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Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs

ISSN: 1360-2004 (Print) 1469-9591 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/cjmm20

Hazrat Bulbul Shah: The First Known Muslim
Missionary in Kashmir
Yoginder Sikand
To cite this article: Yoginder Sikand (2000) Hazrat Bulbul Shah: The First Known Muslim
Missionary in Kashmir, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 20:2, 361-367
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713680363

Published online: 04 Aug 2010.

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3 Wilson. 2. a SuŽ from Turkistan popularly remembered as Hazrat Bulbul Shah. with the Brahmins exercising an untrammelled hegemony over the hapless majority who were consigned to the unenviable status of ‘low’ castes. The extreme oppression under which the ‘low’ castes laboured is re ected in one of the earliest Kashmiri Sanskrit texts that we have at our disposal. but he is also thought to have made bold efforts to bring about a transformation in the caste-ridden Brahmin-dominated society of the Kashmir of his times. Little has been written about him. Brahminical Rule in Kashmir Kashmir. for not only did he play a pioneering role in the spread of Islam here. but most of them may be considered little more than pure propaganda. Some of these are genuine scholarly works. although scattered references to him and his work are found in most of the medieval chronicles about Kashmiri history. The Brahmins comfortably lived off the labour of the ‘low’ castes.Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs. was characterized by ‘bloody sacriŽ ces of low caste people by the high caste Brahmins to please their gods and goddesses’.2 The Brahminical period of Kashmiri history. 20. could be further from the truth. on the eve of the advent of Islam in the region. was a society rigidly hierarchically ordered. the Nilamata Purana. 2000 Hazrat Bulbul Shah: The First Known Muslim Missionary in Kashmir Downloaded by [University of Minnesota Libraries. however. Nothing. provides the social rules for the people of Kashmir to follow. Efforts have been made to attempt to prove that the mass conversion to Islam in this region was the result of political patronage extended by Muslim kings or even their alleged mass persecution of the Hindu and Buddhist populace. writes one scholar. As Bukhari rightly points out. in which Nilanaga. building magniŽ cent temples where they stored their ill-gotten wealth. in his ISSN 1360-2004 print/ISSN 1469-9591 online/00/020361-07 Ó 2000 Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs . Vol.1 This article deals with the Ž rst known Islamic missionary to Kashmir. no doubt seeing this as part of his own religious mission. without any force or pressure’. The success of Hazrat Bulbul Shah’s missionary endeavours therefore needs to be understood in the context of the Brahminical social order of early medieval times. and to that we now turn. No. Twin Cities] at 16:33 02 October 2015 YOGINDER SIKAND Introduction The events of the last decade and more have occasioned a veritable  ood of writings on Kashmir. however. of central importance in any study of Islam in Kashmir. Among the many detailed commandments are laws that strictly enjoin the enforcement of the caste system and the worship of the Brahmins. A particularly tragic victim of this sort of historiography has been the early history of Islam in Kashmir. Hazrat Bulbul Shah is. the Hindu king of Kashmir. ‘It is an irrefutable fact of history that the people of Kashmir accepted Islam perfectly voluntarily with their hearts and souls [dil-o-jan se].

