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Susan I. Rotroff West Slope in the East In: Céramiques hellénistiques et romaines, productions et

West Slope in the East

In: Céramiques hellénistiques et romaines, productions et diffusion en Méditerranée orientale (Chypre, Égypte et côte syro-palestinienne). [Actes du colloque tenu à la Maison de l'Orient méditerranéen Jean Pouilloux du 2 au 4 mars 2000] Lyon : Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée Jean Pouilloux, 2002. pp. 97-115. (Travaux de la Maison de l'Orient méditerranéen)

Citer ce document / Cite this document :

Rotroff Susan I. West Slope in the East. In: Céramiques hellénistiques et romaines, productions et diffusion en Méditerranée orientale (Chypre, Égypte et côte syro-palestinienne). [Actes du colloque tenu à la Maison de l'Orient méditerranéen Jean Pouilloux du 2 au 4 mars 2000] Lyon : Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée Jean Pouilloux, 2002. pp. 97-115. (Travaux de la Maison de l'Orient méditerranéen)

l'Orient méditerranéen) http://www.persee.fr/web/ouvrages/home/prescript/article/mom_1274-6525_2002_act_35_1_1128

Résumé On a commencé à fabriquer des céramiques West Slope en Grèce continentale durant le premier quart du IIIe s., et des industries locales sont rapidement apparues dans d'autres aires du monde grec. Le West Slope était rare dans le monde hellénistique oriental, mais deux ateliers importants en ont produit : l'un à Pergame, l'autre, le « Ivy Platter Workshop » à un endroit non identifié sur la côte sud de l'Asie Mineure ou sur les côtes du Liban ou de la Syrie actuels. Cet article étudie la distribution des productions de ces deux centres et de celle d'Athènes. Les exportations attiques étaient relativement peu nombreuses et ont été retrouvées surtout en Grèce continentale et dans les Cyclades. La diffusion de la production de Pergame était plus large, le long de la côte ouest de l'Asie Mineure, sur les bords de la mer Noire et occasionnellement aussi loin que Chypre, la Syrie, la Palestine et Alexandrie. Mais dans le Levant sud, les produits du groupe « Ivy Platter » étaient dominants. La représentation relative des trois catégories dans les grands centres comme Alexandrie, Rhodes et Délos peut refléter des liens commerciaux entre ces cités et les centres producteurs et pourrait aussi avoir des implications pour la datation de l'atelier pergaménien et de l'atelier « Ivy Platter ».

Abstract West Slope pottery began to be made in mainland Greece during the course of the first quarter of the 3rd century, and local industries soon sprang up in other areas of the Greek world. West Slope was rare in the Hellenistic east, but was produced by two important workshops: one at Pergamon, the other, the Ivy Platter Workshop, at an unknown location somewhere along the south coast of Asia Minor or the coasts of present-day Lebanon or Syria. This paper investigates the distribution of products from these two centers and from Athens. Attic exports were relatively few, found mostly in mainland Greece and the Cyclades. Pergamon's markets were larger, along the west coast of Asia Minor, the shores of the Black Sea, and occasionally as far afield as Cyprus, Syria, Palestine, and Alexandria. In the southern Levant, however, products of the Ivy Platter group were dominant. The relative representation of the three wares at such large centers at Alexandria, Rhodes, and Delos may reflect commercial ties between those cities and the producers, and may also have implications for the dating of the Pergamene and Ivy Platter workshops.

those cities and the producers, and may also have implications for the dating of the Pergamene

Céramiques hellénistiques et romaines TMO 35, Maison de l'Orient, Lyon, 2002

WEST SLOPE IN THE EAST

Susan I. ROTROFF :

Abstract West Slope pottery began to be made in mainland Greece during the course of the first quarter of the 3rd century, and local industries soon sprang up in other areas of the Greek world. West Slope was rare in the Hellenistic east, but was produced by two important workshops: one at Pergamon, the other, the Ivy Platter Workshop, at an unknown location somewhere along the south coast of Asia Minor or the coasts of present-day Lebanon or Syria. This paper investigates the distribution of products from these two centers and from Athens. Attic exports were relatively few, found mostly in mainland Greece and the Cyclades. Pergamon's markets were larger, along the west coast of Asia Minor, the shores of the Black Sea, and occasionally as far afield as Cyprus, Syria, Palestine, and Alexandria. In the southern Levant, however, products of the Ivy Platter group were dominant. The relative representation of the three wares at such large centers at Alexandria, Rhodes, and Delos may reflect commercial ties between those cities and the producers, and may also have implications for the dating of the Pergamene and Ivy Platter workshops.

RÉSUMÉ On a commencé à fabriquer des céramiques West Slope en Grèce continentale durant le premier quart du IIIe s., et des industries locales sont rapidement apparues dans d'autres aires du monde grec. Le West Slope était rare dans le monde hellénistique oriental, mais deux ateliers importants en ont produit : l'un à Per game, l'autre, le « Ivy Platter Workshop » à un endroit non identifié sur la côte sud de l'Asie Mineure ou sur les côtes du Liban ou de la Syrie actuels. Cet article étudie la distribution des productions de ces deux centres et de celle d'Athènes. Les exportations attiques étaient relativement peu nombreuses et ont été retrouvées surtout en Grèce continentale et dans les Cyclades. La diffusion de la production de Pergame était plus large, le long de la côte ouest de l'Asie Mineure, sur les bords de la mer Noire et occasionnellement aussi loin que Chypre, la Syrie, la Palestine et Alexandrie. Mais dans le Levant sud, les produits du groupe « Ivy Platter » étaient dominants. La représentation relative des trois catégories dans les grands centres comme Alexandrie, Rhodes et Délos peut refléter des liens commerciaux entre ces cités et les centres producteurs et pourrait aussi avoir des implications pour la datation de l'atelier pergamenten et de l'atelier « Ivy Platter ».

West Slope pottery (WS) has been known to scholars for a century, and some significant treatments of individual industries have appeared. So far, however, no general study of the technique and its distribution has been attempted. The type remains poorly published, both quantitatively and qualitatively; furthermore, the low quality of much of the pottery and the monotony of its decoration make it difficult to distinguish between the products of different centers. Nonetheless, the sample at our disposal permits some preliminary conclusions.

Washington University in Saint Louis, USA.

