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CHAPTER

17

MK 16 MOD 0 ClosedCircuit Mixed-gas


UBa Diving
17.1

INTRODUCTION

The MK16 MOD 0 is a 0.75 ata constant partial pressure of oxygen2 (ppO )
closed- circuit mixed-gas underwater breathing apparatus (UBA) primarily
employed by Naval Special Warfare (SPECWAR) forces. The U.S. Navys use
of mixed- gas closed circuit UBAs was developed to satisfy the operational
requirements of SPECWAR combat swimmers and EOD divers. This equipment
combines the mobility of a free-swimming diver with the depth advantages of
mixed gas. The term closed circuit refers to the recirculation of 100 percent
of the mixed-gas breathing medium and results in bubble-free operation,
except during ascent or inadvertent gas release. This capability makes closed
circuit UBAs well suited for special warfare operations. The maximum working
limits for the MK16 MOD 0
UBA are 150 feet of seawater (fsw) when N2 O2 (air) is used as a diluent or 200 fsw
when 84/16 HeO2 mix is used as a diluent.
17-1.1

Purpose. This chapter provides general

guidelines for MK 16 MOD 0 UBA


diving, operations and procedures (Figure
17-1). For detailed operation and
maintenance instructions, see technical
manual SS600- AH-MMA-010 (MK 16
MOD 0).
17-1.2

Scope. This chapter covers MK 16 MOD

0 UBA principles of operations,


operational planning, dive procedures,
and medical aspects of mixed-gas closedcircuit diving. Refer to Chapter 16 for
procedures for mixing divers breathing
gas.
17.2

PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION

Closed circuit UBAs efficiently use the


available gas supply to extend underwater
duration by recirculating the breathing gas.
To do this efficiently a closed circuit UBA
must be able to:
n Remove carbon dioxide produced by
metabolic action of the body.
CHAPTER 17Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving

17-1

n Monitor the ppO2 and add oxygen in


order to replace the oxygen consumed
by metabolic action of the body.

CHAPTER 17Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving

Figure 17-1. MK 16 MOD 0


Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA .

17-2

EXHALATIONMOUTHPIECEINHALATION HOSEASSEMBLYHOSE
OXYGEN SENSORS
ABSORBENT CANISTER
TO CENTER SECTION
DIAPHRAGM ASSEMBLY

TO SECONDARY DISPLAY
DILUENT ADDITION VALUE
TO PRIMARY DISPLAY
DIAPHRAGM DUMP VALVE

OXYGEN ADDITION VALVE


CHECK VALVE
DILUENT BYPASS VALVE

OXYGEN BYPASS VALVE

DILUENT INLINE FILTER

OXYGEN INLINE FILTER


OXYGEN HIGH PRESSURE INDICATOR

DILUENT HIGH PRESSURE INDICATOR


OXYGEN BOTTLE

DILUENT BOTTLE VALVE

OXYGEN BOTTLE VALVE

DILUENT REGULATOR

OXYGEN REGULATOR

DILUENT BOTTLE
PRIMARY ELECTRONICS
PRIMARY BATTERY

Figure 17-2. MK 16 MOD 0 UBA Functional Block Diagram .


17-2.1

Diving Safety. Closed-circuit mixed-gas UBAs are more complex than open-

circuit SCUBA and require a high level of diver training and situational
awareness. Careful dive planning is essential. Diving safety is achieved only
when:
n The diver has been thoroughly trained and qualified in the proper use of
the UBA.
n All equipment has been prepared for the specific diving conditions
expected.
n The dive is conducted within specified depth and duration limits.
n The diver strictly adheres to and immediately implements all operational
and emergency procedures.
17-2.2

Advantages of Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA. While functionally simpler in

principle, the closed-circuit mixed-gas UBA tends to be more complex than the

semi-closed UBA because of the oxygen analysis and control circuits required.
Offsetting this complexity, however, are several inherent advantages:
n Aside from mixed or diluent gas addition during descent, the only gas
required at depth is oxygen to make up for metabolic consumption.
n The partial pressure of oxygen in the system is automatically controlled
throughout the dive to a preset value. No adjustment is required during a
dive for variations in depth and work rate.
n No inert gas leaves the system except by accident or during ascent, making
the closed circuit UBA relatively bubble-free and well suited for
SPECWAR operations.
17-2.3

Recirculation and Carbon Dioxide Removal. The divers breathing medium is

recirculated in a closed circuit UBA to remove carbon dioxide and permit reuse
of the inert diluent and unused oxygen in the mixture. The basic recirculation
system consists of a closed loop that incorporates inhalation and exhalation
hoses and associated check valves, a mouthpiece or full face mask (FFM), a
carbon dioxide removal unit, and a diaphragm assembly.
Recirculating gas is normally moved through the circuit by the
natural inhalation-exhalation action of the divers lungs. Because the lungs can
produce only small pressure differences, the entire circuit must be designed for
minimum flow restriction.

17-2 .3 .1 Recirculating Gas.

The FFM uses an integral oral-nasal mask or T-bit to reduce dead


space and the possibility of rebreathing carbon dioxide-rich gas. Similarly, check
valves used to ensure one-way flow of gas through the circuit must be close to the
divers mouth and nose to minimize dead space. All breathing hoses in the
system must be of relatively large diameter to minimize breathing resistance.

17-2 .3 .2 Full Face Mask.

17-2 .3 .3

Carbon Dioxide Scrubber. Carbon dioxide is removed from the breathing circuit

in a watertight canister filled with an approved carbon dioxide-absorbent


material. The bed of carbon dioxide-absorbent material chemically combines with
the divers exhaled carbon dioxide, while allowing the unused oxygen and
diluent to pass through it. If the canister is improperly filled, channels may form
in the absorbent granules permitting gas to bypass the absorbent material and
allow the build up of carbon dioxide in the UBA. The canister design must also
provide a low flow resistance for the gas while ensuring maximum contact
between the gas and the absorbent. Flow resistance is minimized in the MK 16
MOD 0 UBA by employing a radially designed canister to reduce gas flow
distance. Since inadvertent wetting of the absorbent material may produce a
caustic solution, water absorbent pads are usually placed above and below the
canister to collect water produced from both the reaction between carbon
dioxide and the carbon dioxide absorbent and by the
diver himself. The amount of CO2 absorbent capacity is one of the major limiting
factors for any closed circuit UBA. Absorbent duration is also directly affected by
the environmental operating temperature and depth. Absorbent duration
decreases as temperature decreases and as depth increases.

A diaphragm assembly or counter lung is used in all closed


circuit UBAs to permit free breathing in the circuit. The need for such devices
can be readily demonstrated by attempting to exhale and inhale into an empty
bottle. The bottle, similar to the recirculation system without a bag, is
unyielding and presents extreme back pressure. In order to compensate, flexible
diaphragms or a breathing bag must be placed in the UBA circuit with a
maximum displacement equal to the combined volume of both lungs.

17-2 .3 .4 Diaphragm Assembly.

Constant buoyancy is inherent in the system because the gas reservoir acts
counter to normal lung action. In open-circuit scuba, diver buoyancy
decreases during exhalation due to a decrease in lung volume. In closed-circuit
scuba, expansion of the breathing bag keeps buoyancy constant. On inhalation,
the process is reversed. This cycle is shown in Figure 17-3.

Figure 17-3. UBA Breathing Bag Acts to Maintain the Divers Constant Buoyancy by
Responding Counter to Lung Displacement .

The flexible gas reservoir must be located as close to the divers chest as possible
to minimize hydrostatic pressure differences between the lungs and the reservoir
as the diver changes attitude in the water.
The MK 16 MOD 0 UBA uses a single reservoir built into a streamlined
backpack assembly. Using a single reservoir located within the backpack affords
minimum encumbrance to the diver and maximum protection for the reservoir.
17-2 .3 .5

Recirculation System. Optimal performance of the recirculation system depends

on proper maintenance of equipment, proper filling with fresh absorbent, and


accurate metering of oxygen input. To ensure efficient carbon dioxide removal
throughout the dive, personnel must carefully limit dive time to the specified
canister duration. Any factor that reduces the efficiency of carbon dioxide
removal increases the risk of carbon dioxide poisoning.

WARNING
problems.

The MK 16 MOD 0 UBA provides no visual warning of excess CO


2
The diver should be aware of CO2 toxicity symptoms.

17-2.3.6

Gas Addition, Exhaust, and Monitoring.

In addition to the danger of carbon dioxide toxicity, the closed circuit UBA diver
encounters the potential hazards of hypoxia and central nervous system (CNS)
oxygen toxicity. The UBA must control the partial pressure of oxygen (ppO2) in
the breathing medium within narrow limits for safe operation and be monitored
frequently by the diver.
Hypoxia can occur when there is insufficient oxygen in the recirculation circuit to
meet metabolic requirements. If oxygen is not added to the breathing circuit, the
oxygen in the loop will be gradually consumed over a period of 2-5 minutes,
at which point the oxygen in the mixture is incapable of sustaining life.
CNS oxygen toxicity can occur whenever the oxygen partial pressure in the
divers breathing medium exceeds specified concentration and exposure
time limits.
Consequently, the UBA must function to limit the ppO 2 level to the appropriate
value.
The closed-circuit mixed-gas UBA uses a direct control method of maintaining
oxygen concentration in the system, rather than the indirect method of a
preset mass flow, common to semi-closed apparatus.
17.3

MK16 MOD 0 Closed Circuit UBA

The MK 16 MOD 0 UBA is broken down into four basic systems (housing, recirculation, pneumatics, and electronics) and their subassemblies as described in the
following paragraphs. These systems provide a controlled ppO2 breathing gas to
the diver.
17-3.1

Housing System. Major components of the MK 16 MOD 0 UBA are housed in

a reinforced ABS or fiberglass molded case. The equipment case is a contoured


backpack assembly designed for minimum interference while swimming, and is
equipped with an integral harness assembly. A streamlined, readily detachable
outer cover minimizes the danger of underwater entanglement. External to the
housing are components such as the mouthpiece, pressure indicators, hoses, and
primary and secondary displays.
17-3.2

Recirculation System. The recirculation system consists of a closed loop

incorporating inhalation and exhalation hoses, a mouthpiece or FFM, a carbon


dioxide-absorbent canister, and a flexible breathing diaphragm. The divers
breathing gases are recirculated to remove carbon dioxide and permit reuse of
the inert component of the diluent and residual oxygen in the breathing
mixture. Inhalation and exhalation check valves in the mouthpiece assembly (or
manifold of the FFM) ensure the unidirectional flow of gas through the system.

17-3.2.1

Closed-Circuit Subassembly. The closed-circuit subassembly has a removable

cover, a center section attached to the fiberglass equipment case, a flexible rubber
breathing diaphragm, and a CO2 scrubber assembly. Moisture-absorbent pads
inside the scrubber assembly absorb any condensation formed on the cover walls.
The space between the scrubber canister and the cover serves as a gas
plenum, insulating the canister from the ambient cold water.
17-3.2.2

Scrubber Functions. The scrubber has two functions:

n Carbon Dioxide Removal. Beforethediversexhaledbreathreachesthebreathing


diaphragm, it passes through the scrubber canister. The scrubber canister is
filled with an approved, high efficiency, granular carbon dioxide-absorbent
material. Two filter discs in the scrubber canister serve as gas distributors to
minimize effects of any channeling in the absorbent. After passing through
the filters, the exhaled gas passes through the carbon dioxide-absorbent bed,
chemically combining with the carbon dioxide created by metabolic use of
the divers breathing oxygen but allowing the diluent and unused oxygen to
pass through it.
n Water Removal. Moisture produced by diver exhalation and the reaction
between carbon dioxide and carbon dioxide-absorbent is absorbed by
mois- ture-absorbent pads located outside the canister.
17-3.3

Pneumatics System. The pneumatics system comprises:

n High-pressure bottles for storing oxygen and diluent gases.


n Indicators to permit monitoring of the remaining gas supply.
n Regulators, fittings, tubing, filters and valves to regulate and deliver oxygen
and diluent gases to the recirculation system.
17-3.4

Electronics System. The electronics system maintains a constant partial pressure

of oxygen in the closed-circuit UBA by processing and conditioning signal


outputs from the oxygen sensors located in the breathing loop, stimulating the
oxygen- addition valve, and controlling the output of the primary display.
17-3 .4 .1

Oxygen Sensing. The partial pressure of oxygen within the recirculation system
is monitored by three sensors. Each sensors output is evaluated by the primary
electronics package through a voting logic circuit negating the output from a
faulty sensor. Sensor averages are shown by the primary display. Backup reading
of each individual sensor can be read on the secondary display which requires
no outside power source.

17-3 .4 .2

Oxygen Control. Oxygen concentration in the recirculation system is measured

by sensors. The sensors send signals to the primary electronics assembly and the
secondary display. The primary electronics assembly compares these sensor
signals with the setpoint value, providing output to the primary display and
controlling the
oxygen-addition valve. An actual ppO value less than the setpoint automatically
2

actuates the oxygen-addition valve to admit oxygen to the breathing loop.


Oxygen control involves several factors:
n System Redundancy. The primary electronics assembly in the MK 16 MOD 0
UBA treats each of the sensor signals as a vote. The sensor vote is either
above or below the predetermined setpoint. If a simple majority of the
sensors is below the predetermined setpoint, a drive signal is sent to the
oxygen-addition valve; when a majority of the sensors is above the
predetermined setpoint, the signal is terminated. In effect, the electronics
circuit ignores the highest and lowest sensor signals and controls the
oxygen-addition valve with the middle sensor. Similarly, the electronics
circuit displays a high-oxygen alarm (flashing green) if a majority of the
sensors signals indicates a high oxygen level and displays a low-oxygen
alarm (flashing red) if a majority of the sensors signals indicates a low
oxygen level. If only one sensor indicates a high oxygen level and/or only
one sensor indicates a low oxygen level, the electronics circuit output
alternates between the two alarm states (alternating red/green).
n Setpoint Calibration. The normal operational ppO setpoint for the MK 16
2
Mod 0 UBA is 0.75 ata. Appropriate calibration procedures are used to preset
the specific ppO setting.2
n Oxygen Addition. In response to the sensor outputs, the oxygen-addition valve
admits oxygen to the breathing loop in the recirculation system. The control
circuits continuously monitor the average ppO level. 2If the oxygen partial
pressure in the recirculation system is lower than the setpoint level, the
oxygenaddition valve is energized to admit oxygen. When the
reaches the required
ppO
level, the automatic control system maintains the oxygen-addition valve in
the SHUT position. Should the oxygen-addition valve fail in an OPEN
position, the resulting free flow of oxygen in the MK 16 MOD 0 is restricted
by the tubing diameter and the orifice size of the piezoelectric oxygenaddition valve.
17-3.4.3

Displays. The MK 16 MOD 0 UBA has two displays that provide

continuous information to the diver about ppO


, battery condition, and
2
oxygen sensor
malfunction.
The primary display consists of two light-emitting diodes
(LEDs) that are contained within the primary display housing. This display is
normally mounted on the face mask, within the peripheral vision of the diver.
The two LEDs (one red and one green) powered by the primary electronics
assembly battery indicate the general overall condition of various electronic
components and the
ppO in the 2breathing loop as follows:

17-3 .4 .3 .1 Primary Display.

n Steady green: Normal oxygen range, 0.60 to 0.90 ata


ppO of 0.75 ata).

