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Statistical Voltage Quality Evaluation of Wind Farmconnected Grid Network

Q. Li and Y. Yuan

S. S. Choi

W. S. Wang

Hohai University, China


yyuan@hhu.edu.cn

Nanyang Technological University


esschoi@ntu.edu.sg

China Electric Power Research Institute


wangws@epri.sgcc.com.cn

power capability of WTG in the wind farm. This aspect is to be


studied in detail in this investigation.

AbstractA statistical approach is proposed in the assessment of


voltage quality of network interconnected to a wind-farm.
Random wind speed and uncertainty in the network status
contribute toward the stochastic nature of the voltage quality.
The analysis takes into consideration the reactive power
capability of wind turbine generators (WTG). Judicious
application of the reactive power control is shown to enhance the
voltage quality.

Although generally DFIG and PMSG have the ability to


produce/absorb reactive power, this reactive power capability is
constrained. As described in [6] and [7], the reactive power
capability of DFIG mainly depends on the maximum current of
rotor, grid-side convertor and active power level. On the other
hand, due to the fully-rated capacity of the convertor used in
PMSG, the reactive power capability only depends on the gridside convertor and active power level [8]. These factors will be
considered in detail in Section II. The method for statistical
voltage deviation assessment is described in Section III, which
also includes case study for verifying the proposed scheme.
The results are analyzed in Section IV, and a method for
determining the level of wind power penetration into grid
system is presented. Main findings and conclusions are given
in Section V.

Keywords- Voltage quality, wind farm, reactive power capability.

I.

INTRODUCTION

As a promising renewable energy source, wind power


generation is experiencing rapid development. By 2009, the
global wind power installed capacity has amounted to some
150 GW [1]. Unfortunately, due to the random nature of wind
speed, output power from wind farm tends to be highly
unsteady. Thus integration of large-scale wind farm brings
about many challenges for power system operator, in which
voltage quality is the prominent one. Network voltage will vary
with the fluctuations of the injected wind power, and the degree
of degradation in the voltage quality increases with the wind
power injection level.

II.

For the purpose of increasing the efficiency of wind energy


utilization, variable speed WTG has been developed in which
double fed induction generator (DFIG) and permanent
magnetic synchronous generator (PMSG) are the most
prominent examples. Using variable speed control, maximum
wind energy capture can be achieved while reactive power of
the WTG can be controlled simultaneously. The reactive power
control strategy of the WTG can be used to improve network
voltage quality [2].

A. Reactive Power Capability of DFIG


DFIG has been widely adopted in present-day wind farms.
A DFIG is made up of an induction generator with a
multiphase wound rotor and a multiphase slip ring assembly,
with brushes for access to the rotor windings. The principle of
the DFIG is that rotor windings are connected to the grid via
slip rings and back-to-back convertor which is used to control
both the rotor and the grid currents. By this means, rotor
frequency can freely differ from the grid frequency. By using
the convertor to control the rotor currents, it is possible to
adjust the active and reactive power fed to the grid from the
stator independently of the generators rotational speed [9].

This investigation begins with an examination of the


reactive power capability of WTG and is followed by an
analysis on the impact of the WTG on voltage quality. Due to
the stochastic nature of the injected power from wind farm, a
statistical approach is considered appropriate in the evaluation
of the voltage variations. Indeed, probabilistic load flow has
been used in [3, 4] to perform such an assessment. However,
the process is tedious and requires high computation time. An
alternative method has been proposed in [5] in which the
random injected wind power and the uncertain grid states are
considered simultaneously. The distribution of voltage
deviation is determined. Unfortunately, the approach in [5]
assumes a fixed power factor at the wind farm terminals and
has not taken full advantage of the wider range of the reactive

978-1-4244-7398-4/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE

REACTIVE POWER CAPABILITY OF WTG

With rapid development of power converter technologies,


DFIG and PMSG have become most prominent in WTG.
Unlike WTG based on fixed-speed induction generator, both
DFIG and PMSG have certain degree of reactive power
regulation ability. The voltage deviation at the terminals of the
WTG can be regulated by controlling the injected reactive
power from the generators. However, both types of WTGs can
only generate reactive power within certain range in order not
to shorten their useful life. Therefore, it is important to study
closely the reactive power range of the two types of WTG, as
follows.

