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GEOCHEMICAL

CHARACTERISATION OF COAL
POTENTIALLY STOCKPILED AT
THE PROPOSED RIETKUIL
PRIVATE SIDING
Geochemical Characterisation study
Report Prepared for

Exxaro Resources Limited


P O Box 9229
Pretoria
0001

Report Number 467209/Geochemistry

Report Prepared by

June 2014

SRK Consulting: Project No: 467209_PRPRS_Geochem

Page i

Geochemical
Characterization
of
Coal
Potentially Stockpiled at the Proposed Rietkuil
Private Siding
Geochemical Characterisation Study

Exxaro Resources Limited


SRK Consulting (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd
265 Oxford Rd
Illovo 2196
Johannesburg
South Africa
e-mail: johannesburg@srk.co.za
website: www.srk.co.za
Tel: +27 (0) 11 441 1111
Fax: +27 (0) 11 880 8086
SRK Project Number 467209/Geochem
September 2014

Compiled by:

Peer Reviewed by:

Levi Ochieng
Geochemist

James Lake
Principal Scientist

Email: Jlake@srk.co.za
Authors:
Levi Ochieng

OCHL/LAKJ

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Executive Summary
Exxaro Resources Limited (Exxaro) commissioned SRK Consulting (SRK) to undertake a
geochemical characterisation study of the material likely to be stockpiled at the proposed Rietkuil
Private Railway Siding, prior to rail transport to its final destination. This is required as specialist
input to the Environmental Impact Assessment processes and to generate a management plan for
the activities of the proposed stockpiling operation on the receiving environment.

Objectives of the study


The purpose of this report is to provide an independent geochemical assessment of the coal likely to
be stockpiled at the siding prior to loading, with a focus on the acid rock drainage and metal leaching
(ARD/ML) potential of the stockpiled material. An understanding of the geochemical characteristics is
required to support management interventions to limit impacts associated with the generation of
ARD/ML from the stockpiled material.
The specific objectives of the geochemical characterisation study included the following:

To review the available geochemical information on coal from the Witbank Coal Fields WCF;

To assess the ARD/ML potential of coal based on the review of available geochemical
information and analysis of coal samples from analogue mines; and

To recommend ARD/ML management options for the Proposed Rietkuil Private Railway
Siding.

Scope of work
The scope of work comprised three tasks:

Literature review of available geochemical information on Belfast and Witbank Coal Fields
(WCF) in general;

Assessment of the ARD/ML potential of Rietkuil Private Railway Siding based on the
samples obtained from the mine; and

Report writing to document the findings of the study.

Results
The key findings of the study included the following:

OCHL/LAKJ

Fast acid neutralising minerals, calcite and dolomite; occur in the coal at concentrations of
2.0% and 11% respectively. This indicates the presence of acid neutralising potential (NP)
and is consistent with previous study done on coal discard and coal fines from the WCF
(Vermeulen, Cruywagen & Steyl, 2011 and Golder, 2009).

Although pyrite (FeS2) and phosphates crandallite (CaAl3(PO4)2(OH)5.(H2O)) were not


observed in the mineralogy, other studies indicate the occurrence of these minerals as minor
phases in seam No. 2 coal (WRC Report No. 1264/1/06).

The paste pH of the coal samples is neutral (6.7) and indicates that the samples are
characterised by a net neutral condition. This is consistent with the buffering pH range of
carbonate minerals of 5.5 to 6.9.

Although background information indicated that coal seams that constitute the WCF
stratigraphy are potentially acid generating (PAG), site specific ABA analysis of seam no. 2

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coal at Belfast mine indicated that seam no 2 coal is potentially Non Acid Forming (NAF).
This was confirmed by net acid generation (NAG) test. The NAG pH of the coal sample is 6.1
(> 4.5) indicating that the coal will be NAF on complete oxidation of the sulfides contained in
it. This is attributed to the occurrence of calcite and dolomite in sufficient concentrations to
neutralise any acidity generated in the coal.

The constituents of concern that could potentially be leached from the material stored at the
Rietkuil Private Railway Siding under neutral pH conditions include Ca, Cl, TDS and Zn.
Calcium is attributed to the presence of the soluble carbonate minerals, calcite and dolomite,
in the coal sample. Although zinc is inherent in the mineralogy of coal, additional Zn and Cl
are introduced into this coal sample during the washability test where ZnCl is used as a
dense medium. These elements may leach into surface water and groundwater depending
on site conditions and using the assumption that the coal used in the testing is
representative of the material that will be stockpiled at the siding.

The concentrations of the major ions (Mg, K, Na and SO4) are low. This may be attributed to
the fact the coal samples were fresh from washability tests and were therefore not exposed
to oxidation condition to release metals at concentrations of potential concern. In addition,
the washability test process may have washed away the oxidation products on the surface of
the material. However, under field conditions, the concentrations of the major metals would
be expected to increase through oxidation and weathering.

Recommendations
The materials associated with the Rietkuil Private Railway Siding are potentially NAF. This is
because the coal has excess neutralisation potential in the form of calcite and dolomite that buffers
the pH at neutral conditions of 6.7.
The constituents of concern that could potentially be leached from the material stockpiled at the
Rietkuil Private Railway Siding under neutral pH conditions include Ca, Cl, TDS and Zn. These
constituents occur in the leachate from the coal material at concentrations that exceed both the
ambient groundwater quality and SAWQG and could potentially impact the groundwater and surface
water under neutral conditions. However, there is still an expectation that secondary minerals that
may have formed as a result of the oxidation of pyrite and subsequent neutralisation of the acidity
may be mobilised to form a neutral but saline runoff or seepage, depending on the period in which
the coal is retained in the stockpile.
The following are recommended:

OCHL/LAKJ

Appropriate stockpile management should be enforced at the siding, where the residence
time of the material in stockpile is minimised. Furthermore, stockpile management should
include mechanisms, where practical, to ensure that the entire volume of material is
removed periodically, rather than retaining a layer at the base of the stockpile which does
not get removed. This will minimise the time period in which pyrite oxidation can occur which
in turn should limit the salinity of runoff and seepage from the stockpiles.

The liners below the stockpile and the PCD should be engineered in a manner to ensure that
the potential permeability through the liners is minimised with runoff and seepage flow into
the PCD maximised.

The maximum operating capacity in the PCD should be maintained to ensure that there is
adequate buffer zone in the facility to store the design flood event without overtopping as the
quality of water in the PCD is likely to be saline.

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If the PCD water is used for dust suppression as intended, then spraying should only occur
in areas within the catchment of the PCD.

The concentrations of major elements and metals (including Ca, Cl, TDS and Zn), should be
monitored as a minimum analytical suite.

