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i

Medicinal Plants:
Phytochemistry, Pharmacology
and Therapeutics

iii

Medicinal Plants:
Phytochemistry, Pharmacology
and Therapeutics

Volume 1

Editor-in-Chief

V.K. Gupta
Editors

G.D. Singh
Surjeet Singh
A. Kaul

2010

DAYA PUBLISHING HOUSE


Delhi - 110 035

iv

2010 EDITORS
ISBN 81-7035-627-X
ISBN 978-81-7035-627-1

All rights reserved. Including the right to translate or to reproduce this book or parts thereof except for brief
quotations in critical reviews.

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Dedicated to

Prof. C. K. Atal
Former Director, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu
(Erstwhile, Regional Research Laboratory, Jammu)

vii

Foreword

The twenty-nine chapters of the book Medicinal Plants: Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and
Therapeutics, Volume 1, edited by Dr. V. K. Gupta, Dr. G. D. Singh, Dr. Surjeet Singh and Dr. A. Kaul
(2009) represent enormous progress, as they cover themes currently under discussion in all of these
research fields. Some of the contributions are still based on Ayurvedic herbs and medicine, but most
are of general interest, addressing herbs with antioxidant, antilipedemic, vasodilatory, opioid,
antiinflammatory, antisickling, antimicrobial, antidiabetic antiparasitic, antimalaria or antiaging
activities. This wide spectrum of themes may be of great value for research in natural products chemistry
and biology, and to medical doctors as well.
I congratulate the editors and appreciate their efforts in bringing out such an excellent book
which will give all round readers an exciting and serious reading material and also continuing the
outstanding works for which Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR), Jammu (Formerly Regional
Research Laboratory, Jammu) has been known.
It is a pleasure for me to recommend this volume without reservation to all researches in the field
of phytomedicine. I wish the book much success and a broad distribution.
I do hope that this book will be followed by second volume in the next years.
Dr. H. Wagner
Professor Emeritus
Centre of Pharma Research, Department Pharmacy,
University of Munich, Germany

ix

Preface

Plants have been used for alleviating human suffering from the very beginning of human
civilization, and records of the use of plants are available since about 5000 years ago. The active
principles isolated, have provided leads in the development of several life saving drugs, which are in
use today. Different civilizations developed their own indigenous system of medicines. Historically,
about two centuries ago, our medicinal practices were largely dominated by plant-based medicines.
However, the medicinal use of herbs went into decline in the West when more predictable synthetic
drugs were made commonly available. In contrast, many developing nations continued to benefit
from the rich knowledge of medical herbalism. For example Ayurvedic medicine in India, Kampo
medicine in Japan, Traditional Chinese Medicine and Unani Medicine in the Middle East and South
Asia are still used by a large majority of people.
All around the world there is talk about health for all but it has been realized that modern
pharmaceuticals are and will remain out of reach of a large proportion of the human population for
the foreseeable future. This necessitates the use of other sources of human knowledge to provide
common health benefits. Thus, herbal medicine is now regarded as important but underutilized tool
against disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognized this fact in the early 1970s and
encouraged governments to effectively utilize local knowledge of herbal medicines for disease prevention
and health promotion.
There is now a popular belief that allopathic drugs have serious side effects on human body. As
against the same, herbal medicines work better and provide long lasting healing effect and are without
any side effects. As such there is now a growing demand of herbal medicines and herbal therapeutic
applications. The primary health care of 70-80 per cent of the worlds population is based on the use
of medicinal plants derived from traditional systems of medicine and local health practices. During
the past few decades public interest in traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM)
and use of herbal medicines has increased dramatically in industrialized countries. Traditional