The reactive power of a DFIG is made up of two parts: that


from the stator and from the grid-side convertor. According to

408

IPEC 2010

the analysis in [6] and [7], the active and reactive power of the
stator side can be described by the following equations.

3
3 Lm

Ps = 2 U sq I sq = 2 L U sq I rq
s

2
Q = 3 U I = 3 Lm U I 3U sq
s 2 sq sd 2 Ls sq rd 2s Ls

Q con ,min = S

(1)

= 3 Lm U s I r
2 L

3U
Pm

+ Q s +
2 s Ls
1 s

2
sq

Q g ,min = S g2 Pm

(3)

3 L m U s I r max
2 L

(4)

Q s min

Q s max =

2
s

3U
+
2 s L s

3 Lm

U s I r max
2 Ls

3 Lm

U s I r max
2 Ls

(13)

P
m
1 s

P
m
1 s

(14)

According to (11) and (14), the reactive power capability of


the WTG can be determined. Thus, the WTG reactive power
operating range can be set within the respective range, with the
view to enhance voltage quality.

(5)

III.

STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF VOLTAGE DEVIATION

Due to the random injected wind power and grid status


which is likely to change with time, statistical method should
be adopted to evaluate voltage quality. The wind power
distribution can be determined by the distribution of wind
speed. As for the grid, different network status can be
expressed by different equivalent impedances. As is presented
in [5], the voltage deviation assessment can be achieved by
combining the wind power distribution and probability of the
grid Thevenin equivalence.

(6)

(7)

Since the rotor is connected to the grid by the convertor,


therefore the power of the grid-side convertor is the same to the
rotor power. Let the rated capacity of convertor be , therefore
the corresponding reactive power capability of the grid-side
convertor is
2
Qcon = Scon
Pr2

(12)

Q g ,min Qt ,P Qg ,max

Under normal operation, the relationship between rotor


power and stator power is

Pr = sPs

Therefore, the reactive power capability of PMSG can be


determined from

where max is maximum permitted current on the rotorside convertor. Assuming the maximum and minimum reactive
power from the stator of the WTG is and . Then the range the
reactive power from the stator can be determined as:
3U s2
=

2 s L s

(11)

Q g ,max = + S g2 Pm

(10)

Assuming the capacity of grid-side convertor is , and the


active power equals to the captured wind power , the
corresponding lower and upper limit of reactive power
capability are

By combining (2) and (3), one obtains


2

B. Reactive Power Capability of PMSG


As fully-rated capacity convertor is adopted for PMSG, the
WTG is coupled to the grid by the convertor. Therefore, the
reactive power capability only depends on the grid-side
convertor and corresponding active power level.

In (2), s denotes the slip of the generator. Also from (1),


equation (3) can be determined:

3U sq2

P + Qs +
2 s Ls

(9)

Qs min + Qcon ,min Qt ,D Qs max + Qcon ,max

(2)

2
s

Thus the total reactive power that can be expected from the
DFIG is the sum of stator and the grid-side convertor

Furthermore, the relationship between captured mechanical


power and the stator active power is

Pm
1 s

sP
m
1 s

sP
2
Q con ,max = + S con
m
1 s

where , are the active and reactive power output of WTG


stator, respectively. , , and are the stator voltage and current
along the q and d-axis components, respectively. , are the
respective mutual- and the self-inductance of stator windings.
is the angular synchronous speed.

Ps =

2
con

A. Statistical Voltage Analysis for PCC with Reactive Power


Capability of WTG
Fig. 1 shows a wind farm inter-connected to a large grid
system. In this figure, Z = R + jX represents the effective
impedance interconnecting the wind farm (shown by an
aggregated WTG) and an infinite bus of constant voltage
10 . The voltage deviation at the Point-of-CommonCoupling (PCC) is of interest. The deviation depends on the

(8)

By combining (8) and (2), the reactive power capability of


the rotor can be expressed as

409

injected wind power and the grid impedance, and (15) is often
used to determine the bus voltage deviation.
PR + QX
V

Upper Limit

(15)

Where V is the voltage deviation at the PCC, P and Q


are the injected power of PCC, V is the rated voltage of PCC.
Based on the method described in [5], the injected wind
power and grid equivalent impedance can be treated as discrete
variables at wind power state i and grid status j. Thus, the
voltage deviation of PCC can be calculated by (16). Detailed
description can be found in [5].