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Table of Contents
Executive Summary ..................................................................................................................................... ii
Disclaimer................................................................................................................................................... vii
List of Abbreviations ...................................................................................................................................viii

1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 1
2 Background .................................................................................................................. 1
2.1

Geology ............................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Objectives of the study ................................................................................................ 4


4 Scope of work ............................................................................................................... 5
5 Reporting Standard ...................................................................................................... 5
5.1

Requirements for prediction of ARD/ML ............................................................................................. 5

5.2

Quality control data ............................................................................................................................. 5

5.3

Elemental composition versus average crustal abundance................................................................ 6

5.4

Ambient groundwater quality .............................................................................................................. 6

5.5

Criteria for assessing ARD potential ................................................................................................... 6


5.5.1

Neutralisation Potential Ratio (NPR) ....................................................................................... 7

5.5.2

Net Neutralisation Potential (NNP) .......................................................................................... 8

5.5.3

Net Acid Potential (NAG Test) ................................................................................................ 8

6 Geochemical test work ................................................................................................ 8


6.1

Desktop review.................................................................................................................................... 8
6.1.1

Mineralogy ............................................................................................................................... 8

6.1.2

Acid base accounting (ABA) ................................................................................................... 8

6.2

Sampling ............................................................................................................................................. 9

6.3

Laboratory analysis ........................................................................................................................... 11

7 Results ........................................................................................................................ 12
7.1

Mineralogical composition ................................................................................................................. 12

7.2

Elemental composition ...................................................................................................................... 13

7.3

Acid generating characteristic ........................................................................................................... 14

7.4

7.3.1

Paste pH ................................................................................................................................ 14

7.3.2

Sulfur speciation .................................................................................................................... 14

7.3.3

Carbon speciation ................................................................................................................. 16

7.3.4

Acid generation potential ....................................................................................................... 16

7.3.5

Bulk neutralisation potential .................................................................................................. 16

7.3.6

Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) potential ..................................................................................... 16

Leaching characteristic ..................................................................................................................... 17

8 Conclusions and Recommendations........................................................................ 19


9 References .................................................................................................................. 21
Appendices ...................................................................................................................... 22
Appendix A: Laboratory Certificates of Analysis ....................................................... 23
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List of Tables
Table 5-1: Ambient groundwater quality (SRK 2014) ......................................................................................... 7
Table 6-1:

Average NPR ratio and NNP for lithological units of the Witbank goldfield in an open system
(Pinetown & Boer, 2004) .............................................................................................................. 9

Table 7-1: Mineralogical composition (% w/w) of the coal composite sample from Belfast mine area listed in
order of decreasing reactivity (weathering rates). ...................................................................... 12
Table 7-2: Elemental composition of coal samples from Belfast mine area. A GAI greater than 1 indicates
elemental enrichment. GAI of elements with detection limits greater than their crustal
abundances is shown as a dash (-) in the table. ....................................................................... 13
Table 7-3: Summary of ABA, sulfur & carbon speciation results and NAG results for Belfast Coal Mine
sample ........................................................................................................................................ 15
Table 7-4: Contact leachate results (1:5 solid to liquid) for Belfast seam 2 coal sample relative to ambient
groundwater quality (SRK, 2014) and SAWQG (DWAF, 1996). Leachate concentrations in
excess of the guidelines are highlighted red. ............................................................................. 18

List of Figures
Figure 2-1: Location of Belfast Coal Project Mine area ...................................................................................... 3
Figure 2-2: Typical stratigraphic columns in the Witbank coal fields (simplified after Smith and Whittaker
1986) ............................................................................................................................................ 4
Figure 6-1: Stratigraphic column of the Belfast Coal Mine project area (Groundwater Complete, 2009) ........ 11

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Disclaimer
The opinions expressed in this Report have been based on the information supplied to SRK
Consulting (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd (SRK) by Exxaro Resources Ltd (Exxaro). The opinions in this
Report are provided in response to a specific request from Exxaro to do so. SRK has exercised all
due care in reviewing the supplied information. Whilst SRK has compared key supplied data with
expected values, the accuracy of the results and conclusions from the review are entirely reliant on
the accuracy and completeness of the supplied data. SRK does not accept responsibility for any
errors or omissions in the supplied information and does not accept any consequential liability arising
from commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Opinions presented in this report apply to
the site conditions and features as they existed at the time of SRKs investigations, and those
reasonably foreseeable. These opinions do not necessarily apply to conditions and features that may
arise after the date of this Report, about which SRK had no prior knowledge nor had the opportunity
to evaluate.

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List of Abbreviations
ABA

Acid Base Accounting

AP

Acid Potential

ARD/ML

Acid Rock Drainage and Metal Leaching

ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials

COC

Constituents of Concern

DF
DWAF

Dwyka Formation
Department of Water Affairs and Forestry

EC

Electrical Conductivity

EIA
EPA

Environmental Impact Assessment


Environmental Protection Agency

GAI

Geochemical Abundance Indices


Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer

ICP-MS
IB
ICP OES/MS

OCHL/LAKJ

Ion Balance
Inductively Coupled Optical Emission Spectrometer/Mass
Spectrometer

IWUL

Integrated Water Use Licence

KSG

Karoo Supergroup

Lower

MEG

Middle Ecca Group

NAF

Non Acid Forming

NBC

North Block Complex

PAF

Potentially Acid Forming

PAG

Potentially Acid Generating

NP

Neutralisation Potential

PT

Parting

RBCT

Richards Bay Coal Terminal

SPLP
SSV

Synthetic Precipitation Leach Procedure


Soil Screening Values

TDS

Total Dissolved Solids

TFR

Transnet Freight Rail

Upper

VF

Vryheid Formation

WCF
XRD

Witbank Coal Fields


X-Ray Diffraction

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Introduction
Exxaro Resources Limited (Exxaro) commissioned SRK Consulting (SRK) to undertake a
geochemical characterisation study of the material likely to be stockpiled at the Proposed Rietkuil
Private Siding, prior to rail transport to its final destination. This is required as specialist input to the
Environmental Impact Assessment processes and to generate a management plan for the activities
of the proposed stockpiling operation on the receiving environment.
This report documents the geochemical work conducted to characterize the coal material likely to be
stockpiled at the siding with respect to the acid rock drainage and metal leaching (ARD/ML)
potential. The report includes the background of the project, a brief review of a regional acid base
accounting (ABA) study of the Witbank Coal Fields, site specific geochemical characterisation of the
coal stockpiled and recommendations from the study.