medicine has a bright future and an immense potential to extend medical relief to millions, who for
lack of resources remain deprived of it. When undesirable side effects of certain drugs have unnerved
the patients, herbal medicine is the only hope in India where 60 per cent of the population lives below
the poverty line.
This has increased the international trade in herbal medicine enormously. WHO said in 2003
that the global market for herbal medicines stood at US $ 60 billion and was growing steadily. Global
sales of herbal products including herbal medicine has already crossed 100 billion in the last five
years and is expected to exceed one trillion in the next 20 years at the present growth rate. In India, the
herbal drug market is about $ one billion and the export of plant based crude drugs is around $ 80
million.
Many pharmaceutical companies are showing interest in the production and marketing of herbal
medicines. The sales for herbal medicine products have plateaued to such an extent that these products
have become available to consumers as positive healthcare just like vitamins. Herbal medicines are in
great demand in the developed as well as developing countries for primary healthcare because of their
wide biological activities, higher safety margins and lesser costs.
Out of 20,000 plants recognized of medicinal value, only a very few are in use. Their use is not
scientifically validated much with the scientific data. Plant extracts of therapeutic relevance are of
paramount importance as reservoirs of structural and chemical diversity. A recent report reveals that
at least 120 distinct chemical substances from different plants have utility as lifesaving drugs. This
has been achieved through chemical and pharmacological screening of only 6 per cent of the total
plant species.
It is for their world wide and a sustained effort of scientists that an enormous information is
being generated and there has been a series of publications on medicinal plant researches. Based on
this rational, the present book Medicinal Plants: Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Therapeutics Vol. 1 presents information on review/research communications received from eminent scientists
from India and abroad, providing recent and present state of the art data on therapeutic properties,
action and uses of medicinal plants in combating a number of diseases and condition for which there
is lesser satisfactory treatment in modern medicine.
It is hoped that the present volume will attract wide acceptance of phytochemists, pharmacologists,
medical personals in particular and a host of other scientists and biologists to facilitate further research
on medicinal plants.
V.K. Gupta
G.D. Singh
Surjeet Singh
A. Kaul

xi

Contents

Foreword
Preface
1.

Resveratrol: A Natural Polyphenol, that Prevents Illness and Increases Longevity


An Overview

vii
ix
1

Mahesh Masna, Gottumukkala V. Subbaraju and Modukuri V. Ramani


2.

Ethnobotany, Chemistry and Pharmacology Studies of the Medicinal Specimen


Ixora coccinea Linn.

32

Maria Aparecida M. Maciel, Aurea Echevarria, Silvana A.F.A. Monteath,


Valdir F. Veiga Jr., Carlos R. Kaiser, Fabiano E.S. Gomes, Joo Walter S. Silveira,
Ricardo H. Costa e Sousa and Frederico A. Vanderlinde
3.

A Review on Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Therapeutic Uses of


Wrightia tinctoria R. Br.

51

Papiya Bigoniya and A.C. Rana


4.

Genotoxicity: Its Methods of Evaluation and the SignificanceA Review

75

S. Singh, R. Sharma, G.D. Singh, A. Kaul, A. Khajuria, P. Koul and V.K. Gupta
5.

Vasodilatory Activity Induced by Natural Products

98

Gisele Zapata-Sudo, Juliana Montani Raimundo and Roberto Takashi Sudo


6.

Scope of Chicory with Special Reference to its Medicinal Value


Yogendrasinh B. Solanki and Sunita M. Jain

131

xii

7.

Role of Curcuminoids, the Yellow Colored Phenols of Turmeric, in Disease


Prevention and Health Maintenance

155

Somepalli Venkateswarlu and Gottumukkala V. Subbaraju


8.

Opioid Activity of the Ethanol Extract from Psychotria carrascoana Delprete


and E. B. Souza Leaves in Mice

178

Cludia Ferreira Santos, Antonia Torres Dvila Pimenta, Adriana Sousa Barros,
Victor Martins Gomes, Natlia Rocha Celednio, Marta Regina Kerntopf,
Silvnia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Sampaio Assreuy,
Elnatan B. de Souza, Mary Anne Sousa Lima, Edilberto Rocha Silveira,
Francisco Arnaldo Viana and Nilberto Robson Falco do Nascimento
9.