98

S.I. ROTROFF

Production of West Slope

Sites where West Slope pottery has been found fall into three categories: great production centers, minor centers, and consumers. Great centers are those where many vessels occur, with a large repertoire of shapes and motifs, and where there was significant export. Outside of Italy, three have been investigated — Athens, Pergamon, and Knossos—, only one of them located east of the Aegean.1 There are also lesser

centers, places with well-established industries but a smaller decorative repertoire and little or no export. In the East these include Ephesos, Rhodes, Sardis, and Knidos, the last two, however, unpublished. Close to 200 examples of WS have been published from Ephesos.2 While Ephesian potters were prolific, they were also unimaginative, limiting their decorative repertoire almost entirely to ivy and olive garlands and the spearhead necklace. The number of motifs is similarly limited at Rhodes, where Vasso Patsiada has published about 90 pieces of local manufacture:3 ivy and olive, with checkerboard/rectangle and spearhead necklace in small numbers. The influence of Athens is present at the beginning, and persists to a limited degree in Rhodes, but the later products of both centers were heavily influenced by Pergamene WS. Other eastern sites were largely consumers. Even when much WS occurs, much is imported, and a local industry was minimal or lacking. Frances Jones published only 36 fragments from Tarsus, including both local and imported examples.4 From Antioch and the vicinity, Frederick Waagé published only 42 pieces, at least 13 of which he considered imports.5 WS is described as "abundant" at Ibn Hani on the Syrian coast,6 but little has been published.7 Dor has produced the largest amount so far published from

as much has been published from Samaria,9 but the

status of the ware is difficult to gauge: Kenyon calls it comparatively rare, while Crowfoot claims it is common.10 Here too there are many imports, but it is unclear whether or not there was a local industry. Much WS has been found at Maresha, in the south, but it awaits publication. The ware is decidedly rare elsewhere in Palestine and inland Syria, despite the existence of many thoroughly published sites with Hellenistic strata. Tiny amounts have been published from Ashdod, Dura Europos, and Hama," and at Pella WS is said to be rare.12 More surprisingly, little has been published from the rich Hellenistic sites

Palestine (83 fragments), but all are imported.8 Nearly

1. Athens: H.A. Thompson, 1934, "Two Centuries of Hellenistic Pottery", H esperia 3, p. 438-47; S.I.Rotroff, 1991, "Attic West Slope Vase Painting", H esperia 60, p. 59-102; Rotroff 1997, p. 38-79. Knossos: Callaghan 1978; idem 1981; idem, 1992, "Archaic to Hellenistic Pottery", p. 89-136 in L.H. Sackett et ai, Knossos from Greek City to Roman Colony. Excavations at the Unexplored Mansion II, BSA Suppl. 21. Pergamon: Schäfer 1968, p. 45-63; Behr 1988.

2. Mitsopoulos-Leon 1991, p. 32-54; Gassner 1997, p. 59-69.

3. Patsiada 1990.

4. Jones

5. Waagé

1950, p. 159-63.

1948, p. 12-13, 18, fig. 3, 8.

6.

7.

Bounni et al.

Bounni

«Rapport préliminaire sur la quatrième campagne de fouilles (1978) à Ibn Hani (Syria)», Syria 58,

1981,

1978, p. 287.

et al.

1976, p. 275, fig. 25; Bounni et al. 1978, p. 287-88, fig. 34; A. Bounni et ai,

p. 281,

286, fig. 40, 41, 44.

8. Rosenthal-Heginbottom 1995, p. 222-31.

9. Crowfoot et al.

10.

1

1.

6,

13, nos

10, 11.

185,

pi. 73).

Crowfoot et al. 1957, p. 225, under no.l; p. 244. Dothan and Friedman 1967, fig. 6: 4, 7: 4; Dothan 1971, fig. 8:

The Greek and Roman Pottery, The Excavations at Dura-Europos. Final Report IV, 1, 2, New Haven 1949,

p. 4,

fig.

D.H. Cox, 1949,

1957, fig. 39, 43, 44, 45, 47; Reisner et al.

1924, p. 294-97,

306, fig. 173,

17, 20, 14: 9, 24: 12;

14, 29-36,

76,

pi. 1,

2,

4;

Christensen and Johansen

1971, p. 24, nos 95-98,

WEST SLOPE IN THE EAST

9 9

in southwest Asia Minor.13 As for Alexandria, its expected brilliant pottery industry has failed to materialize. Virtually all the WS published from the city is imported. Painted ceramics are rare in excavations there, and the quality of local products of this genre mediocre. In sum, then, the manufacture of WS was rare in the eastern Mediterranean. The same may be true of the Black Sea region. Among eight shapes published in a recent overview of the Hellenistic assemblage of there.15 the Bulgarian coast, only two bear painted decoration, although imported WS is well represented

Distribution of Key Shapes

Numerous difficulties attend the attribution of WS to specific centers of manufacture. In older publications, those few scholars who attempted to identify fabrics had little to go on. They were keenly

aware of the characteristics of the local wares and readily recognized items that diverged from that pattern, but they were hard put to assign an origin to them. Anything with good black gloss tended to be called "Attic"; this identification must be regarded with great circumspection — it is only rarely correct. To minimize these difficulties, I concentrate here on a limited group of shapes, distinctive enough in profile and decoration to be recognizable even in mediocre illustrations. Each of them, also, is clearly associated

with a specific tradition: that of Athens, of Pergamon, or of a third, as yet

unlocated center.

Attic and Pergamene West Slope The Attic West Slope amphora (fig. 1: /), created around 275, is characterized by a low ring foot, a cylindrical neck clearly offset from the body, and rope handles, usually with applied satyr masks at the base. ' The rim is at first gently out-turned, later drooping and, finally, in the 2nd half of the 2nd century, delicately molded, but never strongly emphasized. A related but quite distinct version of the shape was produced at Pergamon (fig. 1: 2).' It sits on a high, spreading foot with a complex profile, and its lower body is fluted, a treatment never encountered on the Attic vessel. The handles are straps instead of ropes, with rotelles rather than masks at the base. The rim is broadly spreading, with an angular offset, balancing the heavy foot below. Both shapes carry West Slope decoration on neck and shoulder, but Attic amphoras of the late 3rd century and later always have a checkerboard/rectangle frieze on the shoulder, a pattern never so used by Pergamene potters. Behr dated the introduction of the Pergamene amphora in the late 2nd century, solely on the basis of comparison with the Attic amphora that it presumably imitates. But ceramic forms generally traveled quickly in the Hellenistic period, and it is hard to accept a lag of over a century and a half between the establishment of the shape in Athens and its adoption at Pergamon. John Hayes has already pushed the date back to the mid-2nd century on the basis of the context of an amphora of Pergamene type at Paphos.18 1 would push it back even further. Fragments of a Pergamene-style amphora were found in the top of the Middle Hellenistic Unit at Tarsus, firmly dated before ca. 175, 19 another fragment has turned up