(using
2 a set point

n Steady red or simultaneously illuminated steady red and green: Primary


electronics failure.

Figure 17-4. Underwater Breathing Apparatus MK 16 MOD 0 .

n Flashing green: High oxygen content, greater than 0.90 ata ppO2.
n Flashing red: Low oxygen content, less than 0.60 ata ppO2 .
n Alternating red/green: Normal transition period (ppO is transitioning from
2
normal to low, from low to normal, from normal to high, or from high to
normal), one sensor out of limits, low primary battery power (displayed on
secondary display) or primary electronics failure.
n No display (display blanked): Electronics assembly or primary battery failure.
The MK 16 MOD 0 secondary display is designed to provide
quantitative information to the diver on the condition of the breathing medium, the
primary battery voltage and the condition of the secondary batteries. It also serves
as a backup for the primary display in the event of a failure or malfunction to the
primary electronics assembly, the primary display, or the primary battery. The
secondary display functions concurrently with, but independently of, the primary
display and displays the 2 sensor readings and primary battery information in digital
O
form. The secondary display is powered by four 1.5-volt batteries for illumination
of the LED display only. It does not rely on the primary electronics subassembly,
but receives signals directly from the oxygen sensors and the primary battery. It
will continue to function in the event of a primary electronics assembly failure.

17-3 .4 .3 .2 Secondary Display.

17.4

OPERATIONAL PLANNING

Chapter 6 provides general guidelines for operational planning. The information


provided in this section is supplemental to Chapter 6 and the MK 16 MOD 0
UBA

O&M manual. Units should allow frequent opportunity for training, ensuring
diver familiarity with equipment and procedures. Workup dives are strongly
recommended prior to diving at depths greater than 130 fsw. MK 16 MOD 0
diver qualifications may be obtained by completion of the Naval Special Warfare
Center MK 16 MOD 0 qualifications course. Qualifications remain in effect as
long as diver qualifications are maintained in accordance with Military Personnel
Manual Article 1220. However, a diver who has not made a MK 16 MOD 0
dive in the previous six months must refamiliarize himself with the MK 16
MOD 0 EPs and OPs and must complete a training dive prior to making an
operational dive. Prior to conducting a decompression dive, a diver who has not
conducted a MK 16 MOD 0 decompression dive within the previous six months
must complete open water decompression training dives. The minimum
personnel requirements for MK 16 MOD 0 diving operations are the same as
open circuit SCUBA, see Figure 6-16.
17-4.1

Operating Limitations. The dive depth and time limits are based on

considerations of working time, decompression obligation, oxygen tolerance,


and nitrogen narcosis. The expected duration of the gas supply, the expected
duration of the carbon dioxide absorbent, the adequacy of thermal protection, or
other factors may also limit both the depth and the duration of the dive. Diving
Supervisors must consider these limiting factors when planning closed-circuit
UBA operations.
In calculating the endurance of the MK 16 MOD 0, only
the oxygen flask is considered. The endurance of the oxygen flask is dependent
upon the following:

17-4 .1 .1 Oxygen Flask Endurance.

n
n
n
n
n

Flask floodable volume


Initial predive pressure
Required reserve pressure
Oxygen consumption by the diver
Effect of cold water immersion on flask pressure

17-4 .1 .1 .1 Flask Floodable Volume.

The oxygen flask floodable volume (fv) is 0.1 cubic

foot (2.9 liters).


The initial pressure is the pressure of the oxygen flask at
ambient temperature when it has cooled following charging. A reserve pressure
of 500 psig is required to drive the reducer. Calculation of initial pressure must
also account for gas loss resulting from UBA predive calibration. Oxygen
consumption by the diver is computed as 0.049 scfm (1.4 lpm). This is a
conservative value for a diver swimming at 0.85 knots. Refer to Table 17-1 for
information on the
average breathing gas consumption rates and CO 2 absorbent usage.

17-4 .1 .1 .2 Initial Predive Pressure.

Immersion in cold water will


reduce the flask pressure and actual cubic feet (acf) of gas available for the diver,
in accordance with Charles/Gay-Lussacs gas law. Based upon direct
measurement, available data, or experience, the coldest temperature expected
during the dive is used.

17-4 .1 .1 .3 Effect of Cold Water Immersion on Flask Pressure.

Table 17-1. Average Breathing Gas Consumption Rates and CO


2

Absorbent Usage .
CO2 Absorbent
Diving
Equipment

Gas Consumption
(Normal)

Gas Consumption
(Heavy Work)

Capacity
(lbs .)

Duration 40F
(Note 1)

Duration 70F
(Note 1)

MK 16 MOD
0 UBA

12-15
psi/min

15-17
psi/min

7.75-8.0

5h

6h 40m

Note:
1 . CO2 absorbent duration is based upon a comfortable work rate (0 .8-knot swimming speed) .

17-4.1.1.4

Calculating Gas Endurance. Combining these factors produces the formula for

MK 16 MOD 0 gas endurance:


MK 16 MOD 0 gas endurance =

P T2 P

1
R

T1
FV
492
VO 14.7 psi T
2
2
Where:
FV
PI
PR
2

T1
T2

VO

=
=
=
=
=
=

Floodable volume of flask in cubic feet


Initial Pressure in psia
Reserve Pressure in psia
Oxygen consumption in medical scfm (32F)
Ambient air temperature in R
Coldest water temperature expected in R

Rankine conversion factor:


R =
F + 460
All pressure and temperature units must be absolute.
The endurance of a MK 16 MOD 0 UBA charged to 2,500 psig for a
dive in 50 F water when the ambient air temperature is 65 F would be
computed as follows:

17-4 .1 .1 .5 Example.

[(2, 514.7 510 / 525) 514.7] 492

0.049 14.7
510
= 258 minutes

MK 16 MOD 0 gas endurance = 0.1

This duration assumes no gas loss from the UBA during the dive and only
considers metabolic consumption of oxygen by the diver. Divers must be trained
to minimize gas loss by avoiding leaks and unnecessary depth changes. Clearing
a flooded face mask is a common cause of gas loss from the UBA. When a full
face mask (FFM) is used, gas can pass from the UBA breathing loop into the
FFM and escape into the surrounding seawater due to a poor face seal. Leaks

that continue unchecked can

deplete UBA gas supply rapidly. Additionally, during diver ascent, the dump
valve opens to discharge breathing gas into the surrounding water, thereby
preventing overinflation of the breathing diaphragm. Depth changes should be
avoided as much as possible to minimize this gas loss.
17-4 .1 .2

Diluent Flask Endurance. Under normal conditions the anticipated duration

of the MK 16 MOD 0 diluent flask will exceed that of the oxygen flask.
The MK 16 MOD 0 diluent bottle holds approximately 21 standard cubic feet
(595 liters) of gas at a stored pressure of 3,000 psig. Diluent gas is used to
maintain the required gas volume in the breathing loop and is not depleted by
metabolic consumption. As the diver descends, diluent is added to maintain the
total pressure within the recirculation system at ambient water pressure. Loss of
UBA gas due to off gassing at depth requires the addition of diluent gas to the
breathing loop either automatically through the diluent add valve or manually
through the diluent bypass valve to make up lost volume. Excessive gas loss
caused by face mask leaks, frequent depth changes, or improper UBA assembly
will deplete the diluent gas supply rapidly.
Canister duration is estimated by using a working diver
scenario. This allows an adequate safety margin for the diver in any situation.
Table 17-2 shows the canister duration limits for the MK 16 MOD 0 UBA.

17-4 .1 .3 Canister Duration.

Table 17-2. MK 16 MOD 0 Canister Duration Limits .


Canister Duration with HeO2
Water Temperature (F)

Depth (fsw)

Time (minutes)

40 and above

0-300

300

29-39

0-100

300

35-39

101-300

240

29-34

101-300

120

Canister Duration with N202


Water Temperature (F)

Depth (fsw)

Time (minutes)

29 and above

0-50

300

40 and above

51-150

200

29-39

51-150

100

NAVSEA-approved Sodalime CO2 absorbents for the MK 16 MOD 0 are listed in the ANU list .

Divers must be equipped with adequate thermal protection to


perform effectively and safely. A cold diver will either begin to shiver or increase
his exercise rate, both of which will increase oxygen consumption and decrease
oxygen supply duration and canister duration. Refer to Chapter 11 for guidance
on thermal protection.

17-4 .1 .4 Thermal Protection.

CHAPTER 17Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving

17-11

17-4.2

Equipment Requirements. Equipment requirements for MK16 MOD 0 training

dives are provided in Table 17-3. Two equipment items merit special comment:
Table 17-3. MK 16 MOD 0 UBA Diving Equipment Requirements .
General

Diving Supervisor

1 . Motorized safety
boat (Note 1)
2 . Radio (communications
with parent unit,
chamber, communication
between safety boats
when feasible)
3 . High-intensity,
wide- beam light
(night operations)
4. Dive flags and/or special
operations lights as
required
5. Sufficient (2 quarts)
fresh water in case of
chemical injury

Divers

Standby Diver

1 . Dive watch
2 . Dive Bill
list

1 . Dive watch (Note


2) 2 . Face mask
3 . Fins

3 . Air
Decompression
Tables

4 . Dive knife

1.
2.
3.
4.

5 . Approved life
preserver or buoyancy
compensator (BC)

5 . Approved life
preserver or buoyancy
compensator (BC)

6 . Appropriate
thermal protection

6 . Appropriate
thermal protection

7 . Depth gauge (Note

7 . UBA with same


depth capability
8 . Depth gauge

4 . Closed-Circuit
Mixed-Gas UBA
Decompression Tables
using 0 .7 ATA
Constant Partial
Pressure Ox- ygen in
Nitrogen and in Helium
.
5 . Recall device

2) 8 . Buddy line (as


appropriate for
SPECWAR operations)
(Note 1)
9 . Tending line

Dive watch
Face mask
Fins
Dive knife

9 . Weight belt (if


needed) 10 . Tending line

Notes:
1 . See paragraph 17-4 .2
2 . See paragraph 17-4 .2 .6

n Safety Boat. A minimum of one motorized safety boat must be present for all
open-water dives. A safety boat is also recommended for tended pier dives
or diving from shore. Safe diving practice in many situations, however, will
require the presence of more than one safety boat. The Diving Supervisor
must determine the number of boats required based on the diving area,
medical evacuation plan, night operations, and the number of personnel
participating in the dive operation.
n Buddy Lines. Buddy lines are considered important safety equipment for
closed-circuit UBA dives. In special diving situations, such as certain
combat swimmer operations or tended diving, the use of buddy lines may not
be feasi- ble. The Diving Supervisor shall conduct dives without buddy
lines only in situations where their use is not feasible or where their use will
pose a greater hazard to the divers than by diving without them.
Any buddy line over 10 feet (3 meters) in length is referred to as a
distance line. The length of the distance line shall not exceed 81 feet (25
meters). Distance lines shall be securely attached to both divers.

17-4 .2 .1 Distance Line.

When appropriate during training and non-influence diving


operations, open circuit SCUBA may be used to a maximum depth of 130 fsw.

17-4 .2 .2 Standby Diver.

Diver marker lines shall be manufactured from any light line that is
buoyant and easily marked as directed in paragraph 17-4.2.4 (one-quarter inch
polypropylene is quite suitable).

17-4 .2 .3 Lines.

Lines used for controlling the depth of the diver(s) for


decompression diving shall be marked. This includes tending lines, marker
lines, and lazy-shot lines. Lines shall be marked with red and yellow or black
bands starting at the diver(s) or clump end. Red bands will indicate 50 feet and
yellow or black bands will mark every 10 feet.

17-4 .2 .4 Marking of Lines.

Diver marker buoys will be constructed to provide adequate


visual reference to monitor the divers location. Additionally, the amount of line
will be of sufficient length for the planned dive profile.

17-4 .2 .5 Diver Marker Buoy.

17-4.2.6

Depth Gauge/Wrist Watch. A single depth gauge and wrist watch may be used

when diving with a partner and using a distance line.


17-4.3

Recompression Chamber Considerations. A recompression chamber and a

Diving Medical Officer are not required on the dive station (on the dive station
is defined as at the dive location) as prerequisites for closed-circuit UBA diving
operations, unless the dive(s) will exceed the maximum working limit. However,
the following items should be determined prior to beginning diving operations:
n Location of the nearest functional recompression chamber. Positive confirmation of the chambers availability in case of emergency should be obtained.
n Location of the nearest available Diving Medical Officer if not at the nearest
recompression chamber.
n Location of the nearest medical facility for treatment of injuries and medical
problems not requiring recompression therapy.
n The optimal method of transportation to the treatment chamber or medical
facility. If coordination with other units for aircraft/boat/vehicle support is
necessary, the Diving Supervisor shall know the telephone numbers and
points of contact necessary to make these facilities available as quickly as
possible in case of emergency. A medical evacuation plan should be included
in the Diving Supervisor brief. Preparing an emergency assistance checklist
similar to that in Chapter 6 is recommended.
17-4.4

Ship Safety. When operations are to be conducted in the vicinity of ships, the

guidelines provided in the Ship Repair Safety Checklist (see Chapter 6) must be
followed.
17-4.5

Operational Area Clearance. Notification of intent to conduct diving operations

should be coordinated in accordance with local directives.

17.5

PREDIVE PROCEDURES
17-5.1

Diving Supervisor Brief. A thorough, well-prepared dive briefing reinforces the

confidence level of the divers and increases safety, and is an important factor in
successful mission accomplishment. It should normally be given by the Diving
Supervisor, who will be in charge of all diving operations on the scene. The
briefing shall be given separately from the overall mission briefing and shall
focus on the diving portion of the operation, with special attention to the items
shown in Table 17-4. For MK 16 MOD 0 UBA diving, use the appropriate
checklist provided in the MK16 MOD 0 UBA O&M Manual.
17-5.2

Diving Supervisor Check. As the divers set up their UBAs prior to the dive, the

Diving Supervisor must ensure that each diver checks his own equipment, that
setup is completed properly by checking the UBA, and that each diver completes
a UBA predive checklist from the appropriate UBA operation and maintenance
manual. The second phase of the Diving Supervisor check is a predive inspection
conducted after the divers are dressed. The Diving Supervisor ensures that the
UBA and related gear (life preserver, weight belt, etc.) are properly donned,
that mission-related equipment (compass, depth gauge, dive watch, buddy lines,
tactical equipment, etc.) are available, and that the UBA functions properly before
allowing the divers to enter the water. Appropriate check lists to confirm proper
functioning of the UBA are provided in the MK 16 MOD 0 O&M manual.
17.6

WATER ENTRy AND DESCENT

The maximum descent rate is 60 feet per minute. During descent, the UBA will
automatically compensate for increased water pressure and provide an adequate
volume of gas for breathing. During descent the oxygen partial pressure may
increase as oxygen is added to the breathing mixture as a portion of the diluent.
Depending on rate and depth of descent, the primary display on the MK 16 MOD
0 UBA may illuminate flashing green. It may take from 2 to 15 minutes to
consume the additional oxygen added by the diluent during descent. While
breathing
down the ppO , the diver should continuously monitor the primary and
2
secondary display
until the ppO2 returns to setpoint level.