Comparative Effects of Soybean, Sunflower, Olive and Sugar Cane Wax Oils
and their Respective Fatty Acids in Cutaneous Inflammation

192

N. Ledn, A. Casac, S. Rodrguez, A. Gonzalez, N. Merino, O. Ancheta, V.J. Rodriguez,


J. Cruz, R. Gonzlez, A. Capote, M. Cano, Z. Tolon, E. Rojas and R. Gonzlez
10. Mitochondrial Protection was Involved in the Effect of Limonium sinense
Extract Against APAP-Induced Toxicity

202

J. Gao, Y.H. Tang, L.Z. Xu, X.H. Tang and X.N. Zhao
11. Multi-Targeted Approaches for Polygenic Disorders Using Medicinal Plants:
A New Battle Against Old Adversaries
V.S. Muthusamy and B.S. Lakshmi
12. Safety Assessment of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth Methanol Leaf Extract:
Drug Interaction and Oral Toxicity Study in Rats

215

228

Jin Han Chin and Abas Hj Hussin


13. Capsicum Genus: Ethnobotany, Chemistry and Pharmacology Studies of the Pepper

238

Roosevelt H. Leal and Valdir F. Veiga Junior


14. Review of Plants Having Potential in the Management of Hyperlipidemia

258

T. Dsouza and S.A. Mengi


15. A Review on Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Alangium Sp.

297

Papiya Bigoniya, Alok Shukla and C.S. Singh


16. An Overview of the Ayurvedic Medicinal Plant Phyllanthus amarus
for its Botanical, Phytochemical and Biological Explorations
P. Koul, S. Singh, R. Sharma and V. K. Gupta
17. In vitro Antisickling Activity of Anthocyanins Extracts from
Morinda lucida Benth (Rubiaceae)
P.T. Mpiana, V. Mudogo, K.N. Ngbolua, D.S.T. Tshibangu and E.K. Atibu

315

330

xiii

18. Studies on the Phenolic Compound Profiles and Antioxidant Activity in


Fruit Portions of Marx Red Bartlett and Starkrimson Pear Cultivars

338

Z. Chikwambi and M. Muchuweti


19. Antioxidant Activity of the Methanol Extract of Hypericum hookerianum Stem
in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Bearing Mice

354

Santoshkumar H. Dongre, Shrishailappa Badami, Senthilkumar Natesan and


Raghu Chandrashekhar H.
20. Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Investigation of Seed Extract of
Parinari curatellifolia

363

M.T. Olaleye, O.O. Adegboye and A.A. Akindahunsi


21. Studies on the Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Ethanolic Extract of
Carica papaya Leaves in Rats

378

B.V. Owoyele, A.O. Soladoye and O.A. Omopariola


22. Degradation Kinetics Studies of the Powdered Leaves, Extracts and Formulations
of Loranthus micranthus Parasitic on Kola acuminata
I.C. Uzochukwu and P.O. Osadebe

384

23. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Hyptis suaveolens

390

R.A.U. Nwobu, I.C. Uzochukwu and E.L. Okoye


24. Pharmacognostical and Preclinical Studies on Stembark of Gmelina arborea:
An Ayurvedic Medicinal Plant

397

K. Yogesh and A. Veeranjaneyulu


25. Clinical Evaluation of Anacardium occidentale

406

Vernica S. Lopes,, Zlia M.S. Assis, Vanusia S. Galdino, Iaperi S. Arajo,


Carlos L. Camacho, Dmaso P. Chacon, Tereza N.C. Dantas and
Maria Aparecida M. Maciel
26. Effect of Emblica officinalis Diet in Streptozotocin Diabetic Mice

413

Richa Shri and Disha Arora


27. Investigation into the Folkloric Antimicrobial and Antiinflammatory Properties
of Nauclea latifolia Leaves and Stem Bark Extracts and Fractions
P.O. Osadebe, U. Ajali, F.B.C. Okoye and C. Diara

