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2 vues5 pages3. Impactul surselor eoliene asupra calitatii energiei electrice

Jan 26, 2016

Impactul sistemelor eoliene

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3. Impactul surselor eoliene asupra calitatii energiei electrice

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Impactul sistemelor eoliene

3. Impactul surselor eoliene asupra calitatii energiei electrice

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Q. Li and Y. Yuan

S. S. Choi

W. S. Wang

yyuan@hhu.edu.cn

esschoi@ntu.edu.sg

wangws@epri.sgcc.com.cn

studied in detail in this investigation.

voltage quality of network interconnected to a wind-farm.

Random wind speed and uncertainty in the network status

contribute toward the stochastic nature of the voltage quality.

The analysis takes into consideration the reactive power

capability of wind turbine generators (WTG). Judicious

application of the reactive power control is shown to enhance the

voltage quality.

produce/absorb reactive power, this reactive power capability is

constrained. As described in [6] and [7], the reactive power

capability of DFIG mainly depends on the maximum current of

rotor, grid-side convertor and active power level. On the other

hand, due to the fully-rated capacity of the convertor used in

PMSG, the reactive power capability only depends on the gridside convertor and active power level [8]. These factors will be

considered in detail in Section II. The method for statistical

voltage deviation assessment is described in Section III, which

also includes case study for verifying the proposed scheme.

The results are analyzed in Section IV, and a method for

determining the level of wind power penetration into grid

system is presented. Main findings and conclusions are given

in Section V.

I.

INTRODUCTION

generation is experiencing rapid development. By 2009, the

global wind power installed capacity has amounted to some

150 GW [1]. Unfortunately, due to the random nature of wind

speed, output power from wind farm tends to be highly

unsteady. Thus integration of large-scale wind farm brings

about many challenges for power system operator, in which

voltage quality is the prominent one. Network voltage will vary

with the fluctuations of the injected wind power, and the degree

of degradation in the voltage quality increases with the wind

power injection level.

II.

utilization, variable speed WTG has been developed in which

double fed induction generator (DFIG) and permanent

magnetic synchronous generator (PMSG) are the most

prominent examples. Using variable speed control, maximum

wind energy capture can be achieved while reactive power of

the WTG can be controlled simultaneously. The reactive power

control strategy of the WTG can be used to improve network

voltage quality [2].

DFIG has been widely adopted in present-day wind farms.

A DFIG is made up of an induction generator with a

multiphase wound rotor and a multiphase slip ring assembly,

with brushes for access to the rotor windings. The principle of

the DFIG is that rotor windings are connected to the grid via

slip rings and back-to-back convertor which is used to control

both the rotor and the grid currents. By this means, rotor

frequency can freely differ from the grid frequency. By using

the convertor to control the rotor currents, it is possible to

adjust the active and reactive power fed to the grid from the

stator independently of the generators rotational speed [9].

reactive power capability of WTG and is followed by an

analysis on the impact of the WTG on voltage quality. Due to

the stochastic nature of the injected power from wind farm, a

statistical approach is considered appropriate in the evaluation

of the voltage variations. Indeed, probabilistic load flow has

been used in [3, 4] to perform such an assessment. However,

the process is tedious and requires high computation time. An

alternative method has been proposed in [5] in which the

random injected wind power and the uncertain grid states are

considered simultaneously. The distribution of voltage

deviation is determined. Unfortunately, the approach in [5]

assumes a fixed power factor at the wind farm terminals and

has not taken full advantage of the wider range of the reactive

DFIG and PMSG have become most prominent in WTG.

Unlike WTG based on fixed-speed induction generator, both

DFIG and PMSG have certain degree of reactive power

regulation ability. The voltage deviation at the terminals of the

WTG can be regulated by controlling the injected reactive

power from the generators. However, both types of WTGs can

only generate reactive power within certain range in order not

to shorten their useful life. Therefore, it is important to study

closely the reactive power range of the two types of WTG, as

follows.

from the stator and from the grid-side convertor. According to

408

IPEC 2010

the analysis in [6] and [7], the active and reactive power of the

stator side can be described by the following equations.

