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Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs

ISSN: 1360-2004 (Print) 1469-9591 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/cjmm20

Hazrat Bulbul Shah: The First Known Muslim
Missionary in Kashmir
Yoginder Sikand
To cite this article: Yoginder Sikand (2000) Hazrat Bulbul Shah: The First Known Muslim
Missionary in Kashmir, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 20:2, 361-367
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713680363

Published online: 04 Aug 2010.

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Date: 02 October 2015, At: 16:33

could be further from the truth. The extreme oppression under which the ‘low’ castes laboured is re ected in one of the earliest Kashmiri Sanskrit texts that we have at our disposal. was characterized by ‘bloody sacriŽ ces of low caste people by the high caste Brahmins to please their gods and goddesses’. 2. writes one scholar. of central importance in any study of Islam in Kashmir.1 This article deals with the Ž rst known Islamic missionary to Kashmir. A particularly tragic victim of this sort of historiography has been the early history of Islam in Kashmir. for not only did he play a pioneering role in the spread of Islam here. the Hindu king of Kashmir. provides the social rules for the people of Kashmir to follow. Some of these are genuine scholarly works. although scattered references to him and his work are found in most of the medieval chronicles about Kashmiri history. the Nilamata Purana. No. however. Brahminical Rule in Kashmir Kashmir. 2000 Hazrat Bulbul Shah: The First Known Muslim Missionary in Kashmir Downloaded by [University of Minnesota Libraries. The success of Hazrat Bulbul Shah’s missionary endeavours therefore needs to be understood in the context of the Brahminical social order of early medieval times. but most of them may be considered little more than pure propaganda. Twin Cities] at 16:33 02 October 2015 YOGINDER SIKAND Introduction The events of the last decade and more have occasioned a veritable  ood of writings on Kashmir. but he is also thought to have made bold efforts to bring about a transformation in the caste-ridden Brahmin-dominated society of the Kashmir of his times. Among the many detailed commandments are laws that strictly enjoin the enforcement of the caste system and the worship of the Brahmins. The Brahmins comfortably lived off the labour of the ‘low’ castes. 20. with the Brahmins exercising an untrammelled hegemony over the hapless majority who were consigned to the unenviable status of ‘low’ castes. on the eve of the advent of Islam in the region. in which Nilanaga. Vol. was a society rigidly hierarchically ordered. a SuŽ from Turkistan popularly remembered as Hazrat Bulbul Shah. no doubt seeing this as part of his own religious mission. Hazrat Bulbul Shah is. without any force or pressure’. building magniŽ cent temples where they stored their ill-gotten wealth. Efforts have been made to attempt to prove that the mass conversion to Islam in this region was the result of political patronage extended by Muslim kings or even their alleged mass persecution of the Hindu and Buddhist populace. in his ISSN 1360-2004 print/ISSN 1469-9591 online/00/020361-07 Ó 2000 Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs . ‘It is an irrefutable fact of history that the people of Kashmir accepted Islam perfectly voluntarily with their hearts and souls [dil-o-jan se]. Nothing. however. Little has been written about him.2 The Brahminical period of Kashmiri history. As Bukhari rightly points out. and to that we now turn.3 Wilson.Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs.

