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16-311 Introduction to Robotics

Guest Lecture on Aerial Robotics

Quadrotor Modeling and Control

Nathan Michael
February 05, 2014

Lecture Outline

Modeling:

Dynamic model from first principles


Propeller model and force and moments generation

Control

Attitude control (inner loop)


Position control (outer loop)

Current research challenges

Lecture Objective
Develop preliminary concepts required
to enable autonomous flight:

e3

e2
e1

D. Mellinger, N. Michael, and V. Kumar. Trajectory generation


and control for precise aggressive maneuvers with
quadrotors. Intl. J. Robot. Research, 31(5):664674, Apr.
2012.

1. Vehicle model
2. Attitude and position control
3. Trajectory generation

Quadrotor Model
Concept Review
Newton-Euler equations:

mass

total force

F
m13
=

03

linear acceleration
03
I3

linear velocity

a
! mv
+

! I3 !

total torque
angular velocity
moment of inertia
angular acceleration

Quadrotor Model
Concept Review
Rigid transformation:

b3
e3

pe = Reb pb + re

rotation

translation

Reb
re

pb
b2
b1

e2
e1

Euler angle parameterization of rotation:

Reb = Rz ( )Ry ()Rx ( )

ZYX (321) form

Quadrotor Model
Concept Review
Euler angle parameterization of rotation:

b3
e3

Reb = Rz ( )Ry ()Rx ( )

yaw
2

1
Rx ( ) = 4 0
0

0
c
s

pitch

roll

0
c
s 5 Ry () = 4 0
c
s

pb
b2

Reb
re

b1

e2
e1

0 s
c
1 0 5 Rz ( ) = 4 s
0 c
0

s
c
0

0
05
1

Quadrotor Model
Newton-Euler equations:

F
m13
=

03

03
I3

a
! mv
+

! I3 !

f3
e3

f4

f4

b 3 f2

f3
b2

b3

Total force:
Body:
Inertial:

b2

f4
f1

f1
b1

f2

e2
e1

b1

COM

2 3
4
0
X
Fb = 4 0 5
f=
fi
along b3
f
i=1

Fe = Reb Fb

mg

gravity

b2
f1

re

f3

b 3 f2

b1

Quadrotor Model
Newton-Euler equations:

F
m13
=

03
f3

f4

03
I3

a
! mv
+

! I3 !

b2

b3

f2
f1

f1
b1

f4 )

b2 = d (f3

f1 )

f1

1
2+

4+
3

b1

e1

induced moments

b1

b2

b2

b1

b1 = d (f2

b 3 f2

e2

b2

f4

Total torque:
Recall: = r F

e3

f4

re

f3

b 3 f2

f3

b 3 =

1 + 2

propeller direction
of rotation

3 + 4

Quadrotor Model
Equations of motion:

03
I3

m13
03

Reb Fb mg
a
! mv
Fe
+
=
=
T

! I3 !

[b1 , b2 , b3 ]

Fe = Reb Fb mg
2 3
0
Fb = 4 0 5
f

Motor model:
b1
1
b2

2+

4+
3

fi = c T !
i2
i = cQ !
i2

f
cT
6 b1 7 6 0
6 7=6
4b2 5 4 dcT
b3
cQ

b1 = d (f2

f4 )

b2 = d (f3

f1 )

b 3 =

1 + 2

3 + 4

Approximate relationship between propeller


speeds and generated thrusts and moments

cT
dcT
0
cQ

cT
0
dcT
cQ

32

cT
w
12
27
6w
dcT 7

7 6 22 7
0 5 4w
3 5
cQ
w
42

Lecture Outline

Modeling:

Dynamic model from first principles


Propeller model and force and moments generation

Control

Attitude control (inner loop)


Position control (outer loop)

Current research challenges

Control System Diagram

u1 = f d

Position
Controller

Motor
Controller

Trajectory
Planner
d

Attitude
Planner

Rd

Attitude
Controller

u2 =

bd1 ,

bd2 ,

Recent tutorial on quadrotor control:


R. Mahony, V. Kumar, and P. Corke. Multirotor aerial vehicles: Modeling, estimation, and control
of quadrotor. IEEE Robot. Autom. Mag., 19(3):2032, Sept. 2012.

!
i

d T
b3

Dynamic
Model

Attitude Control
Inner Loop
PD control law:

u2 =

nonlinear

Rotation error metric:

eR =

k R eR

1
2

d T

k ! e!
e! = !

RT Rd

!d

Attitude Control
Inner Loop
Linearize the nonlinear model about hover:

R0 = R (
R d = Rz (
Rotation error metric:

eR =
after linearization

2
2

u4
=[

= 0, 0 = 0,

d T

) Ryx (

T d
R0 R

R0

0)

0
,

)
_

3_
5

Attitude Control
Inner Loop
PD control law:

u2 =

k R eR

eR = [

e! = !
p

k ! e!
,
!d

u1 = f d

Position
Controller

Motor
Controller

Trajectory
Planner
d

Attitude
Planner

Rd

Attitude
Controller

!
i

T
u2 = bd1 , bd2 , bd3

Dynamic
Model

Position Control
Outer Loop
PD control law:

e a + k d ev + k p ep = 0
Linearize the nonlinear model about hover:
Nominal input:

u1 = mg
u2 = 031

u1 = f d

Position
Controller

Motor
Controller

Trajectory
Planner
d

Attitude
Planner

Rd

Attitude
Controller

!
i

T
u2 = bd1 , bd2 , bd3

Dynamic
Model

Position Control
Outer Loop
PD control law:

u1 =

T
mb3

g + a + K d ev + K p e p
d

ep = p

ev = v

vd

How do we pick the gains?


p

u1 = f d

Position
Controller

Motor
Controller

Trajectory
Planner
d

Attitude
Planner

Rd

Attitude
Controller

u2 =

bd1 ,

bd2 ,

!
i

d T
b3

Dynamic
Model

Lecture Outline

Modeling:

Dynamic model from first principles


Propeller model and force and moments generation

Control

Attitude control (inner loop)


Position control (outer loop)

Current research challenges

Current Research Challenges


How should we coordinate multiple robots given network and vehicle
limitations?

Current Research Challenges


How do we estimate the vehicle state and localize in an unknown
environment using only onboard sensing?
GPS
Camera

Laser
IMU
Barometer

Cameras

IMU

Current Research Challenges


How do we estimate the vehicle state and localize in an unknown
environment using only onboard sensing?

Lecture Summary

Modeling:

Dynamic model from first principles


Propeller model and force and
moments generation

Control

e3

e2
e1

Attitude control (inner loop)


Position control (outer loop)

Current research challenges

1. Vehicle model
2. Attitude and position control
3. Trajectory generation