Background
Exxaro proposes to construct a private siding and associated infrastructure south west of the
proposed Belfast Coal Mine. Exxaro intends on exporting a percentage of the coal mined at the
proposed Belfast Coal Mine and requires a suitable siding accessible to the existing coal line to
Richards Bay Coal Terminal (RBCT). The proposed private siding is to be located parallel and northwest of the existing Transnet Freight Rail (TFR) Rietkuil Station within the existing Exxaro Arnot Coal
Mines Mining Right area. The Rietkuil Private Railway Siding will be constructed on an appropriately
engineered surface area planned to cover a footprint of at least 43 hectares (including the Transnet
servitude).
The proposed Rietkuil Private Railway Siding will be equipped with a single signalled connection to
the existing Geluksplaas Wonderfontein TFR mainline. The proposed Rietkuil Private Railway
Siding will comprise of a rail way line adjacent to the coal loading platform. The accumulative length
of rail will be approximately 3.5 km and includes both the loading and run around lines. The stockpile
area should be able to accommodate approximately 54 000 tons of product with a height of 2.5 3
m.
The coal mined at the proposed Belfast Coal Mine is planned to be hauled from the mine along the
district D 1770 road for approximately 4.5 km before intersecting with the D 1110 to the south. From
the D 1110 road the route will continue in a north western direction for approximately 9 km before
intersecting with the N 4. The route will furthermore travel approximately 600 metres before turning
south on the P 15 -1 for 600 metres. From the P 15 -1 road the route will turn west on the D 383 road
for approximately 10 km before turning west on the D 1555 road for approximately 5.5 km.
A new road will be constructed to access the proposed Rietkuil Private Railway Siding. This access
road will intersect with the D 1555 provincial road. The private access road to the proposed siding is
to enable haulage trucks to enter the siding and off-load product at the planned coal stockpile area,
north of the existing TFR railway line.
The estimated loading capacity of the facility is in the region of 2.2 million tons of coal product per
annum. Typically haulage trucks (inter-link type) such as side tippers or similar type vehicles will be
used for haulage of product to the siding.
The accumulative length of rail will be approximately 3.5 km and includes both the loading and run
around lines. The stockpile area should be able to accommodate approximately 54 000 tons of
product with a height of 2.5 3 m.
To prevent any contamination of ground water and pollution of the sub-grade, liners will be installed
across the complete stockpile area.

OCHL/LAKJ

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A Pollution Control Dam (PCD) with approximate capacity of 65 000 cubic metres and surface area
of approximately 3.3 hectares will be constructed on the north-western corner of the siding. The PCD
will be able to store runoff water from the complete dirty water area.
The PCD will be lined with an appropriate engineered liner. Runoff water captured within the PCD
will be utilised for dust suppression.

2.1

Geology
The following section describes the geology of the Belfast Coal Mine, as this is pertinent to the
geochemical characteristics of the material that is likely to be stockpiled at the Rietkuil Private
Railway Siding.
The Belfast Project belongs to the North Block Complex (NBC) besides Glisa Colliery, Strathrae
Colliery and Eerstelingsfontein Project. It is located within the Witbank Coal Fields (WCF). Five coal
seams are contained in a 70 m thick succession, consisting predominantly of sandstone with
subordinate siltstone and mudstone. The partings between seams are remarkably constant.
However, seam splits are fairly common. Typical stratigraphic columns in the WCF are presented in
Figure 2-2. Igneous intrusives (dolerite dykes) of the late Karoo age invariably characterise these
coal fields.
The project area is underlain by rocks of the Karoo Supergroup (KSG) on a basement of the older
Mokolian intrusives and extrusives. The KSG comprises mainly of a sedimentary succession of
sandstones, shales and coal measures. The coal measures are contained within the Vryheid
Formation (VF) that forms part of the Middle Ecca Group (MEG). The sedimentary succession
overlies the Dwyka Formation (DF), comprising of diamictites and tillites at the base of the Karoo
sequence.
The coal horizons developed consist of the No. 1 Seam which is sporadically developed with an
average thickness of 0.48 m at an average depth of 35 m. The No. 2 Seam is consistently developed
except in the areas where it has been eroded and has an average thickness of 2.79 m at an average
depth of 30 m. The No. 3 Seam is also sporadically developed due to erosion and has an average
thickness of 0.60 m at an average depth of 18 m.
The primary coal Seam development is on the No. 2 Seam. It is a sub-bituminous to bituminous coal
with an average A grade practical yield of 53% and middlings yield of 21 MJ/kg product of 28%.

OCHL/LAKJ

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Figure 2-1: Location of Belfast Coal Project Mine area

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Figure 2-2: Typical stratigraphic columns in the Witbank coal fields (simplified after Smith
and Whittaker 1986)

Objectives of the study


The purpose of this report is to provide an independent geochemical assessment of the coal likely to
be stockpiled at the Rietkuil Private Railway Siding prior to loading, with a focus on the Acid Rock
Drainage/Metal Leaching (ARD/ML) potential of the stockpiled material. An understanding of the
geochemical characteristics is required to support management interventions to limit impacts
associated with the generation of ARD/ML from the stockpiled material.
The specific objectives of the geochemistry study include the following:

OCHL/LAKJ

To review the available geochemical information on coal from the Witbank Coal Field (WCF);
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To assess the ARD/ML potential of coal based on the review of available geochemical
information and analysis of coal samples from analogue mines; and

To recommend ARD/ML management options for the proposed Rietkuil Private Railway
Siding.

Scope of work
The scope of work comprised three tasks, as outlined below:

Literature review of available geochemical information on Belfast and Witbank Coal Fields
(WCF) in general;

Assessment of the ARD/ML potential of material stockpiled at the Rietkuil Private Railway
Siding based on the review of available geochemical information and analogue results from
other mines; and

Report writing to document the findings of the study.

Reporting Standard

5.1

Requirements for prediction of ARD/ML


The reporting approach complies with the international ARD/ML waste material characterisation
guidelines recommended in the GARD guide Rev 1 (2012) and the MEND Report 1.20.1 (2010).
The approach is consistent with the approach adopted in South Africa, as South Africa does not
have guidelines specific to mining waste.

5.2

Quality control data


The determination of quality assurance and quality control parameters in the analytical data
comprised, primarily, of the following:

Summation of the percentage concentrations of major metal concentrations in the various


solid samples (as determined by XRD).

Calculation of ion charge balances for the analysis of analysed solutions. A fundamental
property of aqueous solutions is that they are electrically neutral, so the equivalents of
cations analysed in the solution should balance that of the analysed anions. The charge
balance error was calculated (considering major anions and cations) using Equation 1.

Equation 1:

The following criteria were applied when deciding whether to accept or disregard the various
analytical data (Wsik, et.al, 2005):

OCHL/LAKJ

The sum of metal concentrations (determined by XRD percentage) were to fall within the
range of 98% to 103%; and

Charge balance of aqueous samples was to fall within errors of 10%.

