex.com

Recovered Paper Prices


450
400
Sorted W hite Ledger

350

ONP
OCC

300
$/ton

Mixed Paper
250
200
150
100
50
0
1970

1975

1980

1985

1990
Year

1995

2000

2005

Cost of DIP
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System

MOW to deinked, bleached pulp (DIP)


Flotation (2), washing, oxidative bleaching,
complementary processes
Produce 200 ODTPD
Yield = 67%
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Total Capital Cost Installed= $42 MM


$6 MM/yr depreciation for 7 years
MOW Cost =$220/ton delivered

Cost of DIP: Variable Costs


Description

Quantity

Unit

Unit Cost, $

Contribution,
$/ton

1.5

ton

220

330

NaOH

0.024

ton

400

9.6

Peroxide

0.024

ton

600

14.4

Sodium Silicate

0.022

ton

500

11.0

0.0027

ton

1000

2.7

Sludge Dewater Polymer

0.00115

ton

1200

1.4

Clarifier Flocculant

0.00014

ton

1600

0.2

Clarifier Bentonite

0.00085

ton

1600

1.4

Electricity

310

kWhr

0.045

14.0

Steam 790 kPa

0.25

mton

1.5

Waste Water Treatment

1.236

m3

0.53

0.7

Waste Disposal

0.984

mton

36

35.4

4.8

m3

0.53

2.5

Fiber

Flotation Aid

Process Water
Total Variable Prod. Cost

424.8

Cost of DIP: Fixed Costs


Fixed Costs

$ Per Year

$ / ton

Maintenance

4,000,000

57

Labor

2,000,000

29

Operating Materials

1,700,000

24

Depreciation (7 yr
straight line)

6,000,000

86

Business Overhead

1,100,000

16

Total Fixed Costs, $/ton

211

Cost of DIP: ROI


Total Costs, $/ton produced
Total Costs per year, $
Selling Price of ton DIP, $/ton

636
44,532,716
600

Income, $/yr

42,000,000

Profit before taxes, $

-2,532,716

Taxes (25%)
Profit after taxes, $

ROI (%)

-399,537
-2,133,179
-1

Paper Recycling Review


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Of the about 100 million tons of paper consumed in the US, ___ % is recycled

Name 3 contaminants in recovered paper: _________________


_________________
_______________

Name 4 major categories of recovered paper


____________ ___________ ___________ ____________

____________ is a recycling operation used to remove large contaminants

____________ is a recycling operation used to remove heavy contaminants

Name the two major de-inking operations: _________ and _________

The largest variable production cost in paper recycling is typically _____________


True or False. Basically, all recycle systems have the same # and type of unit
operations.
The yield of useable fiber

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A. Is about 100% for all systems


B. Ranges from 20-80% depending on the system
C. Ranges from 60-94% depending on the system
D. Is 50% for all systems

Common Contaminants in
Waste Paper

Common Contaminants in Wastepaper


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Large Junk

metals: nuts, screws, foil, cans


plastics: films, bags, envelopes
dirt
cloth, yard waste, leather, etc.,
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Inks & toners


Stickies
Coatings
Fillers
Papermaking additives

Inks & Toners


Type

Component

Drying System Ink Resin Film

Particle Size
(microns)

End Products

Simple Letter
Press

Pigment +
Mineral Oil

Absorption
into Web

Weak

1-15

Penetration of
Vehicle into
Web + Resin
Oxidation

Soft Film

2-30

Letterpress
Early
Newsprint
Newsprint,
Books

Solvent
Evaporation

Hard Film

2-250

Amine
Absorption,
Evaporation
UV
Photopolymeri
zation
Heat set or
Other

Water
Resistant Film

N/A

Non swelling,
Non saponif.
Hard Film
Hard,
Coherent
Films

50-100

Newsprint and Pirgment +


Offset
Soft Resin &
Mineral Oil

Rotogravure

Flexographic

UV Cured

Specialty

Pigment
+Hard Resin &
Solvent
Pigment +
Resin & Water
Emulsification
Pigment
+Monomer
Various
Pgiments and
Rosins

Hard Film

40+

We Offset,
Letter Press
Magazines,
Catalogues
Newsprint
inserts,
Corrugated
High Speed
Coated
Papers
Xerography
Laser Printers
Electronic
Forms

Stickies
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Currently the most challenging problem in paper recycling


Stickies: contaminants in pulp that have the potential to
deposit on solid surfaces
Typically organic materials:

Man made stickies: adhesives, coatings


Natural stickies: pitch, resins..

