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4.

Appendices
4.1 Sample calculations
4.1.1. Power requirement calculations
For an impeller speed reading of 55 RPM operated in an Baffled tank with size
4flat blade impeller
Actual Impeller Speed:
Actual RPM = (1.26*RPM reading) 40.84
= (1.26*55 RPM) 40.84 = 28.46 RPM
RPM to RPS:
N = RPM/60 = 28.46 RPM/60s = 0.4743 RPS
Angular velocity:
= 2N = 2(0.4743 RPS) = 2.9803 rad/s
Force reading conversion from g to N:
Fg = 9g

= 0.0882 N

Average Force:
Fave = (FN + Fg)/2 = (0.09N + 0.0882N)/2 = 0.0891N
Torque:
= Fave * Moment Arm = 0.0891N * 0.11m = 0.0098 J
Experimental Power Requirement:

Reynolds Number:

Power Number, NPo:


from plot of NPo vs NRe shown in appendix 4.2 using curve no. 10 for
baffled tank and curve no.29 for unbaffled tank

13

Power from graph:

Correction factor:

Theoretical Power requirement:

Percent Difference:

4.1.2. Conductivity measurements


For baffled tank with size 4 flat blade impeller
Average initial conductivity:

Time of mixing:
Time at which conductivity is stable within 1 percent of the reading
4.1.3. Scale-up calculations (V2= 15m3)
For size 4 flat blade impelle
Scale-up ratio:

Scaling -up dimensions:


Tank Diameter:
Tank Height:
Liquid Height:
14

Impeller Diameter:
Impeller Elevation:
Impeller speed:
Where n=2/3, for equal power per unit volume, n=1, for equal liquid
motion and n=0.5, for equal Froude number
Scaling up power requirement:

Scaling up time of mixing:

15

4.2. Processed Data Tables

Table 4.2-1 Baffled Tank with Size 4 flat blade impeller experimental power requirement
Force Balance Reading

Impeller
Speed
(RPM)

Actual
Impeller
Speed
(RPM)

Actual
Impeller
Speed
(RPS)

Angular
Speed
(rad/s)

55.00
85.00
110.00

28.46
66.26
97.76

0.4743
1.1043
1.6293

2.9803
6.9387
10.2374

Initial N
Reading

1.21

Final N
Reading

Actual N
Reading

1.30
1.45
2.29

0.09
0.24
1.08

Initial g
Reading

Final g
Reading

Actual g
Reading

122.00

131.00
146.00
231.00

9.00
24.00
109.00

Actual N
(from g
reading)
0.0882
0.2352
1.0682

Average
Force
(N)

Torque
(J)

Experimental
Power
(W)

0.0891
0.2376
1.0741

0.0098
0.0261
0.1182

0.0292
0.1814
1.2096

Table 4.2-2 Unbaffled Tank with Size 4 flat blade impeller experimental power requirement
Force Balance Reading

Impeller
Speed
(RPM)

Actual
Impeller
Speed
(RPM)

Actual
Impeller
Speed
(RPS)

Angular
Speed
(rad/s)

50.00
80.00
120.00
150.00
180.00
215.00

22.16
59.96
110.36
148.16
185.96
230.06

0.3693
0.9993
1.8393
2.4693
3.0993
3.8343

2.3206
6.2790
11.5569
15.5153
19.4737
24.0918

Initial N
Reading

1.21

Final N
Reading

Actual
N
Reading

1.25
1.29
1.32
1.35
1.45
2.00

0.04
0.08
0.11
0.14
0.24
0.79

Initial g
Reading

Final g
Reading

Actual g
Reading

122.00

129.00
132.00
134.00
140.00
150.00
205.00

7.00
10.00
12.00
18.00
28.00
83.00

Actual
N (from
g
reading)
0.07
0.10
0.12
0.18
0.27
0.81

Average
Force
(N)

Torque
(J)

Experimental
Power
(W)

0.0543
0.0890
0.1138
0.1582
0.2572
0.8017

0.0060
0.0098
0.0125
0.0174
0.0283
0.0882

0.0139
0.0615
0.1447
0.2700
0.5509
2.1246

16

Table 4.2-3. Baffled Tank with Size 4 flat blade impeller theoretical power requirement
and percent difference
NRe

