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Les aciers inox duplex

Matriau2014
Franois Weisang-Hoinard
Special Coil Nyby
Outokumpu
Date: 25 Novembre 2014

Les diffrents types daciers inoxydables


%Cr > 11,5%
Les aciers inox martensitiques
o

Haut carbone

Rsistance la corrosion

Les aciers inox ferritiques


o

Bas Carbone & Azote, (Mo)

Les aciers inox austno-ferritiques ou duplex


Les aciers inox austnitiques
o

Bas Carbone, Ni > %8, ( Mo & N)

3/3/2015

Duplex stainless steels: The smart choice!

Duplex

The duplex business


case

Duplex:
Exemples

Conclusions

Quest-ce quun acier inox Duplex?


Un duplex a une structure austno-ferritique
La rpartition est approximativement de 50% ferrite and
50% austenite
Duplex microstructure

Les Duplex combinent la plupart des avantages des inox


ferritiques et austnitiques
La microstructure duplex apporte de hautes rsistances
mcaniques et une bonne rsistance la corrosion
fissurante
Austenitic microstructure

Presentation title, Speaker name Confidential information

3/3/2015

Caractristiques
Bonne resistance la
piqration et la corrosion
caverneuse
Haute rsistance SCC
(Stress Corrosion
Cracking) et fatigue
corrosion
Proprits mcaniques
leves
Bonne rsistance la
Fatigue
Haute absorption dnergie
Haute rsistance lusure
Faible coefficient
dallongement
Bonne soudabilit et
aptitudes lusinage

Elments dalliages des Duplex


Steel name

EN

ASTM/UNS

Cr

Ni

Mo

Other

LDX 2101

1.4162

S32101

0.03

0.22

21.5

1.5

0.3

5Mn

2304

1.4362

S32304

0.02

0.10

23

4.8

0.3

LDX 2404

1.4662

S82441

0.02

0.27

24

3.6

1.5

3Mn

2205

1.4462

S32205

0.02

0.17

22

5.7

3.1

4404

1.4404

316L

0.02

17.2

10.1

2.1

4436

1.4436

316

0.04

16.9

10.7

2.6

904L

1.4539

904L

0.01

20

25

4.3

1.5Cu

Teneurs en Ni & Mo diminuent lextra alliage


PRE : % Cr + 3.3%Mo + 16%N similaire aux inox austnitiques
Importance du rapport Ferrite /Austnite
Duplex for demanding applications/ Lena Wegrelius

3/3/2015

Optimisation de la composition chimique


Steel name
Steel
name

LDX 2101

EN
EN
1.4162

ASTM/UNS
ASTM/UNS
S32101

C
C
0.03

N
N
0.22

Cr
Cr
21.5

Ni
Ni
1.5

Mo
Mo
0.3

Other
Other
5Mn

LDX
23042101
2304

1.4162
1.4362
1.4362

S32101
S32304
S32304

0.03
0.02
0.02

0.22
0.10
0.10

0.18

21.5
23
23

23.8

1.5
4.8
4.8

4.3

0.3
0.3
0.3

0.5

-5Mn
-

LDX
LDX
2205
2205
4404
2507
4436
4404
904L
4436

1.4662
1.4662
1.4462
1.4462
1.4404
1.4410
1.4436
1.4404
1.4539
1.4436

S82441
S82441
S32205
S32205
316L

0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02

0.27
0.27
0.17
0.17
-

24
24
22
22
17.2

3.6
3.6
5.7
5.7
10.1

1.5
1.5
3.1
3.1
2.1

3Mn
3Mn
-

316
316L
904L
316

0.04
0.02
0.01
0.04

16.9
17.2
20
16.9

10.7
10.1
25
10.7

2.6
2.1
4.3
2.6

1.5Cu
-

904L

1.4539

904L

0.01

20

25

4.3

1.5Cu

EDX 2304
2404
2404

1.4362

S32304

0.02

PRE : % Cr + 3.3%Mo + 16%N de 25,6 28


Ajustement du Ni pour contrler la structure ferrite austnite

Duplex for demanding applications/ Lena Wegrelius

Conforme :
ASTM S32304
& EN 1.4362

3/3/2015

Positionnement des duplex


Excellentes combinaisons entre rsistance mcaniques et rsistance la
corrosion
Hot coil

600

LDX 2404

550

Duplex

400

2205
654 SMO

2304

4565

350
4439

300
250
200

Austentic

Rp0.2 [MPa]