13. None from Priene, tiny amounts from Kyme (J. Bouzek ed., Anatolian Collection of Charles University,

Kyme I, Prague 23I2A, 1973-1974,

1974, p. 78-80, pi. 8, 17), Labraunda (Hellström

p. 112-13,

nos

151-54,

pi. 33,

34,

IstMitt 25,

1965, p. 16-17), Miletos (istMitt 1975, p. 40, pi. 14, IstMitt 35,

1971, p. 71-72, nos 128-31, fig. 15,

1985, p. 56-57, nos 32, 45, fig. 32, 45), and Didyma (Tuchelt

pi. 10, IstMitt 30,

1980, p. 130, nos 38, 39, pi. 53).

14. Ballet 1998; Morel 1995.

1 5.

A. Bozkova, 1997, "A Pontic Pottery Group of the Hellenistic Age (A Survey Based on Examples from the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast)", Archaeologia Bulgarica 1: 2, p. 8-17; Bouzek 1990 p. 54-56.

16. Rotroff 1997, p. 120-24, fig. 24-33,

pi. 39-45.

17. Schäfer

1968, p. 50, pi. 17-20; Behr 1988, p. 170-71.

18. Hayes 1991, p. 6, 108, no. 1.

1 00

S.I. ROTROFF

on Tinos in a context of ca. 230-180,20 and Cypriot derivatives of the shape come from Paphian contexts of the 3rd and early 2nd centuries." These instances demonstrate that the shape was well established by

the early 2nd century. Less conclusive are fragments of what appear to be two amphoras, one with a fluted

lower body and hence derivative from the Pergamene type, from the bottom level of the Middle Hellenistic Unit at Tarsus,22 dated to the 1 st half of the 3rd century. If the date and the identification of the fragments are correct, the Pergamene amphora was in production before the middle of the 3rd century, no more than a generation after the invention of the shape in Athens. West Slope kantharoi provide a second set of distinctive shapes. The Athenian angular kantharos,23 a

creation of the early 3rd century, has a carinated profile with a scraped groove at the point of greatest diameter, a straight or only slightly outcurving rim, and an ivy leaf or mask thumbrest at the handle arch (fig. 1: 3). With this may be contrasted the bauchige Becher of Pergamon, which also appears in the 3rd century (fig. 1: 4),24 with its S-shaped profile, more strongly out-turned rim, and rotelles rather than masks or ivy leaves at the handle arch.25 A third distinctive form emerges from the Pergamene repertoire, a hemispherical krater with heavy lug handle and broad, projecting and down-curved rim, the upper surface of which is decorated (fig. 1: 5).26 The form was also manufactured in Athens,27 but only in black gloss, and it was never exported. Behr places the Pergamene krater in the 2nd and 1st centuries, but fragments from a mid-3rd- century context on Chios provide evidence for an earlier date. The distribution patterns of published instances are summarized in fig. 5 and 6. Attic kantharoi were rarely exported; the only example outside of Greece is a single fragment at Labraunda. Even in Greece, Attic kantharoi are rare and occur mostly at nearby sites (Corinth, Isthmia, Aigina), though the shape spawned derivatives in local industries throughout Greece. The Attic amphora fared better on the export market, with examples at Corinth, on Delos, Euboia, Aigina, and Tinos, and even as far afield as Carthage. Only occasionally did it reach the East or the Black Sea region. Only isolated examples of the Pergamene shapes appear in Greece: amphoras at Corinth and on Tinos, kraters at Athens, on Thasos and the Cycladic islands. The Pergamene kantharos is almost completely absent, though imitations in Eastern Macedonia, Samothrace, and Knossos show that it was imported to those regions. All three Pergamene shapes, however, are richly represented along the west coast of Asia Minor and the adjacent islands; examples occur also on Cyprus, at Tarsus and Antioch, and

at several sites in Palestine, as well as at Alexandria. The common occurrence of Pergamene pottery along

the shores of the Black Sea has frequently been noted.

A Third Center: the Ivy Platter Group

The location of a third center remains a mystery, although several scholars have drawn attention to

its products.29 It produced a suite of shapes linked by distinctive decoration. The most commonly found is

a heavy plate or platter (D. 21-39.5 cm.) with convex or straight outer wall and grooved knob rim

20. Etienne and Braun 1986, p. 215, Ca 8.

21. 1991, p. 101,

Hayes

no. 31;

p. 104, no. 10;

p. 113,

no. 2.

22. 1950, p. 219, no. 115,

Jones

116, fig. 125.

23. 1997, p. 100-102, fig. 14-16, pi. 17-21.

Rotroff

 

24. Schäfer

25. It sometimes has an angular profile (as Behr 1988, nos 1-6), but rotelles confirm Pergamene identity. The distinction between forms can be problematic in derivative industries, as at Knossos, where a local kantharos inspired by the curved Pergamene form develops into something like the angular Attic form (Callaghan 1981, p. 40-44, fig. 5, pi. 2).

26. Schäfer 1968, p. 48-49, pi. 13, 14; Behr 1988, p. 155-59.

27. Rotroff 1997, p. 137-39, fig. 42, 43, pi. 56, 57.

28. Anderson 1954, p. 154, nos 252-253.

29. Patsiada 1990, p. 108, 121; Hayes 1991, p. 6-7; Rosenthal-Heginbottom 1995, p. 225-28.

1968, p. 49-50, pi. 14-16;

Behr 1988, p. 113-25.