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Elemental composition versus average crustal abundance


Multi-element analysis results were compared to the average crustal abundances to give the
geochemical abundance indices (GAI). The GAI quantifies an assay result for a particular element in
terms of average crustal abundances. The GAI is calculated from the following formula:
(

Where Cn is the concentration of the element in the sample and Bn is the crustal abundance of that
element.
Crustal abundances after Fortescue (1992) and Price (1997) were used to calculate the GAI values.
The GAI values are truncated to integer increments (0 through to 6, respectively) where a GAI of 0
indicates the element is present at a concentration similar to, or less than, median abundance and a
GAI of 6 indicates approximately a 100-fold, or greater, enrichment above median abundance. The
actual enrichment ranges for the GAI values are as follow:

GAI=0 represents <3 times median abundance;

GAI=1 represents 3 to 6 times median abundance;

GAI=2 represents 6 to 12 times median abundance;

GAI=3 represents 12 to 24 times median abundance;

GAI=4 represents 24 to 48 times median abundance;

GAI=5 represents 48 to 96 times median abundance; and

GAI=6 represents more than 96 times median abundance.

As a general guide, a GAI of 3 or above is considered significant and such enrichment may warrant
further examination.

5.4

Ambient groundwater quality


Groundwater data obtained from a groundwater study conducted in 2014 (SRK, 2014) as part of the
Exxaro Private Railway Siding and Haul Road Environmental Study was taken as the ambient
(background) groundwater quality for the area (Table 5-1). The data was used to assess the quality
of leachate from the coal to identify constituents of concern (COC).

5.5

Criteria for assessing ARD potential


Screening criteria set by MEND (2005) were used on the Acid Base Accounting (ABA) data to
assess the potential for ARD generation. These classifications are based on the Modified Sobek
ABA method.

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Table 5-1: Ambient groundwater quality (SRK 2014)


Parameters (mg/l unless stated otherwise)
pH (s.u)
EC, conductivity (mS/m @25 C)
NH4, ammonium
M Alk, total alkalinity (CaCO3)
Cl, chloride
SO4, sulfate
NO3 (as N), nitrate
F, fluoride
Ag, silver
Al, aluminium
As, arsenic
B, boron
Ba, barium
Be, beryllium
Bi, bismuth
Ca, calcium
Cd, cadmium
Co, cobalt
Cr, chromium
Cu, copper
Fe, iron
Hg, mercury
K, potassium
Mg, magnesium
Mn, manganese
Mo, molybdenum
Na, sodium
Ni, nickel
P, phosphorus, (as PO4)
Pb, lead
Sb, antimony
Se, selenium
Sn, tin
Sr, strontium
Th, thorium
Ti, titanium
Tl, thallium
U, uranium
V, vanadium
Zn, zinc
Total dissolved solids, TDS

Ambient Groundwater (SRK, 2014)


TWEE BH1
TWEE BH2
8.1
8.4
57
78
<0.10
<0.10
245
299
25
37
3.7
10
19.5
8.4
0.8
1.3
NM
NM
1.3
0.86
0.005
0.004
0.03
0.03
0.05
0.18
NM
NM
<0.005
<0.005
6.1
20
NM
NM
0.001
0.002
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.17
0.91
2.8
NM
NM
20
22
NM
NM
0.02
0.07
0.002
0.003
100
125
0.009
0.02
0.13
0.31
<0.001
0.01
NM
NM
NM
NM
NM
NM
0.09
0.34
<0.002
<0.002
0.01
0.006
NM
NM
0.006
<0.004
0.01
0.03
0.04
0.03
360
424

Note: NM Not Measured

5.5.1 Neutralisation Potential Ratio (NPR)


Neutralisation potential ratio (NPR) is the ratio of Neutralisation Potential (NP)/Acid Potential (AP),
which is also called the Net Potential Ratio (NPR). The criteria indicate the potential for ARD and are
based on NP/AP ratios as follows:

NP/AP < 1 : Potentially Acid Generating (PAG) ;

1 < NP/AP < 2: Uncertain. Assuming no errors in the prediction of effective AP and NP the
maximum NPR capable of generating ARD will be between 1 and 2. The classification of
tests with NPR between 1 and 2 may remain uncertain until the NPR is refined by kinetic
test; and

OCHL/LAKJ

NP/AP > 2: Non-acid generating (Non-PAG).

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5.5.2 Net Neutralisation Potential (NNP)


Net neutralising potential (NNP) is the difference between NP and AP and can be used to classify
acid generating potential as follows:

If NNP = NP- AP < 0, the sample has the potential to generate acid;

If NNP = NP - AP > 0, the sample has the potential to neutralise acid produced;

More specifically, any sample with NNP < 20 is potentially acid-generating; and

Any sample with NNP > 20 might not generate acid.

5.5.3 Net Acid Potential (NAG Test)


Net acid generation (NAG Test) is used to assess whether a sample is capable of neutralizing the
potential acidity. A strong oxidising agent, hydrogen peroxide (H 2O2), is used to rapidly oxidise
sulfide minerals in the sample. Single addition NAG test involves the addition of 250 ml of 15% H 2O2
to a 2.5 g of pulverised sample (<75 m).
NAG test measures combined features of the AP and the NP. A sample is considered PAF if NAG
pH is < 4.5 and NAF if the NAG pH is > 4.5.

Geochemical test work

6.1

Desktop review
Information on the geology and geochemistry of coal generated from the WCF was sourced from
literature. This was important to interpret the analyses of the samples from the analogue collieries
that are located in close proximity to Belfast area, with these collieries used as indicative of the
geochemical characteristics of the material to be stockpiled at the Rietkuil Private Railway Siding.
The use of analogues is an accepted geochemical practice in instances where actual samples from
the mine under consideration are not available. As production has not started at the Belfast project,
there are no samples of material from the project, which would be stored at the Rietkuil Private
Railway Siding, available for geochemical testing.

6.1.1 Mineralogy
Mineralogical analysis studies carried out by Pinetown and Boer (2004) as part of a regional acid
base accounting (ABA) study of the Highveld/Witbank coalfields indicated that the coal contains the
acid generating sulfide mineral, pyrite. Fast acid neutralising carbonate minerals, calcite and
dolomite, are also present in the coal discard and coal fines (Vermeulen, Cruywagen, & Steyl, 2011
and Golder, 2009).

6.1.2 Acid base accounting (ABA)


Pinetown and Boer (2004) carried out a regional ABA study of the Highveld/Witbank coalfields on
coal seams, inter-burden rock, overburden rock and soil. The lithology studied included the Nos. 1,
2, 3, 4 and 5 coal seams and their inter-burden and overburden materials. In sequence from top to
bottom, the findings were as summarised in Table 6-1.