N3D'5

NPo

23089.7862
53757.1763
79313.3346

1.80
1.80
1.80

0.0340
0.4292
1.3785

Power from
graph (W)
0.0612
0.7726
2.4814

Theoretical
Power (W)
0.0286
0.3609
1.1591

% Difference
2.14
49.75
4.36

Table 4.2-4. Unbaffled Tank with Size 4 flat blade impeller theoretical power requirement
and percent difference
NRe

N3D'5

NPo

17978.5546
48645.9446
89535.7980
120203.1880
150870.5780
186649.1997

0.18
0.17
0.15
0.14
0.14
0.14

0.0161
0.3181
1.9832
4.7988
9.4885
17.9664

Power from
graph (W)
0.0029
0.0541
0.2975
0.6718
1.3284
2.5153

Theoretical
Power (W)
0.0057
0.1072
0.5895
1.3314
2.6325
4.9847

% Difference
142.01
42.63
75.46
79.72
79.07
57.38

Table 4.2-5. Baffled Tank with Size 5 flat blade impeller theoretical power requirement
and percent difference
NRe

N3D'5

NPo

22338.0263
42581.0593
54726.8792
62824.0924

1.80
1.80
1.80
1.80

0.0620
0.4292
0.9113
1.3785

Power from
graph (W)
0.1115
0.7726
1.6403
2.4814

Theoretical
Power (W)
0.0585
0.4055
0.8609
1.3023

% Difference
42.48
54.34
54.89
38.38

Table 4.2-6. Unbaffled Tank with Size 5 flat blade impeller theoretical power requirement
and percent difference
NRe
14240.8131
30435.2395
79018.5188
95212.9452
135699.0113
151893.4377
168087.8641

N3D'5

NPo
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.16
0.15
0.15
0.15

0.0161
0.1567
2.7430
4.7988
13.8923
19.4832
26.4029

Power from
graph (W)
0.0032
0.0282
0.4389
0.7678
2.0838
2.9225
3.9604

Theoretical
Power (W)
0.0072
0.0628
0.9772
1.7096
4.6400
6.5074
8.8186

% Difference
93.49
35.74
85.67
88.15
90.66
90.89
91.21

17

Table 4.2-7 Baffled Tank with Size 5 flat blade impeller experimental power requirement
Force Balance Reading

Impeller
Speed
(RPM)

Actual
Impeller
Speed
(RPM)

Actual
Impeller
Speed
(RPS)

Angular
Speed
(rad/s)

60.00
85.00
100.00
110.00

34.76
66.26
85.16
97.76

0.5793
1.1043
1.4193
1.6293

3.6401
6.9387
8.9179
10.2374

Initial N
Reading

1.24

Final N
Reading

Actual
N
Reading

1.32
1.49
1.63
1.94

0.08
0.25
0.39
0.70

Initial g
Reading

Final g
Reading

Actual g
Reading

126.00

135.00
150.00
167.00
200.00

9.00
24.00
41.00
74.00

Actual
N (from
g
reading)
0.09
0.24
0.40
0.73

Average
Force
(N)

Torque
(J)

Experimental
Power
(W)

0.0841
0.2426
0.3959
0.7126

0.0093
0.0267
0.0435
0.0784

0.0337
0.1852
0.3884
0.8025

Torque
(J)

Experimental
Power
(W)

Table 4.2-7 Unbaffled Tank with Size 5 flat blade impeller experimental power requirement

Force Balance Reading

Impeller
Speed
(RPM)

Actual
Impeller
Speed
(RPM)

Actual
Impeller
Speed
(RPS)

Angular
Speed
(rad/s)

50.00
70.00
130.00
150.00
200.00
220.00
240.00

22.16
47.36
122.96
148.16
211.16
236.36
261.56

0.3693
0.7893
2.0493
2.4693
3.5193
3.9393
4.3593

2.3206
4.9595
12.8763
15.5153
22.1126
24.7516
27.3905

Initial N
Reading

1.21

Final N
Reading

Actual
N
Reading

1.24
1.26
1.30
1.32
1.39
1.42
1.45

0.03
0.05
0.09
0.11
0.18
0.21
0.24

Initial g
Reading

Final g
Reading

Actual g
Reading

122.00

130.00
132.00
133.00
135.00
140.00
145.00
150.00

8.00
10.00
11.00
13.00
18.00
23.00
28.00

Actual
N (from
g
reading)
0.08
0.10
0.11
0.13
0.18
0.23
0.27

Average
Force
(N)
0.0542
0.0740
0.0989
0.1187
0.1782
0.2177
0.2572

0.0060
0.0081
0.0109
0.0131
0.0196
0.0239
0.0283

0.0138
0.0404
0.1401
0.2026
0.4335
0.5927
0.7749

18

Table 4.2-8 Initial Conductivity

Time (s)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Kave

Size 4 flat blade impeller


Conductivity, K (mS/cm)
Baffled
Unbaffled
1.58
1.54
1.56
1.57
1.54
1.58
1.54
1.54
1.58
1.57
1.53