WEST SLOPE INTHE EAST

10 1

(Hayes's Type \,fig. 2, 4: 1). Around the outer part of the floor runs a large-scale laurel wreath or, more commonly, a bold ivy garland in white or yellowish white, with long, multiple, undulating stems, sometimes marked off from the center of the floor by one or two painted lines. Thus far the plates closely follow the form and decoration (though not the style) of early Hellenistic Attic plates, which could have served as models.™ But, unlike the Attic plates, they often have a stamped rosette at the center of the floor, surrounded by radiating palmettes (sometimes alternating with painted petals) and rouletting. Gloss may be restricted to the inside and upper exterior. Several scholars have linked these to a series of plates with a concave profile and a grooved, overhanging rim (Hayes's Type 2, fig. 3, 4: 2): They are larger (D. 30-41.6 cm.) but have thinner walls, and swags tied with bows often replace the garlands. The ivy or laurel garland is found again on a third shape, a simplified column krater (fig. 4: 3, 4). A small jug, also decorated with the distinctive ivy, completes the repertoire (fig. 4: 5). ' Contexts for Type 1 plates at Paphos and Dor place the beginning of production at least as early as the 3rd quarter of the 3rd century. Fragments also turn up in 2nd- century contexts, though they may be residual. Plates of Type 1 occur in significant concentrations at coastal sites from Tarsus in the north, along the coast of Palestine and into Egypt, to Alexandria in the south, and on Cyprus (fig. 7). They are also occasionally found at inland sites in Palestine, notably at Samaria and Maresha. Only rarely did the shape penetrate beyond this area: one example at Tel Halaf and a few at Ephesos and Rhodes. Plates of Type 2 are less numerous and limited to a smaller geographic radius: no further west than Cyprus, and chiefly at coastal sites from Tarsus to Ashdod. The more limited range may indicate a different production center or chronological range. Their distribution shows clearly that these vessels were manufactured somewhere in the East. The high quality of the gloss and the standard decorative repertoire suggest a thoroughly Hellenized center, but the combination of stamping and paint is an innovation that indicates a certain distance from the parent tradition. Rosenthal-Heginbottom refers them simply to an eastern workshop, while Hayes opts for the southeast Aegean, Patsiada for the southeast Mediterranean. The concentration in Palestine is remarkable, especially since WS is otherwise rare there. Yet even at Levantine sites where they occur in considerable numbers, scholars responsible for their publication insist they are not of local manufacture; the coast from Dor to Ashdod, then, must be eliminated. Jean-Paul Morel proposed Alexandria as a source, based on the fabric and the large numbers of plates of Type 1 that he examined there/6 Given Alexandrian taste for imported ceramics, numbers alone cannot be decisive, and the fabrics of examples

marl clays of Egypt." Given the pattern of

that I have examined do not conform to the silt or

distribution, I would suggest instead somewhere along the south coast of Asia Minor or the coasts of Lebanon and Syria.

30. E.g. Rotroff 1997, p. 326, no. 829, fig. 56, pi. 69.

31. Waagé 1948, p. 11; Hayes 1991, p. 7; Rosenthal-Heginbottom 1995, p. 228.

32. Hayes

33. Hayes

1991,

p. 109, no. 6.

1991, p. 103, no. 3 (deposit ΓΤ, before ca. 200); Guz-Zilberstein 1995, p. 335-37, fig. 6.65 : 1

2nd half

(locus 4566, 300-225), p. 328-29, fig. 6.55: 6, p. 333-35, fig. 6.62:

of 3rd century).

1

(loci

4353 and 4535,

34. Guz-Zilberstein 1995, p. 314, 331-33, fig. 6.40:

1, 6.60: 2 (Dor,

loci

481, 488, 4520); Sellers et al.

1968, p. 75, fig. 24: 18 (Beth Zur, Stratum II, 175-165; see p. 29 for date).

35. Rosenthal-Heginbottom 1995, p. 227; Hayes 1991, p. 7; Patsiada 1990, p. 142.

36. Morel

37. See also, in this volume, Ballet p. 85 sq.

1995,

p. 372.

1 02

S.I. ROTROFF

CONCLUSION

The published record indicates that WS was rare in the East and many places were heavily dependent on imports. Attica exported sparingly, mostly to mainland Greece and the Cyclades. Pergamon's markets were larger, expanding up and down the west coast of Asia Minor, along the shores of the Black Sea, and occasionally as far afield as Cyprus, Syria, Palestine, and Alexandria. In the southern Levant, however, products of the Ivy Platter group were dominant. All three groups are well represented at Rhodes and Alexandria, both major commercial centers. There are differences, though, for at Rhodes Attic products are liberally represented — perhaps close to 15% of the objects published by Patsiada, not so much less than the 25% attributed to Pergamon. This may reflect the trade partnership that brought large numbers of Rhodian wine amphoras to Athens. At Alexandria, however, products of Pergamon and the Ivy Platter group hugely outnumber Attic material. The situation is different again on Delos, where Attic WS is better represented than Pergamene, and the Ivy Platter group is absent. The Attic material not surprisingly reflects the close ties between Athens and her free port, but there may also be a chronological conclusion to be drawn. Most well-published Delian deposits date to the late 2nd and early 1st century, and it is likely that the Ivy Platter Group does not continue that late. Something similar may be the case for Pergamene WS. A substantial collection of Pergamene appliqué ware at Delos witnesses that the island did deal in Pergamene pottery. The absence of WS may indicate that the style had been largely abandoned by the late 2nd century and may thus be used as another slender prop in the construction of its chronology. Large gaps remain in our knowledge, due to lack of excavation or of publication of fine wares, especially from sites along the south coast of Asia Minor. This report can, however, stand as a benchmark of our knowledge of WS in the East at the turn of the millennium.

DOCUMENTATION

PERGAMENE AND DERIVATIVE

Asia Minor and Coastal Islands Amphora Troad: Kossatz 1985, p. 183, no. 5, fig. 22; Tekkök-Bicken 1996, p. 28, A 20, fig. 4 Sardis: Rotroff and Oliver forthcoming, nos 158-66, 169-73 Didyma: Tuchelt 1973-1974, p. 152, nos 33-35, pi. 52

Lesbos: C. Williams and M. Toli, 1990, "Hellenistic Pottery from Three Periods in Mytilene on the Island of Lesbos", in Β' Επιστημονική Συνάντηση για την Ελληνιστική Κεραμική, 22nd Ephoreia, Athens, p. 98-109, p. 104, pi. 61 γ

Samos: Isler and Kalpaxis

Rhodes: Patsiada 1990, p. 184-87, nos 145-63, fig. 25, pi. 71-73 Derivative Sardis: Rotroff and Oliver forthcoming, nos 167, 618 Rhodes: Patsiada 1990, p. 187-90, nos 164-72, fig. 26, 27, pi. 74, 75 Lemnos: M. Massa, 1992, La ceramica ellenistica con decorazione a relievo della Bottega di Efestia, Rome, p. 206, no. 599, pi. 122 Kantharos Troad: Tekkök-Bicken 1996, p. 27, A 15, fig. 4; perhaps G. Hübner, 1984, "Besik-Tepe 1982 Hellenistische Keramik und Kleinfunde", AA (Jdl 99), p. 180, fig. 6 Sardis: Rotroff and Oliver forthcoming, nos 105-109 Didyma: Tuchelt 1973-1974, p. 153, no. 36, fig. 7, pi. 52 Lesbos: ArchDelt 42 Β' 1987 (1992), p. 481, pi. 289 β Samos: Isler and Kalpaxis 1978, p. 1 15-16, nos 266-76, pi. 57

