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# 16-311 Introduction to Robotics

## Guest Lecture on Aerial Robotics

Nathan Michael
February 05, 2014

Lecture Outline

Modeling:

## Dynamic model from first principles

Propeller model and force and moments generation

Control

## Attitude control (inner loop)

Position control (outer loop)

## Current research challenges

Lecture Objective
Develop preliminary concepts required
to enable autonomous flight:

e3

e2
e1

## D. Mellinger, N. Michael, and V. Kumar. Trajectory generation

and control for precise aggressive maneuvers with
quadrotors. Intl. J. Robot. Research, 31(5):664674, Apr.
2012.

1. Vehicle model
2. Attitude and position control
3. Trajectory generation

Concept Review
Newton-Euler equations:

mass

total force

F
m13
=

03

linear acceleration
03
I3

linear velocity

a
! mv
+

! I3 !

total torque
angular velocity
moment of inertia
angular acceleration

Concept Review
Rigid transformation:

b3
e3

pe = Reb pb + re

rotation

translation

Reb
re

pb
b2
b1

e2
e1

## ZYX (321) form

Concept Review
Euler angle parameterization of rotation:

b3
e3

## Reb = Rz ( )Ry ()Rx ( )

yaw
2

1
Rx ( ) = 4 0
0

0
c
s

pitch

roll

0
c
s 5 Ry () = 4 0
c
s

pb
b2

Reb
re

b1

e2
e1

0 s
c
1 0 5 Rz ( ) = 4 s
0 c
0

s
c
0

0
05
1

Newton-Euler equations:

F
m13
=

03

03
I3

a
! mv
+

! I3 !

f3
e3

f4

f4

b 3 f2

f3
b2

b3

Total force:
Body:
Inertial:

b2

f4
f1

f1
b1

f2

e2
e1

b1

COM

2 3
4
0
X
Fb = 4 0 5
f=
fi
along b3
f
i=1

Fe = Reb Fb

mg

gravity

b2
f1

re

f3

b 3 f2

b1

Newton-Euler equations:

F
m13
=

03
f3

f4

03
I3

a
! mv
+

! I3 !

b2

b3

f2
f1

f1
b1

f4 )

b2 = d (f3

f1 )

f1

1
2+

4+
3

b1

e1

induced moments

b1

b2

b2

b1

b1 = d (f2

b 3 f2

e2

b2

f4

Total torque:
Recall: = r F

e3

f4

re

f3

b 3 f2

f3

b 3 =

1 + 2

propeller direction
of rotation

3 + 4

Equations of motion:

03
I3

m13
03

Reb Fb mg
a
! mv
Fe
+
=
=
T

! I3 !

[b1 , b2 , b3 ]

Fe = Reb Fb mg
2 3
0
Fb = 4 0 5
f

Motor model:
b1
1
b2

2+

4+
3

fi = c T !
i2
i = cQ !
i2

f
cT
6 b1 7 6 0
6 7=6
4b2 5 4 dcT
b3
cQ

b1 = d (f2

f4 )

b2 = d (f3

f1 )

b 3 =

1 + 2

3 + 4

## Approximate relationship between propeller

speeds and generated thrusts and moments

cT
dcT
0
cQ

cT
0
dcT
cQ

32

cT
w
12
27
6w
dcT 7

7 6 22 7
0 5 4w
3 5
cQ
w
42

Lecture Outline

Modeling:

## Dynamic model from first principles

Propeller model and force and moments generation

Control

## Attitude control (inner loop)

Position control (outer loop)

u1 = f d

Position
Controller

Motor
Controller

Trajectory
Planner
d

Attitude
Planner

Rd

Attitude
Controller

u2 =

bd1 ,

bd2 ,

## Recent tutorial on quadrotor control:

R. Mahony, V. Kumar, and P. Corke. Multirotor aerial vehicles: Modeling, estimation, and control
of quadrotor. IEEE Robot. Autom. Mag., 19(3):2032, Sept. 2012.

!
i

d T
b3

Dynamic
Model

Attitude Control
Inner Loop
PD control law:

u2 =

nonlinear

## Rotation error metric:

eR =

k R eR

1
2

d T

k ! e!
e! = !

RT Rd

!d

Attitude Control
Inner Loop
Linearize the nonlinear model about hover:

R0 = R (
R d = Rz (
Rotation error metric:

eR =
after linearization

2
2

u4
=[

= 0, 0 = 0,

d T

) Ryx (

T d
R0 R

R0

0)

0
,

)
_

3_
5

Attitude Control
Inner Loop
PD control law:

u2 =

k R eR

eR = [

e! = !
p

k ! e!
,
!d

u1 = f d

Position
Controller

Motor
Controller

Trajectory
Planner
d

Attitude
Planner

Rd

Attitude
Controller

!
i

T
u2 = bd1 , bd2 , bd3

Dynamic
Model

Position Control
Outer Loop
PD control law:

e a + k d ev + k p ep = 0
Linearize the nonlinear model about hover:
Nominal input:

u1 = mg
u2 = 031

u1 = f d

Position
Controller

Motor
Controller

Trajectory
Planner
d

Attitude
Planner

Rd

Attitude
Controller

!
i

T
u2 = bd1 , bd2 , bd3

Dynamic
Model

Position Control
Outer Loop
PD control law:

u1 =

T
mb3

g + a + K d ev + K p e p
d

ep = p

ev = v

vd

p

u1 = f d

Position
Controller

Motor
Controller

Trajectory
Planner
d

Attitude
Planner

Rd

Attitude
Controller

u2 =

bd1 ,

bd2 ,

!
i

d T
b3

Dynamic
Model

Lecture Outline

Modeling:

## Dynamic model from first principles

Propeller model and force and moments generation

Control

## Attitude control (inner loop)

Position control (outer loop)

## Current Research Challenges

How should we coordinate multiple robots given network and vehicle
limitations?

## Current Research Challenges

How do we estimate the vehicle state and localize in an unknown
environment using only onboard sensing?
GPS
Camera

Laser
IMU
Barometer

Cameras

IMU

## Current Research Challenges

How do we estimate the vehicle state and localize in an unknown
environment using only onboard sensing?

Lecture Summary

Modeling:

## Dynamic model from first principles

Propeller model and force and
moments generation

Control

e3

e2
e1

## Attitude control (inner loop)

Position control (outer loop)

## Current research challenges

1. Vehicle model
2. Attitude and position control
3. Trajectory generation