1.51
1.54
1.56
1.54
1.53
1.54
1.56
1.55
1.57
1.54
1.55

1.56

1.54

Size 5 flat blade impeller


Conductivity, K (mS/cm)
Baffled
1.53
1.56
1.54
1.54
1.53
1.56
1.57
1.53
1.54
1.54
1.55
1.54

Unbaffled
1.53
1.58
1.54
1.58
1.54
1.51
1.54
1.58
1.5
1.54
1.57
1.55

19

Table 4.2-9 Conductivity as a function of time (time of mixing)

Time
(s)

Size 4 flat blade impeller


Conductivity, K (mS/cm)

Size 5 flat blade impeller


Conductivity, K (mS/cm)

% diff

UnB

% diff

% diff

UnB

% diff

0
3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30

1.56
4.71
4.02
4.08
4.07
4.08
4.07
4.08
4.04
4.07
4.05

3.15
0.69
0.06
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.04
0.03
0.02

78.10
91.30
83.33
0.00
0.00
0.00
300.00
25.00
33.33

1.54
2.04
3.52
3.65
6.52
3.51
3.50
3.56
3.53
3.54
3.53

0.50
1.48
0.13
2.87
3.01
0.01
0.06
0.03
0.01
0.01

196.00
91.22
2107.69
4.88
99.67
500.00
50.00
66.67
0.00

1.54
4.70
4.05
4.02
4.01
4.02
4.01
4.02
4.00
4.01
4.02

3.16
0.65
0.03
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.01

79.43
95.38
66.67
0.00
0.00
0.00
100.00
50.00
0.00

1.55
3.50
6.01
5.04
4.51
4.16
4.08
4.00
3.59
3.58
3.57

1.95
2.51
0.97
0.53
0.35
0.08
0.08
0.41
0.01
0.01

28.72
61.35
45.36
33.96
77.14
0.00
412.50
97.56
0.00

33

4.07

0.02

0.00

3.55

0.02

100.00

4.02

0.00

100.00

3.56

0.01

0.00

36

4.05

0.02

0.00

3.54

0.01

50.00

4.01

0.01

3.57

0.01

0.00

39

4.04

0.01

50.00

3.51

0.03

200.00

4.02

0.01

0.00

3.54

0.03

200.00

42

4.06

0.02

100.00

3.56

0.05

66.67

4.00

0.02

100.00

3.56

0.02

33.33

45

4.08

0.02

0.00

3.53

0.03

40.00

4.02

0.02

0.00

3.57

0.01

50.00

48

4.05

0.03

50.00

3.52

0.01

66.67

4.02

0.00

100.00

3.58

0.01

0.00

51

4.06

0.01

66.67

3.55

0.03

200.00

4.00

0.02

3.55

0.03

200.00

54

4.06

0.00

100.00

3.54

0.01

66.67

4.01

0.01

50.00

3.56

0.01

66.67

57

4.05

0.01

3.53

0.01

0.00

4.01

0.00

100.00

3.56

0.00

100.00

60

4.05

0.00

100.00

3.56

0.03

200.00

4.01

0.00

3.56

0.00

63

4.04

0.01

3.54

0.02

33.33

4.02

0.01

3.55

0.01

66

4.05

0.01

0.00

3.56

0.02

0.00

4.03

0.01

0.00

3.54

0.01

0.00

69

4.06

0.01

0.00

3.55

0.01

50.00

4.02

0.01

0.00

3.55

0.01

0.00

72

4.04

0.02

100.00

3.55

0.00

100.00

4.01

0.01

0.00

3.55

0.00

100.00

75

4.05

0.01

50.00

3.53

0.02

4.01

0.00

100.00

3.59

0.04

78

4.04

0.01

0.00

3.55

0.02

0.00

4.00

0.01

3.57

0.02

50.00

81

4.06

0.02

100.00

3.54

0.01

50.00

4.02

0.02

100.00

3.56

0.01

50.00

84

4.05

0.01

50.00

3.55

0.01

0.00

4.03

0.01

50.00

3.56

0.00

100.00

87

4.05

0.00

100.00

3.56

0.01

0.00

4.02

0.01

0.00

3.55

0.01

90

4.03

0.02

3.53

0.03

200.00

4.02

0.00

100.00

3.59

0.04

300.00

93

4.04

0.01

50.00

3.53

0.00

100.00

4.02

0.00

3.59

0.00

100.00

96

4.03

0.01

0.00

3.56

0.03

4.02

0.00

3.55

0.04

0
20

Time
(s)