May deposit on papermachine wires, press felts, dryer


fabrics, calendar rolls and cause significant down-time on
machine
Are hard to remove in recycling due to often having a
neutral density, and an ability to flow and change shape

Coatings as a Contaminant
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Coatings typically contain inorganic fillers and


polymeric binders

Coating binders can behave as stickies,


sometimes termed white pitch
Coating fillers are washed out of the pulp and
lower the overall yield of the recycling process

Board is often coated with wax

Wax can cause recycled paper to be weak and


slippery
Wax can deposit on machinery

Fillers as a Contaminant
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Fillers are washed out of the pulp and lower


the overall yield of the recycling process

Common fillers:
clay
CaCO3
TiO2

Fillers

are not desirable in some paper


products such as tissue paper

Papermaking Additives
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Additives such as starch, gums, retention aids, etc.,


are lost during recycling and lower yield
Additives such as dyes can cause the fibers to not
make color specifications, this is also a problem with
fluorescent dyes
Wet strength additives cause the paper to be
unpulpable in many cases, making the entire paper
product unusable and thus, a contaminant

Contaminant Removal

Contaminant Size vs. Removal Efficiency

Recovered fiber, not


Wastepaper: Review-Quiz
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True/False: The percentage of paper that is


recycled overall is about 50%
The four major grades of recovered paper are:

True/False: Basically contaminants are


similar in shape, strength, density, etc.,

Effect of Recycling on Fiber


Properties

Effect of Recycling on Fiber


Properties
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Learning objectives
Understand

how recycling affects


chemically pulped fiber
Understand how recycling affects
mechanically pulped (lignin containing)
fibers

Effects of Recycling on Chemical Pulps


Mechanical damage
z Loss of fines
z Hardening and stiffening (hornification)
z Weakening of bonding
z

less

fiber conformability
less absorptive
loss of hemicellulose
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Decreased cleanliness

Effect of Chemical Pulping

Fiber wall structure as in the tree.

Chemical pulping removes


lignin from cell wall

Hornification: Irreversible

A
B
C
D

Wet kraft fiber before drying


30% consistency (Irreversible processes begin to occur)
30-75% consistency
>75% consistency

Hornification: Irreversible

Never Dried
Fiber

Rewetting

Fiber Swollen
With Water

Dried Collapsed
Fiber - Hornified

Does not Re-swell

Effects of Recycling on Chemical Pulps

Effect of Recycling on Chemical Pulps


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Chemically pulped fibers that have never been dried:

have the ability to swell with water which makes the fibers flexible
can be mechanically treated (refining) to increase the flexibility

The flexible never dried fibers are able to conform in the paper
sheet which increases the fiber bonded area making strong
paper
When dried, the fibers become rigid, termed hornification

Effect of Recycling on Chemical Pulps


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Previously dried fibers, upon exposure to water, do not swell and


do not become flexible
These rigid fibers break upon refining: causing fines
When paper is made, the rigid fibers do not conform in the paper
sheet and the resulting low fiber bonded area produces a weak
sheet

Flexible Fibers

Stiff fibers

Effect of Recycling on Mechanical Pulps

1st Use

80 %

70 %

60 %

20%

30%

40%

2nd Use

3rd Use

Effects of Recycling on Mechanical Pulps

Effect of Recycling on Mechanical Pulps


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Wood containing pulps from mechanical pulping processes have


lignin (a three-dimensional crosslinked polymer) which makes
fiber walls stiff and deters water swelling
The stiff, somewhat round cross section fibers make paper with
low fiber bonded area and weak fiber bonds
Therefore, the strength of never dried mechanical pulps is
generally lower than of never dried chemical pulps
Recycling may improve properties of mechanical pulps by
flatening and flexiblizing the fibers
Different behavior than chemical pulps on recycling

