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Speed Study:

Route 30/Gravois Ave


St. Louis City
Revision Date: January 11, 2016

The Missouri Department of Transportation (MoDOT) has performed a speed study to review the current
operating speeds on Route 30/Gravois Ave. throughout the City of St. Louis in relation to existing roadway
configurations prior to scheduled signal reconstruction and pavement overlay/striping projects.
Speed data was reviewed in eight (8) separate sections between Hampton Ave. and Tucker Blvd., each
having different configurations, land uses, and traffic volumes.

Hampton Ave. to Kingshighway Blvd.


Kingshighway Blvd. to Morgan Ford Rd.
Morgan Ford Rd. to Route 366/Chippewa St.
Route 366/Chippewa St. to Gustine Ave.
Gustine Ave. to Grand Blvd.
Grand Blvd. to Jefferson Ave.
Jefferson Ave. to Russell Blvd.
Russell Blvd. to Tucker Blvd.

Existing Conditions
Segment 1: Hampton Ave. to Kingshighway Blvd.
This 0.75 mile segment of Gravois has a posted speed limit of 30 MPH and carries an ADT of 17,125. The
roadway in this section consists of 4 travel lanes (2 each direction) with an on-street parking lane in each
direction. There is a bus transfer station at the northeast corner of Hampton and Gravois. Between
Hampton and Allemania, there are shopping centers with grocery stores, restaurants, a pharmacy, and a
bank. Between Allemania and Sunshine, Gravois fronts cemeteries. Between Sunshine and Quincy, the
south side of Gravois continues to front the cemetery while the north side has commercial frontage
intersected with residential cross streets. Between Quincy and Kingshighway, there is commercial
frontage along both sides of Gravois with residential streets intersecting.
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The 85 percentile speed for this segment is 44 MPH in the EB direction and 41 MPH in the WB direction.

Segment 2: Kingshighway Blvd. to Morgan Ford Rd.


This 1.13 mile segment of Gravois has a posted speed limit of 30 MPH and carries an ADT 10,695. The
roadway in this section consists of 4 travel lanes (2 each direction) with an on-street parking lane. The
land usage in this is area is a mix of commercial and residential with Gravois primarily having commercial
frontage and the residential areas are along the cross streets immediately off of Gravois. Also,
Gardenville School is located at the northeast corner of Kingshighway and Gravois. Recently school
flashers with a school zone speed limit of 25 MPH were placed adjacent to the school along Gravois.
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The 85 percentile speed for this segment is 43 MPH in the EB direction and 46 MPH in the WB direction.

Segment 3: Morgan Ford Rd. to MO 366/Chippewa St.


This 0.86 mile segment of Gravois has a posted speed limit of 30 MPH and carries an ADT of 12,325. The
roadway configuration varies significantly throughout this segment. Between Morgan Ford and Delor, a
WB left turn lane is provided to SB Morgan Ford and on-street parking does not exist in lieu of the turn
bay. Between Delor and Taft, the cross-section consists of 4 travel lanes (2 each direction) with an onstreet parking lane. Underneath the railroad viaduct between Taft and Meramec, the cross-section is only
4 travel lanes with no parking lanes. Between Meramec and Chippewa, the cross-section is a 5-lane
section with 2 lanes in each direction, a center turn lane, and on-street parking in the EB direction. The
land usage in this is area is a mix of commercial and residential with Gravois primarily having commercial
frontage and the residential areas are along the cross streets immediately off of Gravois.
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The 85 percentile speed for this segment is 40 MPH in both directions.

Segment 4: MO 366/Chippewa St. to Gustine Ave.


This 0.26 mile segment of Gravois has a posted speed limit of 30 MPH and carries an ADT 16,695. The
roadway in this section consists of 4 travel lanes (2 each direction) with an on-street parking lane. The
land usage in this is area is a mix of commercial and residential with Gravois having both commercial and
residential frontage along with additional residential areas along the cross streets immediately off of
Gravois.
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The 85 percentile speed for this segment is 39 MPH in the EB direction and 43 MPH in the WB direction.

Segment 5: Gustine Ave. to Grand Blvd.