Size 4 flat blade impeller

Size 5 flat blade impeller

Conductivity, K (mS/cm)

Conductivity, K (mS/cm)

% diff

UnB

% diff

% diff

UnB

% diff

99

4.03

0.00

100.00

3.54

0.02

33.33

4.01

0.01

3.59

0.04

0.00

102

4.03

0.00

3.52

0.02

0.00

4.00

0.01

0.00

3.56

0.03

25.00

105

4.04

0.01

3.54

0.02

0.00

4.01

0.01

0.00

3.56

0.00

100.00

108

4.05

0.01

0.00

3.55

0.01

50.00

4.01

0.00

100.00

3.55

0.01

111

4.03

0.02

100.00

3.54

0.01

0.00

4.02

0.01

3.56

0.01

0.00

114

4.04

0.01

50.00

3.54

0.00

100.00

4.00

0.02

100.00

3.56

0.00

100.00

117

4.02

0.02

100.00

3.53

0.01

4.03

0.03

50.00

3.55

0.01

120

4.04

0.02

0.00

3.54

0.01

0.00

4.00

0.03

0.00

3.56

0.01

0.00

130

4.05

0.01

50.00

3.53

0.01

0.00

4.01

0.01

66.67

3.56

0.00

100.00

140

4.02

0.03

200.00

3.54

0.01

0.00

4.03

0.02

100.00

3.54

0.02

150

4.02

0.00

100.00

3.56

0.02

100.00

4.03

0.00

100.00

3.54

0.00

100.00

160

4.04

0.02

3.54

0.02

0.00

4.01

0.02

3.54

0.00

170

4.03

0.01

50.00

3.53

0.01

50.00

4.00

0.01

50.00

3.59

0.05

180

4.02

0.01

0.00

3.53

0.00

100.00

4.01

0.01

0.00

3.53

0.06

20.00

190

4.05

0.03

200.00

3.52

0.01

4.02

0.01

0.00

3.56

0.03

50.00

200

4.01

0.04

33.33

3.54

0.02

100.00

4.02

0.00

100.00

3.54

0.02

33.33

210

4.03

0.02

50.00

3.53

0.01

50.00

4.02

0.00

3.54

0.00

100.00

220

4.04

0.01

50.00

3.54

0.01

0.00

4.01

0.01

3.59

0.05

230

4.02

0.02

100.00

3.52

0.02

100.00

4.00

0.01

0.00

3.54

0.05

0.00

240

4.03

0.01

50.00

3.54

0.02

0.00

4.00

0.00

100.00

3.55

0.01

80.00

250

4.02

0.01

0.00

3.53

0.01

50.00

4.00

0.00

3.54

0.01

0.00

Table 4.2-10 Scale up dimensions


Small Scale

Dimensions

Impeller

Tank
Liquid
Scale-up ratio, R

Diameter, D' (m)


Elevation, Zi(m)
Diameter,DT(m)
Height, HT (m)
Volume, V(m3)
Height, Zl(m)
8.184441282

Large Scale
Size 5
Size 4 flat Size 5 flat Size 4 flat
flat
blade
blade
blade
blade
0.200
0.178
1.6369
1.4568
0.110
0.105
0.9003
0.8594
0.288
2.3571
0.420
3.4375
0.027
15.0000
0.300

2.4553

21

Table 4.2-11 Scaled-up power requirement and mixing time of baffled tank with Size 4 flat
blade impeller
n
0.67

1.00

0.50

N1(rps)
0.4743
1.1043
1.6293
0.4743
1.1043
1.6293
0.4743
1.1043
1.6293

N2
(rps)
0.1160
0.2700
0.3984
0.0580
0.1349
0.1991
0.1658
0.3860
0.5695

Nre
3.7818E+05
8.8046E+05
1.2990E+06
1.8898E+05
4.3997E+05
6.4914E+05
5.4063E+05
1.2587E+06
1.8571E+06

Npo

N3D'5

Pgraph (W)