Effects of Recycled Fibers on the


Papermaking Process
Lower freeness: decrease machine
speeds or add drainage aid
z Lower paper strength: more sheet breaks
z Low efficiency of chemical additives (fines
and anionic trash)
z Increased deposits
z Decreased cleanliness
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Paper Strength vs. Number of Times Recycled


(Howard and Bichard, 1st Res Forum on Recycling, Oct 1991, CPPA)

10

Burst Index (kPa m^2/g)

9
8
7
6
5
4

Bleached Kraft (Chemical Pulp)

Groundwood (M echanical Pulp)

2
1
0
0

Number of Recycles

Effect of Recycling on Fiber


Properties: Review Quiz
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True or False: A pulp produced for


newsprint using a CTMP process should
have almost equal or better strength
properties after recycling.

Paper Recycling Operations


An Example: OCC Recycling

Paper Recycling Operations


An Example: OCC Recycling
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Learning objectives
Identify

major sub-operations in a typical


OCC recycle mill
Understand the purpose and how each
sub-operation works

Why is contaminant removal so difficult?


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Contaminates vary by

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size
density
shape
surface properties
solubility
strength

No single separation device can remove all of the


different types of contaminants
Thus, recycling processes consist of many suboperations that complement each other

Major Recycling Steps


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z
z

Pulping
Cleaning
Screening
Deinking

--- used to produce printing or tissue

Washing
Flotation
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z
z

Dispersion and Kneading


Bleaching
--- used to produce printing or tissue
Water Treatment
Solid Waste Handling

Example: An OCC Recycling Process


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In the next section, we will take a look at the suboperations in an OCC recycling process
The process has the following operations:

Pulping
High Density Cleaning
Screening
Forward Cleaning
Through Flow Cleaning
Thickening
Dispersion
Water Clarification

Pulping of Recovered Paper

Pulping of recovered paper


Definition
Pulper : A device whose main objective is to
convert recovered paper into a slurry of well
separated fibers and other waste paper
components.

Pulping of recovered paper


The pulping operation is the first and probably the
most critical operation in paper recycling.
Proper pulping is a requirement if unit operations
downstream (cleaning, screening, flotation..) are
to be effective.
Incorrect pulping conditions can irreversibly damage
fibers making them inappropriate for papermaking
uses.

Pulping
Main Function : Disperse recovered paper into separated fibers.

Several sub-objectives that are also important:


1. Detach contaminants from fibers.
2. Mix paper with water and chemicals at the correct ratios.
3. Maintain contaminants as large as possible to aid subsequent
removal processes.
4. Avoid damage to the fibers (fiber cutting).
5. Removal of large debris from system.

Basic Pulping Categories :


Batch vs. Continuos Pulping
Batch Pulping : The feed recovered paper, water
and chemicals are all charged at the beginning of
the process and are removed all at once at the end
of the process. The batch process is repeated.

Continuos Pulping : The feed recovered paper,


water and chemicals are continuously added to the
pulper and at the same time, the pulped product is
also being continuously removed.

Basic Pulping Categories :


Low vs High Consistency
Consistency (solids) 100 *
Low Consistency Pulping: Typically
from 3-6 % K. Produces a relatively
easily pumpable fluid. The fluid is
pourable.

High Consistency Pulping: Typically


from 8 - 18 % K. Produces a thick,
slurry that will not flow under the
influence of gravity alone.

solids wt
=%K
solids wt + liquid wt

General Parts of a Pulper

z
z
z
z
z
z
z

1. Wastepaper feed method (conveyor).


2. Pulper tub.
3. Rotor - spinning device for agitation, mechanical energy input
to the system.
4. Baffles - protrusions to assist in mixing and prevent swirling.
5. Dilution water.
6. Pulper exit.

Forces in a Pulper
z

Mechanical Forces
These are caused when
the fast moving rotor
impacts material in the
relatively slower body of
pulp stock around it.
Faster rotor speeds
cause more intense
mechanical forces in the
pulper.