This 0.42 mile segment of Gravois has a posted speed limit of 30 MPH and carries an ADT of 18,820. The
roadway configuration varies throughout this segment. Between Gustine and Bamberger, the crosssection consists of 2 travel lanes in each direction, a WB right turn lane to the shopping center opposite of
Hydraulic and to NB Gustine, and an EB on-street parking lane. Between Bamberger and Grand, the crosssection consists of 4 travel lanes (2 each direction) with an on-street parking lane. At Grand, the roadway
widens and an EB left turn lane to NB Grand is provided. Besides the shopping center on the north side of
Gravois at Hydraulic, the land usage in this is area is a mix of commercial and residential with Gravois
having both commercial and residential frontage along with additional residential areas along the cross
streets immediately off of Gravois.
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The 85 percentile speed for this segment is 39 MPH in the EB direction and 40 MPH in the WB direction.

Segment 6: Grand Blvd. to Jefferson Ave.


This 1.43 mile segment of Gravois has a posted speed limit of 35 MPH and carries an ADT of 17,020. The
roadway in this section consists of 4 travel lanes (2 each direction), a center two-way left turn lane, along
with an on-street parking lane in each direction. The land usage in this is area is a mix of commercial and
residential with Gravois having commercial frontage and the residential areas are along the cross streets
immediately off of Gravois. Also, Roosevelt High School is located at the intersection of
Gravois/Compton/Wyoming.
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The 85 percentile speed for this segment is 43 MPH in the EB direction and 46 MPH in the WB direction.

Segment 7: Jefferson Ave. to Russell Blvd.


This 0.63 mile segment of Gravois has a posted speed limit of 35 MPH and carries an ADT of 16,975. The
roadway in this section consists of 6 travel lanes (3 each direction) and an on-street parking lane. The
land usage in this is area is a mix of commercial and residential with Gravois primarily having commercial
frontage and the residential areas are along the cross streets immediately off of Gravois.
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The 85 percentile speed for this segment is 42 MPH in the EB direction and 47 MPH in the WB direction.

Segment 8: Russell Blvd. to Tucker Blvd.


This 0.24 mile segment of Gravois has a posted speed limit of 35 MPH and carries an ADT of 20,300. The
roadway in this section consists of 6 travel lanes (3 each direction) and an on-street parking lane. The
outside lane in the EB direction becomes the right turn only lane to I-44 EB/I-55 NB and the outside lane
in the WB direction is an added lane from the WB I-44 exit to Gravois. The land usage in this is area is a
mix of commercial and residential with Gravois primarily having commercial frontage and the residential
areas are along the cross streets immediately off of Gravois. In addition, the intersections in this segment
serve as the gateway into the Soulard neighborhood.
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The 85 percentile speed for this segment is 43 MPH in the EB direction and 44 MPH in the WB direction.

Prevailing Speed Determination


The prevailing speed is used as the primary criteria for speed limit determination in incorporated and
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unincorporated areas. To determine the prevailing speed, the 85 percentile speed was used. This is
based on the assumption that approximately 85 percent of drivers will drive at a speed that they judge to
be safe and proper. The selected speed limit is chosen in 5 mph increments such that it will not exceed
the established prevailing speed by more than 3 mph.
The selected speed limit may be less than the established prevailing speed when justified by other
criteria. This following is an overview and how it applies to Gravois.
1)
Accident Rate - If the accident rate within the zone of consideration is at least 50 percent higher
than the statewide average accident rate for the same classification of highways, the prevailing speed
may be reduced by 5-10 percent. For all multi-lane roadways, the latest statewide average rate was