Table 17-4. MK 16 MOD 0 UBA Dive Briefing.


1
2
3
5

A.
Dive Plan
Communications
F.
1 .Frequencies, primary/secondary 2 .Call signs
.Operating depth
G. Emergency Procedures
.Dive times
1.
.CSMD tables or decompression tables 4 .Distance, bearing, and transit times
2.
.All known obstacles or hazards
Symptoms of CO2 buildup
Review of management of CO2 toxicity, hypoxia, chemical injury, unc
UBA malfunction (refer to maintenance manual for detailed discussio
B.
Environment
n Oxygen sensor failure
3 . of oxygen n High partial pressure of oxygen n
n Low partial pressure
Weather conditions
1.
n Low battery
Water/air temperatures
2.
Water visibility Tides/currents
Depth of water
3 . Bottom type Geographic location n Diluent free flow
n Diluent addition valve failure
4.
n System flooding
5.
Lost swim pair procedures Omitted decompression plan Medical eva
6.
n Nearest available chamber
7.
n Nearest Diving Medical Officer
n Transportation plan
n Recovery of other swim pairs
C.
Personnel Assignments
Dive
1 . pairs
Diving
2 . Supervisor Diving Officer Standby diver
Diving
3.
medical personnel
Base
4 . of operations support personnel
5.
6.

D.

4.
5.
6.

Special Equipment for:

Divers1 (include
.
thermal garments)
Diving2 Supervisor
.
Standby diver Medical personnel
3.
4.

H. Times for Operations


I. Time Check

E.Review of Dive Signals


1 .Hand signals

17.7

UNDERWATER PROCEDURES
17-7.1

General Guidelines. The divers shall adhere to the following guidelines as the

dive is conducted.
WARNING

Failure to adhere to these guidelines could result in serious injury or


death.

n Monitor primary and secondary display frequently (every 2-3 minutes).


n Wear adequate thermal protection.
n Know and use the proper amount of weights for the thermal protection worn
and the equipment carried.
n Check each others equipment carefully for leaks at the start of the dive.
n Do not exceed the UBA canister duration and depth limitations for the dive
(paragraph 17-4.1.3).

n Minimize gas loss from the UBA (avoid mask leaks and frequent depth
changes,
if possible).
n Maintain frequent visual or touch checks with buddy.
n Be alert for symptoms suggestive of a medical disorder (paragraph 17-11).
n Use tides and currents to maximum advantage.
17-7.2

At Depth. If the UBA is performing normally at depth, no adjustments will be

required. The ppO2 control system will add oxygen from time to time. Monitor
UBA primary and secondary displays and high pressure gauges in strict
accordance with the MK 16 MOD 0 O&M manual. Items to monitor include:
n Primary Display. Primary Display. Check the primary display frequently to
ensure that the oxygen level remains at the setpoint during normal activity at
a constant depth.
n

Secondary Display. Secondary Display. Check the secondary display


frequently (every 2-3 minutes) to ensure that all sensors are consistent with
the primary display and that plus and minus battery voltages are properly
indicating.

n High-Pressure Indicators. Check the oxygen and diluent pressure indicators


frequently to ensure that the gas supply is adequate to complete the dive.
17.8

ASCENT PROCEDURES

The maximum ascent rate for the MK 16 MOd 0 is 30 feet per minute.
During ascent, when water pressure decreases, the diaphragm dump valve
compensates for increased gas volume by discharging the excess gas into the
water. As a result,
oxygen in the breathing gas mixture may be vented faster than O2 is replaced by
the addition valve. In this case, the primary display may alternate red/green before
the low ppO2 signal (blinking red) appears. This is a normal transition period and
shall not cause concern. Monitor the secondary display frequently on ascent and
add oxygen by depressing the bypass valve during this instance.
17.9

POSTDIVE PROCEDURES

Postdive procedures shall be completed in accordance with the appropriate postdive checklists in the MK 16 MOD 0 UBA O&M manual.
17.10

DECOMPRESSION PROCEDURES

When diving with an open-circuit UBA, ppO increases with depth. With a closed
2
circuit UBA, ppO2 remains constant at a preset level regardless of depth. Therefore,
standard U.S. Navy decompression tables cannot be used. The three methods to
determine a MK16 MOD 0 divers decompression obligation are listed below.

n Navy Dive Computer. The Navy Dive Computer (NDC) is a diver worn
decompression computer that calculates the divers decompression obligation
in real time. It is authorized for use with the MK16 MOD 0 UBA when air

is used as a diluent. The NDC assumes the diver is breathing air at depths
shallower than 78 fsw and is using a MK16 MOD 0 at deeper depths.
n Combat Swimmer Multilevel Dive Tables. Combat Swimmer Multilevel Dive
(CSMD) procedures provide SPECWAR divers with the option of
conducting multiple-depth diving with the MK 16 MOD 0 UBA to a
depth of 70 fsw. However, the CSMD procedures may be used for dives
between 70 and 110 fsw by adding 10 fsw to the depth when entering the
table.
n Constant 0.7 ata ppO Decompression Tables. The constant 0.7 ata ppO
2
2
decompression tables Oxygen in Nitrogen (Table 17-9) and Oxygen in
Helium (Table 17-10) are discussed in paragraph 17-10.1 below. These
tables were computed assuming an oxygen setpoint of 0.70 ata.
NOTE

Surface decompression is not authorized for MK 16 MOD 0 operations.


Appropriate surface decompression tables have not been developed for
constant 0.7 ata ppO2 closed-circuit diving.

17-10.1

Rules for Using 0.7 ata Constant ppO in Nitrogen and in Helium Decompression
2
Tables.

NOTE

The rules using the 0.7 ata ppO tables are the same for nitrogen and
2
helium; however, the tables are not interchangeable.

n These tables are designed to be used with the MK 16 MOD 0 UBA (or any
other constant ppO2 closed-circuit UBA) with an oxygen setpoint of 0.70 ata or
greater.
n When using helium as the inert gas, the amount of nitrogen must be minimized
in the breathing loop. Flush the UBA well with helium-oxygen using the
purge procedure given in the MK 16 MOD 0 UBA O&M manual.
n Tables are grouped by depth. Within each decompression table, exceptional
exposure dives are separated by a dashed line. These tables are designed
to be dived to the exceptional exposure line. Exceptional exposure schedules
are provided in case of unforseen circumstances when a diver might
experience an inadvertent downward excursion or for an unforeseen reason
overstay the planned bottom time. Planned exceptional exposure dives
require prior CNO approval.
n Tables/schedules are selected according to the maximum depth obtained during the dive and the bottom time (time from leaving the surface to leaving
the bottom).
n Monitoring ppO 2. During decompression, it is very important to frequently
monitor the secondary display and ensure a 0.75 ata ppO2 is maintained as
closely as possible. Always use the appropriate decompression table when
surfacing, even if UBA malfunction has significantly altered the ppO2 .
n General rules for using these tables are the same as for the air decompression
tables and include the use of the RNT exception rule when calculating the

equivalent single dive time for repetitive dives.

1.

Enter the table at the listed depth that is exactly equal to or is next
greater than the maximum depth attained during the dive.

2.

Select the bottom time from those listed for the selected depth that is
exactly equal to or is next greater than the bottom time of the dive.

3.

Never attempt to interpolate between decompression schedules.

4.

Use the decompression stops listed for the selected bottom time.

5.

Ensure that the divers chest is maintained as close as possible to each


decompression depth for the number of minutes listed.

6.

Maximum ascent rate is 30 feet per minute. The rules for compensating
for variations in the rate of ascent are identical to those for air diving
(see Chapter 9, paragraph 9-11).

7.

Begin timing the first stop when the diver arrives at the stop. For all
subsequent stops, begin timing the stop when the diver leaves the
previous stop. Ascent time between stops is included in the subsequent
stop time.

8.

The last stop may be taken at 20 fsw if desired. After completing


the prescribed 20 fsw stop, remain at any depth between 10 fsw and 20
fsw inclusive for the 10 fsw stop time as noted in the appropriate
decompression table.

9.

Use the appropriate decompression table for the selected decompression


method unless an emergency or equipment malfunction has occurred.
Interpolating between different methods of decompression in order to
shorten the decompression obligation is not authorized.

10.

When selecting the proper decompression table, all dives within the past
18 hours must be considered. Repetitive dives are allowed. Repetitive
diving decompression procedures vary depending on the breathing
medium(s) selected for past dives and for the current dive. If a dive
resulted in breathing from the an alternate air supply then no repetitive
dives shall be made within the next 18 hours. Refer to the following
tables and figures for repetitive diving.
n Table 17-5 for Repetitive Dive Procedures for Various Gas Mediums.
n Figure 17-5 for the Dive Worksheet for Repetitive 0.7 ata Constant
Partial Pressure Oxygen in Nitrogen Dives.
n Table 17-6 for the No-Decompression Limits and Repetitive Group
Designation Table for No-Decompression 0.7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Nitrogen Dives.
n Table 17-7 for the Residual Nitrogen Timetable for Repetitive 0.7 ata
Constant Partial Pressure Oxygen in Nitrogen Dives.

Table 17-5. Repetitive Dive Procedures for Various Gas Mediums .

WARNING
No repetitive dives are authorized after an
emergency procedure requiring a shift to the EBS.
Selection of Repetitive Procedures for Various Gas Mediums
Previous Breathing Medium
(Refer to Notes 1, 2, and 3)

Repetitive Dive
Breathing Medium

Note

N2O2

N2O2

Air

N2O2

N2O2

Air

HeO2

HeO2

HeO2

Air

Air

HeO2

HeO2

N2O2

N2O2

HeO2

Notes:
1.

If a breathing medium containing helium was breathed at any time during the 18-hour period immediately
preceding a dive, use HeO2 as the previous breathing medium .

2.

If 100 percent oxygen rebreathers are used on a dive in conjunction with other breathing gases, treat that portion of
the dive as if 0 .7 ATA O2 in N2 was breathed .

3.

If both air and 0 .7 ATA O2 in N2 are breathed during a dive, treat the entire dive as an air dive . If the 0 .7 ata O2 in
N2 is breathed at depths 80 fsw or deeper, add the following correction factors to the maximum depth when
selecting the appropriate air table .

Maximum Depth on N2O2

Correction Factor

Not exceeding 80 FSW

81-99

Plus 5

100-119

Plus 10

120-139

Plus 15

140-150

Plus 20

Notes:
A.

(1)

If the surface interval is less than 10 minutes, determine the table and schedule for the repetitive dive by
adding the bottom times and taking the deepest depth of all the dives in the series, including the planned
repetitive dive .

Table 17-5. Repetitive Dive Procedures for Various Gas Mediums . (Continued)
Notes continued:
A . (2)

If the surface interval is longer than 10 minutes, use the repetitive dive worksheet (Figure 17-5) to determine
the table and schedule:
a) Determine the repetitive group letter for the depth and time of dive conducted from Table 17-6 for nodecompression dives or from Table 17-9 for decompression dives . If the exact time or depth is not found,
go to the longer time or the next deeper depth .
b) Locate the repetitive group letter in Table 17-7 . Move across the table to the correct surface interval time
. Move down to the bottom of the column for the new group designation .
c) Move down the column of the new group designation to the depth of the planned dive . This is the
residual Nitrogen time (RNT). Add this to the planned bottom time of the next dive to find the
decompression schedule and the new group designation .

(3)

B.

The RNT exception rule applies to repetitive MK 16 MOD 0 diving . Determine the table and schedule for the
repetitive dive by adding the bottom times and taking the deepest depth of all the MOD 0 dives in the series,
including the planned repetitive dive . If the resultant table and schedule requires less decompression than the
table and schedule obtained using the repetitive dive worksheet, it may be used instead of the worksheet table
and schedule .

Use the repetitive group designation from the air decompression table or the no-decompression limits and repetitive
group designation table for no-decompression air dives to enter Table 17-7 . Compute the RNT as in Note A . Do
not use the residual nitrogen timetable for repetitive air dives to find the RNT. The RNT exception rule applies to
repetitive air/MK 16 MOD 0 diving . In order to apply the RNT exception rule, convert the depth of any air dive in the
series to its equivalent MK 16 MOD 0 depth before taking the deepest depth in the series . Equivalent MOD 0 Depth
= (0 .79 x Depth on Air) + 18 fsw .

C.

(1)

Determine the repetitive group designation for depth and time of dive conducted from Table 17-6 or Table 17-9 .
If the exact time or depth is not found, go to the next longer time or the next deeper depth .

(2)

Using the repetitive group designator, enter Table 9-8 on the diagonal . Move across the table to the
correct surface interval time . Move down to the bottom of the column for the new repetitive group
designation .

(3)

Continue to read down the column of Table 9-8 to the depth that is exactly equal to or greater than the depth of
the repetitive dive to find the RNT.

D.

Add the bottom time of the planned repetitive dive to the sum of the bottom times for all dives within the past 18
hours to get the adjusted bottom time . Use the maximum depth attained within the past 18 hours and the adjusted
bottom time to select the appropriate schedule from Table 17-10 .

E.

Add the bottom times of all dives within the past 18 hours to get an adjusted bottom time . Using the air
decompression table, find the maximum depth attained during the past 18 hours and the adjusted bottom time. The
repetitive group from this air table may then be used as the surfacing repetitive group from the last dive . The
residual nitrogen timetable for repetitive air dives is used to find the repetitive group at the end of the current surface
interval and the appropriate residual nitrogen time for the repetitive air dive .

F . Compute the RNT from the residual nitrogen timetable for repetitive air dives using the depth of the planned dive .
Add the RNT to the planned bottom time to get the adjusted bottom time . Use Table 17-10 for the adjusted
bottom time at the planned depth .
G . Add the bottom times of all dives within the past 18 hours to get an adjusted bottom time . Using Table 17-9, find the
maximum depth attained during the past 18 hours and the adjusted bottom time . The repetitive group from the
table may then be used as the surfacing repetitive group from the last dive . Table 17-7 is used to find the repetitive
group at the end of the current surface interval and the appropriate RNT for the current dive .
H.

Compute the RNT from Table 17-7 using the depth of the planned dive . Add the RNT to the planned bottom time to
get the adjusted bottom time . Use Table 17-10 for the adjusted bottom time at the planned depth .

REPETITIVE DIVE WORKSHEET


FOR
0.7 ATA N2O2 DIVES
Part 1 . Previous Dive:

minutes
feet
repetitive group designator from Table 17-6 or 17-9

Part 2 . Surface Interval:

hours

minutes on the surface

final repetitive group from Table 17-7

Part 3 . Equivalent Single Dive Time:


Enter Table 17-10 at the depth row for the new dive and the column of the final repetitive group to find
the corresponding Residual Nitrogen Time (RNT) .
minutes RNT
+

minutes planned bottom time

minutes equivalent single dive time

Part 4 . Decompression Schedule for the Repetitive Dive:


minutes equivalent single dive time from Part 3
feet, depth of the repetitive dive .
Ensure RNT exception rule does not apply .

Figure 17-5. Dive Worksheet for Repetitive 0 .7 ata Constant Partial Pressure Oxygen in Nitrogen Dives .