which consisted largely in propitiating the Brahmins as gods and upholding the caste order. while offenders against them were treated with ten-fold severity’. by the time Islam found its way to Kashmir. as indeed Kalhan also does in his Rajataringini. and branded it. writes that ‘Brahmin offenders were treated with leniency.6 Violence on a large scale accompanied this tirade against the Buddhists. attributes the destruction of the Brahminical ritual sacriŽ ces to the Buddha.8 Likewise. The Chinese Buddhist traveller and scholar. the Shaivite leaders ‘did nothing to relieve the masses from their age-old suffering’.Downloaded by [University of Minnesota Libraries. as Nazki argues. who. and it now became the established position that salvation was possible only through the learning of the Brahminical scriptures. Buddhism remained the dominant religion of the non-Brahmins of Kashmir until around the eighth century CE. which saw egalitarian Buddhism as a major challenge to its supremacy. which was renamed after Shankaracharya. starting from the third century BCE. destroying their temples and ordering the massacre of ‘thousands of families’. protests against Brahminical hegemony now began. he says. whose name.5 From the sixth century onwards. . ‘plotted to trap it in the maze of philosophy’. who visited Kashmir in the mid-seventh century. and calls the Adi Buddha (‘The First Buddha’) a demon. ‘is synonymous with the restoration of Shaivism’ in Kashmir. By the end of the eighth century. the Hindu king Nara is said to have burnt down ‘thousands of [Buddhist] viharas’. and showers invectives on them for putting an end to the rites and sacriŽ ces prescribed by the Nilamata Purana. Jayaratha. Kalhan declares in his Rajataringini that the Buddhists are ‘the enemies of the agamas’. mercilessly slaughtered hundreds of Buddhist monks.11 Thus. the reformist effort was stif y opposed by the Brahmin priests. however. Hiuen Tsang. accordingly. failed to make a major dent in the power of the Brahminical establishment. by which. expressing themselves within certain strands of Kashmiri Shaivism. the leader of the Brahminical revivalist crusade.4 Protest against Brahminical hegemony took many forms in pre-Islamic Kashmir. The Brahminical campaign of exterminating Buddhism from Kashmir is one of the darkest chapters in Kashmir’s history. as ‘open heresy’. however. This. He writes that with their concern for philosophical speculation. He writes that the Sravakatmanah Buddha is ‘bent on destroying the world’. from the ninth century onwards. The most forceful expression of this protest was the rapid spread of Buddhism in the region. bitterly critiquing the empty ritualism and idolatry associated with the Hindu priesthood. and was dedicated to Jyeshteswara or Shiva. he meant the Brahminical system of domination. in his Haracharitachintamani . of course. In the same vein. over time even these reformist efforts within Kashmiri Shaivism were tamed.9 With the rapid decline of Buddhism. both victims of Brahminical revivalism and orthodoxy. observed some 100 or more Buddhist temples in Srinagar alone. This. The ferocity and hatred that Ž red many Brahminical revivalists is clearly brought out in the works of several early medieval Kashmiri Brahmin writers.10 According to Hangloo. while the latter ‘were increasingly burdened with cumbersome rituals and ceremonies’. the most prominent being the temple of Pas Pahar atop the Takht-i-Sulaiman in Srinagar. The Hindu king Mihirakula.7 Numerous Buddhist temples were captured and converted into Hindu shrines. ‘inevitably put the masses beyond its reach and limited its appeal to the select who had the leisure for intellectual pursuits’. Brahminism had clearly emerged as the triumphant victor. Twin Cities] at 16:33 02 October 2015 362 Yoginder Sikand treatise on the history of Hindu rule in Kashmir. Kashmiri society was ripe for a new philosophy of life. says Baig. the in uence of Buddhism in Kashmir gradually began to decline at the hands of Brahminical revivalism. one that would appeal to the downtrodden ‘lower’ castes and the Buddhists. because.