Pulper Forces
z
z

Hydraulic Forces :
These are caused by the
motion of fluid that is caused by
the spinning rotor (not by the
direct impact of the rotors).
When two adjacent portions of
a fluid are moving in different
directions ( or at different
speeds) a shear force is
present. An example in the
picture would be at point A.

Forces in a Pulper
z

Attrition

Mechanical shearing forces that


occurs between the moving
rotor and a static extraction
plate near the rotor.
The rotor forces fiber bundles
between the rotor and extraction
plate. Intense hydraulic forces
act to cut the fiber bundles and
fibers. This can cause
significant damage to fibers.
Used only for low % K pulping
because the pulp must be
screenable.

Low Consistency Pulping


z
z
z

Consistency from 3 -6 %.
Low profile rotor that
rotates at high speeds.
Motion of rotor causes a
vortex of pulp stock. The
baffles are used to
improve mixing.
High mechanical force due
to impacts of rotor can
damage fiber and break
contaminants.

Pulper Types: High Consistency


z
z

Typically 8-18 %.
High profile rotor used. The
helical screw type rotor is
needed to pull down the
non-fluid like high % K
stock, from the top to the
bottom of the pulper.
At the high % K, fiber-fiber
(solid-solid) rubbing
dominates the forces
experienced in the pulper.

Comparison of Low vs High Consistency Pulping


z

Rotor/ tank volume is much higher for


high % K pulping. This is needed to
maintain proper motion of non - fluid pulp
stock at high % K.
Specific power is higher for high % K due
to the higher viscosity pulp stock that
must be pulped.
However, the specific power consumption
per ton of paper is significantly lower for
high % K pulping.This is due to high % K
pulping having more tons of fiber for the
amount of same pulping volume as a low
% K pulper. Also, the relatively less
amount of water at high % K pulping
causes less energy to be expended on
moving water.

Comparison of Low vs High Consistency Pulping


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Rotor speed is slower for high % K, causing less


damage to fibers via mechanical forces of rotor.
Attrition forces are not used for high % K pulping. This
decreases fiber cutting and contaminant breakage.
RESULTS of above: higher tensile, burst and tear
strength for high %K pulping
High consistency pulping includes more fiber to fiber
rubbing.
RESULTS of above: This action increases detachment
of contaminants from fiber surfaces. The detachment
of ink from fibers is especially important for washing
and flotation deinking.

Comparison of Low vs High Consistency


Pulping
z

Printing and writing grades consist of a high content


of fully bleached hardwood and softwood fibers that
are susceptible to damage => gentle high consistency
pulping is preferred
Further printing and writing grades need ink
detachment => high consistency pulping with lots of
fiber-fiber rubbing is preferred
OCC recycling, a historically older technology,
typically has low consistency pulping because
unbleached fibers are less susceptible to damage

Screening and Junk Removal in Pulper


One of the sub- objectives of pulping is to remove large
debris
that enters the system.
Examples of large debris :

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wood
wet-strength paper
plastics
baling wire
nails and bolts

The removal of debris serves two important functions.


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z

Protects equipment downstream from damage.


Prevents plugging of downstream equipment.

Examples of Debris Removal Methods

Different pulpers have different methods to remove debris,


examples of common methods follow.

High Consistency Batch Pulping


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z

HC pulper with Dilution Zone


HC pulper with Detrasher

Low consistency Pulping


Continuos Low consistency pulper with Ragger and junk
tower.
Continuos Low consistency pulper with a de-trashing
system
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High Consistency Batch Pulper with


Dilution Zone
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The pulper is designed so


that during pulping at 15 18% K the pulper volume is
only partially full.
At the end of the pulping
cycle, dilution water is added
to achieve a 5 - 6 % K.
After dilution, accepted stock
passes through an extraction
plate with holes about 3/4 - 1
inch diameter.
Finally, large debris is
flushed from the pulper
through a large rejects
opening on the side.

High Consistency Batch Pulper with


External Detrasher
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The pulper is full at high


consistency during pulping.
At the end of the pulping dilution
water is added at the bottom of
the pulper diluting the pulp in the
bottom to less than 6 %.
A large opening on the
bottom/side of the pulper is used
as the exit for the pulper
contents.
The pulp and debris are
separated by an external
detrasher.
Note : There is no extraction
plate in the pulper.