Table 17-6. No-Decompression Limits and Repetitive Group Designation Table for 0 .7 ata Constant ppO2
in Nitrogen Dives .
Repetitive Group Designator

Depth
(fsw)

No-Stop Limit

10

Unlimited

15

Unlimited

20

Unlimited

154

425

30

Unlimited

31

50

73

98

128

165

211

274

375

643

40

369

17

27

38

50

63

76

91

107

125

144

167

192

223

259

305

369

50

143

12

19

26

33

41

50

59

68

78

88

99

111

123

137

143

60

74

14

19

25

31

37

43

50

56

63

71

74

70

51

11

15

20

25

29

34

39

44

50

51

80

40

13

16

20

24

28

32

36

40

90

32

11

14

17

20

24

27

31

32

100

27

12

15

18

21

24

27

110

23

11

13

16

18

21

23

120

20

12

14

16

18

20

130

16

10

12

14

16

140

14

11

13

14

150

11

10

11

Exceptional Exposure
-----

------------------------------------ ---------------- --------------------------------- ------------------------ --------------------

160

10

10

170

Diver does not acquire a repetitive group designator during dives to these depths .
* Highest repetitive group that can be achieved at this depth regardless of bottom time .

Table 17-7. Residual Nitrogen Timetable for Repetitive 0 .7 ata Constant ppO2 in Nitrogen Dives .

Next, read vertically downward to the new repetitive group designation .


Continue downward in this same column to the row that represents
the depth of the repetitive dive . The time given at the
intersection is residual nitrogen time, in minutes, to be applied to
the repetitive dive .

* Dives following surface intervals longer than


this are not repetitive dives . Use actual
bottom times in the Table 17-9 to
compute decompression for such
dives .

E
F
G
H
I
J

K
L

0:10
0:52
0:53
1:44
O

0:10
0:52
0:53
1:44
1:45
2:37
N

0:10
0:52
0:53
1:44
1:45
2:37
2:38
3:29
M

M
N
O
Z

0:10
0:52
Z

Dive
Depth

0:10
0:52
0:53
1:44
1:45
2:37
2:38
3:29
3:30
4:21

0:10
0:52
0:53
1:44
1:45
2:37
2:38
3:29
3:30
4:21
4:22
5:13

0:10
0:52
0:53
1:44
1:45
2:37
2:38
3:29
3:30
4:21
4:22
5:13
5:14
6:06

0:10
0:52
0:53
1:44
1:45
2:37
2:38
3:29
3:30
4:21
4:22
5:13
5:14
6:06
6:07
6:58

0:10
0:52
0:53
1:44
1:45
2:37
2:38
3:29
3:30
4:21
4:22
5:13
5:14
6:06
6:07
6:58
6:59
7:50

0:10
0:52
0:53
1:44
1:45
2:37
2:38
3:29
3:30
4:21
4:22
5:13
5:14
6:06
6:07
6:58
6:59
7:50
7:51
8:42

0:10
2:20 *

Locate the divers repetitive group designation from his previous dive along the diagonal
line above the table . Read horizontally to the interval in which the divers surface
interval lies .

0:10
0:52
0:53
1:44
1:45
2:37
2:38
3:29
3:30
4:21
4:22
5:13
5:14
6:06
6:07
6:58
6:59
7:50
7:51
8:42
8:43
9:34

0:10
0:52
0:53
1:44
1:45
2:37
2:38
3:29
3:30
4:21
4:22
5:13
5:14
6:06
6:07
6:58
6:59
7:50
7:51
8:42
8:43
9:34
9:35
10:27

L
K
J
I
H
G
F
E
Repetitive Group at the End of the Surface Interval

C
0:10
0:52
0:53
1:44
1:45
2:37
2:38
3:29
3:30
4:21
4:22
5:13
5:14
6:06
6:07
6:58
6:59
7:50
7:51
8:42
8:43
9:34
9:35
10:27
10:28
11:19
D

0:10 1:17
B
1:16 3:36 *
0:100:56 2:12
0:552:11 4:31 *
0:53
1:48 3:04
1:47
3:03 5:23 *
1:45
2:40 3:56
2:39
3:55 6:15 *
2:38
3:32 4:49
3:31
4:48 7:08 *
3:30
4:24 5:41
4:23
5:40 8:00 *
4:22
5:17 6:33
5:16
6:32 8:52 *
5:14
6:09 7:25
6:08
7:24 9:44 *
6:07
7:01 8:17
7:00
8:16 10:36 *
6:59
7:53 9:10
7:52
9:09 11:29 *
7:51
8:45 10:02
8:44 10:01 12:21 *
8:43
9:38 10:54
9:37 10:53 13:13 *
9:35 10:30 11:46
10:29 11:45 14:05 *
10:28 11:22 12:38
11:21 12:37 14:58 *
11:20 12:14 13:31
12:13 13:30 15:50 *
C
B
A

10

15

20

**

**

**

**

**

**

**

**

**

**

**

**

**

**

420

153

30

**

**

**

**

**

**

626

372

273

211

165

129

99

73

51

31

40

365

303

258

222

192

167

144

125

107

91

77

63

51

39

28

18

50

167

151

137

123

111

99

88

78

68

59

50

42

34

27

19

12

60

113

104

95

87

79

71

64

57

50

44

38

32

26

20

15

10

70

86

79

73

67

61

56

50

45

40

35

30

25

21

16

12

80

69

64

60

55

50

46

41

37

33

29

25

21

18

14

10

90

58

54

50

46

43

39

35

32

28

25

22

18

15

12

100

50

47

44

40

37

34

31

28

25

22

19

16

13

11

110

44

41

38

36

33

30

27

25

22

19

17

14

12

120

39

37

34

32

29

27

25

22

20

18

15

13

11

130

36

33

31

29

27

24

22

20

18

16

14

12

10

140

33

30

28

26

24

22

20

18

17

15

13

11

150

30

28

26

24

22

21

19

17

15

14

12

10

160

28

26

24

23

21

19

18

16

14

13

11

170

26

24

23

21

19

18

16

15

13

12

10

Residual Nitrogen Times (Minutes)


Repetitive dives to these depths are equivalent to remaining on the surface . Add the bottom time of the dive to the preceding surface
interval . Use the Surface Interval Credit Table (SICT) to determine the repetitive group at the end of the dive .
** Residual Nitrogen Time cannot be determined using this table (see paragraph 9-9 .1 for instructions) .

11.

17-10.2

The partial pressure of nitrogen in the MK 16 MOD 0 UBA at depths


up to 15 fsw is lower than the partial pressure of nitrogen in air at
the surface. A diver diving to these depths, therefore, loses rather than
gains body nitrogen during the dive. Accordingly, the diver does not
acquire a repetitive group designator when making these shallow dives.
If the dive is a repetitive dive up to 15 fsw, the diver will lose more
nitrogen during the repetitive dive than if he remained on the surface.
The dive can be considered the equivalent of remaining on the surface
for the duration of the dive. The repetitive group designator at the end of
the repetitive dive can be determined by adding the bottom time of the
repetitive dive to the preceding surface interval, then using the surface
interval credit table to determine the ending repetitive group.

PPO Variances. The ppO in the MK 16 UBAs is expected to vary slightly from
2

0.6
- 0.9 ata for irregular brief intervals. This does not constitute a rig malfunction.
2

When addition of oxygen to the UBA is manually controlled, ppO should be


2
maintained in accordance with techniques and emergency procedures listed in the
MK 16 MOD 0 O&M manual.
The Diving Supervisor and medical personnel should recognize that a diver who
has been breathing a mixture with ppO2 lower than 0.6 ata for any length of time
may have a greater risk of developing decompression sickness. Once the diver
reaches surface he will be given a neurological exam and observed for an hour.
The diver will not require recompression treatment unless symptoms of
decompression sickness occur.
17-10.3

Emergency Breathing System (EBS). When planning a MK16

MOD 0
decompression dive, the Diving Supervisor must ensure an alternate air source is
available to the diver in the event of a MK 16 failure. The air source must be
sufficient to allow the diver to complete his decompression obligation as
determined below. See Chapter 7 for procedures to calculate the volume of air
required.
In emergency situations (e.g., UBA floodout or failure), the diver should immediately ascend to the first decompression
stop according to the original decompression schedule and shift to the alternate
air supply. An alternate air supply can be any ANU approved SCUBA bottle(s)
and regulator. The subsequent decompression is modified according to the
diluent gas originally breathed.

17-10 .3 .1 Emergency Decompression on Air.

n Helium-Oxygen Diluent. Follow the original HeO decompression schedule


without modification while breathing air.
n Nitrogen-Oxygen(Air) Diluent. Doubleallremainingdecompressionstopswhile
breathing air. If the switch to emergency air is made while at a decompression
stop, then double the remaining time at that stop and all shallower stops. If
the dive falls within the no-decompression limit and a switch to an

alternate air supply has occurred, a mandatory 10-minute stop at 20 fsw is


2
required.

If either of these procedures is used, the diver will be given a neurological


exam and observed on the surface for one hour. The diver will not require
recompression treatment unless symptoms of decompression sickness occur.
Certain emergencies may interrupt or
prevent specified decompression. UBA failure, exhausted diluent or oxygen gas
supply, and bodily injury are examples that constitute such emergencies. The
omitted decompression procedures for an asymptomatic MK 16 MOD 0 diver
are contained in Table 17-8. If the diver switches from the MK 16 MOD 0 to an
alternate air source then the decompression obligations must also be modified in
accordance with paragraph 17-10.3.1.

17-10.4 Asymptomatic Omitted Decompression.

Table 17-8. Management of Asymptomatic Omitted Decompression MK 16 MOD 0 Diver .


Deepest
Decompression
Stop Omitted

Decompression
Status

Surface
Interval

Chamber Available

No Chamber Available

None

No decompression
stops required

NA

Observe on surface for 1 hour

Observe on surface for 1 hour

<1 min

Return to depth of stop .


Increase stop time by 1 minute .
Resume decompression
according to original schedule .

Return to depth of stop .


Increase stop time by 1 minute .
Resume decompression
according to original schedule .

>1 min

Return to depth of stop . Multiply


20-fsw and/or 10-fsw stop times
by 1 .5 . Resume decompression .
Or: Treatment Table 5 for surface
interval <5 min Or: Treatment
Table 6 for surface interval >5 min

Return to depth of stop . Multiply


20-fsw and/or 10-fsw stop times by
1 .5 . Resume decompression .

<5 min

Treatment Table 5

Descend to the deepest stop


omitted . Multiply all stops 40
fsw and shallower by 1 .5 .
Resume decompression .

>5 min

Treatment Table 6

Descend to the deepest stop


omitted . Multiply all stops 40
fsw and shallower by 1 .5 .
Resume decompression .

Any

Treatment Table 6

Descend to the deepest stop


omitted . Multiply all stops 40
fsw and shallower by 1 .5 .
Resume decompression .

20 fsw or
shallower

Decompression
stops required

Action

Decompression
stops
required
(<30 min missed)
Deeper than
20 fsw

Decompression
stops
required
(>30 min missed)

17-10.5

17.11

If the diver shows evidence of


decompression sickness or arterial gas embolism before recompression for
omitted decompression can be carried out, immediate treatment using the
appropriate oxygen or air treatment table is essential. Guidance for table
selection and use is given in Chapter 20.

Symptomatic

Omitted

Decompression.

MEDICAL ASPECTS OF CLOSED-CIRCUIT MIxED-GAS UBA

When using a closed-circuit mixed-gas UBA, the diver is susceptible to the usual
diving-related illnesses (i.e., decompression sickness, arterial gas embolism,
barotraumas, etc.). Only the diving disorders that merit special attention for
closed-

circuit mixed gas divers are addressed in this chapter. Refer to Chapter 3 for a
detailed discussion of diving related physiology and related disorders.
17-11.1

Central Nervous System (CNS) Oxygen Toxicity. High pressure oxygen poisoning

is known as CNS oxygen toxicity. High partial pressures of oxygen are


associated with many biochemical changes in the brain, but which specific
changes are responsible for the signs and symptoms of CNS oxygen toxicity
is presently unknown. CNS oxygen toxicity is not likely to occur at oxygen
partial pressures below 1.3 ata, though relatively brief exposure to partial
pressures above this, when it occurs at depth or in a pressurized chamber, can
result in CNS oxygen toxicity causing CNS-related symptoms.
17-11 .1 .1

Causes of CNS Oxygen Toxicity. Factors that increase the likelihood of CNS

oxygen toxicity are:


n Increased partial pressure of oxygen.
n Increased time of exposure.
n Prolonged immersion.
n Stress from strenuous physical exercise.
n Carbon dioxide buildup. The increased risk for CNS oxygen toxicity may
occur even before the diver is aware of any symptoms of carbon dioxide
buildup.
n Cold stress resulting from shivering or an increased exercise rate as the
diver attempts to keep warm.
n Systemic diseases that increase oxygen consumption. Conditions associated with increased metabolic rates (such as certain thyroid or adrenal
disorders) tend to cause an increase in oxygen sensitivity. Divers with
these diseases should be excluded from mixed gas diving.
The symptoms of CNS oxygen toxicity may
not always appear and most are not exclusively symptoms of oxygen toxicity.
The most serious symptom of CNS oxygen toxicity is convulsion, which may
occur suddenly without any previous symptoms, and may result in drowning or
arterial gas embolism. Twitching is perhaps the clearest warning of oxygen
toxicity, but it may occur late if at all. The mnemonic device VENTID-C is a
helpful reminder of the most common symptoms of CNS oxygen toxicity. The
appearance of any one of these symptoms usually represents a bodily signal of
distress of some kind and should be heeded.

17-11 .1 .2 Symptoms of CNS Oxygen Toxicity.

V:

Visual symptoms. Tunnel vision, a decrease in the divers peripheral vision,


and other symptoms, such as blurred vision, may occur.

E: Ear symptoms. Tinnitus is any sound perceived by the ears but not resulting

from an external stimulus. The sound may resemble bells ringing, roaring,
or a machinery-like pulsing sound.
N:

Nausea or spasmodic vomiting. These symptoms may be intermittent.

T: Twitching and tingling symptoms. Any of the small facial muscles, lips, or

muscles of the extremities may be affected. These are the most frequent
and clearest symptoms.
I:

Irritability. Any change in the divers mental status; including confusion,


agitation, and anxiety.

D:

Dizziness. Symptoms include clumsiness, incoordination, and


unusual fatigue.

C:

Convulsions.