521.37. The 2014 crash rate for Segment 1 was 1418.26, Segment 2 was 468.50, Segment 3 was 1180.50,
Segment 4 was 1277.96, Segment 5 was 1431.46, Segment 6 was 653.33, Segment 7 was 1184.37, and
Segment 8 was 527.91. The crash rate for Segments 1, 3, 4, 5, and 7 was high enough to warrant a 10%
reduction of the prevailing speed in those sections.
2)
Access to Driveways - If a high number of driveways exist within the zone, a reduction of 5-10
percent from the prevailing speed may be justified. A Driveway Conflict Number is determined based on
the number of private or field entrances, minor commercial entrances, major commercial entrances,
industrial plant entrances, and cross streets within the zone. However, before a reduction can be made
due to driveway density it must be determined if the accident reduction is statistically significant based on
a Poisson Curve. Segments 1, 3, 4, and 5 were determined to be statistically significant; therefore the
access to driveways criteria can be used in those segments. The Driveway Conflict number was high
enough for Segments 1, 3, 4, and 5 to warrant a 10% reduction of the prevailing speed.
3)
Pedestrian Traffic Where sidewalks are not provided adjacent to the route and the total
pedestrian traffic along the route exceeds 10 per hour for 3 hours of any 8-hour period, the prevailing
speed may be reduced by 5 percent. While there are sidewalks along the majority of Gravois in the City,
there are numerous signalized and unsignalized pedestrian crossings along the route. In additiion, there
have been documented crashes along with visual observations of pedestrians crossing midblock in the
absence of any traffic control. Therefore, the pedestrian traffic warrant will be applied to all segments.
4)
Parking Where parking is permitted adjacent to the traffic lane, the prevailing speed may be
reduced by 5 percent. There is an on-street parking lane along the majority of Gravois, therefore the
parking warrant will be applied to all segments.

Recommendations
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The 85 percentile speed, which is the base speed used for setting speed limits, for each segment along
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Gravois was significantly higher than the posted speed limit. However, the measured 85 percentile
speed can be reduced, based upon the factors discussed above, in order to determine the prevailing
speed. The prevailing speed is the final speed used for speed limits.
Segment 1: Hampton Ave. to Kingshighway Blvd.
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This segment had a measured 85 percentile speed of 44.3 MPH in the EB direction and 41.0 MPH WB.
This segment had a crash rate almost three (3) times the statewide average, which qualifies it for a 10%
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reduction of the 85 percentile speed. The driveway density was also high enough and statistically
significant to qualify for an additional 10% reduction. In addition, the pedestrian and parking warrants
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each apply a 5% reduction to the 85 percentile speed. All of the reductions lead to a 17.7 MPH
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reduction of the measured 85 percentile speed EB and a 16.4 MPH reduction WB. Based on the higher
reductions listed, it is recommended to leave the speed in this segment at the currently posted 30 MPH.
Segment 2: Kingshighway Blvd. to Morgan Ford Rd.
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This segment had a measured 85 percentile speed of 42.6 MPH in the EB direction and 45.6 MPH WB.
The total crash rate in this segment is below the statewide average and would not qualify for reduction of
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the 85 percentile speed based on total crash history. However, the disabling crash rate was above the