1987, p. 188, nos 298, 299, pi. 58

WEST SLOPE IN THE EAST

10 3

Rhodes: Patsiada 1990, p. 168, no. 84, fig. 16, pi. 61 Derivative Troad: Kossatz 1985, p. 186, no. 14, fig. 23 Ephesos: Mitsopoulos-Leon 1991, p. 35-36, 45-46, Β 18-29, pi. 25-28

Krater Troad: H. Schmidt, 1902, Heinrich Schliemanns Sammlung trojanischer Altertümer, Berlin, p. 195,

nos 3973-3976; Kossatz 1985, p. 183, no. 4, fig. 22, p. 192, no. 31, fig. 25; Tekkök-Bicken 1996, p. 27-28, A 18, A 19, fig. 5 Didyma: Tuchelt 1971, p. 71-72, nos 129-31, pi. 10

Lesbos: H.-G. Buchholz, 1975, Methymna, Mainz, p. 107,

Samos: R. Tölle-Kastenbein, 1974, Das Kastro Tigani, Samos XIV, Bonn, p. 154-55, fig. 246 H, 249 A, B, 250 A, B Chios: Anderson 1954, p. 154, nos 252, 253, pi. 11 Rhodes: Patsiada 1990, p. 174-78, nos 108-22, fig. 20, 21, pi. 65-67 Derivative

E 89, E 90, pi. 20, 22

Ephesos: Mitsopoulos-Leon

1991, p. 39-40, 51, Β

p. 60-61, nos 162-64, pi. 10

Rhodes: Patsiada 1990, p. 178,

nos 123, 124, pi. 67

104, Β 105, pi. 49, 50; Gassner 1997,

Cilicia, Syria, Palestine Amphora Tarsus: Jones 1950, p. 219, no. 117, fig. 125 Antioch: Waagé 1948, p. 28, fig. 8: 13 Dor: perhaps Rosenthal-Heginbottom 1995, p. 230, nos 78-80, fig. 5.12 Samaria: perhaps Crowfoot et al. 1957, p. 241, nos 1 1-13, fig. 45 Derivative Tarsus: Jones 1950, p. 219, nos 115, 116, 118, 119, fig. 125 Antioch: Waagé 1948, p. 28, fig. 8: 14 Dor: Guz-Zilberstein 1995, p. 309, fig. 6.32: 6 Gezer: Macalister 191 1-1912 II, p. 223, III, pi. 184: 3 Kantharos Dor: Rosenthal-Heginbottom 1995, p. 223, no. 9, fig. 5.8 Caesarea Maritima: D. W. Roller, 1980, "Hellenistic Pottery from Caesarea Maritima. A Preliminary Study", BASOR 238, p. 36, no. 1 Krater Tarsus: perhaps Jones 1950, p. 160, pi. 125 H Dor: Rosenthal-Heginbottom 1995, p. 228, nos 57, 58, fig. 5.11 Samaria: Crowfoot et al. 1957, p. 233, no. 7, fig. 43, p. 244, nos 9, 10, fig. 47

Cyprus Amphora Paphos: Hayes 1991, p. 6, 108, no. 1, fig. 4, pi. 2

Merion (?): A. Jacquemin and J.-J. Maffre, 1986, "Nouveaux vases grecs de la collection Zenon Piérides à Larnaca (Chypre)", BCH 110, p. 201-204, no. 15, fig. 30-33 Derivative

Paphos: Hayes

1991,

p. 101, no. 31, pi. 41;

p. 46,

150, no. 12, fig. 52, pi. 6

p. 104, no. 10, fig. 12; p. 113,

no. 2,

fig. 3;

O. Vessberg and A. Westholm, 1956, The Hellenistic and Roman Periods in Cyprus, SCE IV, 3, Stockholm, p. 66, fig. 29: 5

Krater Paphos: Hayes 1991, p. 115, no. 29, fig. 4; p.

154-55, no. 66, fig. 4

1 04

S.I. ROTROFF

Africa

Amphora

Alexandria: Adriani 1940, p. 113, pi. 46: 2; J.-Y. Empereur, 1997, "Alexandrie (Egypte)", BCH 121,

p. 842,

fig. 14

Kantharos Alexandria: Pagenstecher 1913, p. 28, nos 6, 8, 10, fig. 34, 158 Berenike: P. M. Kenrick, 1985, "The Fine Pottery", in Excavations at Sidi Khrebish, Benghazi [Berenice] III, 1, Libya Antiqua Suppl. 5, Tripoli, p. 80, Β 107, fig. 14 Krater Alexandria: Pagenstecher 1913, p. 30, no. 24, fig. 34

Black Sea Amphora Histria: Alexandrescu 1966, p. 191, 194, XXVI 5, XXXVII 6, pi. 93, 95, 96 Olbia: G. Loeschcke, 1891, "Erwerbungsberichte der deutschen Universitätssammlungen. Bonn", AA

5; Belin de Ballu 1972, pl. 39: 3; Parovich-

Peshikan 1974, p. 124, fig. 100: 1-3; T. L. Samoilova, 1994, "Some Forms of the Hellenistic Relief

Pottery from Olbia", Archeologia (Kiev) 2, p. 89, 92, fig. 1: 1, 3: 1, 2 Chersonesos: Materialy po arkheologii Iugozopadnogo Kryma (Khersones, Mangup), MIA 34, Moscow 1953, p. 44, fig. 12, p. 60-61, fig. 29, p. 116, fig. 7 a

Pantikapaion: Otchet 1909/10, p. 121, fig. 173; Zeest and Marchenko 1962, p. 56, fig. 40: 2; Bouzek

{Jdl 6), col.

19, no. 2; Otchet

1900, p. 6-7, fig.