421

28. Herbal Drug Therapy: A Promising Solution for Helminthes Parasites

430

J.K. Chamuah, C.C. Barua, A.G. Barua and D. Lahkar


29. Antimalarial Bioactivity of Enantia chlorantha Stem Bark

441

Ayoade A. Adesokan and Musbau A. Akanji


Index

449

475

About the Authors


Dr. Vijay Kumar Gupta (born 1953-) obtained his Masters (1975) and Doctorate (1979) from
University of Jammu, Jammu-India and is serving as Deputy Director and Head, Animal House,
Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR), Jammu, India. His research capabilities are substantiated
by his excellent work on histopathology, ecology and reproductive biology of fishes, turtles, birds and
mammals, which has already got recognition in India and abroad.
Dr. Gupta has to his credit more than 75 scientific publications and review articles which have
appeared in internationally recognized Indian and foreign journals. Founder fellow, life member and
office bearer of many national societies, academies and associations. He has successfully completed a
number of research/consultancy projects funded by various governments, private and multinational
agencies. His current areas of interest are histopathology, toxicology, pre-clinical safety pharmacology
and reproductive efficacy studies of laboratory animals.
He is also Editor-in-chief of the book series Perspectives in Animal Ecology and Reproduction
a Daya Publications, New Delhi, India. The Editor-in-chief of the American Biographical Institute,
USA, has appointed him as Consulting Editor of The Contemporary Whos Who. Dr. Gupta recently also
appointed as Nominee for the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on
Animals (CPCSEA, Govt. of India).
Dr. Gurdarshan Singh (born 1962-), working as senior Scientist in Pharmacology Division of
Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR), Jammu. He did his M.Sc. (1987) and Ph.D. (1993) in
Zoology from University of Jammu, Jammu-India.
Dr. Singh has published 13 research papers, both in national and international journals of high
repute and impact factor. He is also actively involved in Indo- Malaysian research project on Malaysian
medicinal plant, Labisia pumila and generated pre-clinical safety pharmacology data. His main areas
of research are toxicity and regulatory pharmacology of new chemical entities for drug development
programme.
Dr. Surjeet Singh (born 1958 -) did his M.Sc. (1990) in Zoology and Ph.D. (2003) in the field of
Inflammation from University of Jammu, Jammu-India and presently working as senior Pharmacologist
in the Department of Pharmacology, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR), Jammu.
He has an experience of 28 years in the field of inflammatory pharmacology, preclinical toxicology
and safety and has published about 50 research papers and review articles in national and international
journals. He is the life member of Indian Pharmacological Society and honour of the member UNESCO
Workshop in 1992.
Dr. Anpurna Kaul (born 1956-), working as a Scientist in Pharmacology Division of Indian
Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR), Jammu- India. She has completed her Ph.D. in 1996 from
University of Jammu, Jammu- India. Her field of research is immuno-pharmacology.
Dr. Kaul has 20 research publications in national and international journals, 12 patents and also
presented several research papers in various symposia/conferences. She has screened 4000 plant
extracts/ fractions and pure compounds on immune system by in vivo and in vitro methods. She has
also actively participated in Indo-Malaysian Research Project as a member and visited Malaysia in
2007 to attend Womens Health and Asian Traditional Medicine Conference.

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Medicinal Plants: Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Therapeutics

About the Book


Ancient civilization greatly depended on local flora and fauna for their survival and experimented
with various berries, roots, leaves, minerals or animal parts to find out what effects they had and as a
result, many crude drugs were observed by the local healer to have some medical use. As understanding
of therapeutic benefits deepens and demands for natural products increased, previously serendipitous
discoveries evolved into active searches for new medicines. At present 25 per cent of the modern
medicines are developed from plants that were first used traditionally, and many synthetic drugs
have also been obtained from natural precursors.
The present volume of the book series, Medicinal Plants: Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and
Therapeutics contained as many as 29 review/ research articles contributed by the eminent scientists
from across the world, some of which are as under:
v Resveratrol: A Natural Polyphenol
v Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Therapeutic Uses of Wrightia tinctoria
v Genotoxicity, its Methods of Evaluation and the Significance
v Vasodilatory Activity Induced by Natural Products
v Scope of Chicory with Special Reference to its Medicinal Value
v Role of Curcuminoids, in Disease Prevention and Health Maintenance
v Multi-Targeted Approaches for Polygenic Disorders Using Medicinal Plants
v Safety Assessment of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth
v Plants having Potential in the Management of Hyperlipidemia
v Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Alangium Sp.
v In vitro Antisickling Activity of Anthocyanins Extracts from Morinda lucida
v Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Investigation of Parinari curatellifolia
v Clinical Evaluation of Anacardium occidentale
v Effect of Emblica officinalis Diet in Streptozotocin Diabetic Mice
The present volume, with its balanced approach will be a valuable, and an important research
manual, that will stimulate interest and satisfy the need for further knowledge of this rapidly expanding
and exciting discipline.