Note: drawing not to scale.

Continuos Low Consistency Pulper with


Ragger and Junk Tower
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Low consistency continuos pulper


typically have an extraction plate
that accepts pulped fibers and
rejects debris and unpulped flakes.
The extraction plate/ rotor can cause
attrition, resulting in fiber cutting.
A junker is used to collect
unpulpables such as bolts or rocks.
This debris is thrown out of the
pulper into a junk tower where it is
removed.
A ragger is also used in many cases
to remove bale wire, strings,
plastics, etc. The ragger is a
continuos rope formed by
entangled debris. The rope is
continously pulled out of the pulper
and cut into sections and disposed.
Common in OCC mills.

Recovered OCC bale storage

Loading OCC bales on pulper conveyor

Wire bale cutter

Pulper conveyor

Bale falling into pulper

Pulper

Ragger removing debris


from the pulper surface

Ragger pulling rejects


out of pulper

Junker Claw

Continuos Low Consistency Pulper with


Ragger and Junk Tower
z

z
z

Low consistency continuos pulper


typically have an extraction plate
that accepts pulped fibers and
rejects debris and unpulped flakes.
The extraction plate/ rotor can cause
attrition, resulting in fiber cutting.
A junker is used to collect
unpulpables such as bolts or rocks.
This debris is thrown out of the
pulper into a junk tower where it is
removed.
A ragger is also used in many cases
to remove bale wire, strings,
plastics, etc. The ragger is a
continuos rope formed by
entangled debris. The rope is
continously pulled out of the pulper
and cut into sections and disposed.
Common in OCC mills.

Example Detrashing Process


recycle
Light rejects

Heavy
rejects

Accepts

Rotor with screen plate

Drum Pulping
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A continuos, high
consistency pulping method.
Most often used for pulping
old newsprint.
Consists of an inclined
rotating drum 11 -17 rpm
through which the paper/
pulp travel down. The drum
is very large approximately
10 feet high and 100 feet
long.

High Consistency Drum Pulper

High % K
Zone

Screening
Zone
Rejects

Conveyor
Accept
Pulp

Drum Pulping

Two Zones
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High Consistency pulping zone
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Low consistency pulping zone.
High Consistency Pulping Zone
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Paper ,water and chemicals
added to ^ 15% K.
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Baffles on the walls of the drum
lift the paper and drop causing
defibering in a gentle manner.
Low Consistency Screening zone
z
Water is added to dilute stock 34% K.
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Pulped fibers pass through 6
mm holes and are accepted
from the pulper.
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Large rejects continue through
the pulper and are4 discharged
at the end.

Drum Pulping

Two Zones
High Consistency pulping zone
Low consistency pulping zone.
High Consistency Pulping Zone
Paper ,water and chemicals added to ^ 15% K.
Baffles on the walls of the drum lift the paper and drop causing
defibering in a gentle manner.
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Low Consistency Screening zone


Water is added to dilute stock 3-4% K.
Pulped fibers pass through 6 mm holes and are accepted from
the pulper.
Large rejects continue through the pulper and are4 discharged
at the end.
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Overview

Rejects

Drum Pulping
Paper Feed

Advantages
Gentle pulping
keeps contaminants
large and minimizes
fiber degradation.
Simple operation
that includes
screening.
Disadvantages
High capital cost.
Not an aggressive
pulping method
(example: cannot
pulp wet strength
papers).
z

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rejects exit

Pulping Summary
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Several methods to pulp


Main objective: defiberize
Secondary Objectives:

Remove Large Debris


Detach contaminants
Not destroy fibers
Mix

Final Thought: If pulping is not done properly,


subsequent processing steps will be
ineffective and product quality will be
unacceptable

High density cleaners

High Density Cleaner: removes large


heavy rejects from pulp

Objective: separate large


heavy contaminants from fibers
to protect downstream
equipment from damage and
pluggage
How it works: centrifugal
forces separate materials
mainly due to density/size

Light weight
Rejects

Detrasher
Heavy
Rejects out
the back
Feed
Accepts

Example detrashing unit


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Top View

Objective: pulp unpulped


pieces of paper/board and
separate contaminants using a
screen or centrifugal forces to
protect downstream equipment
from damage and pluggage

Deflakers

Objective: impart mechanical energy to break up flakes of unpulped material.