1990, p. 73, fig. 21:

1, 3, p. 159,

pl. 15:

1, 2

Phanagoreia: Schäfer 1968, p. 50, 56, fig. 3: 1; Maksimova 1979, p. 112-14, no. 1, fig. 53, pl. 5: 5 Tanais: D.B. Shelov, 196 1 , Nekropol Tanaisa (Roskopki 1955-1958 G.G.), MIA 98, Moscow, pl. 24: 1 S. Russia : CVA, Mainz 2 [Germany 43], pl. 36 [2093]: 5-6 Derivative Histria: Alexandrescu 1966, p. 191, XXVI 6, pl. 93 Lower Dnieper: V. M. Zubar and A. I. Kubyshev, 1987, "The Burial Complex of the Turn of the Era from the Lower Dnieper Basin", SovArch 4, p. 249, fig. 1: 2 Kantharos Mesembria: L. Ognenova, 1960, "Les fouilles de Mésambria", BCH 84, p. 229-30, fig. 8 Tomis: M. Bucovala, 1967, Nécropole elenistice la Tomis, Constanta, p. 37, no. 26 a Histria: Alexandrescu 1966, p. 190, XXVI 4, pl. 93

Olbia: Knipovich 1949, p. 273, fig. 1: 3, 4; Levi 1964, p. 248, fig. 9: 3; Belin de Ballu 1972, p. 111,

pi. 42: 7; Parovich-Peshikan 1974, p. 80, 84, fig. 77, 79: 1-3; Bouzek 1990, p. 55, fig. 14: 1, 3-6 Derivative Olbia: Bouzek 1990, p. 55, fig. 14: 2 Pantikapaion: Bouzek 1990, p. 153, pl. 9: 11 S. Russia: CVA Mainz 2 [Germany 43], pl. 38 [2095]: 3

Krater Olbia: Levi 1964, p. 247, fig. 8 Pantikapaion: Zeest and Marchenko 1962, p. 56, fig. 40: 5; Schäfer 1968, p. 48, fig. 2: 5 Mirmeki: Ζ. Sztetyllo, 1976, Mirmeki. Wykopaliska Odcinka Polskiego w r. 1957, Wykopaliska Polsko-Radzieckie w Mirmeki III, Warsaw, p. 78-81, fig. 72, perhaps fig. 69, 73

Mainland Greece Amphora Corinth: Schäfer 1968, p. 50, fig. 3: 4 Kantharos Eion: M. Nikolaidou-Patera, 1994, "Κλειστό χρονολογικό σύνολο ελληνιστικής κεραμικής από τα περίχωρα της Ηιόνας", in Γ' Επιστημονική Συνάντηση για την Ελληνιστική Κεραμική, Athens, p. 1 10, nos 23, 24, pi. 53 α, β

WEST SLOPE IN THE EAST

Derivative Serres: Poulios 1994, p. 116-17, 120, pi. 66 β, γ, 69 Kavala: Poulios 1994, p. 1 19, pi. 69 α

105

Krater Athens: Rotroff 1997, p. 412, no. 1679, fig. 100, pi. 134

Aegean Islands

Amphora

Tinos: Etienne and Braun 1986, p. 215, Ca 8, pi. 97 Derivative

Tinos:

Etienne and Braun 1986, p. 219, D 7, pi. 100

Delos: Bruneau 1970, p. 248, D 61, pi. 43 Kantharos Derivative Samothrace: E. B. Dusenbery, 1998, The Necropoleis. Catalogues of Objects by Categories, Samothrace XI, Princeton, p. 793 Knossos: Callaghan 1978, p. 20, no. 75, pi. 6

Krater

Thasos: L. Ghali-Kahil, 1960, La céramique grecque (Fouilles 1911-1956), Études thasiennes VII, Paris,

p. 136,

no. 43, pi. 62

Tinos: Etienne and Braun 1986, p. 215, Ca 6, pi. 97, 116 Siphnos: J. K. Brock and G. M. Young, 1949, "Excavations in Siphnos", BSA 44, p. 61, no. 1, pi. 21

ATTIC AND DERIVATIVE

Asia Minor and Coastal Islands Amphora

Chios: Anderson 1954, p. 153-54, nos 248-51, pi. 11

Rhodes: Patsiada 1990, p. 182-83,

Kantharos Labraunda: Hellström 1965, p. 60, no. 75, pi. 8

nos 139-44, fig. 24, pi. 70

Cilicia, Syria, Palestine Amphora

Akko: M. Dothan, 1976, "Akko. Interim Excavation Report, First Season, 1973/4", BASOR 224,

p. 31, fig. 32

Samaria: Crowfoot et al. 1957, p. 238, no. 1, fig. 44 Pella: A. W. McNicoll, J. B. Hennessy, and R. H. Smith, 1980, "The 1979 Season at Pella of the Decapolis", BASOR 240, p. 72, fig. 12

Cyprus Amphora Derivative Paphos: Hayes

1991, p. 8-9, no. 9, pi. 2

Africa Amphora Alexandria: Pagenstecher 1913, p. 20, 186-87, no. 1, pi. 12 Carthage: J. Ferron and M. Pinard, 1960-1961, "Les fouilles de Byrsa (suite)", CahByrsa 9, p. 142-43, no. 395, pi. 68

106

Kantharos Derivative Alexandria: Adriani 1940, p. 80, fig. 38

S.I. ROTROFF

Black Sea Amphora Histria: Alexandrescu 1966, p. 194, XXXVII 8, pi. 95, 96

Olbia: Knipovich 1949, p. 279, fig. 5: 6; Belin de Ballu 1972, p. 118, pi. 39: 4; Parovich-Peshikan 1974, p. 124, fig. 100: 4, 5 Pantikapaion: Knipovich 1949, p. 274, 278-79, fig. 2: 3, 5: 2 Derivative

pi. 86

Olbia: Knipovich

1949, p. 279-80,

fig. 5: 4; perhaps CVA Kassel

2 [Germany 38],

[1886]: 1, 2 Taman: Maksimova 1979, p. 114-15, no. 2, fig. 52, pi. 5: 6 S. Russia : CVA Mainz 2 [Germany 43], pi. 36 [2093]: 6, 9

Mainland Greece and Ionian Islands Amphora

Corinth: Edwards 1975, p. 44; C. K. Williams II, 1977, "Corinth 1976. Forum Southwest", Hesperia 46, p. 68, no. 3, pi. 24; I. B. Romano, 1994, "A Hellenistic Deposit from Corinth. Evidence for Interim Period Activity (146-44 B.C.)", Hesperia 63, p. 71-72, no. 26, pi. 17 Derivative