Medicinal Plants: Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Vol. 1 (2010)


Editors: V.K. Gupta, G.D. Singh, Surjeet Singh and A. Kaul
Published by: DAYA PUBLISHING HOUSE, NEW DELHI

Pages 441447

Chapter 29

Antimalarial Bioactivity of Enantia


chlorantha Stem Bark
Ayoade A. Adesokan* and Musbau A. Akanji
Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin,
Ilorin, Nigeria

ABSTRACT
The antimalarial bioactivity of aqueous extract of stem back of Enantia chlorantha was
investigated in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Stem bark of Enantia chlorantha was analysed
for its phytochemicals. Twenty five (25) albino mice were infected by intraperitoneal injection of
standard inoculum of chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei (NK 65 strain). The animals were
randomly divided into 5 groups of 5 mice each. Group A served as the control while groups B
and C were administered 1.75 and 5 mg/kg body weight of artesunate and chloroquine
respectively. Groups D and E received 100 and 400 mg/kg of extract of E. chlorantha orally. The
results showed the presence of alkaloids saponins, phenolics, flavonoids and glycosides. There
was 100 per cent parasite clearance in the 400mg/kg extract and chloroquine groups, and 98.6
per cent clearance in the group that received 100mg/kg body weight of extract. There was no
parasite clearance in the artesunate group. There was 100 per cent mortality in the negative
control group; 40 per cent mortality in the artesunate, chloroquine and 100mg/kg body weight
extract group and 60 per cent mortality in the 400mg/kg extract group. The Mean Survival Time
for the control group was 9.0 days; artesunate 22 and chloroquine 19.8 days, while the
groups that received 100 and 400 mg/kg body weight of extract recorded 19.6 and 17.0 days
respectively.

* Corresponding Author: E-mail: adesokan_ayoade@yahoo.com.

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Medicinal Plants: Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Therapeutics


The results showed that aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha possess potent antimalarial
activities comparable to that of chloroquine and may be ascribed to the significant presence of
alkaloids and phenolics.

Keywords: Antimalarial bioactivity, Enantia chlorantha, Stem bark, Plasmodium berghei, Mice.

Introduction
Malaria remains the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the tropical regions of the world
with over 300 million new cases reported annually (WHO, 2005). Almost 90 per cent of the deaths
from malaria occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the vulnerable groups are children under 5 years
and the pregnant women (WHO, 1999).
WHO experts say that the number of people infected with malaria is still increasing at the rate of
about 5 per cent annually, and this has been attributed largely to increasing incidence of resistance to
antimalarial drugs formerly effective against the pathogen. Antimalarial drug resistance has become
one of the greatest challenges against malaria control. There is widespread multi-drug resistance to
common antimalarial drugs (Muregi et al., 2003; WHO, 2005).
In Africa, more than 80 per cent of the people use traditional herbal remedies for the treatment of
many ailments including malaria (Akerele, 1984; Wright and Phillipson, 1990).
Rodent plasmodia such as Plasmodium yoeli and Plasmodium berghei are commonly used as malaria
models in mice and have tremendous impact on the investigation of antimalarial activity of plant
extracts.
The need to search and develop more effective antimalarial drugs that are inexpensive and readily
available to people in the developing countries like Nigeria has necessitated this study.

Materials and Methods


Plant Materials
The stem bark of Enantia chlorantha [familyAnnonaceae], was harvested in the month of April at
Ifetedo along IfeOndo road, and was authenticated at the Department of Botany, Obafemi Awolowo
University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria with voucher number: oliv. IFE No 13968.

Aqueous Extraction
Stem bark of the plant was air-dried to constant weight and ground into powdered form with an
electric blender (Blender/Miller III, model MS 223) Taiwan, China. Aqueous extract was prepared as
described previously (Akanji and Adesokan, 2005).