P (i ) R ( j ) + Q (i ) X ( j )
V (i, j ) =
V

0.5

Reactive power / p.u.

V =

1.0

-0.5
Lower Limit
-1.0
0

0.2

0.4
0.6
Active power / p.u.

0.8

1.0

Fig. 2 Reactive power capability of the DFIG considered in this example

(16)

1.00
0.75
Upper Limit

Reactive Power / p.u.

0.50

V
E =10

0.25
0
-0.25
Lower Limit

-0.50
-0.75
-1.00
0

0.2

0.4
0.6
Active power / p.u.

0.8

1.0

Fig. 1 Equivalent diagram of the wind power grid system

Fig. 3 Reactive power capability of PMSG considered in this example

When the reactive power capability of WTG such as that


described by (11) or (14) is also considered, V can be
reduced by adjusting Qt,P or Qt,D. If there is no limit on the
reactive power, the desirable result is to maintain the voltage at
the PCC constant, i.e. V =0. However, both the DFIG and
PMSG can only operate with Q within specific range. From
(16), for each given grid state, the WTG should generate the
reactive power Q within the permitted range to minimize V .
Thus, for the given network state j and injected power P, Q are
to be adjusted until the minimum V is obtained. This is the
proposed reactive power regulation strategy of this paper.

Different from the DFIG, the reactive power capability of


PMSG only depends on the capacity of grid-side inverter and
the active power level of WTG. Suppose the grid-side
convertor equals to the rated capacity of active power, reactive
power capability is shown in Fig. 3.
2. Voltage Deviation Distribution with Fixed Power Factor
at the PCC
Based on the wind power output and grid Thevenin
equivalence data presented in [5], the voltage fluctuation at the
PCC can be determined. Fixed power factor has been adopted
as a possible mode of operation for WTG. For example, the
statistical voltage assessments at 0.98 and unity power factor
conditions obtained in [5] are reproduced in Figures 4 and 5.

In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of reactive power


capability of WTG to mitigate the voltage deviation at the
PCC, an example is shown next. Parameters of the WTG can
be found in [10]. The statistical voltage deviation of PCC under
fixed power factor and with the reactive power adjusted as
suggested in this paper is presented. The statistical distribution
of the grid Thevenin equivalence is that given in [5].

0.25
Power Factor=0.98

Probaility

0.2

B. Numerical Examples
1. Reactive Power Capability of WTG
As is discussed in Section II, the reactive power capability
of a WTG depends on the parameters of wind turbine itself.
Based on the WTG parameters presented in [10], the reactive
power capability of the WTG, assuming it is a DFIG, is
illustrated in Fig. 2.

0.15

V>10%

0.1
0.05
0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08
0.1
0.12
Voltage deviation V

0.14

0.16

0.18

Fig. 4 Voltage deviation distribution at the PCC under 0.98 PF condition

410

0.2

0.8

0.35

0.7

Power Factor = 1.0

0.30

0.6
Probability

Probability

0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2

V >10%

0.1

0.05

0
0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08 0.10 0.12


Voltage Deviation V

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.20

Fig. 5 Voltage deviation distribution at the PCC under unity PF condition

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08
0.1
0.12
Voltage deviation

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.2

Fig. 8 Voltage deviation probability distribution with reactive power


capability of PMSG
1.00

3. Voltage Deviation Distribution with the Proposed


Reactive Power Strategy
Based on the proposed strategy on adjusting Q to minimize
V, the statistical voltage quality can be determined. Due to the
difference in the reactive power capability between the DFIG
and PMSG, the voltage deviation is also different. They are
shown in Figures 6 and 8.

0.75

Reactive Power / p.u.

0.50
0.25

0.9

-0.75
-1.00
0

0.6

Optimal Result

-0.25
-0.50

0.7

Upper Limit

1
0.8
Probability

Lower Limit

0.2

0.4
0.6
Active power / p.u.

0.8

1.0

Fig. 9 Reactive power capability of the DFIG which produces the voltage
deviation distribution shown on Fig. 8

0.5
0.4

IV.