Corinth: Edwards

1975, p. 44, no. 187, pi. 6, 47

Lefkada: ArchDelt ΑΙ Β' 1992 (1997), p. 283, pi. 83 ε Kantharos Demetrias: V. Milojcic and D. Theocharis, 1976, Demetrias I, Beiträge zur ur- und frühgeschichtlichen Archäologie des Mittelmeer-Kulturraumes 12, Bonn, p. 105, no. 72, pi. 41 Isthmia: Anderson-Slojanovic 1996, p. 70, no. 13, pi. 16 Corinth: Edwards 1975, p. 84, n. 80 Derivative Isthmia: Anderson-Stojanovic 1996, p. 70, no. 12, fig. 6 Corinth: Edwards 1975, p. 83-86, nos 458-514, pi. 16, 53 Megara: K. Braun, 1970, "Der Dipylon-Brunnen B]. Die Funde", AM 85, p. 167, pi. 79: 3; ArchDelt 25 ΒΊ, 1970 (1972), p. 102, 120, pi. 78 α, 85 β Nemea: S. G. Miller, 1982, "Excavations at Nemea, 1981", Hesperia 51, p. 26, pi. 1 1 a Mycenae: W. W. Rudolph, 1978, "Hellenistic Fine Ware Pottery and Lamps from above the House with the Idols at Mycenae", BSA 73, p. 218-19, nos 30-32, fig. 7, pi. 29 Lokris: ArchDelt 27 B'2, 1972 (1977), p. 325, pi. 279 Aiane: S. Drougou ed., 1991, Hellenistic Potteryfrom Macedonia, Thessaloniki, p. 144

Aegean Islands

Amphora Eretria: P. Ducrey, I. R. Metzger, and K. Reber, 1993, Le quartier de la Maison aux mosaïques, Eretria. Fouilles et recherches VIII, Lausanne, p. 109, no. 57, fig. 155 Delos: Bruneau 1970, p. 251, D 74, D 76, D 77, D 81-D 83, D 90, D 91, pi. 44; P. Zapheiropoulou

βόρεια του Ανδήρου των

Λεόντων", in Γ' Επιστημονική Συνάντηση για την Ελληνιστική Κεραμική, Athens, p. 245, pi. 200 β Aigina: Smetana-Scherrer 1982, p. 74, no. 553, pi. 42 Tinos: Etienne and Braun 1986, p. 224, An 5, pi. 110

and P.

Hatzidakis, 1994, " Δήλος- - Κεραμική από τον δρόμο

WEST SLOPE IN THE EAST

] 0 7

Kantharos Aigina: Smetana-Scherrer 1982, p. 69, 71-73, nos 475, 476, 501, 509, 515, 529, 530, pi. 37, 39-41 Derivative Eretria: I. R. Metzger, 1969, Die hellenistische Keramik in Eretria, Eretria. Ausgrabungen und Forschungen II, Bern, p. 58, no. 20, pi. 17 Aigina: Smetana-Scherrer 1982, p. 73, no. 538, pi. 41

THE IVY PLATTER GROUP

Asia Minor and Coastal Islands Plate Type 1 Ephesos: Mitsopoulos-Leon 1991, p. 51, Β 98, Β 99, pi. 47 Rhodes: Patsiada 1990, p. 142-44, nos 3-5, fig. 1, 2, pi. 50, 51 Krater Rhodes: Patsiada 1990, p. 181-82, nos 137, 138, fig. 23, pi. 70

Cilicia, Syria, Palestine Plate Type 1 Tarsus: Jones 1950, p. 162, 220, no. 133, fig. 127, 127 B, 183 (form F) Antioch: Waagé 1948, p. 11, H7, H8, pi. 1 Ibn Hani: Bounni et al. 1976, p. 250, fig. 25: 3, 4

Tell 'Arqa: J.-P. Thalmann, 1978, "Tell 'Arqa (Liban nord). Campagnes I-III (1972-1974)", Syria 55,

p. 58, fig. 43:

23

Dor: Rosenthal-Heginbottom 1995, p. 225-27, nos 27-49, fig. 5.10 Tel Keisan: pers. obs., kindness of Jolanta Mtynarczyk

Pclla: Hayes 1991, p. 6, n.

Beth Shan: G. M. Fitzgerald, 1930, The Pottery, The Four Canaanite Temples of Beth-Shan II,

Publications of the Palestine Section of the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania II,

15

Philadelphia, p. 39,

pi. 50: 5

Samaria: Reisner et al. 1924, p. 295-97, γ. 7. e, i, fig. 173: 7, pi. 73.k.7, perhaps y.7.j, k, fig. 173:

2 and others under the rubric γ. 7; Crowfoot et al. 1957, p. 243-245, nos 1-5, fig. 47 Gezer: Macalister 191 1-191 1 II, p. 212, III, pi. 166: 18 Beth Zur: Sellers et al. 1968, p. 75, fig. 24: 18, pi. 37b: 14 Ashdod: Dothan and Friedman 1967, p. 24, fig. 6: 4, pi. 9

Tell Zuweyid: W.M.F. Pétrie, 1937, Anthedon, Sinai, London, pi. 27: 81, 32, form 2E7 Plate Type 2 Tarsus: Jones 1950, p. 122, nos 134-36, fig. 127, 183 (form G) Antioch: Waagé 1948, p. 12, no. 30, fig. 3: 1-3, pi. 2

Ibn Hani: Bounni et al.

Hama: perhaps Christensen and Johansen 1971, p. 24, no. 97, fig. 10, 11 Dor: Rosenthal-Heginbottom 1995, p. 227-28, nos 53-56, fig. 5.10, 5.11 Samaria: Crowfoot et al. 1957, p. 244, no. 7, fig. 47 Jerusalem: J.G. Duncan, 1925-1926, "Fifth Quarterly Report on the Excavation of the Eastern Hill of

Jerusalem", PEFQ, p. 21, pi. 7, fig. 20 Ashdod: Dothan 1971, p. 45-46, fig. 8: 20 Possiblyrelated plates Tarsus: Jones 1950, p. 221, nos 137-39, fig. 127, 127 C, 128 A-E (form H) Dor: Rosenthal-Heginbottom 1995, p. 227, nos 50-52, fig. 5.10 Krater Tarsus: Jones 1950, p. 221, no. 141, fig. 128, 184

1,

1978, p. 287, fig. 34: 1

108

Ibn Hani: Bounni et al. 1978, p. 287, fig. 34: 11, 12

Dor: Rosenthal-Heginbottom 1995, p. 229, nos 65-67, fig. 5.11

Samaria:

Reisner et al.