1.80
1.80
1.80
1.80
1.80
1.80
1.80
1.80
1.80

18.2591
230.4250
740.0464
2.2784
28.7522
92.3421
53.3463
673.2154
2162.1376

32.8664
414.7650
1332.0834
4.1010
51.7539
166.2158
96.0234
1211.7877
3891.8477

Pth (W)

tm (s)

15.3519
69.47
193.7365
29.84
622.2153
20.23
1.9156 139.03
24.1742
59.72
77.6393
40.47
44.8525
48.60
566.0253
20.87
1817.8796
14.15

Table 4.2-12 Scaled-up power requirement and mixing time of unbaffled tank with Size 4
flat blade impeller
n
0.67

1.00

0.50

N1(rps)
0.3693
0.9993
1.8393
0.3693
0.9993
1.8393
0.3693
0.9993
1.8393

N2
(rps)
0.0903
0.2443
0.4497
0.0451
0.1221
0.2247
0.1291
0.3493
0.6429

Nre
2.9446E+05
7.9675E+05
1.4665E+06
1.4714E+05
3.9814E+05
7.3280E+05
4.2096E+05
1.1390E+06
2.0964E+06

Npo

N3D'5

0.15
0.13
0.12
0.16
0.13
0.12
0.15
0.13
0.12

8.6196
170.7498
1064.6587
1.0755
21.3060
132.8469
25.1831
498.8668
3110.5331

Pgraph (W)
1.2929
22.1975
127.7590
0.1721
2.7698
15.9416
3.7775
64.8527
373.2640

Pth (W)
0.6465
11.0987
63.8795
0.0860
1.3849
7.9708
1.8887
32.4263
186.6320

tm(s)
202.59
78.49
43.79
396.88
157.08
87.63
141.71
54.91
30.63

22

Table 4.2-13 Scaled-up power requirement and mixing time of baffled tank with Size 5 flat
blade impeller
n
0.67

1.00

0.50

N1(rps)
0.5793
1.1043
1.4193
0.5793
1.1043
1.4193
0.5793
1.1043
1.4193

N2
(rps)
0.1417
0.2700
0.3470
0.0708
0.1349
0.1734
0.2025
0.3860
0.4961

Nre
3.6586E+05
6.9742E+05
8.9635E+05
1.8282E+05
3.4850E+05
4.4791E+05
5.2303E+05
9.9701E+05
1.2814E+06

Npo

N3D'5

Pgraph (W)

Pth(W)

1.80
1.80
1.80
1.80
1.80
1.80
1.80
1.80
1.80

18.5765
128.6707
273.1696
2.3180
16.0554
34.0858
54.2737
375.9275
798.0990

33.4378
231.6073
491.7052
4.1723
28.8997
61.3544
97.6926
676.6695
1436.5781

17.5492
73.93
121.5546
38.78
258.0620
30.18
2.1898 147.95
15.1674
77.61
32.2007
60.39
51.2721
51.71
355.1369
27.13
753.9604
21.11

tm (s)

Table 4.2-14 Scaled-up power requirement and mixing time of unbaffled tank with Size 5
flat blade impeller
n
0.67

1.00

0.50

N1(rps)
0.3693
0.7893
2.0493
0.3693
0.7893
2.0493
0.3693
0.7893
2.0493

N2
(rps)
0.0903
0.1930
0.5011
0.0451
0.0964
0.2504
0.1291
0.2759
0.7163

Nre
2.3324E+05
4.9849E+05
1.2942E+06
1.1655E+05
2.4910E+05
6.4672E+05
3.3344E+05
7.1262E+05
1.8502E+06

Npo

N3D'5

0.15
0.13
0.12
0.16
0.13
0.12
0.14
0.13
0.12

4.8132
46.9851
822.2747
0.6006
5.8627
102.6025
14.0624
137.2729
2402.3780

Pgraph (W)
0.7220
6.1081
98.6730
0.0961
0.7622
12.3123
1.9687
17.8455
288.2854

Pth (W)
1.6076
13.6006
219.7120
0.2140
1.6971
27.4154
4.3837
39.7360
641.9159

tm (s)
263.31
129.16
51.08
515.82
258.47
102.22
188.43
90.35
35.73

23

Figure 4.2-1 Power Consumption of various agitators expressed in terms of Po as a


function of Reynolds number, Re. For curves marked with surface effects become
important and the Froude number Fr = g/n 2D is included as indicated for Re > 300.
24