Screening
z

Screening separates
contaminants based
mainly on size, but
also on shape and
deformability
Performed by
presenting a barrier
for large
contaminants (slots
or holes) that allow
fibers to pass through

Screening

Modes of Removal
1.

Stiff particles with all 3 dimensions larger than width of


slot or diameter of hole are rejected

2.

Stiff particles with one or two dimensions smaller than


width/diameter have a probability of rejection.

Rejection Probability, %
100%

1-dimension (rod)< slot size


50%

2-dimension (plate) < slot size

0%
1

Number of screen contacts

Screening Types and Conditions


Screen
Type

Screen
Rotor
Openings, circumference
mm
speed,m/s

Consistency Range

MC
<6%
Disk

MC
<4.5%

Hole
2-3

20-30

Cylindrical

Hole
0.8-1.5

10-30

Yes

Cylindrical

Slot
0.1-0.4

10-30

Yes

LC
<1.5%

Yes

Yes

Screening
z

Types of perforations
coarse holes .110 in or 2.7 mm
fine holes
.060 in or 1.52 mm
coarse slots
.010 in or .254 mm
fine slots
.006 in or .152 mm

Also, the fibers offer a resistance to passage,


related to the consistency

Example of Disk Screen

Pressure screen

Pressure Screen Principle to Prevent


Blinding of Screen
The leading edge of the
rotating foil accelerates the
stock.
The negative pulse under the
sweeping foil momentarily
reverses the flow, effectively
purging the screen openings.

Pressure Screen Flow


Configurations

Screen Plates

Holes

Slots

Contoured

Effect of Reject Rate & Plate


Opening on Screen Cleanliness

Screening Factors

Screen Performance Variables


z

Stock characteristics

Screen design

fiber type, debris characteristics, debris level


flow configuration, plate cleaning mechanism,
perforation type (holes or slots), rotor speed

Operating variables

stock flow rate (pressure drop across screen),


feed consistency, reject rate, screen plate
perforation size, stock temperature, dilution flow to
screen

Screening

Screen Layout:
Always have cascaded screens to save fiber.
Primary Screen

Accepts

Secondary Screen

Tertiary Screen

Rejects

Open Gravity Screen

Summary Pressure Screen:

Objective: separate large


contaminants from fibers
Can act as barrier screen or
probability screen
Typically cascaded to save
fiber
Typical conditions to promote
increased throughput can have
negative impact on cleanliness
efficiency.

Cleaning

Centrifugal Cleaning
Remove impurities from the pulp stream
z Centrifugal cleaners remove
z

metals
inks
sand
bark
dirt
etc.,

Centrifugal Cleaning
z

Principles of operation

Centrifugal cleaner uses fluid pressure to create


rotational fluid motion in a tapered cylinder
Rotational movement causes denser particles to
move to the outside faster than lighter particles
Good fibers carried inward and upward to the
accepted stock inlet
Dirt held in the downward current and removed
from the bottom

Three Basic Cleaner Types:


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High Density Cleaner: separates very large, heavy


contaminants such as rocks, staples, glass. Used
after pulping (early in the process) to protect
downstream equipment. Diameter = 300-700 mm.
Forward Cleaners: separates fine, heavy
contaminants such as a sand and inks. Also called
cyclones, hydrocyclones, or cleaners. (Described
above) Diameter = 70-400 mm
Through Flow Cleaner: separates fine, light
contaminants such as glues, adhesives, plastics,
foam. Also called light-weight cleaners or reverse
cleaners. Diameter = 100-400 mm

Types of Cleaners: Functional Differences


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Consistency
HC cleaner: 2-4.5% K, MC: 1-2, LC: 0.5-1.5
Centrifugal Acceleration (acceleration due to gravity =9.8 m/s2)
HC cleaner: <60 g, MC: <100g, LC: <1000 g
Reject Rate by mass/stage
HC cleaner: 0.1-1% , MC: 0.1-1, LC: 3-30

Centrifugal Cleaner: Features and Flow

Bank Arrangement of Cleaners

Accepts Header
Feed Header
Rejects Header

Several cleaners are piped in parallel fashion.