Phytochemical Analysis
A portion of the stem powder was subjected to phytochemical analysis, using standard chemical
tests as described earlier (Odebiyi and Sofowora, 1978; Trease and Evans, 1989).

Experimental Animals
Albino mice, weighing 20-25g, were obtained from the small Animal Holding Unit of the
Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. The

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Antimalarial Bioactivity of Enantia chlorantha Stem Bark

animals were housed in wire mesh cages under standard conditions, and the study conducted in
accordance with the recommendations from the declaration of Helsinki on guiding principles in the
care and use of animals.

Drugs and Reagents


Artesunate used in this study was manufactured by Mekopharm Chemical Pharmaceutical Joint
Stock Company, Vietnam, while the chloroquine was from Mayer and Baker Pharmaceutical Company
Limited. Nigeria. Other reagents were of analytical grade.

Malaria Parasite
Plasmodium berghei (chloroquine sensitive NK 65 strain) was obtained from the Institute for
Advanced Medical Research and Training (IMRAT), College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan,
Nigeria.

Inoculation of Experimental Mice


Albino mice were infected by intraperitoneal injection of standard inoculum (0.2 ml of 1 x 107
infected erythrocytes) from a single donor mouse previously infected with Plasmodium berghei (29.8
per cent parasitaemia).

Animal Groupings
The animals were randomly divided into 5 groups of 5 mice each, after confirmation of
parasitaemia 72 h post-inoculation. Group A, (control) was left untreated but administered appropriate
volume of distilled water. Group B received artesunate orally at a dose of 1.75mg/kg body weight
daily for 4 days and group C 5mg/kg body weight of chloroquine base for the same period. Groups D
and E were administered aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha through oropharyngeal canula at the
doses of 100 and 400mg/kg body weight respectively.

Estimation of Percentage Parasitaemia


Percentage parasitaemia was estimated at the end of the observational period of 28 days using
the formula:
Parasitized RBC

Parasitized RBC + Non-parasitized RBC

x 100

Estimation of Percentage Mortality


The number of deaths was recorded for the animals in each group for the experimental period
and the percentage mortality calculated thus:
Number of dead animals in a group

Total number of animals in the group

x 100

Estimation of Mean Survival Time (MST)


The number of days each animal survived was recorded for the animals in each group and the
mean survival time calculated using the formula:

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Medicinal Plants: Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Sum of days of survival of animals/group

Total number of animals in the group

Results
Phytochemical analysis
Qualitative and quantitative screening of the components of the plant stem bark yielded the
phytochemicals shown in Table 29.1. The phytochemicals that were present included Alkaloids (46.26
per cent), Saponins (26.82 per cent), Phenolics (18.77), Flavonoids (6.71 per cent) and Glycosides (1.44
per cent).
Table 29.1: Qualitative and Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis of Enantia chlorantha
Phytochemical

Qualitative

Quantitative
Mg

Percentage

Phenolics

++

1.120.00

18.77

Flavonoids

0.400.02

6.71

Alkaloids

++

2.760.02

46.26

Glycosides

0.0860.01

1.44

Saponins

++

1.600.02

26.82

Tannins

Nd

0.00

0.00

Phlebotanins

Nd

0.00

0.00

Steroids

Nd

0.00

0.00

++: Strongly positive; +: Positive; : Weakly positive; nd: Not detected.

Percentage Parasitaemia
Estimation of percentage parasitaemia at the end of 28 days showed the results in Table 29.2.
There was no parasitaemia in the blood of mice in the chloroquine group and the group that received
400mg/kg body weight of extract of Enantia chlorantha. Less than 2 per cent parasitaemia was found in
the blood of mice that received 100mg/kg body weight of the extract. There was high parasitaemia of
55 per cent in the artesunate group.
Table 29.2: Percentage Parasitaemia (Day 28) in Experimental Groups Following Administration of
Standard Antimalarial Drugs and Extracts of Enantia chlorantha
Treatment Groups

Percentage Parasitaemia

Artesunate (1.75mg/kg)

55

Chloroquine (5mg/kg)