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statewide average and does warrant a 10% reduction to the 85 percentile speed. The driveway density
was not statistically significant to qualify for the driveway density reduction. However, the pedestrian and
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parking warrants would each apply a 5% reduction to the 85 percentile speed. All of the reductions lead
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to an 8.5 MPH reduction of the measured 85 percentile speed EB and a 9.1 MPH reduction WB. Based
on the higher reductions listed, it is recommended to leave the speed in this segment at the currently
posted 30 MPH.
Segment 3: Morgan Ford Rd. to MO 366/Chippewa St
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This segment had a measured 85 percentile speed of 40.0 MPH in the EB direction and 40.2 MPH WB.
This segment had a crash rate more than two (2) times the statewide average, which qualifies it for a 10%
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reduction of the 85 percentile speed. The driveway density was also high enough and statistically
significant to qualify for an additional 10% reduction. In addition, the pedestrian and parking warrants
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each apply a 5% reduction to the 85 percentile speed. All of the reductions lead to a 12.0 MPH
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reduction of the measured 85 percentile speed EB and a 12.1 MPH reduction WB. Based on the higher
reductions listed, it is recommended to leave the speed in this segment at the currently posted 30 MPH.
Segment 4: MO 366/Chippewa St. to Gustine Ave.
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This segment had a measured 85 percentile speed of 39.4 MPH in the EB direction and 42.9 MPH WB.
This segment had a crash rate more than two (2) times the statewide average, which qualifies it for a 10%
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reduction of the 85 percentile speed. The driveway density was also high enough and statistically
significant to qualify for an additional 10% reduction. In addition, the pedestrian and parking warrants
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each apply a 5% reduction to the 85 percentile speed. All of the reductions lead to an 11.8 MPH
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reduction of the measured 85 percentile speed EB and a 12.9 MPH reduction WB. Based on the higher
reductions listed, it is recommended to leave the speed in this segment at the currently posted 30 MPH.
Segment 5: Gustine Ave. to Grand Blvd.
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This segment had a measured 85 percentile speed of 39.4 MPH in the EB direction and 39.8 MPH WB.
This segment had a crash rate almost three (3) times the statewide average, which qualifies it for a 10%
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reduction of the 85 percentile speed. The driveway density was also high enough and statistically
significant to qualify for an additional 10% reduction. In addition, the pedestrian and parking warrants
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each apply a 5% reduction to the 85 percentile speed. All of the reductions lead to a 15.8 MPH
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reduction of the measured 85 percentile speed EB and a 15.9 reduction WB. Based on the higher
reductions listed, it is recommended to leave the speed in this segment at the currently posted 30 MPH.
Segment 6: Grand Blvd. to Jefferson Ave.
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This segment had a measured 85 percentile speed of 43.1 MPH in the EB direction and 46.4 MPH WB.
The total crash rate in this segment is only 25% above the statewide average and would not qualify for
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reduction of the 85 percentile speed based on total crash history. The driveway density was not
statistically significant to qualify for the driveway density reduction. However, the pedestrian and parking
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warrants would each apply a 5% reduction to the 85 percentile speed. These reductions lead to a 4.3
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MPH reduction of the measured 85 percentile speed EB and a 4.6 MPH reduction WB. Based on the

higher reductions listed, it is recommended to leave the speed in this segment at the currently posted 35
MPH.
Segment 7: Jefferson Ave. to Russell Blvd.
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This segment had a measured 85 percentile speed of 42.4 MPH in the EB direction and 47.1 MPH WB.
This segment had a crash rate more than two (2) times the statewide average, which qualifies it for a 10%
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reduction of the 85 percentile speed. The driveway density was not statistically significant to qualify for
the driveway density reduction. In addition, the pedestrian and parking warrants each apply a 5%
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reduction to the 85 percentile speed. All of the reductions lead to an 8.5 MPH reduction of the
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measured 85 percentile speed EB and a 9.4 MPH reduction WB. Therefore, it is recommended to leave
the speed in this segment at the currently posted 35 MPH.
Segment 8: Russell Blvd. to Tucker Blvd.
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This segment had a measured 85 percentile speed of 42.9 MPH in the EB direction and 43.9 MPH WB.
The total crash rate in this segment is just above the statewide average and would not qualify for
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reduction of the 85 percentile speed based on total crash history. The driveway density was not
statistically significant to qualify for the driveway density reduction. However, the pedestrian and parking
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warrants would each apply a 5% reduction to the 85 percentile speed. These reductions lead to a 4.3
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MPH reduction of the measured 85 percentile speed EB and a 4.4 MPH reduction WB. Based on the
higher reductions listed, it is recommended to leave the speed in this segment at the currently posted 35
MPH.

Conclusion
The eight (8) segments along Gravois do not qualify for a lowered speed limit despite all of the available
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reductions of the 85 percentile speed. This is because motorists are driving these sections faster and the
reductions are not enough to bring the prevailing speed low enough for a speed limit reduction. Given
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the 85 percentile speeds and crash rates along these segments along with the pedestrian activity and onstreet parking along this corridor, it is recommended to leave all posted speed limits as is at this time.
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Studies have shown simply reducing a speed limit has very little impact on the 85 percentile speed. A
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lowered speed limit with too high of an 85 percentile speed could be more dangerous because of the
increased speed differential between the small minority of motorists that follow the speed limit no matter
what and the majority of the drivers that simply drive at the speed they feel safe. A future reduction in
the speed limit can be considered if the speeds are reduced with increased speed enforcement and/or if
the roadway reconfiguration proposed is effective at lowering the operating speeds.