The following additional factors should be noted regarding an oxygen convulsion:


n The diver is unable to carry on any effective breathing during the convulsion.
n After the diver is brought to the surface, there will be a period of unconsciousness or neurologic impairment following the convulsion; these symptoms are
indistinguishable from those of arterial gas embolism.
n No attempt should be made to insert any object between the clenched teeth of
a convulsing diver. Although a convulsive diver may suffer a lacerated
tongue, this trauma is preferable to the trauma that may be caused during the
insertion of a foreign object. In addition, the person providing first aid may
incur signif- icant hand injury if bitten by the convulsing diver.
n There may be no warning of an impending convulsion to provide the diver the
opportunity to return to the surface. Therefore, buddy lines are essential to
safe closed-circuit mixed gas diving.
If non-convulsive symptoms of CNS
oxygen toxicity occur, action must be taken immediately to lower the oxygen
partial pressure. Such actions include:

17-11 .1 .3 Treatment of Non-Convulsive Symptoms.

n Ascend. Daltons law will lower the oxygen partial pressure.


n Add diluent to the breathing loop.
n Secure the oxygen cylinder if oxygen addition is uncontrolled.
Though an ascent from depth will lower the partial pressure of oxygen, the diver
may still suffer other or worsening symptoms. The divers should notify the
Diving Supervisor and terminate the dive.
17.11

.1 .4 Treatment of Underwater Convulsion.

when treating a convulsing diver:

The following steps should be taken

1. Assume a position behind the convulsing diver. Release the victims weight belt
only if progress to the surface is significantly impeded.
2. Do not ascend in the water until the convulsion subsides.
3. Open the victims airway and leave the mouthpiece in his mouth. If it is not in
his mouth, do not attempt to replace it; however, ensure that the mouthpiece is
switched to the SURFACE POSITION to prevent unnecessary negative buoyancy
from a flooded UBA.
4. Grasp the victim around his chest above the UBA or between the UBA and his
body. If difficulty is encountered in gaining control of the victim in this manner,
the rescuer should use the best method possible to obtain control.
5. Ventilate the UBA with diluent to lower the ppO and maintain depth until the
2
convulsion subsides.
6. Make a controlled ascent to the first decompression stop, maintaining a slight
pressure on the divers chest to assist exhalation.
n If the diver regains control, continue with appropriate decompression.
n If the diver remains incapacitated, surface at a moderate rate, establish an airway, and treat for symptomatic omitted decompression as outlined in
paragraph 17-10.5.
n Frequent monitoring of the primary and secondary displays as well as the oxygen- and diluent-bottle pressure gauges will keep the diver well informed of
his breathing gas and rig status.
7. If additional buoyancy is required, activate the victims life jacket. The rescuer
should not release his own weight belt or inflate his life jacket.
8. Upon reaching the surface, inflate the victims life jacket if not previously
done.
9. Remove the victims mouthpiece and switch the valve to SURFACE to prevent
the possibility of the rig flooding and weighing down the victim.
10.

Signal for emergency pickup.

11. Ensure the victim is breathing. Mouth-to-mouth breathing may be initiated


if
necessary.
12. If an upward excursion occurred during the actual convulsion, transport to the
nearest chamber and have the victim evaluated by an individual trained to recognize and treat diving-related illness.
17-11 .1 .5

Prevention of CNS Oxygen Toxicity. All predive checks must be performed to

ensure proper functioning of the oxygen sensors and the oxygen-addition valve.

Frequent monitoring of both the primary and secondary displays will help ensure
that the proper ppO2 is maintained.
The off-effect, a hazard associated with CNS oxygen toxicity, may
occur several minutes after the diver comes off gas or experiences a reduction of
oxygen partial pressure. The off-effect is manifested by the onset or worsening of
CNS oxygen toxicity symptoms. Whether this paradoxical effect is truly caused
by the reduction in partial pressure or whether the association is coincidental
is unknown.

17-11 .1 .6 Off-Effect.

17-11.2

Oxygen Toxicity. Pulmonary oxygen toxicity can result from


prolonged exposure to elevated partial pressures of oxygen. This form of oxygen
toxicity produces lung irritation with symptoms of chest pain, cough, and pain
on inspiration that develop slowly and become increasingly worse as long as the
elevated level of oxygen is breathed. Although hyperbaric oxygen may cause
serious lung damage, if the oxygen exposure is discontinued before the
symptoms become too severe, the symptoms will slowly abate. This form of
oxygen toxicity is generally seen during oxygen recompression treatment and
saturation diving, and on long, shallow, in-water oxygen exposures.

Pulmonary

17-11.3

Oxygen Deficiency (Hypoxia). Hypoxia is an abnormal deficiency of oxygen in

the arterial blood in which the partial pressure of oxygen is too low to meet the
metabolic needs of the body. Chapter 3 contains an in-depth description of this
disorder. Although all cells in the body need oxygen, the initial symptoms of
hypoxia are a manifestation of central nervous system dysfunction.
17-11 .3 .1

Causes of Hypoxia. The primary cause of hypoxia for a MK16 diver is failure of

the oxygen addition valve or primary electronics. However, during a rapid ascent
Daltons law may cause the ppO 2 to fall faster than can be compensated for by
the oxygen-addition system. If, during ascent, low levels of oxygen are displayed,
slow the ascent and add oxygen if necessary. Depletion of the oxygen supply or
malfunctioning oxygen sensors can also lead to a hypoxic gas mixture.
17-11 .3 .2

Symptoms of Hypoxia. Hypoxia may have no warning symptoms prior to loss

of consciousness. Other symptoms that may appear include confusion, loss of


coordination, dizziness, and convulsion. It is important to note that if symptoms
of unconsciousness or convulsion occur at the beginning of a closed-circuit dive,
hypoxia, not oxygen toxicity, is the most likely cause.
If symptoms of hypoxia develop, the diver must take immediate
action to raise the oxygen partial pressure. If unconsciousness occurs, the buddy
diver should add oxygen to the rig while monitoring the secondary display. If the
diver does not require decompression, the buddy diver should bring the afflicted
diver to the surface at a moderate rate, remove the mouthpiece or mask, and
have him breathe air. If the event was clearly related to hypoxia and the diver
recovers fully with normal neurological function shortly after breathing
surface air, the diver does not require treatment for arterial gas embolism.

17-11 .3 .3 Treating Hypoxia.

If the divers require


decompression, the buddy diver should bring the afflicted diver to the first
decompression stop.

17-11 .3 .4 Treatment of Hypoxic Divers Requiring Decompression.

n If consciousness is regained, continue with normal decompression.


n If consciousness is not regained, ascend to the surface at a moderate rate (not
to exceed 30 fpm), establish an airway, administer 100-percent oxygen, and
treat for symptomatic omitted decompression as outlined in paragraph 1710.5. If possible, immediate assistance from the standby diver should be
obtained and the unaffected diver should continue normal decompression.
17-11.4

Carbon Dioxide Toxicity (Hypercapnia). Carbon dioxide toxicity, or hypercapnia,


is an abnormally high level of carbon dioxide in the blood and body tissues.

Hypercapnia is generally a result of the failure of the


carbon dioxide-absorbent material. The failure may be a result of channeling,
flooding or saturation of the absorbent material. Skip breathing or controlled
ventilation by the diver, which results in an insufficient removal of CO 2 from the
divers body, may also cause hypercapnia.

17-11 .4 .1 Causes of Hypercapnia.

17-11 .4 .2

Symptoms of Hypercapnia. Symptoms of hypercapnia are:

n Increased breathing rate


n Shortness of breath, sensation of difficult breathing or suffocation (dyspnea)
n Confusion or feeling of euphoria
n Inability to concentrate
n Increased sweating
n Drowsiness
n Headache
n Unconsciousness.
WARNING

Hypoxia and hypercapnia may give the diver little or no warning prior to
onset of unconsciousness.

Symptoms are dependent on the partial pressure of carbon dioxide, which is a


function of both the fraction of carbon dioxide and the absolute pressure. Thus,
symptoms would be expected to increase as depth increases. The presence of a
high partial pressure of oxygen may also reduce the early symptoms of
hypercapnia. Elevated levels of carbon dioxide may result in an episode of CNS
oxygen toxicity on a normally safe dive profile.

17-11 .4 .3

Treating Hypercapnia. If symptoms of hypercapnia develop, the diver should:

n Immediately stop work and take several deep breaths.


n Increase ventilation if skip-breathing is a possible cause.
n Ascend. This will reduce the partial pressure of carbon dioxide both in the rig
and the lungs.
n If symptoms do not rapidly abate, the diver should abort the dive.
n During ascent, while maintaining a vertical position, the diver should activate
his bypass valve, adding fresh gas to his UBA. If the symptoms are a result of
canister floodout, an upright position decreases the likelihood that the diver
will sustain chemical injury.
n If unconsciousness occurs at depth, the same principles of management for
underwater convulsion as described in paragraph 17-11.1.4 apply.
17-11 .4 .4

Prevention of Hypercapnia. To minimize the risk of hypercapnia:

n Use only an approved carbon dioxide absorbent in the UBA canister.


n Follow the prescribed canister-filling procedure to ensure that the canister is
correctly packed with carbon dioxide absorbent.
n Dip test the UBA carefully before the dive. Watch for leaks that may result in
canister floodout.
n Do not exceed canister duration limits for the water temperature.
n Ensure that the one-way valves in the supply and exhaust hoses are installed
and working properly.
n Swim at a relaxed, comfortable pace.
n Avoid skip-breathing. There is no advantage to this type of breathing in a
closed-circuit rig and it may cause elevated blood carbon dioxide levels even
with a properly functioning canister.
The term chemical injury refers to the introduction of a caustic
solution from the carbon dioxide scrubber of the UBA into the upper airway of a
diver.

17-11.5 Chemical Injury.

A caustic alkaline solution results when water leaking


into the canister comes in contact with the carbon dioxide absorbent. When the
diver is in a horizontal or head down position, this solution may travel through

17-11 .5 .1 Causes of Chemical Injury.

the inhalation hose and irritate or injure the upper airway.

Before actually inhaling the caustic solution, the


diver may experience labored breathing or headache, which are symptoms
of carbon dioxide buildup in the breathing gas. This occurs because an
accumulation of the caustic solution in the canister may be impairing carbon
dioxide absorption. If the problem is not corrected promptly, the alkaline solution
may travel into the breathing hoses and consequently be inhaled or swallowed.
Choking, gagging, foul taste, and burning of the mouth and throat may begin
immediately. This condition is sometimes referred to as a caustic cocktail. The
extent of the injury depends on the amount and distribution of the solution.

17-11 .5 .2 Symptoms of Chemical Injury.

17-11 .5 .3

Management of a Chemical Incident. If the caustic solution enters the mouth,

nose, or face mask, the diver must take the following steps:
n Immediately assume an upright position in the water.
n Depress the manual diluent bypass valve continuously.
n If the dive is a no-decompression dive, make a controlled ascent to the surface,
exhaling through the nose to prevent overpressurization.
n If the dive requires decompression, shift to the EBS or another alternative
breathing supply. If it is not possible to complete the planned decompression,
surface the diver and treat for omitted decompression as outlined in
paragraph 17-10.4.
Using fresh water, rinse the mouth several times. Several mouthfuls should then
be swallowed. If only sea water is available, rinse the mouth but do not swallow.
Other fluids may be substituted if available, but the use of weak acid solutions
(vinegar or lemon juice) is not recommended. Do not attempt to induce vomiting.
A chemical injury may cause the diver to have difficulty breathing properly on
ascent. He should be observed for signs of an arterial gas embolism and should be
treated if necessary. A victim of a chemical injury should be evaluated by a
physi- cian or corpsman as soon as possible. Respiratory distress which may
result from the chemical trauma to the air passages requires immediate
hospitalization.
Chemical injuries are best prevented by the
performance of a careful dip test during predive set-up to detect any system leaks.
Special attention should also be paid to the position of the mouthpiece rotary
valve upon water entry and exit to prevent the entry of water into the breathing
loop. Additionally, dive buddies should perform a careful leak check on each
other before leaving the surface at the start of a dive.

17-11 .5 .4 Prevention of Chemical Injury.

17-11.6

Decompression Sickness in the Water. Decompression sickness may develop in

the water during MK 16 MOD 0 diving. The symptoms of decompression


sickness may be joint pain or may be more serious manifestations such as
numbness, loss of muscular function, or vertigo.

Managing decompression sickness in the water will be difficult in the best of


circumstances. Only general guidance can be presented here. Management decisions must be made on site, taking into account all known factors. The advice of
a Diving Medical Officer should be sought whenever possible.
17.11

.6 .1

Diver Remaining in Water. If the diver signals that he has decompression sickness

but feels that he can remain in the water:

17.11

.6 .2

1.

Dispatch the standby diver to assist.

2.

Have the diver descend to the depth of relief of symptoms in 10-fsw


increments, but no deeper than two increments (i.e., 20 fsw).

3.

Compute a new decompression profile by multiplying all stops by 1.5. If


recompression went deeper than the depth of the first stop on the original
decompression schedule, use a stop time equal to 1.5 times the first stop in
the original decompression schedule for the one or two stops deeper than the
original first stop.

4.

Ascend on the new profile.

5.

Lengthen stops as needed to control symptoms.

6.

Upon surfacing, transport the diver to the nearest chamber. If he is


asymptomatic, treat on Treatment Table 5. If he is symptomatic, treat in
accordance with the guidance given in Chapter 20.

Diver Leaving the Water. If the diver signals that he has decompression sickness

but feels that he cannot remain in the water:

17-11.7.

1.

Surface the diver at a moderate rate (not to exceed 30 fpm).

2.

If a recompression chamber is on site (i.e., within 30 minutes), recompress


the diver immediately. Guidance for treatment table selection and use is
given in Chapter 20.

3.

If a recompression chamber is not on site, follow the management guidance


given in Volume 5.

Altitude Diving Procedures and Flying After Diving

Ascent to altitude following a MK 16 MOD 0 dive at sea level will increase the
risk of decompression sickness if the interval on the surface before ascent is
not long enough to permit excess nitrogen or helium to be eliminated from the
body. To determine the safe surface interval before ascent, take the following
steps:
n Nitrogen-Oxygen dives
1.

Determine the highest repetitive group designator obtained in the previous


24-hour period using either Table 17-6 or Table 17-9.

2.

Using the highest repetitive group designator, enter Table 9-6 in Chapter
9. Read across the row to the altitude that is exactly equal to or next
higher than the planned change in altitude. The required surface interval
is given at the intersection of the row and the column.

n helium-Oxygen dives
1.

For no-decompression dives with bottom times less than 2 hours, wait 12
hours on the surface before ascending to altitude.

2.

For no-decompression dives with bottom times greater than 2 hours or


for decompression dives, wait 24 hours on the surface before
ascending to altitude.

The MK 16 MOD 0 decompression procedures may be used for diving at


altitudes up to 1000 feet without modification. Contact NAVSEA 00C for
guidance for any planned dives at altitudes greater than 1000 feet.
17-12

MK 16 MOD 0 DIVING EQUIPMENT REFERENCE DATA

Figure 17-6 outlines the capabilities and logistical requirements of the MK 16


MOD 0 UBA mixed-gas diving system. Minimum required equipment for the
pool phase of diving conducted at Navy diving schools and MK 16 MOD 0
RDT&E commands may be modified as necessary. Any modification to the
minimum required equipment listed herein must be noted in approved lesson
training guides or SOPs.

Disadvantages:
MK 16 MOD 0 UBA General
1.
Characteristics Extended decompression requirement
for
long bottom times or deep dives . Limited physical and thermal protection No

4 .Extensive predive/postdive procedures


Principle of Operation:
2.
Self-contained closed-circuit constant ppO2 system

3.