Twin Cities] at 16:33 02 October 2015 The First Muslims in Kashmir It is interesting to note that the spread of Islam in Kashmir long predates the establishment of the Ž rst Muslim dynasty in the region in the early fourteenth century. the Ž rst SuŽ in Kashmir about whom we have Ž rm historical evidence is Hazrat Bulbul Shah. which was later corrupted as ‘Bulbul’. Hazrat Bulbul Shah Hazrat Bulbul Shah’s real name was Sayyed Sharfuddin ‘Abdur Rahman. Hazrat Shah Nimatullah Wali Farsi. of the Prophet Muhammad having himself dispatched two emissaries to the court of Venadutt. whose veracity may be doubtful. taking along with him a Syrian Muslim general of his army. Kalhan. writes in his Rajataringini.13 It is also said that after Muhammad bin Qasim and his army defeated Dahir. in turn. the Hindu king of Kashmir. the Kashmiris ‘converted to Islam in a  ood’. after a favourite companion of the Prophet Muhammad.17 As regards the Ž rst Kashmiri converts to Islam. However. His family claimed direct descent from the Prophet Muhammad and was well known for its piety. but even in his case his story is shrouded in layers of myth and legend. when the Ž rst Muslim missionaries arrived in Kashmir. was warmly welcomed by the Hindu king of Kashmir and given an estate.16 Firm evidence of the Muslim presence predating considerably the establishment of Muslim rule in Kashmir is available from the twelfth century onwards. that the Kashmiri Hindu king Harshadeva (1089–1101 CE) employed many mlecchas (a derogatory term he uses for Muslims) in his court and army.14 We also hear of an anonymous early ninth century Kashmiri Hindu king who wrote a letter to Amir ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar bin ‘Abdul ‘Aziz of Mansura. while others suggesting Iran and Baghdad.15 The ninth century Arab traveller Buzurg bin Shahryar mentions in his travelogue.20 . who is said to have been so impressed by their exposition of their faith that he began ‘leading a simple life and even distributed one-tenth of his agricultural produce [i. one Hamim bin Sama.12 Downloaded by [University of Minnesota Libraries. the Hindu king of Sind. Hamim. Dahir’s son Jaisiya  ed to Kashmir. the noted twelfth century Kashmiri Pandit scholar.18 As a result. apparently. it has been opined that some of these texts might actually mention certain Muslim SuŽ missionaries active in the region well before the arrival of Hazrat Bulbul Shah in Kashmir. says one writer. Hazrat Bulbul Shah is believed to have spent many years in Baghdad. Aja’ib-al Hind (The Wonders of India). A story is told. some mentioning Turkistan. the records give con icting views.19 As regards his place of birth. ‘such a lover of the tradition of the Prophet [ashiq-i-sunnat-i-rasul] was he’ that he was given the title of Bilal. where he became a disciple of the noted SuŽ of the Suhrawardi order.e. requesting him to dispatch a scholar to his court who could ‘explain the tenets of the Islamic shari’at in al-Hindia language’. who. being more concerned with happenings at the royal courts. but that their names have been distorted all out of recognition. that the Hindu king of Mehroke in Kashmir had commissioned the preparation of a Kashmiri translation of the Holy Qur’an. was a disciple of Hazrat Ziauddin-ul Najib Abdul Qahiri. in 711 CE. according to one source. the early Hindu writers give us no indications.Hazrat Bulbul Shah 363 Consequently. where he built several mosques and laid the foundation of a  ourishing Muslim community. revenues] amongst the poor and needy as ushr’. but.