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Table 6-1:

Page 9

Average NPR ratio and NNP for lithological units of the Witbank goldfield in an
open system (Pinetown & Boer, 2004)
Strata

NPR

NNP (kg CaCO3)/t)

ARD Potential

Above No 5 Seam

0.97

-0.15

PAF

-0.037

-78

PAF

0.27

-12

PAF

C4U (0.33)

-56

PAF

C4PT (0.64)

-0.78

PAF

C4L (0.79)

-0.75

PAF

Mean (0.49)

-19

PAF

4 to 2

0.02

-24

PAF

No 2 Seam

0.7

-10

PAF

2 to 1

3.4

11

NAF

No 1 Seam

0.61

-10

PAF

Below No 1 Seam

0.55

-1.8

PAF

No 5 Seam
5 to 4

No 4 Seam

Note: U Upper, PT Parting, L Lower, PAF Potentially acid forming, NAF Potentially non-acid forming

The rock types were classified as follows:

Non-acid forming (NAF):


o

Rock between No 2 and No 1 seams.

Potentially acid generating:


o

Soil above No 5 seam;

Rock between No 5 and No 4 seams;

No 4 seam (lower);

Rock between No 4 and 2 seams;

Rock below No 1 seam; and

All coal seams

In summary, the available background information indicates that the coal seams that constitute the
WCF stratigraphy are potentially acid generating.

6.2

Sampling
Three coal samples from seam No. 2 were collected by Exxaro as analogues that Exxaro believes to
be representative of the material to be stockpiled at the Rietkuil Private Railway Siding and these
were delivered to SRK for analyses. SRK understands from Exxaro that large diameter core were
drilled from the Belfast deposit to obtain the samples. The samples are composites from washability
analysis that Exxaro are currently undertaking as part of the project optimisation. Density fractions

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were selected by Exxaro based on the results from the washability analysis to make up the samples.
Based on geological data, the deposit was divided into different areas (1, 2 & 3) by Exxaro on the
basis of the areas where coal was expected to have similar characteristics.
The samples were made up by Exxaro by combining different density fractions from the washability
analysis that was performed to ensure that the required grade is met. These samples were
considered by Exxaro as 95% representative of the coal that would be mined from Belfast area and
stockpiled at the Rietkuil Private Railway Siding. Only seam 2 coal will be stockpiled at the Rietkuil
Private Railway Siding (Figure 6-1).
The samples included the following:

Belfast, area 1, MCX 000310;

Belfast, area 2, MCX 000310; and

Belfast, area 3, MCX 000310.

The individual sub-samples were composited in the commercial laboratory SRK utilised for the
geochemical analyses. The following guidelines for the appropriate use of the composites were
followed:

OCHL/LAKJ

Each discrete sub-sample was thoroughly homogenised in the laboratory;

Each discrete sub-sample contributed an equal amount of material to the composite;

Composites were suitably used for inorganic substances such as metals, or substances of
very low volatility and not for volatile substances; and

A clear record of the discrete sub-samples that contributed to each composite was
maintained.

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Figure 6-1: Stratigraphic column of the Belfast Coal Mine project area (Groundwater
Complete, 2009)

6.3

Laboratory analysis
A suite of geochemical analyses was conducted on the coal sample with the objective of determining
the potential of the solid fraction to generate acidity and/or leach metals and salts.
The laboratory analysis was conducted by M&L Laboratory Services Pty Ltd in South Africa. The
analyses included the following:

OCHL/LAKJ

Acid Base Accounting (ABA) using the Modified Sobek Method and including sulfur
speciation with total sulfur determined using a Leco furnace and sulfate sulfur determined
gravimetrically;

X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) to identify dominant mineral phases;

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Aqua regia digest followed by ICP-MS analyses for total metals;

Synthetic Precipitation Leach Procedure (SPLP) EPA Method 1312 (with no modification)
with the extracts analysed for metals and metalloids by ICP-MS; and

Contact Leach Test ASTM D3987. The extracted fluid was analysed for the following:
o

pH, EC, Ca, Mg, Na, K;

alkalinity, SO4, Cl, F; and

Metals and Metalloids by ICP-MS.

Results
A summary of the laboratory results, data analysis and interpretation for the geochemical
characterisation of the coal samples are presented in this section. Detailed laboratory certificate of
analysis are presented in Appendix A.

7.1

Mineralogical composition
The composite coal sample was analysed using a PANalytical XPert Pro powder diffractometer in
configuration with an XCelerator detector and variable divergence and receiving slits with Fe
filtered Co-K radiation ( = 1.789). The phases were identified using XPert Highscore plus
software. The relative phase amounts (weight %) was estimated using the Rietveld method
(Autoquan Program). Amorphous phases were not taken into consideration, XRD only determines
crystalline phases and organic material in coal tends to obscure interpretations from raw coal XRD.
A summary of the mineralogical results of the composite coal sample is presented in Table 7-1.
Table 7-1: Mineralogical composition (% w/w) of the coal composite sample from Belfast mine
area listed in order of decreasing reactivity (weathering rates).
Acid
neutralising
minerals

Mineral Group

Mineral Name

Formula

Weight (%)

3 error

Calcite

CaCO3

1.7

0.72

Dolomite

CaMg(CO3)2

11

1.2

Kaolinite

Al4(OH)8(Si4O10)

52

1.6

Quartz

SiO2

35

1.5

Dissolving
Slow weathering

Inert (Resistant)
Total

100

The following is inferred from the mineralogy (Table 7-1) of the Belfast coal:

OCHL/LAKJ

Fast acid neutralising minerals, calcite and dolomite; occur in the coal at concentrations of
2.0% and 11% respectively. This indicates the presence of acid neutralising potential (NP)
and is consistent with previous study done on coal discard and coal fines (Vermeulen,
Cruywagen & Steyl, 2011 and Golder, 2009).

Phyllosilicate, kaolinite [Al4(OH)8(Si4O10)] occurs in the coal composite sample as the


dominant mineral (52%). Kaolinite belongs to the serpentine group and can react with and
consume acid. However, the ease and rate with which this mineral can react is slow,
potentially limiting its contribution to the neutralisation of ARD.

Quartz, an inert mineral, occurs in the coal as the second dominant mineral (34%).

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Although pyrite (FeS2) and phosphates crandallite (CaAl3(PO4)2(OH)5.(H2O) were not


observed in the mineralogy, other studies indicate the occurrence of these minerals as minor
phases in seam No. 2 coal (WRC Report No. 1264/1/06).