Minimum Equipment:
Restrictions:

An approved
1 Life
.
Preserver or Buoyancy
Compensator (BC) . When using an approved BC, a Full Face Mask is required .
Working limit 150 feet, air diluent; 200 fsw, HeO
Dive knife 2 .
Swim fins 3.
Operational Considerations:
Face mask or
4 .full face mask (FFM) Weight belt (as required)
1.
Dive watch 5
or. Dive Timer/Depth Gauge (DT/DG) (as required)
2.
Depth gauge
or
DT/DG
(as
required)
6.
Dive team
3.
Safety boat(s) required
7MK
. 16 MOD 0 decompression schedule must be used (unless using NDC, CSMD procedure 110 fsw an

Principal Applications:
1 .Special warfare
2 .Search and inspection
3 .Light repair and recovery

Advantages:
1 .Minimal surface bubbles
2.Optimum efficiency of gas supply
3 .Portability
4 .Excellent mobility
5 .Communications (when used with an approved FFM)
6 .Modularized assembly
7 .Low acoustic signature

Figure 17-6. MK 16 MOD 0 General Characteristics .

Table 17-9. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Nitrogen .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)

Bottom Time
(min)

40 FSW

Time
to First
Stop
(M:S)
80

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

DECOMPRESSION STOPS (FSW)


Stop times (min) include travel time,
except first stop
70

60

50

40

30

20

10

369

1:20

370
380

1:00
1:00

390

1:00

143
150
160

1:20

170

1:20

180

1:20

190

1:20

200
210

Repet
Group

1:20
Z

2:20
3:20

4:20

1:40

1:40

1:20

4:40

9:40

12

13:40

15

16:40

19

20:40

1:20

22

23:40

1:20

25

26:40

220

1:20

29

30:40

230

1:20

33

34:40

240

1:20

37

38:40

250

1:20

42

43:40

260

1:20

45

46:40

270

1:20

49

50:40

280

1:20

52

53:40

290

1:20

56

57:40

300

1:20

59

60:40

310

1:20

61

62:40

320

1:20

64

65:40

330

1:20

67

68:40

50 FSW

Exceptional Exposure ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------340


350

1:20
1:20

69
73

70:40
74:40

360

1:20

77

78:40

370

1:20

80

81:40

380

1:20

83

84:40

390

1:20

87

88:40

Table 17-9. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Nitrogen (Continued) .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)

Bottom Time
(min)

60 FSW

Time
to
First
Stop
80
(M:S)

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

DECOMPRESSION STOPS (FSW)


Stop times (min) include travel time,
except first stop
70

60

50

40

30

20

10

74
75

2:00
1:40

80
90

1:40
1:40

100
110

1:40
1:40

120
130

Repet
Group

2:00
3:00

5:00
10:00

12
16

14:00
18:00

1:40
1:40

24
32

26:00
34:00

140
150

1:40
1:40

38
44

40:00
46:00

160
170

1:40
1:40

50
55

52:00
57:00

180
190

1:20
1:20

60
62

64:40
71:40

200
210

1:20
1:20

12
15

65
69

78:40
85:40

220
230

1:20
1:20

19
22

71
74

91:40
97:40

3
8

240
1:20
25
76
102:40
250
1:20
27
80
108:40
Exceptional Exposure ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------260
270

1:20
1:20

30
32

82
85

113:40
118:40

280

1:20

35

88

124:40

290

1:20

40

90

131:40

300

1:20

43

93

137:40

310

1:20

47

94

142:40

320

1:20

51

96

148:40

330

1:20

54

98

153:40

340

1:20

57

100

158:40

350

1:20

60

102

163:40

360

1:20

63

105

169:40

370

1:20

65

109

175:40

380

1:20

68

112

181:40

390

1:20

70

115

186:40

L
L
N
O
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z

Table 17-9. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant
Partial Pressure Oxygen in Nitrogen (Continued) .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)

Bottom Time
(min)

70 FSW

Time
to
First
Stop
80
(M:S)

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

DECOMPRESSION STOPS (FSW)


Stop times (min) include travel time,
except first stop
70

60

50

40

30

20

10

51
55

2:20
2:00

60
70

2:00
2:00

80
90

2:00
1:40

100
110

1:40
1:40

120
130

Repet
Group

2:20
6:20

17

11:20
19:20

24
29

26:20
33:00

12

34
39

43:00
53:00

1:40
1:40

15
18

46
52

63:00
72:00

140
150

1:40
1:40

21
29

57
58

80:00
89:00

160
170
180

1:40
1:40
1:40

36
42

62
66

100:00
110:00
70120:00

48

Exceptional Exposure ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------190

1:20

200
210

1:20
1:20

220
230

53

73

128:40

57
57

77
81

137:40
145:40

1:20
1:20

10
14

57
59

84
87

152:40
161:40

240
250

1:20
1:20

18
21

62
66

89
91

170:40
179:40

260
270

1:20
1:20

24
26

69
72

94
97

188:40
196:40

280
290

1:20
1:20

29
31

75
78

99
102

204:40
212:40

300
310

1:20
1:20

33
35

81
83

105
110

220:40
229:40

320
330

1:20
1:20

37
41

86
86

113
118

237:40
246:40

340
350

1:20
1:20

45
49

86
88

124
127

256:40
265:40

K
K
M
O
O
Z
Z
Z
Z

Table 17-9. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Nitrogen (Continued) .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)

Bottom Time
(min)

80 FSW

Time
to
First
Stop
80
(M:S)

40
45

2:40
2:20

50
55

2:20
2:20

60
70

2:20
2:00

80
90

2:00
2:00

100
110
120

1:40
1:40
1:40

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

DECOMPRESSION STOPS (FSW)


Stop times (min) include travel time,
except first stop
70

60

50

40

30

20

10
0

2:40
10:40

15
21

17:40
23:40

27
28

29:40
39:20

17
24

29
36

48:20
62:20

29
29

43
50

76:00
88:00
57100:00

2
7

Repet
Group

12

29

Exceptional Exposure ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------130

1:40

15

37

58

112:00

140
150

1:40
1:40

18
21

43
49

62
67

125:00
139:00

160
170

1:40
1:40

23
29

56
57

70
75

151:00
163:00

180
190

1:40
1:40

36
42

57
57

80
85

175:00
186:00

200
210

1:20
1:20

1
2

48
52

60
64

86
90

196:40
209:40

220
230

1:20
1:20

2
6

57
57

68
73

93
96

221:40
233:40

240
250

1:20
1:20

10
14

57
57

77
81

100
104

245:40
257:40

260
270

1:20
1:20

18
21

56
59

85
86

110
116

270:40
283:40

280
290

1:20
1:20

24
26

63
67

85
86

124
129

297:40
309:40

300
310

1:20
1:20

29
31

70
73

88
92

134
137

322:40
334:40

320

1:20

33

76

95

141

346:40

J
K
L
N
O
Z
Z

Table 17-9. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant
Partial Pressure Oxygen in Nitrogen (Continued) .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)

Bottom Time
(min)

90 FSW

Time
to
First
Stop
80
(M:S)

32
35

3:00
2:40

40
45

2:40
2:40

50
55

2:20
2:20

60
70

2:20
2:20

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

DECOMPRESSION STOPS (FSW)


Stop times (min) include travel time,
except first stop
70

60

50

40

30

20

10
0

3:00
8:00

14
23

17:00
26:00

10

28
28

33:40
40:40

17
28

28
29

47:40
59:40

80
2:00
10
29
34
75:20
90
2:00
18
29
44
93:20
Exceptional Exposure ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1002:00252952108:20
3

Repet
Group

110

1:40

29

33

56

123:00

120
130

1:40
1:40

8
12

29
29

41
49

62
67

142:00
159:00

140
150

1:40
1:40

16
19

29
36

56
57

73
76

176:00
190:00

160
170

1:40
1:40

21
23

43
50

57
57

81
89

204:00
221:00

180
190

1:40
1:40

25
31

56
57

62
67

91
95

236:00
252:00

J
K
L
M
O
Z

100 FSW
27

3:20

3:20

30

3:00

9:20

35

3:00

18

21:20

40

3:00

28

31:20

45

2:40

10

28

41:00

50

2:40

19

28

50:00

55

2:40

27

29

59:00

60

2:20

28

28

65:40

65

2:20

14

28

28

72:40

Exceptional Exposure ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------70


75

2:20
2:20

80

2:00

20
26

28
28

32
37

82:40
93:40

28

29

42

104:20

90

2:00

12

29

28

53

124:20

100

2:00

20

29

34

61

146:20

110

2:00

27

28

44

66

167:20

Table 17-9. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Nitrogen (Continued) .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)

Bottom Time
(min)

110 FSW

Time
to First
Stop
(M:S)
80

23
25

3:40
3:20

30
35

3:20
3:00

40
45

3:00
3:00

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

DECOMPRESSION STOPS (FSW)


Stop times (min) include travel time,
except first stop
70

60

50

40

30

20

10
0

3:40
7:40

18
28

21:40
34:20

29
29

46:20
57:20

4
3
14
25

50
2:40
7
29
28
67:00
55
2:40
16
29
28
76:00
Exceptional Exposure ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------602:4025282985:00
65

2:20

70
80

2:20
2:20

90

2:00

Repet
Group

I
J
L
M
N

29

28

33

96:40

11
24

29
28

28
29

40
52

110:40
135:40

29

28

34

65

164:20

0
14

4:00
18:00

27
29

33:40
47:40

120 FSW
20
25

4:00
3:40

30
35

3:20
3:20

3
15

40
3:00
4
25
28
60:20
45
3:00
12
29
28
72:20
Exceptional Exposure ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------502:40123282883:00
55

2:40

60
70

2:40
2:20

80

2:20

5
3
17

29

28

29

15
28

28
29

28
28

35
50

94:00
109:00
140:40

28

29

31

68

175:40

I
J
L
M

Table 17-9. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant
Partial Pressure Oxygen in Nitrogen (Continued) .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)

Bottom Time
(min)

130 FSW

Time
to First
Stop
(M:S)
80

16
20

4:20
4:00

25
30

3:40
3:20
3:20

35

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

DECOMPRESSION STOPS (FSW)


Stop times (min) include travel time,
except first stop
70

60

50

40

30

20

10
0
5
4

20
28

11
7

21

4:20
9:20

Repet
Group

H
I

28:00
J
44:40
K
29
60:40

Exceptional Exposure ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------40

3:00

45
50

3:00
3:00

55
60

2:40
2:40

70

2:40

14

28

28

7
12

21
28

28
28

29
29

88:20
100:20

20
26

28
28

29
29

34
43

117:00
136:00

23

28

28

29

67

178:00

4:40
5:40

74:20

140 FSW
14
15

4:40
4:20

20
25

4:00
3:40
3:20

30

1
3
3
1

11
24

7
7

17

18:20
J
38:00
K
28
56:40

Exceptional Exposure ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------35

3:20

40
45

3:20
3:00

50
60

3:00
2:40

70

2:40

13

24

29

11
14

18
25

28
29

28
28

88:40
103:20

10
18

18
28

28
29

29
28

35
61

123:20
172:00

28

29

28

36

80

218:00

4
5
14

H
H

73:40

Table 17-9. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Nitrogen (Continued) .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)

Bottom Time
(min)

150 FSW

Time
to First
Stop
(M:S)
80

11
15

5:00
4:40

20
25

4:00
3:40
3:40

30

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

DECOMPRESSION STOPS (FSW)


Stop times (min) include travel time,
except first stop
70

60

50

40

30

20

10
0
6

2
2

7
7

14
27

9
9

20

5:00
11:00

3:20

40
45

3:20
3:00

50
60

3:00
2:40

70

2:40

10

14

28

28

7
14

14
15

22
29

28
28

29
35

103:40
125:20

14
24

23
29

29
28

28
32

49
76

153:20
209:00

24

28

29

28

52

91

265:00

1
3
10

14

86:40

160 FSW
Exceptional Exposure ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10
15

5:20
4:40

20

4:20

25

4:00

30

3:40

35

3:20

40
45
50

3:00

0
7

5:20
15:00

17

35:40

12

29

59:20

12

23

28

80:00

12

17

29

28

99:40

3:20

13

14

25

29

35

124:40

3:20

12

14

19

29

28

49

154:40

15

14

28

28

29

65

186:20

170 FSW
Exceptional Exposure ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9
10

5:40
5:20

15

4:40

20

4:20

25

4:00

30

3:40

35

3:20

40

3:20

45

3:20

50

3:00

0
2

5:40
7:40

20:00

21

44:40

17

28

69:20

14

26

29

93:00

14

21

28

35

119:40

14

15

28

29

46

149:40

15

14

24

28

29

65

186:40

14

14

19

28

29

36

76

221:20

G
H

27:20
J
49:00
K
28
68:00

Exceptional Exposure ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------35

Repet
Group

Table 17-10. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Helium .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)

Bottom
Time
(min)

Time
DECOMPRESSION STOPS (fsw)
to First
Stop times (min) include travel time, except first stop
Stop
(M:S) 190 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40

30

20

10

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

40 FSW
390

1:20

1:20

50 FSW
205

1:40

1:40

210

1:20

4:40

220

1:20

10:40

230

1:20

14

15:40

240

1:20

20

21:40

250

1:20

24

25:40

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------260


270

1:20
1:20

29
33

30:40
34:40

280

1:20

37

38:40

290

1:20

41

42:40

300

1:20

45

46:40

310

1:20

48

49:40

320

1:20

52

53:40

330

1:20

55

56:40

340

1:20

58

59:40

350

1:20

60

61:40

360

1:20

63

64:40

370

1:20

65

66:40

380

1:20

68

69:40

390

1:20

70

71:40

133

2:00

2:00

140

1:40

10:00

150

1:40

20

22:00

160

1:40

30

32:00

170

1:40

40

42:00

60 FSW

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------180


190

1:40
1:40

50
59

52:00
61:00

200

1:40

67

69:00

210

1:40

75

77:00

220

1:40

82

84:00

230

1:40

90

92:00

240

1:40

96

98:00

250

1:40

103

105:00

260

1:40

109

111:00

270

1:20

1 113

115:40

Table 17-10. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Helium (Continued) .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Bottom
Time
(min)

Time
DECOMPRESSION STOPS (fsw)
to First
Stop times (min) include travel time, except first stop
Stop 190 180 170 160
40
150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50
(M:S)

30

20

10

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

60 FSW Continued
280

1:20

7 113

121:40

290

1:20

12 113

126:40

300

1:20

16 114

131:40

310

1:20

21 113

135:40

320

1:20

25 113

139:40

330

1:20

29 113

143:40

340

1:20

33 113

147:40

350

1:20

36 113

150:40

360

1:20

40 113

154:40

370

1:20

43 113

157:40

380

1:20

46 113

160:40

390

1:20

49 113

163:40

82

2:20

2:20

85

2:00

4:20

90

2:00

8:20

70 FSW

95

2:00

11:20

100

2:00

12

14:20

110

2:00

19

21:20

120

2:00

35

37:20

130

2:00

51

53:20

140

2:00

65

67:20

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------150


160

2:00
2:00

79
92

81:20
94:20

170

2:00

104

106:20

180

1:40

7 109

118:00

190

1:40

14 113

129:00

200

1:40

24 113

139:00

210

1:40

34 113

149:00

220

1:40

43 113

158:00

230

1:40

52 113

167:00

240

1:40

60 113

175:00

250

1:40

68 113

183:00

260

1:40

75 113

190:00

270

1:40

82 113

197:00

Table 17-10. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Helium (Continued) .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Bottom
Time
(min)