the death-knell for Hindu rule was sounded with the invasion of the Tartar hordes led by the Mongol warlord Zulchu. Raja Suha Dev. he was accompanied by some one thousand disciples. Zulchu ordered all able-bodied Kashmiri men to be killed. Jonaraja. Hazrat Bulbul Shah travelled extensively in west and central Asia before Ž nally arriving in Kashmir in 1295 CE. Shah Mir. tells us.23 According to another source. The then Hindu ruler of Kashmir. and were it not for Rinchen Shah and Shah Mir. arrived in Kashmir from Swat. and here a slight digression is in order. on the other hand. that Hazrat Shah Nimatullah Wali Farsi was a disciple of Hazrat Shaikh Shihabuddin Abu Hafs ‘Umar bin ‘Abdullah (d. Kashmir in the twelfth century was racked with political intrigue in the courts of the Hindu Rajas and considerable mass unrest. 1234). in whose conversion to Islam he played the central role. 21 He is said to have been ‘equally proŽ cient in the religious [dini] and worldly [duniyavi] sciences. welcomed Rinchen and gave him an estate in the region of Lar. in the wake of the Mongol invasion Raja Suha Dev  ed to Kishtwar. At around the same time. . He laid Kashmir waste in a campaign of mass slaughter that lasted some eight long months. writes about Raja Suha Dev. because of which he emerged as a popular leader with much mass support. Rinchen Shah (whose Buddhist name was Lhachen-rgyal-bu-rin-chen). including leading Islamic scholars. Meanwhile.25 Already tottering under the weight of its own contradictions. he came alone. grandson of the dreaded Hulagu in 1319. and in the exterior [zahiri] as well as the esoteric [batini] disciplines’. During Zulchu’s invasion Rinchen remained at Lar and played a heroic role in defending the people against the Mongol marauders. Rinchen deposed Rawanchandra and ascended the throne of Kashmir in 1320 CE as the Ž rst Buddhist king in Kashmir after several centuries of Hindu rule. the last Hindu ruler of Kashmir. Encouraged by the popular support that he had won in resisting the Mongols. in his treatise on SuŽ sm in Kashmir. his commander-in-chief. however. the Kashmiris would have been left completely defenceless.Downloaded by [University of Minnesota Libraries.26 Shortly before Zulchu’s invasion. son of Ramachandra. took over as king of Kashmir. for the women and children to be taken as slaves and for entire towns to be razed to the ground.27 Shah Mir. had  ed to Kashmir after his father had been slain in a battle with the Baltis. Rinchen appointed him as his chief minister. the noted Ž fteenth century Hindu Pandit historian. son of the Ladakhi Buddhist king Lha-chen-dngros-grub. it is said. He also appointed Rawanchandra. Twin Cities] at 16:33 02 October 2015 364 Yoginder Sikand RaŽ qui.24 Hazrat Bulbul Shah’s Missionary Endeavours The role of Hazrat Bulbul Shah in planting the seeds of Islam in Kashmir is inextricably linked with the political developments of his times. three months and twenty Ž ve days’. This time. in which thousands of Kashmiris lost their lives. It is believed that he stayed in Kashmir for a short while on his Ž rst trip and returned to central Asia. but his rule did not last long. joined in leading the struggle against the Mongols. in the reign of the last Hindu king of Kashmir.22 As a wandering dervish. who ‘devoured Kashmir for nineteen years. Rawanchandra. Raja Suha Dev. Rinchen Shah. Since Shah Mir had played a key role in bringing him to power. but later came back in 1324 CE in the reign of Kashmir’s Ž rst Muslim king. too. that he was ‘a rakshasa [demon] of a king’. nephew and successor of Shaikh Ziauddin ‘Abdul Suhrawardi. With Raja Suha Dev hiding in Kishtwar. as governor of Lar and gave him the province of Ladakh as an estate. another man who was to play a key role in the establishment of Muslim rule in Kashmir.

