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Earthquakes and Volcanoes!

Name ___________________________________________Date____________________Period____________Day
1. Where do most earthquakes begin? _____________________________________________________________
Most earthquakes occur along the edges of ___________________________________.
2. Focus The point beneath earths surface___________________________ and breaks, triggering an earthquake.
3. Deformation The ___________________________________ of the Earths crust. Two types: plastic (changes
rock shape) and elastic (causes earthquakes)
4. Epicenter

The point on the surface _________________ above the focus.

5. Seismic Waves A wave of energy that travels through the Earth, away from an earthquake in all directions.
6. Fault A break in the Earth's crust along which blocks of rock move. The release of energy that accompanies the
movement of the rock along a fault causes___________________________________.
7. How do earthquakes cause damage?
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________.
8. __________________ is an earthquake that occurs after a larger onehours, days, or even months later.
9. Tsunamis
Occurs when a _____________________________________causes the floor to rise slightly,
pushing the water out of the way which can cause these large waves to form.
10. ___________________is a weak spot in the crust where molten material, or magma, comes to the surface.
11. Magma is a ________________________of rock-forming substances, gases, and water from the mantle.
12. Lava is ___________________________________________________________________.
13. Constructive Volcanic activity is a constructive force that adds new rock to existing land and
forms_________________________________________.
14. Volcanoes occur in belts that _______________________________________. The Ring of Fire is one major
volcanic belt that rims the Pacific Ocean.
15. Where are volcanoes located?
___________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________.
16. Hot Spots is an area where magma from deep within the mantle melts through the crust like a blow torch. Often
found in ___________________________________________________________________________________.
17. Where does magma come from? ______________________________________________________________
18. Temperature The hotter the _______________, the more ___________________ it is.
19. Silica The more silica magma contains, the _____________ it is and the slower it moves. It also determines
whether the volcanic eruption is _________________________________________.

20. Quiet Eruptions Magma flows out easily because the gases bubble out of the magma__________________.
21. Explosive Eruptions - Thick magma _______________________________________ instead of flowing out.
22. Pyroclastic flow __________________ hurls out ash cinders, and bombs as well as gases.
23. Stages of volcanoes Active _______________________ Dormant_____________________
Extinct____________________
24. Examples of volcano stages

Active

Mauna Loa, ________________________

Dormant Yellowstone, Pinatubo, Mt. Fuji, _________________


Extinct

Edinburgh Castle, Mt. Kenya, __________________

25. Hot springs Forms when groundwater heated by ____________________________________rises to the surface
and collects in a natural pool.
26. Geyser A fountain of water and steam that _____________________________________________________.

Review and Essential Questions:


1. Which plate boundaries make earthquakes?

2. Which plate boundaries make volcanoes?

3. What is the correlation between plate tectonics and events like earthquakes and volcanoes?

4. What effect does convection currents in the upper mantle have on the crust?

5. Shelly is in Hawaii on vacation with her family. What type of rock would she most likely find on the surface of
Hawaii?

6. How is the process of mountain building different from that of volcanic activity?

7. The middle of tectonic plates tend to have fewer mountains than locations near plate boundaries. How can you explain
this observation?

8. How can geologists predict events that will occur at convergent, divergent and transform boundaries?

9. What evidence is there to support the theory of plate tectonics?