1924, p. 295, y.3.2.d,

fig. 173:

17;

fig. 39, p. 239,

nos 1-3, fig. 45

Crowfoot et al

S.I. ROTROFF

1957, p. 225, no. 1,

Mesopotamia Plate Type 1 Tel Halaf: B. Hrouda, 1962, Die Kleinfunde aus historischer Zeit, Tel Halaf IV, Berlin, p. 107, no. 109, pi. 81

Cyprus Plate Type 1

207,

pi. 25, 32 Plate Type 2 Paphos: Hayes 1991, p. 115, no. 27, p. 120, no. 1, fig. 3, pi. 3; perhaps Papuci Wladyka 1995,

Paphos:

Hayes

1991, p. 103,

no. 3, fig. 3; Papuci

Wtadyka 1995, p. 133,

150,

nos 153,

p. 110, 120, nos 80, 118, pi. 11, 19 Possiblyrelated plates

Paphos: Hayes 1991,

Krater Paphos: Hayes 1991, p.

Soli: A. Westholm, 1936, The Temples of Soli, Stockholm, pi. 29

Jug Paphos: Hayes 1991, p. 109, no. 6, pi. 3

p. 10, no. 28, fig. 2

10, nos 11-13, fig. 3, pi. 2, 3

Africa Plate Type 1 Alexandria: E. Breccia, 1912, La Necropoli di Sciatbi, Catalogue général des antiquités égyptiennes (Musée d'Alexandrie), Cairo, p. 190, no. 624, pi. 81: 280 (8 more listed); Pagenstecher 1913, p. 29, no. 21, fig. 34: 21; Adriani 1940, p. 113, pi. 46: 1; Morel 1995, p. 372, pi. 67: 8

WEST SLOPE IN THE EAST

REFERENCES

109

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Anderson-Stojanovic V.R. 1996, "The University of Chicago Excavations in the Rachi Settlement at Isthmia, 1989", Hesperia 65, p. 7-98. Ballet P. 1998, «Les céramiques d'Alexandrie aux périodes hellénistique et romaine», RA 1998/1,

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BOUZEK J.

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Doth an M. and Friedman D.N. 1967, The First Season of Excavation. 1962, Ashdod 1, 'Atiqot English Series 7, Jerusalem.

EDWARDS G.R. 1975, Corinthian Hellenistic Pottery, Corinth VII, 3, Princeton. Etienne R. and Braun J.-P. 1986, Le sanctuaire de Poséidon et d'Amphitrite, Ténos I, Paris. GASSNER V. 1997, Das Südtor der Tetragonos-Agora. Keramik und Kleinfunde, Forschungen in Ephesos XIII, 1/1, Vienna. Guz-Zilberstein B. 1995, "The Typology of the Hellenistic Coarse Ware and Selected Loci of the Hellenistic and Roman Periods", in Areas A and

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Date, Terracotta Lamps and Glass, Labraunda II, 1,
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Reisner G. Α., Fisher C.S. and Lyon D.G.

Harvard Excavations at Samaria 1908-1910, Cambridge, Mass. Rosenthal-Heginbottom R. 1995, "Imported Hellenistic and Roman Pottery", in Areas A and C. The Finds, Excavations at Dor, Final Report I Β, Ε. Stern (ed.), Jerusalem, p. 183-288. ROTROFF S.I. 1997, Hellenistic Pottery. Athenian and Imported Wheelmade Table Ware and Related Material, The Athenian Agora XXIX, Princeton.

1924,

ROTROFF S.I. and Oliver A. Jr., forthcoming, Hellenistic Pottery, Cambridge, Mass. Schäfer J. 1968, Hellenistische Keramik aus Pergamon, PF 2, Berlin. Sellers O.R., Funk R.W., McKenzie J.L., Lapp P., Lapp N. 1968, The 1957 Excavation at Beth-Zur, AASOR 38, Cambridge, Mass. Smetana-Scherrer R. 1982, «Spätklassische und hellenistische Keramik », in Alt-Ägina II, i, H.Walter (ed.), Mainz, p. 56-91.

TEKKÖK-BlCKEN B. 1996, The Hellenistic and Roman Pottery from Troia. Second Century Β. C. to Sixth Century A.D., Diss. U. of Missouri, Columbia.

Tuchelt K.

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Id., 1973-1974, «Didyma. Bericht über die Arbeiten 1972/73», IstMitt 23/24, p. 139-68. Waagé F.O. 1948, "Hellenistic and Roman Tableware of North Syria", in Ceramics and Islamic Coins, Antioch IV, 1, F.O. Waagé (ed.), Princeton, p. 1-

60.

Zeest I.B. and Marchenko

I.D. (eds)

1962,

Pantikapeï, MIA 103, Moscow.

WEST SLOPE IN THE EAST

111

WEST SLOPE IN THE EAST 1 1 1 Fig. 1 - Attic (I, 3) and Pergamene

Fig. 1 - Attic (I, 3) and Pergamene (2, 4, 5) Shapes.

12

S.I. ROTROFF

10
10

Fig. 2 - Ivy Platter Group, Plate Type 1,BethfromShanEphesos(5). (1, 10), Rhodes (2, 6), Dor (3, 4, 7-9),

WEST SLOPE IN THE EAST

113

ms 10
ms
10

Fig. 3 - Ivy Platter Group, Plate Type 2 and related shapes, fromDor (1, 2), Samaria (3), Paphos (4, 5), Antioch (6), Tarsus (7-9), Ashdod (10).

114

S.I. ROTROFF

0 1= ' ι I 10
0 1=
'
ι
I 10

Fig. 4 - Ivy Platter Group, fromDor (1, 3), Antioch (2), Paphos (4, 5).

WEST SLOPE IN THE EAST

• Pergamene A Derivative A«ti. i 0 200k
• Pergamene
A Derivative
A«ti.
i
0
200k

Fig. 5 - Distribution of Pergamene Shapes.

115

• Attic A Derivative Κ Λ _,-.j X"; - ■ίβ^— ^r-PV- - ■' #& (
• Attic
A Derivative
Κ
Λ
_,-.j
X";
-
■ίβ^—
^r-PV-
-
■'
#&
(
>' '*- '
ï
c.
j
S)X-ίοilί ,
fi.
/ /ì
u/;
r'i
ι
;
ν
il
(
X<

Fig. 6 - Distribution ofAttic Shapes.

u/; r'i ι ; ν il ( X< Fig. 6 - Distribution ofAttic Shapes. Fig. 7

Fig. 7 - Distribution of Ivy Platter Group.

Centres d'intérêt liés