he came to the decision that he should accept the religion of the Ž rst person that he happened to see the next morning. Rinchen rushed out of his palace to pay his respects to him. Because of this great spiritual vacuum in his life. caste and priesthood’. and said that he was even willing to give up the post of the prime minister in the Hindu Raja’s court if he had to. Rinchen was greatly disturbed. while in deep thought. Buddhism. which so in uenced Shah Mir that he decided to convert to that religion. he accepted Islam at his hands and received the name of Malik Sadruddin. a certain SuŽ from Kabul. arrived at the inn and delivered a speech on Islam. and being ‘so impressed by its teachings. From Hazrat Bulbul Shah Rinchen learnt about Islam and then became a Muslim. Shah Mir embraced Islam at the hands of the SuŽ . but when the king was given the news he insisted that Shah Mir’s change of religion had not prejudiced him in the least and that he and his courtiers would not allow Shah Mir to resign. he would disguise himself and sit outside the little inn in Srinagar that served as a mosque and meeting place for the town’s small Muslim community. and. He spent the entire night praying to God for guidance. Shah Mir was convinced that the Hindu Raja would dismiss him from his post for having become a Muslim. which were simple. This event occurred in 1323 CE. it is said.28 Another version of Rinchen’s conversion has it that by temperament he was ‘inquisitive and alert’ and was ‘fond of the company of learned men’. as a pious Muslim. according to this version of the story. Learning about Islam from him. Gradually. Every evening. It was then that he happened to meet Hazrat Bulbul Shah in the city of Srinagar. to listen to sermons being delivered by Muslim scholars.29 Rinchen Shah’s Ž rst meeting with Hazrat Bulbul Shah is mentioned in almost all the early Muslim chronicles of Kashmir. the religion into which he had been born. As the anonymous author of the Baharistan-i-Shahi. for they were all aware of his Ž ne administrative capabilities and dedication. whose name we are not given. he failed to Ž nd their views appealing because they did not satisfy his spiritual thirst. it is said. free from useless ceremonies. weeping profusely and praying to God to guide him to the ‘true path’. it is said. after the ‘isha prayers would be over. When Rinchen ascended the throne he appointed Shah Mir as his prime minister. said by some to have been a Hindu Rajput. When he got up in the morning and looked out of the window of his palace.Hazrat Bulbul Shah 365 Downloaded by [University of Minnesota Libraries. he would spend many sleepless nights. the Ž rst person he saw was Hazrat Bulbul Shah. and this set him on the path of seeking to discover the spiritual truth. that was instrumental in the latter’s conversion to Islam. but even then. because of ‘Brahminical arrogance’ and caste discrimination. who was offering the early morning fajr prayers on the banks of the river Jhelum. he developed a great interest in the religion. it was Shah Mir’s in uence and the impression that he. earlier served as prime minister in the court of Raja Suha Dev. One day. but who could well have been Hazrat Bulbul Shah. did not answer his quest because by then it had ‘become diluted with foreign elements’. too. According to one account. Twin Cities] at 16:33 02 October 2015 Rinchen Shah’s Conversion Rinchen’s conversion from Buddhism to Islam at the hands of Hazrat Bulbul Shah was the single most crucial event in his short-lived rule. Seeing him. Malihabadi writes that Shah Mir. who advised him to tell Raja Suha Dev about his conversion. made on Rinchen. One night. a medieval Persian text on the . He was dissatisŽ ed with Hinduism. He would spend hours with Buddhist and Hindu priests discussing religious matters. it was Shah Mir who played a major role in this regard. Witnessing the constant strife between his Hindu and Buddhist subjects. Shah Mir told him his heart’s desire.

