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Megan S. Dalde
2- ACA

1. Phenomenology
Phenomenology is the study of structures of consciousness as experienced from the
first-person point of view. The central structure of an experience is its intentionality,
its being directed toward something, as it is an experience of or about some object.
An experience is directed toward an object by virtue of its content or meaning (which
represents the object) together with appropriate enabling conditions.
Phenomenology as a discipline is distinct from but related to other key disciplines in
philosophy, such as ontology, epistemology, logic, and ethics. Phenomenology has
been practiced in various guises for centuries, but it came into its own in the early
20th century in the works of Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty and others.
Phenomenological issues of intentionality, consciousness, qualia, and first-person
perspective have been prominent in recent philosophy of mind.

2. Phenomenological Method
2.1 Bracketing- Bracketing is the process of identifying and holding in abeyance
any preconceived beliefs and opinions that one may have about the
phenomenon that is being researched.
The researcher 'brackets out' (as in mathematics) the world and any
presuppositions that he or she may have in an effort to confront the data in as
pure a form as possible.
This is the central component of phenomenological reduction - the isolation of the
pure phenomenon versus what is already known of the phenomenon.
2.2 Intuition- Intuition occurs when the researcher remains open to the meaning
attributed to the phenomenon by those who have experienced it.
This process of intuition results in a common understanding about the
phenomenon that is being studied.

Intuiting requires that the researcher creatively varies the data until such an
understanding emerges.
Intuiting requires that the researcher becomes totally immersed in the study and
the phenomenon.
2.3 Analysis- Analysis involves such processes as coding (open, axial,
and selective), categorising and making sense of the essential meanings of the
As the researcher works/lives with the rich descriptive data, then common
themes or essences begin to emerge.
This stage of analysis basically involves total immersion for as long as it is
needed in order to ensure both a pure and a thorough description of the
2.4 Description- At the descriptive stage, the researcher comes to understand
and to define the phenomenon.
The aims of this final step are to communicate and to offer distinct, critical
description in written and verbal form.