3

3 Lm

Ps = 2 U sq I sq = 2 L U sq I rq

s

2

Q = 3 U I = 3 Lm U I 3U sq

s 2 sq sd 2 Ls sq rd 2s Ls

Q con ,min = S

(1)

= 3 Lm U s I r

2 L

3U

Pm

+ Q s +

2 s Ls

1 s

2

sq

Q g ,min = S g2 Pm

(3)

3 L m U s I r max

2 L

(4)

Q s min

Q s max =

2

s

3U

+

2 s L s

3 Lm

U s I r max

2 Ls

3 Lm

U s I r max

2 Ls

(13)

P

m

1 s

P

m

1 s

(14)

the WTG can be determined. Thus, the WTG reactive power

operating range can be set within the respective range, with the

view to enhance voltage quality.

(5)

III.

which is likely to change with time, statistical method should

be adopted to evaluate voltage quality. The wind power

distribution can be determined by the distribution of wind

speed. As for the grid, different network status can be

expressed by different equivalent impedances. As is presented

in [5], the voltage deviation assessment can be achieved by

combining the wind power distribution and probability of the

grid Thevenin equivalence.

(6)

(7)

therefore the power of the grid-side convertor is the same to the

rotor power. Let the rated capacity of convertor be , therefore

the corresponding reactive power capability of the grid-side

convertor is

2

Qcon = Scon

Pr2

(12)

Q g ,min Qt ,P Qg ,max

power and stator power is

Pr = sPs

determined from

where max is maximum permitted current on the rotorside convertor. Assuming the maximum and minimum reactive

power from the stator of the WTG is and . Then the range the

reactive power from the stator can be determined as:

3U s2

=

2 s L s

(11)

Q g ,max = + S g2 Pm

(10)

active power equals to the captured wind power , the

corresponding lower and upper limit of reactive power

capability are

2

As fully-rated capacity convertor is adopted for PMSG, the

WTG is coupled to the grid by the convertor. Therefore, the

reactive power capability only depends on the grid-side

convertor and corresponding active power level.

equation (3) can be determined:

3U sq2

P + Qs +

2 s Ls

(9)

(2)

2

s

Thus the total reactive power that can be expected from the

DFIG is the sum of stator and the grid-side convertor

power and the stator active power is

Pm

1 s

sP

m

1 s

sP

2

Q con ,max = + S con

m

1 s

stator, respectively. , , and are the stator voltage and current

along the q and d-axis components, respectively. , are the

respective mutual- and the self-inductance of stator windings.

is the angular synchronous speed.

Ps =

2

con

Capability of WTG

Fig. 1 shows a wind farm inter-connected to a large grid

system. In this figure, Z = R + jX represents the effective

impedance interconnecting the wind farm (shown by an

aggregated WTG) and an infinite bus of constant voltage

10 . The voltage deviation at the Point-of-CommonCoupling (PCC) is of interest. The deviation depends on the

(8)

the rotor can be expressed as

409

injected wind power and the grid impedance, and (15) is often

used to determine the bus voltage deviation.

PR + QX

V

Upper Limit

(15)

are the injected power of PCC, V is the rated voltage of PCC.

Based on the method described in [5], the injected wind

power and grid equivalent impedance can be treated as discrete

variables at wind power state i and grid status j. Thus, the

voltage deviation of PCC can be calculated by (16). Detailed

description can be found in [5].

P (i ) R ( j ) + Q (i ) X ( j )

V (i, j ) =

V

0.5

V =

1.0

-0.5

Lower Limit

-1.0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

Active power / p.u.

0.8

1.0

(16)

1.00

0.75

Upper Limit

0.50

V

E =10

0.25

0

-0.25

Lower Limit

-0.50

-0.75

-1.00

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

Active power / p.u.

0.8

1.0

described by (11) or (14) is also considered, V can be

reduced by adjusting Qt,P or Qt,D. If there is no limit on the

reactive power, the desirable result is to maintain the voltage at

the PCC constant, i.e. V =0. However, both the DFIG and

PMSG can only operate with Q within specific range. From

(16), for each given grid state, the WTG should generate the

reactive power Q within the permitted range to minimize V .

