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Vaccine comes from the word variolae vaccinae means smallpox of the cow

DPT (also DTP and DTwP) refers to a class of combination vaccines against three
infectious diseases in humans
The MMR vaccine is an immunization vaccine against measles, mumps, and rubella
(German measles). It is a mixture of live attenuated viruses of the three diseases, administered
via injection.
IPV (inactivated polio vaccine) is given as a shot in the arm or leg. OPV(oral polio vaccine) is
the preferred vaccine for most children. As its name suggests, it is given by mouth. Infants and
children should be given four doses of OPV. The doses are given at 2 months, 4 months, 6-18
months and 4-6 years of age
diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), and tetanus.
Diphtheria (from Greek: diphthera, meaning leather) is an infection caused by
the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the pathogenic
bacterium that causes diphtheria.

Pertussis, or whooping cough, is an upper respiratory infection caused by the


Bordetella pertussis bacteria.
Tetanus, is an infection characterized by muscle spasms. In the most common type
the spasms begin in the jaw and then progress to the rest of the body. Tetanus is
caused by an infection with the bacterium Clostridium tetani,[1] which is
commonly found in soil, dust and manure
Measles, also known as morbilli, rubeola or red measles, is a highly contagious
infection caused by the measles virus. Measles virus (MeV) is a single-stranded, negativesense, enveloped (non-segmented) RNA virus
Mumps, also known as epidemic parotitis, is a viral disease caused by the mumps virus.[1] Initial
signs and symptoms often include fever, muscle pain,headache, and feeling tired.[2] This is then
usually followed by painful swelling of one or both parotid glands.
The mumps virus belongs to the genus Rubulavirus in the family Paramyxovirusand is seen to
have a roughly spherical, enveloped morphology of about 200 nm in diameter
Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles,[1] is aninfection caused by
the rubella virus.[2] This disease is often mild with half of people not realizing that they are sick. [3][4] A
rash may start around two weeks after exposure and last for three days. It usually starts on the face
and spreads to the rest of the body.
Rubella virus is the only member of the genus Rubivirus and belongs to the family ofTogaviridae,
whose members commonly have a genome of single-stranded RNA ofpositive polarity which is
enclosed by an icosahedral capsid.

Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by


the poliovirus.

Antigen
An antigen is any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it. An
antigen may be a foreign substance from the environment, such as chemicals, bacteria, viruses, or
pollen. An antigen may also be formed inside the body, as with bacterial toxins or tissue cells.

Lymphocytes
Small white blood cells that bear the major responsibility for carrying out the activities of theimmune syste
m; they number about 1 trillion.

T cells or T lymphocytes are a type of lymphocyte (in turn, a type of white blood cell) that play a
central role in cell-mediated immunity.

B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of


the lymphocytesubtype. They function in the humoral immunity component of the adaptive
immune system by secreting antibodies.

An important difference between Tcells and B-cells is that B-cells can


connect to antigens right on the
surface of the invading virus or
bacteria. This is different from T-cells,
which can only connect to virus
antigens on the outside of infected
cells.
Immunotherapy, also called biologic therapy, is a type of cancer treatment designed to boost
the body's natural defenses to fight the cancer. It uses materials either made by the body or in a
laboratory to improve, target, or restore immune system function.