at the height of a particularly severe winter when all the lakes had turned to ice. At the khanqah he would deliver regular sermons and provide spiritual instruction to his followers who. son of the Hindu king Ramachandra who had been deposed by Rinchen. Belief in the power of ghosts and evil spirits was particularly strong and widespread among the people. Srinagar: Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art. after which ‘he no longer heard complaints from the people about jinns troubling them’. Attached to the khanqah was a large langar khana or community kitchen. in turn. organized a special religious service at which he recited the Surat al-Jinn. came to him for help.Downloaded by [University of Minnesota Libraries. Twin Cities] at 16:33 02 October 2015 366 Yoginder Sikand history of Kashmir. Hazrat Bulbul Shah. and the right principles of the truthful path of Murtaza [Imam Ali]. He gave up once and for all the false and corrupt religions’. a chapter of the Holy Qur’an. seeing in it a source of liberation from the shackles of the Brahminical system. including a Jami’ah mosque for the Friday congregational prayers. too. Rinchen. Kashmir main Islam: Manzar Aur Pasmanzar (Islam in Kashmir: Historical Context). his role was crucial in planting the seeds of Islam in the region. 2. Hazrat Bulbul Shah succeeded in making some 10. NOTES 1. The credit for introducing the institution of the langar in Kashmir. Close to the khanqah. so the story goes. Many ‘low’ castes and Buddhists. thus goes to Hazrat Bulbul Shah. Rinchen Shah constructed two mosques. p. it is said. and embraced the Islamic religion with sincerity and conviction. the story clearly suggests the understanding that ordinary Kashmiris have of the SuŽ being deeply concerned about the plight of the poor. 4. Hazrat Bulbul Shah led ‘a life of complete self-abnegation’ and ‘cast an enormous in uence on the people amongst whom he worked and lived’. Culture and Languages. it is said.32 He preached against the popular superstitions that were widely prevalent amongst the Kashmiris of his day. Srinagar: Maktaba ‘Ilm-o-Adab. which is still to be found in several SuŽ centres all over the region. the people of Srinagar. looked up towards the sky and called out. ‘now subjected himself to the teachings of the religion of Mustafa [the Prophet]. although this Ž gure seems considerably exaggerated. Although the mass conversion of the Kashmiris to Islam had to wait for at least a century later. now known as Bulbul Langar where the poor were fed free of cost twice a day.31 Conclusion Being a devout Muslim SuŽ . 1994.33 His close involvement with ordinary folk in their times of need is evident from the story that once. II. Hazrat Bulbul Shah. in all.35 Hazrat Bulbul Shah carried on with his mission of spreading Islam from his khanqah until he breathed his last in 1327 CE. the sun appeared from behind a thick blanket of clouds and the ice on the lakes began to melt. . Vol. having no access to water. 1998. Hazrat Bulbul Shah took up residence on the banks of the Jhelum where Rinchen Shah set up a khanqah or SuŽ centre at Ali Kadal in the heart of Srinagar.000 converts to Islam through means of peaceful missionary effort. The Nilamata Purana.30 Following the conversion of Rinchen and his family. puts it. several other leading Kashmiris also followed suit. It is said that. most notably Rawanchandra. carried the message of Islam to various other parts of Kashmir.34 Although this may well be a later hagiographic legend. now began to embrace the new faith. Sayyed Muhammad Faruq Bukhari. Ved Kumari. ‘Where is the sun to melt all the ice?’ All at once.