0.3

ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS

0.2

A. Effectiveness of Reactive Power Capability for Voltage


Control
The effectiveness of the WTG reactive power control to
minimize voltage deviation can be seen by comparing the
results obtained in [5] with that proposed in Section III.A.
From the results of Fig. 4, 5, 6 and 8, it can be readily seen that
if the unity or 0.98 fixed power factor strategy is adopted, the
probability of larger than 10% is much larger than that if Q is
adjusted within the WTG reactive power capability range. Not
surprisingly, the conclusion is that the reactive power
capability of the WTG should be effectively utilized to
minimize the voltage deviation at the PCC. In fact, the
statistical voltage assessment has produced the voltage
deviation distribution so that it can provide useful information
on the extent of the voltage deviation caused by the integration
of wind farm.

0.1
0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08
0.1
0.12
Voltage deviation

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.2

Fig. 6 Voltage deviation probability distribution for DFIG

Figure 6 shows the probability distribution of V using the


DFIG WTG. The corresponding reactive power output of the
DFIG is shown in Fig. 7. The corresponding results for the
PMSG WTG are given in Figures 8 and 9.

1.0

Reactive power / p.u.

Upper Limit
0.5
Optimal Result
0

B. Relationship between Wind Farm Capacity and Voltage


Control
The capacity of wind farm is a critical factor affecting the
voltage deviation at the PCC. The relationship between them
can be illustrated by examining Figure 10. In this figure, the
probability of <10% is plotted against the wind farm capacity.

-0.5
Lower Limit
-1.0
0

0.2

0.4
0.6
Active power / p.u.

0.8

1.0

Fig. 7 Reactive power capability of the DFIG which produces the voltage
deviation distribution shown on Fig. 6

Four cases have been illustrated in Fig. 10: two cases of


fixed power factor and two cases with the WTG reactive power

411

varied according to the proposed method. Using this example,


the figure shows that the probability of <10% will decrease
with the increase of wind farm capacity when unity power
factor is adopted. However, the results will be much different
when the reactive power is to be varied in the manner
suggested in this paper. If the PMSG grid-side convertor is
larger than the rated capacity of WTG by 5%, the probability of
<10% is seen to be 100%. When the grid-side convertor equals
to the rated capacity of the wind farm, the probability of <10%
will decrease to about 0.97 when the corresponding wind farm
capacity is about 500 MW. Thereafter the probability will
decrease to 0.84 when the wind farm capacity is increased up to
1000 MW.

exploited for the purpose of minimizing the voltage deviation


at the terminals of the wind farm. On account of the random
nature of the wind power and grid status, statistical method is
adopted to evaluate the voltage deviation at the PCC. By
combining the probability distribution of the wind power with
that of the grid states, the probability of the voltage deviation is
determined. Numerical examples are included to illustrate the
effectiveness of the proposed approach.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of
National Key Technology R&D Program under Grant
2008BAA14B02 and Innovation Project for Graduate Student
of Jiangsu Province, China under Grant CX09B-156Z.

1.0
Reactive power capability is considered
Coverter Capacity = 1.05 Rated Power Capacity

REFERENCES

Pr [V < 10%]

0.9

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0.8

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Reactive power capability is considered


Coverter Capacity = Rated Power Capacity
Power Factor = 0.98

0.7

Power Factor = 1.00

0.6
0

100

200

300

400
500
600
700
Capacity of Wind Farm / MW

800

900

1000

Fig. 10 Probability of V <10% plotted against wind farm capacity: PMSG


assumed

The results in Fig. 10 provide an answer for determining the


maximum wind farm capacity acceptable to the grid
integration. In order to ensure V <10% with probability of
100%, if power factor is fixed at 0.98, then the maximum wind
farm capacity is 200MW for the specific grid investigated.
However, if unity power factor strategy is adopted, the
maximum wind farm capacity acceptable is 410MW. Worth
mentioning is that the maximum capacity is only based on the
PCC voltage deviation criteria. In practice, some other
considerations such as transient stability and frequency
regulation should be included to ensure secure operation of the
power system.
V.

CONCLUSIONS

The statistical voltage quality evaluation has been


considered, by including the reactive power capability of the
WTG. Both the DFIG and PMSG reactive power potentials are

412