Time
DECOMPRESSION STOPS (fsw)
to First
Stop times (min) include travel time, except first stop
Stop 190 180 170 160
40
150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50
(M:S)

30

20

10

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

80 FSW
52

2:40

2:40

55

2:20

4:40

60

2:20

7:40

65

2:20

10:40

70

2:20

14

16:40

75

2:20

19

21:40

80

2:20

24

26:40

85

2:20

29

31:40

90

2:20

33

35:40

95

2:20

36

38:40

100

2:00

44

49:20

110
120

2:00
2:00

9
14

58
73

69:20
89:20

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------130


2:00
18 87
140
2:00
22 100

107:20
124:20

150

2:00

33 105

140:20

160

2:00

43 111

156:20

170

2:00

55 113

170:20

180

2:00

69 113

184:20

190

2:00

82 113

197:20

37

3:00

3:00

40

2:40

7:00

45

2:40

10

13:00

50

2:40

15

18:00

55

2:40

19

22:00

60

2:20

23

26:40

65

2:20

27

33:40

70

2:20

32

40:40

75

2:20

36

46:40

80

2:20

12

38

52:40

85

2:20

17

38

57:40

90

2:20

22

44

68:40

95

2:20

26

53

81:40

100

2:20

30

61

93:40

110
120

2:20
2:00

38
38

77
94

117:40
140:20

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------130


2:00
11 46 102
140
2:00
15 55 109

161:20
181:20

90 FSW

150

2:00

19

66 113

200:20

160

2:00

22

81 113

218:20

Table 17-10. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Helium (Continued) .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Bottom
Time
(min)

Time
DECOMPRESSION STOPS (fsw)
to First
Stop times (min) include travel time, except first stop
Stop 190 180 170 160
40
150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50
(M:S)

30

20

10

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

100 FSW
29

3:20

30

3:00

3:20
4:20

35

3:00

11

14:20

40

3:00

19

22:20

50

2:40

22

34:00

60

2:40

18

27

48:00

70

2:20

22

38

64:40

80

2:20

31

41

81:40

90

2:20

11

38

59

110:40

100

2:20

21

38

78

139:40

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------110


120

2:20
2:20

130

2:00

140

2:00

29
36

39 96
50 103

166:40
191:40

38

61 111

216:20

38

76 113

238:20

3:40

110 FSW
23

3:40

25

3:20

5:40

30

3:20

14

17:40

35

3:00

22

28:20

40

3:00

11

22

36:20

50

2:40

22

22

50:00

60

2:40

13

22

33

71:00

70

2:40

20

28

37

88:00

80

2:20

23

37

55

120:40

90

2:20

31

38

76

154:40

100

2:20

11

38

39

96

186:40

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------110


120

2:20
2:20

20
28

38
38

52 103
64 111

215:40
243:40

130

2:20

34

40

80 113

269:40

140

2:00

38

51

89 113

295:20

Table 17-10. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Helium (Continued) .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Bottom
Time
(min)

Time
DECOMPRESSION STOPS (fsw)
to First
Stop times (min) include travel time, except first stop
Stop 190 180 170 160
40
150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50
(M:S)

30

20

10

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

120 FSW
18

4:00

20

3:40

4:00
6:00

25

3:40

13

17:00

30

3:20

22

30:40

35

3:20

16

22

41:40

40

3:00

22

22

51:20

50

3:00

19

23

24

69:20

60

2:40

22

22

37

93:00

70

2:40

16

22

34

52

127:00

80

2:40

22

29

38

72

164:00

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------90


100

2:20
2:20

4
7

24
32

37
38

38 95
50 104

200:40
233:40

110

2:20

12

37

38

65 112

266:40

120

2:20

20

38

41

83 113

297:40

130 FSW
15

4:20

4:20

20

4:00

12:20

25

3:40

18

28:00

30

3:20

16

22

43:40

35

3:20

22

22

55:40

40

3:20

66:40

50

3:00

60

2:40

70

2:40

19

22

22

14

22

22

28

89:20

22

22

26

48

125:00

12

22

24

38

70

169:00

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------80


90

2:40
2:20

18
22

22
32

36
37

38 93
46 107

210:00
247:40

100

2:20

26

38

37

64 113

284:40

110

2:20

35

38

40

84 113

318:40

120

2:20

12

38

38

55

93 113

351:40

Table 17-10. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Helium (Continued) .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Bottom
Time
(min)

Time
DECOMPRESSION STOPS (fsw)
to First
Stop times (min) include travel time, except first stop
Stop 190 180 170 160
40
150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50
(M:S)

30

20

10

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

140 FSW
12

4:40

15

4:20

8:40

20

4:00

12

21:20

25

3:40

10

22

40:00

30

3:40

10

20

22

56:00

35

3:20

18

22

22

69:40

40

3:20

12

22

22

22

81:40

50

3:00

22

22

22

35

112:20

60

3:00

21

22

22

31

66

165:20

70

2:40

22

22

29

38

93

216:00

4:40

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------80


90

2:40
2:40

100

2:20

15
20

22
23

27
38

38
38

40 113
63 113

258:00
298:00

22

35

38

37

88 113

336:40

150 FSW
10

5:00

15

4:20

5:00

13:40

20

4:00

10

15

31:20

25

3:40

30

3:40

15

22

52:00

14

22

22

35

3:20

69:00

11

22

22

22

40

83:40

3:20

21

22

22

22

96:40

45

3:20

15

22

22

22

33

117:40

50

3:00

23

22

22

22

56

150:20

55

3:00

10

22

22

22

27

74

180:20

60

3:00

16

22

23

22

35

88

209:20

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------70


80

2:40
2:40

5
12

22
22

22
22

22
34

35
38

40 113
65 113

262:00
309:00

90

2:40

17

22

31

38

38

90 113

352:00

Table 17-10. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Helium (Continued) .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Bottom
Time
(min)

Time
DECOMPRESSION STOPS (fsw)
to First
Stop times (min) include travel time, except first stop
Stop 190 180 170 160
40
150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50
(M:S)

30

20

10

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

155 FSW
9

5:10

10

4:50

5:10
6:10

15

4:30

16:50

20

4:10

25

3:50

30

3:30

35

10

17

36:30

17

22

57:10

17

22

22

75:50

3:30

15

22

22

22

90:50

40

3:30

12

22

22

22

22

103:50

45

3:10

20

22

22

22

44

136:30

50

3:10

10

23

22

22

22

68

170:30

55

3:10

18

22

22

22

30

84

201:30

60

2:50

22

22

22

22

38 100

232:10

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------70


80

2:50
2:50

90

2:30

14
21

22
22

22
22

22
38

38
37

52 113
77 113

286:10
333:10

22

22

35

38

37 103 113

377:50

5:20

160 FSW
9

5:20

10

5:00

15

4:20

20

4:00

25

4:00

30

3:40

10

35

3:20

40

3:20

15

45

3:20

50

3:20

18

7:20

10

19:40

19

41:20

10

19

22

63:20

19

22

22

82:00

18

22

22

22

97:40

22

22

23

27

116:40

22

22

22

22

55

155:40

22

23

22

22

79

189:40

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------55


60

3:00
3:00

70

2:40

80

2:40

90

2:40

5
12

22
22

22
22

22
22

22
24

31 97
38 113

224:20
256:20

22

22

22

25

38

64 113

310:00

22

23

25

37

38

91 113

360:00

14

22

24

37

38

43 111 113

405:00

Table 17-10. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Helium (Continued) .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Bottom
Time
(min)

Time
DECOMPRESSION STOPS (fsw)
to First
Stop times (min) include travel time, except first stop
Stop 190 180 170 160
40
150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50
(M:S)

30

20

10

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

165 FSW
8

5:30

10

5:10

8:30

15

4:30

21:50

20

4:10

10

21

46:30

25

3:50

10

22

22

69:10

30

3:50

22

22

22

88:10

35

3:30

21

22

22

22

104:50

40

3:30

19

22

22

22

39

135:50

45

3:10

16

22

22

22

22

66

174:30

50

3:10

22

22

22

22

24

92

212:30

5:30

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------55


60

3:10
3:10

70

2:50

80

2:50

13
20

22
22

22
22

22
22

22
27

34 108
48 113

246:30
277:30

10

22

22

22

28

38

79 113

337:10

18

22

22

28

38

38 105 113

387:10

5:40

170 FSW
8

5:40

10

5:00

15

4:40

20

4:20

25

4:00

30

3:40

35

3:40

40

3:20

45

3:20

50

3:20

9:20

25:00

10

10

22

51:40

11

22

22

74:20

10

12

22

22

22

95:00

12

22

22

22

22

112:00

22

22

22

22

50

153:40

19

22

23

22

22

78

194:40

13

22

22

22

22

26 104

234:40

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------55


60

3:20
3:00

70

3:00

80

2:40

21
22

23
22

22
22

22
22

22
29

42 113
62 113

268:40
302:20

19

22

22

22

31

38

92 113

362:20

22

22

22

32

38

43 113 113

413:00

Table 17-10. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Helium (Continued) .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Bottom
Time
(min)

Time
DECOMPRESSION STOPS (fsw)
to First
Stop times (min) include travel time, except first stop
Stop 190 180 170 160
40
150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50
(M:S)

30

20

10

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

175 FSW
7

5:50

10

5:10

15

4:30

20

4:10

25

4:10

30

3:50

35

3:30

40

3:30

5:50

11:30

10

27:50

10

12

22

56:30

14

22

22

80:30

15

22

22

22

101:10

15

22

22

22

31

127:50

13

22

22

22

22

62

173:50

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------45


50

3:30
3:10

10
19

22
22

22
22

22
22

22
22

22 91
30 113

214:50
255:30

55
60

3:10

22

22

22

22

22

58 113

292:30

3:10

16

22

22

22

22

31

76 113

327:30

65

3:10

70

2:50

22

22

22

22

25

38

90 113

357:30

22

22

22

22

34

38 106 113

75

2:50

388:10

10

22

22

23

27

37

45 113 113

80

2:50

415:10

14

22

22

22

36

38

58 113 113

441:10

180 FSW
7

6:00

10

5:20

15

4:40

20

4:20

25

4:00

30

3:40

35

3:40

40

3:20

6:00

12:40

11

32:00
61:40

10

14

22

10

16

22

22

86:20

10

17

22

22

23

108:00

17

22

23

22

41

145:00

10

16

22

22

22

22

73

191:40

1
1

0
3

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------45


50

3:20
3:20

55

3:20

60

3:00

65
70

4
7

14
22

22
22

22
22

22
22

22
22

22 105
44 113

236:40
277:40

16

22

22

22

22

24

70 113

314:40

22

22

22

22

22

33

90 113

352:20

3:00

22

22

22

22

28

38 105 113

384:20

3:00

15

22

22

22

22

37

45 113 113

414:20

Table 17-10. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Helium (Continued) .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Bottom
Time
(min)

Time
DECOMPRESSION STOPS (fsw)
to First
Stop times (min) include travel time, except first stop
Stop 190 180 170 160
40
150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50
(M:S)

30

20

10

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

185 FSW
6

6:10

10

5:30

6:10

13:50

15

4:50

10

12

36:10

20

4:10

25

4:10

10

10

16

22

66:30

19

22

22

30

3:50

92:30

10

20

22

22

22

114:10

35

3:30

10

40

3:30

10

21

22

22

22

52

162:50

19

22

22

22

22

86

211:50

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------45


50

3:30
3:10

8
14

18
22

22
22

22
22

22
22

22
22

28 113
58 113

258:50
299:30

55
60

3:10

22

22

22

22

22

26

84 113

339:30

3:10

11

22

22

22

22

22

36 103 113

376:30

65

3:10

70

2:50

18

22

22

22

22

30

44 113 113

409:30

22

22

22

22

24

38

60 113 113

441:10

190 FSW
6

6:20

10

5:20

15

4:40

20

4:20

25

4:00

30

4:00

35

3:40

40

3:40

6:20

15:40

15

41:00

10

18

22

71:40

10

20

23

22

98:20

10

10

22

22

22

27

125:20

11

22

22

22

22

63

180:00

11

22

22

22

22

22

99

233:00

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------45


50

3:20
3:20

3
5

9
18

22
22

22
22

22
22

22
22

22
22

41 113
73 113

279:40
322:40

55
60

3:20

11

22

22

22

22

22

28

99 113

364:40

3:20

20

22

22

22

22

22

42 114 113

65

3:00

402:40

22

22

22

22

22

33

59 113 113

70

3:00

436:20

11

22

22

22

22

27

38

76 113 113

469:20

Table 17-10. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Helium (Continued) .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Bottom
Time
(min)

Time
DECOMPRESSION STOPS (fsw)
to First
Stop times (min) include travel time, except first stop
Stop 190 180 170 160
40
150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50
(M:S)

30

20

10

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

195 FSW
6

6:30

6:30

10
15
20
25
30
35
40

5:30
4:50
4:30
4:10
3:50
3:50
3:30

3
6
9 16
20 22
22 22
22 37
22 75
22 112

17:50
45:10
76:50
103:30
142:10
199:10
252:50

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------45


3:30
7 12 22 22 22 22 22 55 113
50
3:30
9 22 22 22 22 22 22 88 113
55
3:10
1 19 22 22 22 22 22 30 113 113

300:50
345:50
389:30

60

3:10

22

3
9
9

22

4
9
9
14

22

4
9
10
14
22

22

3
7
10
12
22
22

22

4
10
10
22
22
22

3
8
9
22
23
22
22

26

55 113 113

426:30

4
9
13
22
22

4
8
9
22
22
22

0
6
17
22
22
48
87

6:40
20:00
49:00
81:40
109:40
159:20
218:00

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------40


3:40
7 10 17 22 22 22 22 34 113
45
3:20
1 10 16 22 22 22 22 22 70 113
50
3:20
4 14 22 22 22 22 22 22 106 113
55
3:20
6 22 22 22 22 22 22 46 113 113

273:00
323:40
372:40
413:40

200 FSW
6
10
15
20
25
30
35

60

6:40
5:40
4:40
4:20
4:20
4:00
3:40

3:20

15

22

6
10

22

2
7
10
9

22

1
4
10
9
17

22

4
9
9
16
22

4
10
22
22
22
22

22

27

72 113 114

454:40

4
9
10
18
22

1
5
10
15
22
22

4
9
11
22
22
22

0
4
8
9 19
22 22
22 22
22 59
22 100

6:50
22:50
53:10
86:50
115:30
176:10
238:10

205 FSW
5
10
15
20
25
30
35

6:50
5:30
4:50
4:30
4:10
3:50
3:50

1
7

2
9
9

3
9
10
10

2
5
9
9
20

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------40


3:30
2 10
9 21 22 22 22 22 48 113 294:50
45
3:30
5 10 20 22 22 22 22 22 85 113 346:50
50
3:30
8 18 22 22 22 22 22 30 113 113 395:50
55
3:30
14 22 22 22 22 22 22 62 113 113 437:50
60

3:10

22

22

22

22

22

22

30

87 113 113

480:30

Table 17-10. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Helium (Continued) .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Bottom
Time
(min)