Elemental composition
Elemental enrichment in the samples as indicated by GAI using the criterion detailed in section 3.3.3
is presented in Table 4 2. A GAI value of 0 indicates the element is present at a concentration similar
to or less than the crustal abundance and a GAI of 6 indicates approximately a 100 fold, or greater,
enrichment above crustal abundance. As a general guide, a GAI of 3 or above is considered
significant and indicates potential environmental concern.
Table 7-2: Elemental composition of coal samples from Belfast mine area. A GAI greater than
1 indicates elemental enrichment. GAI of elements with detection limits greater
than their crustal abundances is shown as a dash (-) in the table.
Element

Concentration (ppm)

Ag
Al
As
Ba
Be
Bi
Ca
Cd
Co
Cr
Cu
Fe
Hg
K
Mg
Mn
Mo
Na
Ni
P
Pb
Sb
Se
Sn
Sr
Th
Ti
Tl
U
V
Zn
Zr

<0.4
2 034
<2.0
206
1.8
0.6
43 100
<0.1
6.8
18
12
88 900
<0.1
5 300
19 400
500
<0.1
177
72
5 200
7.3
<1.0
<3.0
<2.0
266
2.2
159
<0.9
<0.4
18.1
1 955
9.4

Average Crustal Abundance


(ppm)
0.08
83 600
1.8
390
2
0.082
46 600
0.16
29
122
68
62 200
0.086
18 400
27 640
1 060
1.2
22 700
99
1 120
13
0.2
0.05
2.1
384
8.1
6 320
0.72
2.3
136
76
162

GAI

0
2
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
2
0

0
0
0

0
4
0

The following inferences were made from Table 4 2:

Zinc (Zn) has a GAI of 4 indicating 24 to 48 times enrichment above crustal abundances;

Bismuth (Bi) and phosphorus (P) have a GAI of 2 indicating 6 to 12 times enrichment above
crustal abundances; and

All the other elements have a GAI of 0 indicating that their concentrations are similar to or
less than their crustal abundances.

In summary, the coal is enriched in Bi, P and Zn, considered significant and indicating potential
environmental concern. Zinc and Bi are chalcophyles and are associated with pyrite and other
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sulfate minerals as well as with dolomite in the coal. Bismuths abundance is related to the presence
of granitic detritus and organic matter in coal. Phosphorus is associated with the phosphate mineral
crandallite (CaAl3(PO4)2(OH)5.(H2O).
The enrichment of Zn in the coal sample could also be enhanced by the use of zinc chloride as a
dense medium in the washability analysis; where zinc chloride could adhere to the pores in the coal
and increase the detected Zn concentrations.
An enrichment does not necessary imply that these elements represent an environmental risk
although the enriched elements in the coal may leach into surface water and groundwater depending
on site conditions. The risk that these enriched elements presents is a function of the environmental
mobility of these elements, as assessed by leach tests in the later sections of this report.

7.3

Acid generating characteristic


Acid base accounting (ABA) tests were conducted on the coal sample to evaluate its ARD potential.
The ABA analysis indicates the relative proportions of acid generating (AP) and acid neutralising
(NP) components of a sample. A summary of the results including sulfur & carbon speciation and
NAG is presented in Table 7-3.

7.3.1 Paste pH
The paste pH is indicative of the pore water quality. This pH is determined by the relative
magnitudes of the rates of acid generation (AP) and neutralisation (NP). The paste pH of the coal
samples is neutral (6.7) and indicates that the samples are characterised by a net neutral condition.
This is consistent with the buffering pH range of carbonate minerals of 5.5 to 6.9.

7.3.2 Sulfur speciation


Sulfur species are the primary source of acid, acidity and potentially deleterious elemental species
(including mobilisation thereof in an acidic environment) in the drainage from coal. Total sulfur (TS)
concentration was 0.58% in the coal sample. Sulfate sulfur (SO4) constituted 25% of total sulphur,
indicating partial oxidation of sulfide in the coal sample.
2-

Sulfide sulfur (S ) concentration was 0.34% constituting 75% of TS. This indicates that the coal
material contains sulfide minerals at minor concentrations that were not detected by XRD analysis.
The coal will generate acidity or acidic drainage through oxidation of sulfide in the absence of acid
neutralising potential.

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Table 7-3: Summary of ABA, sulfur & carbon speciation results and NAG results for Belfast Coal Mine sample
MCX 00310 COMPOSITE

Paste
pH

TS

SO4

s.u
6.7

2-

2-

S (by
calculation)

TC

% as S
0.58

0.15

OC

TIC (by
difference)

TAP

% as C
0.43

62

57

SAP

Bulk
NP

CarbNP

TNPR (by
calculation)

SNPR (by
calculation)

TNNP(by
difference)

kg CaCO3/tonne
4.6

18

13

59

SNNP (by
difference)

NAG as
H2SO4

kg/tonne
383

41

46

NAG
pH

s.u
91

6.1

Notes:
s.u

standard unit

TS

Total Sulfur

TC

Total Carbon

OC

Organic Carbon

TIC

Total Inorganic Carbon

TAP

Total Acid Potential (acid potential based on the total sulfur)

SAP

Sulfide acid potential (acid potential based on the sulfide sulphur)

Bulk NP

Bulk Neutralization Potential

Carb-NP

Carbonate neutralisation potential (neutralisation potential calculated from TIC)

TNPR

Total Net Neutralisation Potential Ratio is the difference between Bulk NP and TAP

SNPR

Sulfide Neutralisation Potential Ratio (SNPR) is the ratio of SAP and Bulk NP

TNNP

Total Net Neutralisation Potential is the difference between Bulk NP and TAP

SNNP

Sulfide Net Neutralisation Potential is the difference between Bulk NP and TAP

NAG

Net Acid Generation

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7.3.3 Carbon speciation


Carbon species are the primary sources of alkalinity and acid neutralisation in the drainage from coal
stockpiled at the Rietkuil Private Railway Siding. Total carbon (TC) concentration in the coal was
62%. Organic carbon (OC) concentration constitutes 93% of the TC in the coal sample.
Total inorganic carbon (TIC) concentration was 4.6% in the coal sample. This is the sum of inorganic
carbon species obtained from the difference between total carbon and organic carbon. This therefore
represents the carbonate species in the coal sample identified as mainly calcite and dolomite (Table
7-1).

