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Mechanical Properties of Materials


Section 02
Instructor
Dr. Thomas Tsakalakos
Contact Information:
School of Engineering, Room A100
Tel: 848-445-2888
E-mail: tsakalak@rutgers.edu

Venue & Time of the Class


Section: 02
Days: Mondays & Wednesday
Time: 17:00-18:20
Location: SOE-B120 Busch Campus

Required Textbook
Materials Science &
Engineering
An Introduction
by
W.D. Callister
9th Edition
John Wiley & Sons
Book + CD needed

Supplementary materials
will be distributed as needed.

Office Hours
Dr. Tsakalakos:
Mondays & Wednesdays
SOE-A100
14:00-15:30 or by appointment

Ross Rucker:
Tuesdays
CCR-135
13:30-15:30 or by appointment

Course Outline

Course Objective
Introduce fundamental concepts of materials
What you will learn
Structure of materials
How structure affects properties
How processing affects structure

This course will help you to


Use/designate materials properly
Realize new design opportunities by proper
material selection

Course Outline (Contd)


Week/Dates

Tuesday

09/23-09/25

Atomic Structure &


Interatomic Bonding
The Structure of Crystalline
Solids
Crystal Defects/dislocations

Thursday
Atomic Structure &
Interatomic Bonding
The Structure of
Crystalline Solids
Quiz + Structure/Crystal
Defects
Diffusion

09/02-09/04

Introduction

09/30-10/2

Exam # 1

Mechanical properties

Ch. 5

10/07-10/09

Phase Diagrams/
Metals/Alloys

Phase Transformations

Ch. 6/Ch.9

10/14-10/16

Ceramics

Polymers

Ch.10/11/12

10/21-10/23

Ceramics

Composites

Ch. 12-15

10/28-10/30

Exam #2

Mechanical Properties/
Stress/Strain Tensor

Ch. 16

11/4-11/6

Mechanical Properties/
Constitutive Laws

Strengthening Mechanisms

Ch. 7+
Add. Mat.

11/11-11/13

Fracture Mech./Failure

Fracture/Fatigue/Creep

Ch. 7/Ch. 8

11/18-11/20

Corrosion and Wear

Time deformation/Creep

Ch. 8/
Add. Mat

11/25-11/27

Stress Corrosion/Cracking

No class-Thanksgiving

Ch. 8/Ch.17

12/02-12/04
12/09-12/11
12/16

Case Studies
Case Studies
Exam#3

Case Studies
Case Studies
No class-End of Semester

Ch. 19-22
--

09/09-09/11
09/16-09/18

Reading
Ch. 1/ Ch. 2
Ch. 2
Ch. 3
Ch.3/Ch. 4

Computer Requirement
Some

classes may be be held at the


Design, Simulation and Visualization
(DSV) Computer Lab in room B-127 in
the Engineering Building.
All

students are required to set up an


account prior to the first computer
session.

Grading
Weekly in-lecture 10 min quizzes. 10% of final
grade Once a week on Wednesdays based on the
previous lecture.
(Lowest two quizzes will be dropped). Approx.
12 quizzes per semester.
Homeworks 15% of final grade. Approx. 7-10.
No late homework accepted. Lowest HW score
dropped. Mostly for completion, but randomly
will be graded for a score.
Tests - 25% of grade EACH. No final exam.

Homeworks
a) If you have troubles, come ask!! BUT only
after the effort has been made.
b) Submitted electronically to Sakai.
c) PDF or scanned copy are both accepted.
d) The HWs are to encourage you to learn the
material and prepare you for the tests.

Problem-solving Tips
Homework Try even if you get stuck, move on,
return, etc.
Do not wait until the night before the test.
List quantities asked and all relevant info given to
you.
Draw a picture, schematic, etc. to help you visualize
the problem.
Consider laws, definitions, and equations.
Ask yourself: What are the unique conditions?
Ascertain that the relations you use are appropriate.
There may be intermediate steps in the solution.
State l steps and assumptions used.
Make sure you answer all questions asked.
Check the units and conversions.