9. 34. p. 31. cit. Srinagar: Ali Mohammad.. M. The Role of Kashmiri SuŽ s in the Promotion of Social Reform and Communal Harmony [14th–16th Century]. MPhil dissertation. 5. Shah-i-Hamadan Institute of Islamic Studies. L. 28. 93.. 61. 95. Kashmir Today. Abdur Rabb Kardar. Srinagar: Government of Jammu and Kashmir. A. G. 24. Kashmir University. Abdul Ahad RaŽ q. 2000. Srinagar: Gulshan. Later. Srinagar: Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art. ‘From Burzahom to Solomon’s Throne’. who included Islamic scholars (ulama) as well as mystics of great accomplishment. 16. SuŽ sm in Kashmir From the Fourteenth Century to the Sixteenth Century. 1979. p. Rashid Nazki. a treatise on SuŽ sm. 1979. 7. p. 18.. lxxi. 26. M. 19. 6. 46. R. Abdur Rabb Kardar. Bukhari. 9. p. The Way to SuŽ sm. p. II.Downloaded by [University of Minnesota Libraries. Darakshan Abdullah. 29. 48. Bukhari.. 1996. 4–20. d. Twin Cities] at 16:33 02 October 2015 Hazrat Bulbul Shah 367 3. Mumbai: Center for Study of Society and Secularism. 1980. ‘Role of Shah-i-Hamadan in the Islamization of Kashmir’. Baharistan-i-Shahi (The Royal Garden). The most prominent among Hazrat Bulbul Shah’s principal disciples. 1981–1982. ‘Mazahib-o-Aqa’id’. 1995. 39. M. p. p. . S. K. 12.. op. New Delhi: Bharatiya Publishing House. 117. 22.. The Way to SuŽ sm: Life and Teachings of SuŽ s. Abdul Qaiyum RaŽ qui. Hassnain. p. p. 77. 4. 25. New Delhi: M. Among his many works. Calcutta: Firma KLM. whom he made his chief deputy to carry on Islamic missionary work in Kashmir. P. Islamic Culture. Didamari. 13. D. Waqi’at-i-Kashmir op. Tazkirat-ul Auliya-i-Kashmir (The History of the SuŽ s of Kashmir). M. cit. ‘Sayyed Bulbul Shah’. 38. op. 181. F. cit. Rampur: Pakeeza Kitab Ghar. op. Culture and Languages. cit. 17. 4. Srinagar: Gulshan. 315.. Srinagar. p. cit. New Delhi: Capital Publishing House. Kashir: Being a History of Kashmir. 1998. p. F. Directorate of Information. M. 27. cit.. p. p.. p. 1974. 20. n. p. Bamzai. 1988. Mohibbul Hasan. 18. op. in Hamara Adab (Our Culture). was Mullah Ahmad. Ibid. op. Vol. p. pp.D. ‘Ibadat Gahen’ (‘Places of Worship’). Hassnain. Ibid. Srinagar: Jammu and Kashmir Islamic Research Center. Cultural and Political History of Kashmir. Kashir: Being a History of Kashmir from the Earliest Times to Our Own. op. SuŽ . 11. 172. ‘Accepting Islam’. 15. Hangloo. New Delhi: Anjuman-i-Minhaj-i-Rasul. 1997. Vol. G. 1994. the Mullah was appointed by Shah Mir. p. I. Hasan. Kashmir Under the Sultans... in Heritage of Kashmir. M. 32. To the Mullah goes the credit of writing the Ž rst Islamic texts in Kashmir about which we have Ž rm historical evidence. p. Abdul Ahad RaŽ q. 167. ed. cit. 49. 33. p. ed. Muhammad Yusuf Teng. 16. Waqi’at-i-Kashmir (The History of Kashmir) [translated by Khwaja Hamid Yazdani].. ‘Islam in Kashmir’. 23. p. p. The Way to SuŽ sm. 1341–1345). 113–14. in Hamara Adab. ‘Mazahib-o-Aqa’id’ (‘Religions and Beliefs’). S. a compendium on Islamic jurisprudence (Ž qh) and the other. p. Bashir Akhtar. op. Ibid. who ascended the throne of Kashmir after Rinchen Shah as Sultan Shamsuddin (r. p. II. Vol. Kashmir Ki Kali: Kashmir Mai Musalmano Ka Pahla Qadam (The Flower of Kashmir: The Advent of Muslims in Kashmir). 27. Department of History. L. Muhammad Amin Pandit. Kashmir main Islam. op. p.. in Hamara Adab (Our Culture). 1990. cit. 14. Hangloo. 22. Zayb Malihabadi. 49. F. Yoginder Sikand. 8. R. p. 1989. K. Khwaja Muhammad ‘Azam Didamari. 6. Abdur Rashid Baig. Kashmir Under the Sultans. as the Ž rst Shaikh-ul Islam or chief ‘alim of Islam in Kashmir. PhD thesis. op. Abdur Rabb Kardar. Srinagar: Ghulam Muhammad & Nur Muhammad. pp. ‘Sayyed Bulbul Shah’. p. 21.. Mohiuddin. ‘Accepting Islam and Abandoning Hinduism: A Study of Proselytisation Process in Medieval Kashmir’. p. Rashid Nazki. Srinagar: Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art. Srinagar. 1998. cit. 31. Mushahir Number. 44. 1981–1982. Vol. the al-Shahab al-Shaqab. p. n. d. SuŽ . 48. Mohibbul Hasan. D. two stand out as most prominent: the Fatawa-i-Shihabiya. 9. p. in Heritage of Kashmir. F. M. Culture and Languages. 35. ‘Religious Views of Sultan Sikander [1389–1413]’. 92. p. Publications. 117. Kashmir main Islam. 30. M. 43. Kashmir University. 26.. ed. 10. cit.