E. chlorantha (100mg/kg)

<2

E. chlorantha (400mg/kg)

Percentage Mortality
At the end of the observational period, 100 per cent mortality was recorded for the untreated
control group (Table 29.3). Forty percent (40 per cent) mortality was recorded for the artesunate and

445

Antimalarial Bioactivity of Enantia chlorantha Stem Bark

chloroquine groups and the extract group that received 100mg/kg body weight dose, but 60 per cent
in the group that received 400mg/kg body weight of the extract.
Table 29.3: Percentage Mortality (Day 28) in Experimental Groups Following Administration of
Standard Antimalarial Drugs and Extracts of Enantia chlorantha
Treatment Groups

Percentage Mortality

Control

100

Artesunate (1.75mg/kg)

40

Chloroquine (5mg/kg)

40

E. chlorantha (100mg/kg)

40

E. chlorantha (400mg/kg)

60

Mean Survival Time (MST)


Table 29.4 showed the mean survival time for the animals in each group. The least MST of 9 days
was recorded for the control group that was left untreated. The mice in the artesunate group recorded
the highest MST of 22 days. The MST of 19.8 and 19.6 days were recorded respectively for the chloroquine
and the group that received 100mg/kg body weight of the extract, while the group that received
400mg/kg body weight of the extract recorded 17 days.
Table 29.4: Mean Survival Time (MST) of Animals in Each Experimental Group
Treatment Groups

MST (Days)

Control

9.00.8

Artesunate (1.75mg/kg)

22.02.1

Chloroquine (5mg/kg)

19.81.8

E. chlorantha (100mg/kg)

19.61.6

E. chlorantha (400mg/kg)

17.01.3

Discussion
Results from this study showed that aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha possess potent
antimalarial activities that were comparable to that of chloroquine, while the observed antimalarial
activities were not dose dependent.
The stem bark of E. chlorantha consisted of preponderant alkaloids and phenolics, both of which
may be responsible for the pharmacologic activity of the extract. Earlier workers have shown that
isolated alkaloid, 9-methoxycanthin-6-one displayed higher antimalarial activity against Plasmodium
falciparum Gombak A isolate, when compared with chloroquine (Chan et al., 2004). In addition, potent
antimalarial agents, raphidecurperoxin and polysyphorin, were isolated from the Vietnamese medicinal
plants, Rhaphidophora decursiva (Zhang et al., 2001). The extracts of Nigella sativa (Black seed), contained
different classes of alkaloids that were believed to block protein synthesis in Plasmodium falciparum
(Abdulelah and Zainal-Abidin, 2007).
In addition, phenolics, which are known to possess antiparasitic, anticarcinogenic,
antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, may also play a significant role in the antimalarial
activity of the extract (Abdulelah and Zainal-Abidin, 2007).

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Medicinal Plants: Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Consistent with this concept, different extracts of Enantia chlorantha have been reported to exert
antimicrobial activities, including antibacterial (Agbaje and Onabanjo, 1991; Adesokan et al., 2007).
The antioxidant effect of plant alkaloids may represent another mechanism that contributed to its
antimalarial activity. Antioxidant components might inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in
macrophages which will lead to increased degradation of tryptophan and thereby starve the parasite
of an essential amino acid leading to its death (Daubener, 1999; Mahmoud et al., 2003).
The antimalarial activity as demonstrated by the percentage parasitaemia in the groups that
received the extracts compared favourably with that of chloroquine. The percentage mortality of the
animals in the group that received 100mg/kg body weight of the extract was similar to those of the
artesunate and chloroquine groups and better than the negative control group.
Further more, the mean survival time of 19.6 days in the group that received 100mg/kg body
weight was similar to 19.8 days for the chloroquine group and compared well with 22 days of the
group that received artesunate. Even MST of 17 days in the group that was administered 400mg/kg
body weight of the extract has proven that the extract possess potent antimalarial activity. Survival of
experimental animals beyond 12 days is regarded as significant activity (Peters, 1980; Obih and
Makinde, 1985; Abosi and Raseroka, 2003; Ajaiyeoba et al., 2006).
The active principles responsible for these antimalarial activities are yet to be identified but the
results from this study have largely justified its use in folklore medicine for malaria treatment in
Africa.

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