Thus, for the given network state j and injected power P, Q are

to be adjusted until the minimum V is obtained. This is the

proposed reactive power regulation strategy of this paper.

PMSG only depends on the capacity of grid-side inverter and

the active power level of WTG. Suppose the grid-side

convertor equals to the rated capacity of active power, reactive

power capability is shown in Fig. 3.

2. Voltage Deviation Distribution with Fixed Power Factor

at the PCC

Based on the wind power output and grid Thevenin

equivalence data presented in [5], the voltage fluctuation at the

PCC can be determined. Fixed power factor has been adopted

as a possible mode of operation for WTG. For example, the

statistical voltage assessments at 0.98 and unity power factor

conditions obtained in [5] are reproduced in Figures 4 and 5.

capability of WTG to mitigate the voltage deviation at the

PCC, an example is shown next. Parameters of the WTG can

be found in [10]. The statistical voltage deviation of PCC under

fixed power factor and with the reactive power adjusted as

suggested in this paper is presented. The statistical distribution

of the grid Thevenin equivalence is that given in [5].

0.25

Power Factor=0.98

Probaility

0.2

B. Numerical Examples

1. Reactive Power Capability of WTG

As is discussed in Section II, the reactive power capability

of a WTG depends on the parameters of wind turbine itself.

Based on the WTG parameters presented in [10], the reactive

power capability of the WTG, assuming it is a DFIG, is

illustrated in Fig. 2.

0.15

V>10%

0.1

0.05

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

Voltage deviation V

0.14

0.16

0.18

410

0.2

0.8

0.35

0.7

0.30

0.6

Probability

Probability

0.25

0.20

0.15

0.10

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

V >10%

0.1

0.05

0

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

Voltage Deviation V

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.20

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

Voltage deviation

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.2

capability of PMSG

1.00

Reactive Power Strategy

Based on the proposed strategy on adjusting Q to minimize

V, the statistical voltage quality can be determined. Due to the

difference in the reactive power capability between the DFIG

and PMSG, the voltage deviation is also different. They are

shown in Figures 6 and 8.

0.75

0.50

0.25

0.9

-0.75

-1.00

0

0.6

Optimal Result

-0.25

-0.50

0.7

Upper Limit

1

0.8

Probability

Lower Limit

0.2

0.4

0.6

Active power / p.u.

0.8

1.0

Fig. 9 Reactive power capability of the DFIG which produces the voltage

deviation distribution shown on Fig. 8

0.5

0.4

IV.

0.3

0.2

Control

The effectiveness of the WTG reactive power control to

minimize voltage deviation can be seen by comparing the

results obtained in [5] with that proposed in Section III.A.

From the results of Fig. 4, 5, 6 and 8, it can be readily seen that

if the unity or 0.98 fixed power factor strategy is adopted, the

probability of larger than 10% is much larger than that if Q is

adjusted within the WTG reactive power capability range. Not

surprisingly, the conclusion is that the reactive power

capability of the WTG should be effectively utilized to

minimize the voltage deviation at the PCC. In fact, the

statistical voltage assessment has produced the voltage

deviation distribution so that it can provide useful information

on the extent of the voltage deviation caused by the integration

of wind farm.

0.1

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

Voltage deviation

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.2

DFIG WTG. The corresponding reactive power output of the

DFIG is shown in Fig. 7. The corresponding results for the

PMSG WTG are given in Figures 8 and 9.

1.0

Upper Limit

0.5

Optimal Result

0

Control

The capacity of wind farm is a critical factor affecting the

voltage deviation at the PCC. The relationship between them

can be illustrated by examining Figure 10. In this figure, the

probability of <10% is plotted against the wind farm capacity.

-0.5

Lower Limit

-1.0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

Active power / p.u.