Other Administrative Matters


Attendance: Attendance is mandatory! Attendance will be taken each class.
A student will be allowed 2 unexcused absences, after which the students
final grade may be dropped by 2.5% for each additional class missed.
Students will be excused without penalty from class because of a religious
observance or matters of health. Come see me if you have missed classes so
that I can help you make up what you missed.
Policy on Calculators: Students will only be allowed to use a simple, four
function calculators on quizzes and exams. Multifunction calculators with
advanced memory capabilities will not be allowed to be used on quizzes or
exams. Students should see the me prior to a quiz or exam if there is any
confusion with this policy.
Policy on Other Electronic Devices: No Electronic Devices during Exams
are allowed. The use of mobile phones, pagers, digital music playersman or
any other electronic devices that may disrupt the class are not permitted.
Students are encouraged not to bring these devices to class. If it is necessary
to bring a device to class, it must be turned off or muted.

Chapter 1
Introduction

Engineering 101
Maximize as needed!
Dont overdo though

Performance

Maximize!
Cost
Minimize as much
as possible!

Always a formidable
problem in Engineering.

Engineering is the creation of some useful functionality through the use of


human intellect, bound by the laws of Physics, at the lowest possible cost! The concept
of best is chiefly determined by the performance/cost ratio!

Processing-Structure-Property
Relationships

Properties can vary


by orders of
magnitude
Properties strongly
linked to the
structure
Processing can alter
the structure
Understanding the
structure is the key
to mastery of
materials
properties

Properties

Processing

Structure

Multi-scale Hierarchy in Engineering


Materials

Materials are engineered structures not black-boxes!!!


Structure has many dimensions.
Atomic bonding.. <10-10 m
Missing/extra atoms. 10-10 m
Crystals (ordered atoms)..

10-8 m

Second phase particles..

10-8 to 10-4 m

Crystal texture. >10-6 m


Grain structure 10-8 to 10-3 m

Structural control over 7 orders of magnitude on the sizescale produces what is known as macroscopic properties of
materials.

Example: Structure-Property Relationships in


Steel
depend on structurehardness vs. structure of steel through
control of quenching rate
Properties

Brinell Hardness (BHN)

(d)

6 00
30 m m

5 00
4 00

(c)
(b)

(a)

4mm

3 00
30 m m
30 m m

2 00
100
0.01

0.1

10

Cooling Rate (C/s)

100

1000

Example: Control of Electrical Properties


Electrical resistivity of Copper:
6

Resistivity (10-8 Ohmm)

Adding impurity
atoms increases resistivity

4
3

Deforming Cu increases
resistivity slightly

2
1
0

-200

-100

0 T (C)

Example: Control of Thermal Properties


Space shuttle tiles
Fiber insulation

100 mm

Thermal conductivity of Cu
varies with Zn additions

Example: Control of Magnetic Properties


Magnetic Storage:
Recording medium is
magnetized by recording head

Magnetic Permeability
Adding 3% Si in Fe
makes Fe a better
recording medium

Magnetization

Fe+3%Si

Fe

Magnetic Field

Example: Control of Optical Props

Transmittance: Alumina (Al2O3) can be transparent,


translucent, or opaque depending on structure, which is
governed by processing.
More
Expensive!
Single crystal
or polycrystal
with virtually
no porosity and
grain size < 400
nanometers.
Most
Expensive!

Polycrystal with
low porosity

Polycrystal with
high porosity
Cheapest!

Example: Control of Deterioration


Stress & saltwater can
cause cracks

Proper heat treatment


can slow/eliminate
cracking
Crack speed (m/s)

as-is
10 -8

10 -10

held at
160 C for 1hr
before testing

Increasing load
Alloy 7178 tested in
saturated aqueous NaCl
solution at 23 C

The Materials Selection Process

Pick Application
Determine required Properties
such as mechanical, electrical, thermal, magnetic,
optical, etc.

Properties
Identify candidate Material(s) , its
chemical composition and microstructure.

Material

Processing
(casting, sintering, vapor deposition,
joining, annealing, deformation, etc.). governs
atomic/crystallographic/microstructural constitution of
the material as well as its shape!

Identify the required Processing

Examples: Advanced Materials for


Aerospace Applications

Example: Micro Electrical Mechanical


Devices (MEMS)

Example: Environmental Cleanup

Example: Composites
Used in high
weight/thrust
ratio applications.

Example: NanoStuff

Nanotube
Nanogear

Nanocones
C60 Buckminsterfullerene

Example: Bioceramics
Alumina/HA Hip Replacement

Hydroxyapetite Bone Implants

Summary

Course Goals:
Use the right engineering material for the
application of interest.

Understand the relationship between


processing, properties and structure.
Recognize new design opportunities offered
by materials selection

Assignment for Lecture 01


Reading:

Chapter 1
Chapter 2
There will be no Quiz next
class!