7.3.4 Acid generation potential


+

Acid generation potential (AP) refers to the total acid (H equivalent) the waste rock is capable of
producing irrespective of its fate. The primary sources of this acidity are oxidation of sulfide minerals,
dissolution of acidic-sulfate minerals and hydrolysis of metals from sulfide and sulfate minerals. In
the net near-neutral coal conditions, localised weathering or hydrothermal alterations may have
produced low solubility hydroxyl sulfate minerals. The potential acid generation expressed as kg
CaCO3 eq/tonne from the dissolution of sulfate minerals and sulfide oxidation was therefore
calculated from total sulfur as follows:
TAP (kg/t) = % total-sulfur x 31.25.
The total acid potential (TAP) was 18 kg CaCO3/t in the coal sample (Table 7-3).
Under neutral conditions, the potential for future mineral acid generation consists almost entirely of
acid from sulfide oxidation and was calculated from the sulfide content of the coal sample as follows:
SAP (kg/t) = % sulfide-sulfur x 31.25.
Sulfide acid potential (SAP) was 13 kg CaCO3/t in the coal sample (Table 7-3).

7.3.5 Bulk neutralisation potential


Bulk neutralisation potential (Bulk NP) is reported as a measure of the neutralization potential
contained in the sample. The coal sample contains 59 kg CaCO3/t NP. This NP is from mainly
carbonate minerals, calcite and dolomite (Table 7-3), that have a buffering pH range of 5.5 6.9.
The coal was buffered at a neutral pH indicated by a paste pH of 6.7.

7.3.6 Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) potential


The generation of acidic drainage or ARD requires acid generation to exceed acid neutralization.
Acidic drainage will only result when the rate of acid generation exceeds the rate of acid
neutralization. The ARD potential of the waste rock samples were evaluated using the commonly
applied criteria indicated in the Prediction Manual for Drainage Chemistry from sulfidic geological
materials (MEND Report 1.20.1, 2009). These included NPR, NNP and NAG pH.

Neutralisation Potential Ratio (NPR)


The total and sulfide neutralisation potential ratio (TNPR and SNPR) were calculated by dividing the
TAP and SAP by NP respectively. The coal sample has TNPR and SNPR of 3 and 4 respectively.
This is more than 2 as per the criterion and indicates that the coal sample is not potentially acid
forming (NAF).

Net Neutralisation Potential (NNP)


The total and sulfide neutralisation potential (TNNP and SNNP) were calculated from the difference
between Bulk-NP and TAP & SAP respectively. The coal sample has positive TNNP and SNNP

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(Table 7-3) indicating a higher content of NP relative to AP. This indicates the availability of NP to
neutralise acidity in the long term.

Net Acid Potential (NAG)


NAG test measures combined features of the AP and the NP. A sample is considered PAG if NAG
pH is < 4.5 and NAF if the NAG pH is > 4.5. The NAG pH is 6.1 (Table 7-3) and indicates that the
coal sample is PAF. This is consistent with ABA results and confirms that the coal at the Rietkuil
Private Railway Siding will be potentially non-acid forming (NAF).
In summary, the coal stockpiled at the Rietkuil Private Railway Siding will be potentially non-acid
forming (NAF); they are presently neutral and are predicted to continue producing neutral pH
drainage in the future. This is because the rate of acid neutralisation is expected to keep up with the
rate of acid production due to the presence of excess NP in the form of readily soluble calcite and
dolomite relative to AP. The sources of acid generation will be depleted or exhausted before the
sources of acid neutralisation are depleted.
Although background information indicated that coal seams that constitute the WCF stratigraphy are
PAG, site specific ABA analysis of seam no. 2 coal at Belfast indicated that seam no 2 coal is
potentially NAF. This was confirmed by NAG test and is attributed to the occurrence of calcite and
dolomite in sufficient concentrations to neutralise any acidity generated in the coal.

7.4

Leaching characteristic
To assess the leachability of the major and trace elements, the coal sample was subjected to shortterm leach tests (ASTM D3987). The results of short-term leach tests were used as a qualitative
screening tool to identify parameters of potential environmental concern.
Contact leach test involved the leaching of the coal sample using deionised water at a solid to liquid
ratio of 1:5. The mixture was agitated for 18 hours. The leachate was obtained by decantation
followed by pressure filtration and analysed for metals and non-metals.
The data quality of the leachate and water was assessed using ion balance (IB) between reported
cation and anion concentrations. The balance between cationic and anionic charge concentrations
was 98% and represents an acceptable level of analytical accuracy.
The contact leach results relative to ambient groundwater quality (SRK, 2014) and to South Africa
Water Quality Guidelines (SAWQG) for domestic use (DWAF, 1996) are presented in Table 7-4.
Concentrations in excess of the ambient groundwater quality and SAWQG guidelines are highlighted
red.
The following inferences were made from Table 7-4:

The elements that are leached at trace concentrations from the coal include B, Ba, Bi, Co,
Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Sr and V; all of which are mobilised at concentrations that do not
exceed the ambient groundwater quality or SAWQG at neutral pH and therefore do not
constitute constituents of concern;

The concentration of the other minor-elements in the water-extracts was either below, or
close to the respective detection-limits (viz. typically within the range (0.1 50 g/L). This is
consistent with the hydro-geochemical expectation at neutral pH where metals exhibit
sparingly low solubility;

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Table 7-4: Contact leachate results (1:5 solid to liquid) for Belfast seam 2 coal sample relative
to ambient groundwater quality (SRK, 2014) and SAWQG (DWAF, 1996). Leachate
concentrations in excess of the guidelines are highlighted red.
Parameters (mg/l unless stated
otherwise)
pH (s.u)
EC, conductivity (mS/m @25 C)
NH4, ammonium
M Alk, total alkalinity (CaCO3)
Cl, chloride
SO4, sulfate
NO3 (as N), nitrate
F, fluoride
Ag, silver
Al, aluminium
As, arsenic
B, boron
Ba, barium
Be, berilium
Bi, bismuth
Ca, calcium
Cd, cadmium
Co, cobalt
Cr, chromium
Cu, copper
Fe, iron
Hg, mercury
K, potassium
Mg, magnesium
Mn, manganese
Mo, molybdenum
Na, sodium
Ni, nickel
P (as PO4), phosphorus
Pb, lead
Sb, antimony
Se, selenium
Sn, tin
Sr, strontium
Th, thorium
Ti, titanium
Tl, thalium
U, uranium
V, vanadium
Zn, zinc
Total dissolved solids, TDS
Ion balance (%)

MCX 00310
COMPOSITE
6.6
98
NA
3
242
28
0.5
<0.1
<0.004
<0.003
<0.0200
0.02
0.333
<0.002
0.01
40
0.001
0.20
<0.003
0.011
<0.001
<0.001
3.5
9.4
0.36
0.009
5.3
0.29
0.20
<0.010
<0.010
<0.030
<0.020
0.36
<0.002
<0.001
<0.009
<0.004
0.02
164
544
98

SAWQG Target
Values
6.0-9.0
0-70
NS
NS
0-100
0-200
0-6
0-1
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
0-32
0-0.05
NS
NS
0-0.15
0-0.1
NS
0-50
0-30
0-0.05
NS
0-100
NS
NS
0 - 0.01
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
0-0.1
0-3
0-450
-