450

2507

EDX 2304

LDX 2101

500

EDX 2205

4307

4438

4404

254 SMO
904L

4436

150

Corrosion Resistance, CPT typical

Presentation title, Speaker name Confidential information

3/3/2015

Resistance la Corrosion

3/3/2015

Corrosion par piqre dans leau


Temperatures et
concentrations en chlorure maximales en eau
Lgrement chlore (<1 mg/l
Valable pour
Eau pH 6-8
Lger renouvellement
Soudures bien
dcapes/nettoyes
Aggressivit augmente avec
Baisse du pH
Teneurs croissante en
agents oxydant
et vice versa

3/3/2015

10

Corrosion Caverneuse dans leau


Temperatures et
concentrations en chlorure maximales en eau
Lgrement chlore (<1 mg/l)

Valable pour
Eau pH 6-8
Lger renouvellement
Aggressivit augmente avec
Baisse du pH
Teneurs croissante en
agents oxydant
et vice versa
Conditions trs corrosives
dans les changeur
plaques
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11

Fissuration sous tension, SCC


Les chlorures favorisent la SCC
Sensibilit des aciers austenitiques standard 4301& 4404

Augmentation de la rsistance au SCC:

+Ni

-Ni

904L
254 SMO
4565
654 SMO
Acier Austnitiques hautes teneurs
en Ni and Mo

Les aciers duplex plus


conomiques
LDX 2101
2304
LDX 2404
2205
2507
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12

Gamme de produits disponibles

HRP(P), Tles Quarto:


t = 2-100* mm

CPP(H), Bobines & tles:


t = 4-10* mm

CR (C), Bobines & tles :


t = 0.1-6* mm

Billettes, fil machine, barres


et fer bton

Tubes

Tubes rectangulaires

Elments de structure

Accessoires

Produits de soudage

*Max/min. Epaisseurs fonction de la nuance et de la largeur.


Hors-groupe Outokumpu

Le Benefice des duplex est conomique


Plus faibles paisseurs
- Advantage conomique!
Maintenance minimale,
Plus longue dure de vie
- Advantage global!
teneur nickel plus faibles
- Stabilit des cots!

Courtesy by Voith

Courtesy of Highland Group

Limites en temprature de Service


[C]

250

Temperatures leves (>250C):


Risques de fragilisation!
Tempratures de service recommandes
pour les inox duplex: -40 to 250C

-40

Tempratures cryogniques (<-40C):


Transition transition ductile-fragile!

Soudage des inox duplex

Bonne soudabilit
Paramtres de soudage diffrents des inox austnitiques:
o

Gomtrie du joint, pntration

Gaz de purge & de soudage

Produits dapport sur-allis

Vitesse de soudage

Apport de chaleur, dilution & structures intermtalliques

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16

Duplex et l Environment
Un Produit Responsable
Base de ferrailles
100% recyclable
Faible taux de relargation
dions mtalliques dans
lenvironment
Grande durabilit: plus
longue dure de vie moins
de maintenance
Aucune protection polluante
de la surface
Utilisation des proprits
mcaniques pour rduction
des poids: gain en nergie
et en CO2 mis dans
latmosphre

Duplex stainless steels: The smart choice!

Duplex

The duplex business


case

Duplex:
Exemples

Conclusions

Case AB&C: Bilbao bridge, Spain


Challenge
Achieving the highest standards in the
passage that links the Guggenheim
Museum to the University of Deusto, to
match the museums architectural design
and to educate students about the
aesthetic merits and potential of stainless
steel.

Solution
Duplex 2304 with a special plate
surface finish for enduring beauty.
A great example of value creation,
where weight reduction, lower life cycle
costing and sustainability is realized.

Case AB&C: Celtic Gateway footbridge, Holyhead, UK


Challenge
Identifying the right material for the bridges
tubular, load-bearing arches.

photo courtesy: Cimolai

Solution
Duplex 2304 to provide first-rate corrosion
resistance in the atmospheric conditions
coupled with excellent mechanical
properties, cost-efficiency, and ease of
fabrication.
photo courtesy: Cimolai

Case Industrial Heating & Cooling: Water heating


Challenge
To substitute austenitic 4404 pipes in
water heaters. To find a more cost
effective material, better properties;
lower thermal expansion and reduced
risk of stress corrosion cracking (SCC).

Solution
Lean Duplex LDX 2101 provides
weight reduction 30% and fulfilling the
requirements for better material
performance.

Case Domestic Heating & Cooling: Water heaters


Challenge
Find a cost efficient alternative to enamel carbon
steel, copper or claded solutions, with suitable
properties for highly automatic multiple production.
At the same time make it possible to increase life
time, avoid the need of sacrificing anode and
reduce weight.

Solution
Water Heaters in LDX2101 or 2304 is a perfect
product for regions with Scandinavian or Euro-pean
water quality. The strength of duplex allows at least
a 30% wall thickness reduction, making the boiler
both easier to handle and cheaper to produce. No
coating or pressure supporting material is needed.
For more demanding environments, 2205 is
recommended.