0.8

1.0

Fig. 7 Reactive power capability of the DFIG which produces the voltage

deviation distribution shown on Fig. 6

fixed power factor and two cases with the WTG reactive power

411

the figure shows that the probability of <10% will decrease

with the increase of wind farm capacity when unity power

factor is adopted. However, the results will be much different

when the reactive power is to be varied in the manner

suggested in this paper. If the PMSG grid-side convertor is

larger than the rated capacity of WTG by 5%, the probability of

<10% is seen to be 100%. When the grid-side convertor equals

to the rated capacity of the wind farm, the probability of <10%

will decrease to about 0.97 when the corresponding wind farm

capacity is about 500 MW. Thereafter the probability will

decrease to 0.84 when the wind farm capacity is increased up to

1000 MW.

at the terminals of the wind farm. On account of the random

nature of the wind power and grid status, statistical method is

adopted to evaluate the voltage deviation at the PCC. By

combining the probability distribution of the wind power with

that of the grid states, the probability of the voltage deviation is

determined. Numerical examples are included to illustrate the

effectiveness of the proposed approach.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of

National Key Technology R&D Program under Grant

2008BAA14B02 and Innovation Project for Graduate Student

of Jiangsu Province, China under Grant CX09B-156Z.

1.0

Reactive power capability is considered

Coverter Capacity = 1.05 Rated Power Capacity

REFERENCES

Pr [V < 10%]

0.9

[1]

0.8

World

Wind

Energy Report

2009.

[Online]

Available:

http://www.wwindea.org/home/index.php.

[2] J Hoon Im, H Ho Song, Calculation and compensation of PCC voltage

variation using a grid connected inverter of a wind turbine in a weak

grid, Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Telecommunications Energy, Oct. 2009,

Korea.

[3] R. Villafafila, S. Galceran, B. Bak-jensen, C. Peiyuan, C. Zhe, S.

Sorensen: Probabilistic assessment of wind power production on

voltage profile in distribution networks, in Proc. 9th Int. Conf. on

Electrical Power Quality and Utilization, 2007, pp. 15

[4] S. Chun-line: Effects of distribution system operations on voltage

profiles in distribution grids connected wind power generation, in Proc

Int. Conf. on Power System Technology, 2006, pp. 17.

[5] S. Zhang, K. J. Tseng and S. S. Choi, Statistical voltage quality

assessment method for grids with wind power generation, IET

Renewable Power Generation, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 43-54, 2010.

[6] D. Santos Martin, S. Arnaltes, J. L. Rodriguez Amenedo: Reactive

power capability of double fed asynchronous generators, Electric

Power Systems Research, vol. 78, no. 11, pp.1837-1840, Nov. 2008.

[7] Bharat Singh, S. N. Singh: Improved reactive power capability of grid

connected double-fed induction generators, Wind Engineering, vol. 33,

no. 4, pp.403-415, Sept. 2009.

[8] J. L. Elizondo, M. E. Macias, O. M. Micheloud, Matrix convertors

applied to wind energy conversion systems, technologies and

investigation trends, in Proc. 2009 Electronics, Robotics and

Automotive Mechanics Conference, pp.435-439, 2009.

[9] Wikipedia,

Doubly-fed

electric

machine,

Available:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doubly-fed_electric_machine.

[10] M. Kayikci and J. V. Milanovic, Assessing transient response of DFIGbased wind plants-the influence of model simplifications and

parameters, IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 545-554,

May, 2008.

Coverter Capacity = Rated Power Capacity

Power Factor = 0.98

0.7

0.6

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

Capacity of Wind Farm / MW

800

900

1000

assumed

maximum wind farm capacity acceptable to the grid

integration. In order to ensure V <10% with probability of

100%, if power factor is fixed at 0.98, then the maximum wind

farm capacity is 200MW for the specific grid investigated.

However, if unity power factor strategy is adopted, the

maximum wind farm capacity acceptable is 410MW. Worth

mentioning is that the maximum capacity is only based on the

PCC voltage deviation criteria. In practice, some other

considerations such as transient stability and frequency

regulation should be included to ensure secure operation of the

power system.

V.

CONCLUSIONS

considered, by including the reactive power capability of the

WTG. Both the DFIG and PMSG reactive power potentials are

412

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