Ambient Groundwater (SRK, 2014)


TWEE BH1
TWEE BH2
8.1
8.4
57
78
<0.10
<0.10
245
299
25
37
3.7
10
19.5
8.4
0.8
1.3
NM
NM
1.3
0.86
0.005
0.004
0.03
0.03
0.05
0.18
NM
NM
<0.005
<0.005
6.1
20
NM
NM
0.001
0.002
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.17
0.91
2.8
NM
NM
20
22
NM
NM
0.02
0.07
0.002
0.003
100
125
0.009
0.02
0.13
0.31
<0.001
0.01
NM
NM
NM
NM
NM
NM
0.09
0.34
<0.002
<0.002
0.01
0.006
NM
NM
0.006
<0.004
0.01
0.03
0.04
0.03
360
424
-

Note: NA - Not analysed, NM - not measured, NS - not specified

Bismuth (Bi) and P although identified as enriched in the coal sample (Table 7-2), are
mobilised at concentrations that do not exceed the ambient groundwater quality or SAWQG
at the neutral pH and therefore do not constitute constituents of concern; and

The concentrations of the major ions (Mg, K, Na and SO 4) are low. This may be attributed to
the fact the coal samples were fresh from washability tests and were therefore not exposed
to oxidation condition to release metals at concentrations of potential concern. In addition,
the washability test process may have washed away the oxidation products on the surface of
the material. However, under field conditions, the concentrations of the major metals would
be expected to increase through oxidation and weathering.

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In summary, the constituents of concern that could potentially be leached from the coal stockpiled at
the Rietkuil Private Railway Siding, under neutral pH conditions, include Ca, Cl, TDS and Zn.
Calcium is attributed to the presence of the soluble carbonate minerals, calcite and dolomite, in the
coal sample. Although zinc is inherent in the mineralogy of coal, additional Zn and Cl are introduced
into the coal sample during the washability test where ZnCl is used as a dense medium. These
elements may leach into surface water and groundwater depending on site conditions.

Conclusions and Recommendations


The coal stockpiled at the Proposed Rietkuil Private Siding is potentially NAF; they are presently
neutral and are predicted to stay neutral in the future. The stockpiled coal will not generate acidic
drainage but rather neutral drainage. This is because the coal has excess neutralisation potential in
the form of calcite and dolomite that buffers the pH at neutral conditions of 6.7. However, there is still
an expectation that secondary minerals that may have formed as a result of the oxidation of pyrite
and subsequent neutralisation of the acidity may be mobilised to form a neutral but saline runoff or
seepage, depending on the period in which the coal is retained in the stockpile.
The following are recommended:

Appropriate stockpile management should be enforced at the siding, where the residence
time of the material in stockpile is minimised. Furthermore where practical, stockpile
management should include mechanisms to ensure that the entire volume of material is
removed periodically, rather than retaining a layer at the base of the stockpile which does
not get removed. This will minimise the time period in which pyrite oxidation can occur which
in turn should limit the salinity of runoff and seepage from the stockpiles.

The liners below the stockpile and the PCD should be engineered in a manner to ensure that
the potential permeability through the liners is minimised with runoff and seepage flow into
the PCD maximised.

The level in the PCD should be maintained to ensure that there is adequate buffer zone in
the facility to store the design flood event without overtopping as the quality of water in the
PCD is likely to be saline.

If the PCD water is used for dust suppression as intended, then spraying should only occur
in areas that area within the catchment of the PCD.

The concentrations of the major elements and metals (including Ca, Cl, TDS and Zn) should
be monitored as a minimum analytical suite.

Prepared by

Levi Ochieng
Geochemist

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Reviewed by

Project Reviewer

All data used as source material plus the text, tables, figures, and attachments of this document
have been reviewed and prepared in accordance with generally accepted professional engineering
and environmental practices.

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References
Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. (1996). South African Water Quality Guidelines, Second
Edition. Domestic Use.
GARD Guide. (2009). Global Acid Rock Drainage Guide. www.gardguide.com: The International
Network for Acid Prevention.
MEND. (2009). Prediction Manual for Drainage Chemistry from Sulfidic Geological Materials. British
Columbia, Canada: Mine Environment Neutral Program (MEND) Report 1.20.1.
Pinetown, K., & Boer, R. (2004). A Quantitative Evaluation of the Modal Distribution of Minerals in
Coal Deposits in the Highveld Area and the Associated Impact on the Geneartion of Acid
and Neutral Mine Drainage. Project No. 1264: Water Research Commission.
Smith , D., & Whittaker, R. (1986). The Springs-Witbank Coalfields in Mineral Deposits of South
Africa, II. (C. Anhaeusser, & S. Maske, Eds.) Geological Society of South Africa, 1969-1984.
SRK. (April 2014). Exarro Railway Siding and Haul Road Environmental Study: Groundwater and
Surface Water Specialist Study. Report No. 467209.
Vermeulen, D., Cruywagen, L. M., & Steyl, G. (2011). ABA and Kinetic Cells Report for Middelburg
Mine. University of the Free State, Institute for Groundwater Studies. Bloomfontein: Report
No. 2011/12/PDV.

GARD Guide. (2009). Global Acid Rock Drainage Guide. www.gardguide.com: The International Network for
Acid Prevention.
Groundwater Complete. (November 2009). Belfast Project: Baseline Report on Geohydrogical Investigation
as Part of the EIA and IWULA for the Proposed Mining Operation. Exxaro.
MEND. (2009). Prediction Manual for Drainage Chemistry from Sulfidic Geological Materials. British
Columbia, Canada: Mine Environment Neutral Program (MEND) Report 1.20.1.
SRK. (April 2014). Exarro Railway Siding and Haul Road Environmental Study: Groundwater and Surface
Water Specialist Study. Report No. 467209.
Wasik, E., Bohdziewicz, J., & Cwiklak, K. (2005, December). Ion Balance in NF-Treated Well Water for
Drinking Water Production. Desalination, 186(1-3), 81-87.

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Appendices

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Appendix A: Laboratory Certificates of Analysis

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SRK Report Distribution Record

Report No.

467209

Copy No.

Electronic

Name/Title

Company

Copy

Date

Authorised by

Ms T Van Der Merwe

SRK

Sept 2014

Lakj

Approval Signature:

This report is protected by copyright vested in SRK (SA) (Pty) Ltd. It may not be reproduced or
transmitted in any form or by any means whatsoever to any person without the written permission of
the copyright holder, SRK.

OCHL/LAKJ

467209_PRPRS Geochem_FINAL

September 2014

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