Domestic Water Heater, courtesy of


Kingspan Hot Water Systems LTD

Case Heavy transport: Road tankers


Challenge
To let tank maker INDOX of Spain produce allstainless LNG tankers with the objectives to
improved quality, cost-efficiency and reduced
tanker weight.

Solution
Outer hull fabricated out of LDX 2101. The
customer, Spanish trucking company HAM,
can retain its preferred all-stainless look of
tankers without coating, while gaining the
benefits of LDX 2101.
Courtesy of INDOX

Case Energy: Storage tanks for bioethanol


Challenge
More economical bioethanol fermentation tanks
than ones built out of the conventional stainless
material, austenitic 1.4301/1.4307 (304/304L).
By tank fabricator CITAL of Italy.

Solution
Tank wall structures built out of LDX 2101,
with the benefit in total of 15% saving in
material. CITAL made the grade selection
solely on the basis of the potential for
material weight reduction.
Courtesy of CITAL

Case Oil & Gas: Plate heat exchangers


Challenge
To solve the problem of the short service life
averaging 3 months presented by austenitic
1.4404 (316L) plates in plate air-cooler and plate
shell heat exchangers, while increasing heat
transfer capacity. R&D by Gansu Lanke
Petrochemical Equipment of China.

Solution
Heat exchanger plates made out of Duplex 2205
with a new design. The design, previously
considered impossible to produce from Duplex
2205, was made possible by strong R&D support
from Outokumpu. Duplex 2205 heat exchanger
plates have service life of 2 years or more, helping
to reduce maintenance shutdowns.

Case Pulp & Paper:Worlds largest digester, Jinhall mill, China


Challenge
The adoption of closed systems to reduce emissions,
and the implementation of measures to improve the
efficiency of cooking processes, have resulted in
severe corrosion of carbon steel digesters. Thats why
1.4404/316L has become the dominant construction
material, but there are even more cost effective
solutions

Solution
Duplex steels like 2205 and 2304 provide greater
corrosion resistance than 1.4404. Their superior
strength allow thickness reductions up to and even
more than 30%, meaning considerable cost savings.
Kvaerner Pulping now boasts the worlds largest
digester in China. 3000 metric tons of 2205: 75 m tall
and 12.5 m in diameter.

Courtesy of Kvaerner

Case Water Treatment:Desalination plant


Challenge
Freshwater is one of the worlds most valuable
resources. Desalination is the process of obtaining
freshwater from seawater. Yet, desalination faces
challenges: high demands on materials and high
costs, which can discourage investment in new
plants.

Solution
The evaporation chambers of three new MSF
desalination plant extensions by FISIA of Italy will
have a DualDuplex construction, using a
combination of the more corrosion resistant 2205
and LDX 2101 in less corrosive sections. Most
cost effective solution utilizing both strength and
corrosion resistance.

Duplex stainless steels: The smart choice!

Duplex

The duplex business


case

Duplex:
Exemples

Conclusions

les Duplex business cases sont construits :


Caractristiques:

Bnfices:

Opportunits:

Proprits mcaniques
Bonne resistance la
corrosion localise
Haute rsistance SCC
(Stress Corrosion Cracking)
et fatigue corrosion
Bonne rsistance la
fatigue
Haute nergie dabsorption
Haute rsistance lusure
Faible Cef dallongement
Bonne soudabilit et bonne
usinabilit
Disponibilit des produits

Diminution des
paisseurs
Meilleure stabilit des
prix
Plus longue dure de vie
et faibles cots de
maintenance

Rduction du poids total


Optimisation des cots:
Cot matire
lnvestment Initial
Maintenance
Cot global

Augmentation de la dure
de vie

Duplex adds superior value!

Duplex adds superior value:


Duplex as a substitute for carbon steel
Total Life Cycle Costing for storage tank
Opportunities:
Weight reduction
Improved cost efficiency
Material cost
Initial investment cost
Maintenance cost
Life Cycle Costing

Increased service life

Total initial cost*:


Surface protection
cost:
Elapsed time between
maintenance events:
Life cycle duration:

Duplex potential
LCC saving:
~30%

Operating cost:

Total LCC:

LDX 2101
170 kEuro
No surface
protection
required!

C-Steel
170 kEuro
100 Euro/m2
1000 m2
15 years

30 years

30 years

0 kEuro

64 kEuro

170 kEuro

234 kEuro

*Assume equal initial cost level: lower material cost for the carbon steel levels
the initial measure taken for protecting its plate surfaces.

Plus dinformation sur les Duplex


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