Time
DECOMPRESSION STOPS (fsw)
to First
Stop times (min) include travel time, except first stop
Stop 190 180 170 160
40
150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50
(M:S)

10

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

30

20

7:00

25:00

10

20

57:20

210 FSW
5

7:00

10

5:40

15

5:00

20

4:20

25

4:20

30

4:00

35

3:40

10

13

22

22

91:40

10

17

22

22

26

124:40

10

21

22

23

22

68

192:20

10

11

22

22

22

22

22 112

257:00

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------40


45

3:40
3:40

50

3:20

55

3:20

60

3:20

6
9

9
11

12
22

22
23

22
22

22
22

22
22

22 61 113
22 100 113

315:00
370:00

10

22

22

22

22

22

22

45 113 113

418:40

19

22

22

22

22

22

22

81 113 113

465:40

10

22

22

22

22

22

22

32 103 113 113

506:40

215 FSW
5

7:10

10

5:50

15

4:50

20

4:30

25

4:10

30

4:10

7:10

10

27:10
62:10

10

22

10

15

22

22

96:50

10

20

22

22

36

140:30

10

11

22

22

22

22

81

211:30

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------35


40

3:50
3:30

5
9

10
10

9
15

14
22

22
22

22
22

22
22

22
22

35 113
77 113

278:10
338:50

45

3:30

50

3:30

15

22

22

22

23

22

24 113 113

392:50

14

22

22

22

22

22

22

62 113 114

55

444:50

3:30

22

22

22

22

22

22

23

97 113 113

490:50

60

3:30

19

22

22

22

22

22

22

41 112 113 113

533:50

220 FSW
5

7:20

10

5:40

15

5:00

20

4:40

25

4:20

30

4:00

7:20

29:00

11

22

66:20

10

17

22

22

102:00

10

10

22

22

22

45

155:40

10

14

22

22

22

22

93

229:20

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------35


40

4:00
3:40

9
9

9
9

10
19

17
22

22
22

22
22

22
22

22
22

48 113
92 113

298:20
361:00

45

3:40

50

3:20

19

22

22

22

22

22

41 113 113

417:00

10

17

22

22

22

22

22

22

80 113 113

55

3:20

15

469:40

22

22

22

22

22

22

30 108 113 113

517:40

Table 17-10. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Helium (Continued) .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Bottom
Time
(min)

Time
DECOMPRESSION STOPS (fsw)
to First
Stop times (min) include travel time, except first stop
Stop 190 180 170 160
40
150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50
(M:S)

30

20

10

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

225 FSW
4

7:30

7:10

8:30

10

5:50

31:10

15

5:10

20

4:30

25

4:10

30

4:10

7:30

10

12

22

70:30

10

19

22

22

106:50

10

12

22

22

22

56

172:30

10

16

22

22

23

22 104

247:30

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------35


40

3:50
3:50

45

3:30

50

3:30

55

3:30

3
8

10
10

9
9

10
22

20
22

22
22

22
22

22
22

22 61 113
22 106 113

318:10
382:10

10

22

22

22

22

22

22

56 113 113

439:50

10

21

22

22

22

22

22

22

97 113 113

494:50

19

22

22

22

22

22

22

42 113 113 114

543:50

230 FSW
4

7:40

7:40

7:20

9:40

10

6:00

33:20

15

5:00

20

4:40

25

4:20

30

4:20

14

22

74:20

10

21

22

22

112:00

10

14

22

22

22

66

187:40

10

20

22

22

22

26 113

266:40

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------35


40

4:00
3:40

45

3:40

50

3:40

55

3:20

7
9

9
10

10
13

10
22

22
22

22
22

22
22

22
22

22 74 113
31 113 113

337:20
406:00

14

22

22

22

22

22

22

74 113 113

466:00

13

22

22

22

22

22

22

27 109 113 113

520:00

10

22

22

22

23

22

22

22

60 113 113 113

569:40

235 FSW
4

7:50

7:50

7:30

10:50

10

5:50

15

5:10

20

4:30

25

4:30

30

4:10

10

36:10

10

15

22

78:30

10

10

22

22

22

116:50

10

17

22

22

22

76

203:50

10

22

22

22

22

38 113

284:30

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------35


40

3:50
3:50

2
7

45

3:30

50

3:30

9
9

9
10

10
16

13
22

22
22

22
22

23
22

22
22

22 88 113
46 113 113

359:10
428:10

10

17

23

22

22

22

22

22

90 113 113

489:50

17

22

22

22

22

22

22

40 113 113 113

544:50

Table 17-10. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Helium (Continued) .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Bottom
Time
(min)

Time
DECOMPRESSION STOPS (fsw)
to First
Stop times (min) include travel time, except first stop
Stop 190 180 170 160
40
150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50
(M:S)

30

20

10

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

240 FSW
4

8:00

8:00

7:40

11:00

10

6:00

38:20

15

5:00

20

4:40

25

4:20

10

10

17

22

83:20

10

12

22

22

32

132:00

10

10

19

22

22

22

87

220:40

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------30


35

4:20
4:00

40

3:40

45

3:40

50

3:40

7
10

9
9

10
10

9
16

12
22

22
22

22
22

22
22

22 51 113
22 104 113

303:40
381:20

10

10

19

22

22

22

22

22

60 113 113

449:00

10

21

22

22

22

22

22

22 107 113 113

514:00

21

22

22

22

22

22

22

58 113 113 113

571:00

12:50

11

41:30

245 FSW
5

7:30

10

6:10

15

5:10

20

4:50

25

4:30

19

22

87:30

10

14

22

22

41

146:10

10

10

21

22

22

22

98

236:50

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------30


35

4:10
4:10

1
9

40

3:50

10

45

3:50

10

50

3:30

12

22

10
9

9
10

10
9

9
20

15
22

22
22

22
22

22
22

22 64 113
27 113 113

323:30
402:30

11

22

22

22

22

22

22

77 114 113

475:10

12

22

22

22

22

22

22

33 113 113 113

539:10

22

22

22

22

23

22

75 113 114 113

597:50

13:00

12

44:40

10

20

22

91:40

250 FSW
5

7:40

10

6:20

15

5:20

20

4:40

25

4:20

3
1

10

16

22

22

50

160:00

10

11

22

22

22

22 110

254:40

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------30


35

4:20
4:00

40

4:00

45

3:40

50

3:40

5
9

9
9

10
10

9
10

10
22

17
22

22
22

22
22

22
22

22 78 113
41 113 114

343:40
424:20

10

14

22

22

22

22

22

22

94 113 113

498:20

10

16

22

22

22

22

22

22

51 113 113 113

565:00

16

22

22

22

22

22

22

22

95 113 113 113

624:00

Table 17-10. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Helium (Continued) .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Bottom
Time
(min)

Time
DECOMPRESSION STOPS (fsw)
to First
Stop times (min) include travel time, except first stop
Stop 190 180 170 160
40
150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50
(M:S)

30

20

10

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

255 FSW
5

7:50

10

6:10

15

5:10

20

4:50

25

4:30

1
3

14:10

10

12

47:30

10

10

22

22

96:30

10

18

22

22

59

174:10

10

10

13

22

22

22

31 113

272:50

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------30


35

4:10
4:10

40

3:50

45

3:50

50

3:30

1
7

8
10

9
9

10
9

9
14

9
22

21
22

22
22

22
22

22
22

22 91 113
56 113 113

363:30
445:30

10

17

22

22

22

22

22

25 107 113 113

521:10

10

19

22

22

22

22

22

22

68 113 113 113

10

589:10

20

22

22

22

22

22

22

32 104 113 113 113

651:50

10

14

51:40

10

11

22

22

100:40

260 FSW
5

8:00

10

6:20

15

5:20

20

4:40

25

4:20

15:20

10

20

22

22

69

189:00

10

10

16

22

22

22

43 113

290:40

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------30


35

4:20
4:00

3
9

9
10

10
9

9
9

9
17

11
22

22
22

22
22

22
22

22
22

22 105 113
72 113 113

383:40
468:20

40

4:00

10

20

22

22

23

22

22

34 113 113 113

544:20

45

3:40

11

22

22

22

22

22

22

22

86 113 113 113

615:00

10

15

54:50

265 FSW
5

8:10

10

6:30

15

5:30

20

4:50

25

4:30

16:30

13

22

22

104:50

10

22

22

22

78

203:10

10

18

22

22

22

55 113

307:50

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------30


35

4:30
4:10

40

3:50

45

3:50

6
10

10
9

9
10

9
9

10
19

13
22

22
23

22
22

22
22

22
22

27 113 113
87 113 113

402:50
490:30

10

10

11

22

22

22

22

22

22

52 113 113 113

569:10

15

22

22

22

22

22

22

26 100 113 113 113

641:10

Table 17-10. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Helium (Continued) .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Bottom
Time
(min)

Time
DECOMPRESSION STOPS (fsw)
to First
Stop times (min) include travel time, except first stop
Stop 190 180 170 160
40
150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50
(M:S)

30

20

10

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

270 FSW
5

8:00

10

6:20

15

5:20

20

5:00

25

4:40

16

17:20
57:40

10

15

22

22

109:40

10

11

22

22

22

88

218:20

10

10

20

22

22

22

66 113

325:00

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------30


35

4:20
4:20

40

4:00

45

3:40

2
9

8
9

9
10

10
9

9
10

10
22

16
22

22
22

22
22

22
22

22 41 113 113
22 102 113 113

423:40
511:40

10

10

15

22

22

22

22

22

22

69 113 113 113

593:20

10

18

22

22

22

22

22

22

37 107 113 113 113

667:00

275 FSW
5

8:10

10

6:30

15

5:30

20

4:50

18:30

10

18

61:50

10

10

16

22

24

115:50

10

14

22

22

22

99

235:10

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------25


30

4:30
4:30

35

4:10

40

3:50

45

3:50

2
4

4
9

5
10

9
9

10
10

9
9

10
19

10
22

22
22

22
22

22
22

22 79 113
55 113 113

343:50
443:50

10

10

13

22

22

22

22

22

32 108 113 113

534:30

19

22

22

22

22

22

22

86 113 113 114

10

619:10

22

22

22

22

22

22

22

48 113 113 113 113

691:10

280 FSW
5

8:20

10

6:40

15

5:40

20

5:00

18:40

10

19

65:00

10

18

22

32

128:00

10

10

15

23

22

22 109

250:20

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------25


30

4:40
4:20

3
6

35

4:20

40

4:00

45

4:00

4
9

7
10

10
9

9
10

10
9

9
21

12
22

22
22

22
22

22
22

22 92 113
70 113 113

362:00
464:40

7
10

10

10

16

22

22

22

22

22

43 113 113 113

557:40

10

22

22

22

22

22

22

26

99 113 113 113

642:20

10

13

22

22

22

22

22

22

22

68 113 113 113 113

719:20

Table 17-10. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Helium (Continued) .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Bottom
Time
(min)

Time
DECOMPRESSION STOPS (fsw)
to First
Stop times (min) include travel time, except first stop
Stop 190 180 170 160
40
150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50
(M:S)

30

20

10

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

285 FSW
5

8:30

10

6:30

15

5:30

20

4:50

10

20

19:50
68:50

10

21

22

40

141:50

10

18

22

22

29 113

266:10

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------25


30

4:30
4:30

35

4:10

40

4:10

45

3:50

1
3

4
8

4
10

9
9

9
10

10
9

9
11

10
22

14
22

22
22

22
22

22
22

23 104 113
84 113 113

380:50
484:50

10

10

19

22

22

22

22

22

59 113 113 113

580:30

10

10

12

22

22

22

22

22

22

38 104 113 113 113

666:30

10

17

22

22

22

22

22

22

22

87 113 113 113 113

746:10

290 FSW
5

8:20

10

6:40

15

5:40

20

5:00

21:40

10

22

73:00

10

10

22

22

48

154:00

10

20

22

22

40 113

282:20

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------25


30

4:40
4:20

35

4:20

40

4:00

45

4:00

3
5

4
9

5
10

9
9

9
9

10
10

9
14

10
22

17
22

22
22

22
22

22
23

31 109 113
99 113 113

400:00
507:40

10

10

10

10

22

22

22

22

22

22

76 113 113 113

604:40

10

15

22

23

22

22

22

22

49 111 113 113 113

10

692:20

20

22

22

22

22

22

22

31

95 113 113 113 113

770:20

295 FSW
5

8:30

10

6:50

15

5:30

20

4:50

22:50

11

22

76:10

10

12

22

22

56

166:50

10

10

10

22

22

22

50 113

298:10

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------25


30

4:30
4:30

35

4:30

40

4:10

45

3:50

1
3

4
6

4
10

6
9

10
9

9
10

9
9

10
17

9
22

20
22

22
22

22
22

22 41 112 113
33 103 113 113

418:50
527:50

10

10

12

22

22

22

22

22

23

91 113 113 113

626:50

10

20

22

22

22

22

22

22

66 113 113 113 113

718:30

10

10

11

22

22

22

22

22

22

22

43 102 113 113 113 113

797:10

Table 17-10. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0 .7 ata Constant
Partial Pressure Oxygen in Helium (Continued) .
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPMASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Bottom
Time
(min)

Time
DECOMPRESSION STOPS (fsw)
to First
Stop times (min) include travel time, except first stop
Stop 190 180 170 160
40
150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50
(M:S)

30

20

10

Total
Ascent
Time
(M:S)

300 FSW
5

8:40

10

7:00

15

5:40

20

5:00

12

22

25:00
79:20

10

10

14

22

22

64

180:00

10

10

12

22

22

22

62 113

315:20

Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------25


30

4:40
4:20

2
4

4
8

4
9

8
10

10
9

9
10

10
9

9
20

9
22

22
22

22
22

23
22

22 51 113 113
43 108 113 113

436:00
549:40

35

4:20

10

10

15

22

22

22

22

23

32

97 113 113 113

649:40

40

4:00

10

10

10

22

22

22

22

22

22

22

83 113 113 113 113

742:20

310 FSW
Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
10

8:20
7:00

15

5:40

20

5:00

25

4:40

30

4:40

35

4:20

40

4:20

1
4

4
6

4
9

4
10

6
15

9
22

36:40
87:20

10

18

22

22

81

206:00

10

10

17

22

22

22

85 113

349:20

10

10

14

22

22

22

22

81 113 113

477:00

10

10

10

12

22

22

22

22

22

69 113 113 113

593:00

10

10

22

22

22

22

22

22

54 109 113 113 113

696:40

10

10

16

22

22

22

22

23

22

41

98 113 113 113 113

791:40

320 FSW
Exceptional Exposure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
10

8:40
7:00

15

6:00

20

5:20

25

4:40

30

4:40

35

4:20

40

4:20

10

3
4

4
7

4
10

4
9

7
19

10
22

41:00
95:20

22

10

10

22

22

98

232:20

10

10

22

22

22

28 102 113

383:40

10

10

10

19

22

22

22

34

96 113 113

516:00

10

10

10

18

22

22

22

22

31

91 113 113 113

637:00

10

10

16

22

22

22

22

22

24

84 113 113 113 113

746:40

10

11

22

22

22

22

22

22

22

66 112 113 113 113 113

844:40