A single cleaner is not capable of providing enough
through put for typical industrial flows.

Forward Cleaners

Cleaners
z

Canister

Cleaners Pump

Cascade Arrangement of Cleaners


Dilution Water

ACCEPTS

FEED
Primary
Cleaners
Secondary
Cleaners

Dilution Water

Tertiary
Cleaners

Dilution Water

REJECTS

Typical Cleaner Curve

Effective
Separation
Separation Ratio:
m(in) m(acc) / m(in)

Equal
Distribution

m= mass flow contaminant

Reject Ratio: OD mass flow reject / OD mass flow inlet

High Density Cleaner

High density cleaners

Through Flow Cleaner


Feed

Rejects
Accepts

Thru-flow cleaners

Centrifugal Cleaner Performance Variables


z

Stock Characteristics

fiber type
contaminant characteristics (size, shape, density),
dirt level

Cleaner Design

body diameter, feed inlet configuration, accept


diameter, cylindrical section height, cone angle,
spiral grooves application, reject rate control
method (fixed orifice and back pressure)

Parameters Affecting Hydrocyclone


Cleanliness Efficiency
Operating
Variable increase in:
Pressure Difference
Volumetric Flow
Cyclone Diameter
Consistency
Flake Content
Temperature
Reject Rate
Flushing Flow

Cleanliness
Efficiency

Sensitivity to
Variable

Incr/Decr
Incr/Decr
Decrease
Decrease
Decrease
Increase
Increase
Decrease

High
Medium
High
High
Medium
Low
Medium
Medium

Effect of Particle Properties on Separation


z
z
z
z

Particles with large density differences wrt


water are removed more effectively
Particles with density near 1 g/cm3 may
separate from fibers
Larger particle at same density will be
removed more effectively than smaller particle
Particles of the same density but with
favorable hydrodynamic shape (cwAp)
separate more effectively, eg, a sphere is
better than a flat plate

Fundamentals
Force balance on a single particle in a hydrocyclone

axial
Fd

Fd
Fc
Fg
radial

Radial direction:
Net centrifugal force Drag force

Axial direction:

Net gravitational force Drag force


Tangential direction:
Assume: particles move along with fluid

Fundamentals
z

One dimension analysis of single particle


Fd

Fc (or Fg)
Assume the time for particle to reach
its terminal velocity is very brief

dU s
= Fc (or Fg ) Fd
m
dt
0

= Fc (or Fg ) Fd

Fc (or Fg ) = Fd

Particle slip velocity, Us = velocity of water

velocity of particle

Net centrifugal force

Drag force

ut2
ut2
1
2
l
p
V p = lU s Ap Cd
2
r
r

ut2 V p p l
Us = 2

r Ap l

Cd

for radial direction

Cd = drag coefficient

p , l = density of particle and fluid

r = radial position

ut = tangential velocity of fluid

Vp = volume of particle

Ap = projected area of particle

Fundamentals
Why is the slip velocity important ?

Cd

For high Us
Us

ut2 V p p l
Us = 2

r Ap l

Reject stream

For low Us
Us

Accept stream

High ut (tangential velocity)

High p (particle density)

Low Cd (drag coefficient)

Fiber tends to be rejected

Cleaner Summary
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z
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Several types of cleaners


Objective: remove high/low density
contaminants
Must reject material to operate effectively
Several forces/operational variables/particle
characteristics that combine to determine
effectiveness in removal

Paper Recycling Operations


An Example: OCC Recycling Process: Review Quiz

Match the following:

high density cleaner


pulper
screens
disperser
thru flow cleaner
vacuum disk filter
clarifier

removes light weight contaminants


tries to hide contaminants
thickens pulp stock
breaks paper/board into fibers
uses size differences
uses centrifugal forces
allows us to re-use process water