Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5
DISTILLATION 1
DISTILLATION
1

INTRODUCTION

Definition:

The process of separating miscible components utilizing a difference in vapour pressure (boiling point). Requirements:

i. Component of mixture must have distinctive different boiling point.

ii. Component to be separated must have reasonable concentration.

iii. Components must be chemically inert and thermally stable.

iv. Component should remain in desired liquid or vapor state with no solids formed.

17/10/2014

OBJECTIVE

To explain the principal of distillation Describe the basic distillation and unit operation for a typical distillation column. Discuss the safety considerations in distillation

PHYSICAL BEHAVIOUR OF LIQUID MIXTURE

4
4

CONTINUE

C ONTINUE 5 CONTINUE High boiler : less volatile components in a mixture of liquids, lower
5
5
5

CONTINUE

High boiler: less volatile components in a mixture of liquids, lower vapor pressure and higher boiling point. Low boiler: component with higher vapor pressure(lower boiling point) in a liquid mixture. Assumption made for distillation process:

1. The concentration of components A and B in the feed stream are assumed to be constant.

2. The separation by distillation of A and B is assumed to be ideal, which means that the separation fully obeys Raoult s Law.

3. The vapor components A and B obey gas laws and behave as ideal gases.

7
7

17/10/2014

CONTINUE

Distillation works as a separation process through use of vapor pressure and molecular concentration differences of miscible component in a mixture. Vapor pressure: pressure exerted by a liquid against its surrounding. Molecular concentration: the amount of molecule in a mixture of molecules. Distillation column is a series of continuous exchanges of heat and mass between liquid and vapor component in a mixture. Each exchange occur on a tray or on the surface of a packing internally located within the distillation column.

 
6
6

CONTINUE

8
8

Assumption made for distillation process:

1. The concentration of components A and B in the feed stream are assumed to be constant.

2. The separation by distillation of A and B is assumed to be ideal, which means that the separation fully obeys Raoult s Law.

3. The vapor components A and B obey gas laws and behave as ideal gases.

BASIC DISTILLATION CONFIGURATION

Contains 3 basic elements:

9
9

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY OF THE UNIT OPERATION IN DISTILLATION COLMUN

11
11

CONTINUE

A reboiler generates high boiler vapor to provide good vapor liquid contact with the liquid feed to the column. A column is used to carry out multiple stage of separation. A condenser is used to remove the heat of vaporization provided by the reboiler. A partial condenser condenses only the liquid used as a reflux for the column, so the overhead make is a vapor.

 
10
10

CONTINUE

Feed is introduced in the side of the column. Low boilers overhead are called make. High boilers out the bottom are called the tails. Lower part of the column below the feed tray is called the stripping section. Upper part above the feed tray is called the enrichment/rectification section.

 
12
12

17/10/2014

CONTINUE

Feed rate

i. Feed rate to the column should be constant.

ii. Amount of feed into column= sum of the overhead and bottom products

iii. A feed rate that is too high or too low can lead to inefficient liquid-vapor contact on the trays, affect the effectiveness of the separation.

iv. Changes in feed rate also has an effect on column temperatures and pressure at different points.

 
13
13

CONTINUE

Pressure

i. An increase in pressure increases the boiling point of the liquids, therefore the overall operating temperature of a column goes up as pressure increased. A decrease in pressure lowers the boiling point and causes overall operating temperature drops.

ii. Pressure increases or decreases vapor density, which has an effect on vapor liquid contact.

 
15
15

17/10/2014

CONTINUE

 

Heat input

i. The latent heat energy added in the reboiler creates vapor flow from tray to tray up the length of the column.

ii. Steam is the source of heat energy.

iii. By controlling the amount of heat added to the reboiler , the amount of liquid vaporised and the vapor rate up the column can be controlled.

14
14

CONTINUE

 

Reflux

i.

The vapor velocity is stabilized at different feed rates by recycling a potion of overhead condensate.

ii.

Reflux increase low boiler concentration overhead by sending high boilers back down the column.

iii.

Total reflux=all the condensate returned to the top of column.

iv.

Zero reflux=all the condensate is drawn off and none is returned.

 
16
16

INSTRUMENTATION

17
17

17/10/2014

SAFETY CONSIDERATION

Corrosion is common problem where tray and other components are weakened and may collapse. Frequent inspection and careful choice of material is needed. The column shell is designed to withstand a pressure much higher than the operating pressure plus a healthy safety factor. Pressure relief devices are installed and set below the design pressure. Expansion room must be provided in column design to prevent damage as metal expand when heated.