the in uence of Buddhism in Kashmir gradually began to decline at the hands of Brahminical revivalism. whose name. failed to make a major dent in the power of the Brahminical establishment. however. ‘plotted to trap it in the maze of philosophy’. he meant the Brahminical system of domination. who visited Kashmir in the mid-seventh century. over time even these reformist efforts within Kashmiri Shaivism were tamed. He writes that with their concern for philosophical speculation. ‘is synonymous with the restoration of Shaivism’ in Kashmir. by the time Islam found its way to Kashmir. which saw egalitarian Buddhism as a major challenge to its supremacy. who. mercilessly slaughtered hundreds of Buddhist monks. Twin Cities] at 16:33 02 October 2015 362 Yoginder Sikand treatise on the history of Hindu rule in Kashmir. observed some 100 or more Buddhist temples in Srinagar alone. and it now became the established position that salvation was possible only through the learning of the Brahminical scriptures. destroying their temples and ordering the massacre of ‘thousands of families’. accordingly. while the latter ‘were increasingly burdened with cumbersome rituals and ceremonies’. and branded it. attributes the destruction of the Brahminical ritual sacriŽ ces to the Buddha. the reformist effort was stif y opposed by the Brahmin priests. ‘inevitably put the masses beyond its reach and limited its appeal to the select who had the leisure for intellectual pursuits’. both victims of Brahminical revivalism and orthodoxy. which was renamed after Shankaracharya. starting from the third century BCE. in his Haracharitachintamani .5 From the sixth century onwards. from the ninth century onwards. Kalhan declares in his Rajataringini that the Buddhists are ‘the enemies of the agamas’. of course. as Nazki argues. Hiuen Tsang. In the same vein.8 Likewise. the most prominent being the temple of Pas Pahar atop the Takht-i-Sulaiman in Srinagar. and showers invectives on them for putting an end to the rites and sacriŽ ces prescribed by the Nilamata Purana. one that would appeal to the downtrodden ‘lower’ castes and the Buddhists. and was dedicated to Jyeshteswara or Shiva. By the end of the eighth century. the leader of the Brahminical revivalist crusade. The most forceful expression of this protest was the rapid spread of Buddhism in the region. This.4 Protest against Brahminical hegemony took many forms in pre-Islamic Kashmir. and calls the Adi Buddha (‘The First Buddha’) a demon. Jayaratha. as indeed Kalhan also does in his Rajataringini. as ‘open heresy’. He writes that the Sravakatmanah Buddha is ‘bent on destroying the world’.6 Violence on a large scale accompanied this tirade against the Buddhists. This. while offenders against them were treated with ten-fold severity’.10 According to Hangloo.Downloaded by [University of Minnesota Libraries. however.9 With the rapid decline of Buddhism. the Hindu king Nara is said to have burnt down ‘thousands of [Buddhist] viharas’. Buddhism remained the dominant religion of the non-Brahmins of Kashmir until around the eighth century CE. The Chinese Buddhist traveller and scholar. Kashmiri society was ripe for a new philosophy of life. bitterly critiquing the empty ritualism and idolatry associated with the Hindu priesthood. which consisted largely in propitiating the Brahmins as gods and upholding the caste order. he says. the Shaivite leaders ‘did nothing to relieve the masses from their age-old suffering’. by which. writes that ‘Brahmin offenders were treated with leniency. The ferocity and hatred that Ž red many Brahminical revivalists is clearly brought out in the works of several early medieval Kashmiri Brahmin writers. expressing themselves within certain strands of Kashmiri Shaivism. says Baig. protests against Brahminical hegemony now began. . Brahminism had clearly emerged as the triumphant victor.7 Numerous Buddhist temples were captured and converted into Hindu shrines. The Hindu king Mihirakula.11 Thus. because. The Brahminical campaign of exterminating Buddhism from Kashmir is one of the darkest chapters in Kashmir’s history.

Aja’ib-al Hind (The Wonders of India).12 Downloaded by [University of Minnesota Libraries.13 It is also said that after Muhammad bin Qasim and his army defeated Dahir. ‘such a lover of the tradition of the Prophet [ashiq-i-sunnat-i-rasul] was he’ that he was given the title of Bilal. whose veracity may be doubtful. Twin Cities] at 16:33 02 October 2015 The First Muslims in Kashmir It is interesting to note that the spread of Islam in Kashmir long predates the establishment of the Ž rst Muslim dynasty in the region in the early fourteenth century. was a disciple of Hazrat Ziauddin-ul Najib Abdul Qahiri.16 Firm evidence of the Muslim presence predating considerably the establishment of Muslim rule in Kashmir is available from the twelfth century onwards. the noted twelfth century Kashmiri Pandit scholar.20 . His family claimed direct descent from the Prophet Muhammad and was well known for its piety. but even in his case his story is shrouded in layers of myth and legend. the early Hindu writers give us no indications. apparently. being more concerned with happenings at the royal courts.15 The ninth century Arab traveller Buzurg bin Shahryar mentions in his travelogue. but that their names have been distorted all out of recognition. according to one source. that the Hindu king of Mehroke in Kashmir had commissioned the preparation of a Kashmiri translation of the Holy Qur’an. it has been opined that some of these texts might actually mention certain Muslim SuŽ missionaries active in the region well before the arrival of Hazrat Bulbul Shah in Kashmir. Dahir’s son Jaisiya  ed to Kashmir.18 As a result. requesting him to dispatch a scholar to his court who could ‘explain the tenets of the Islamic shari’at in al-Hindia language’. of the Prophet Muhammad having himself dispatched two emissaries to the court of Venadutt. in 711 CE. the Kashmiris ‘converted to Islam in a  ood’.17 As regards the Ž rst Kashmiri converts to Islam. Hazrat Bulbul Shah is believed to have spent many years in Baghdad. Hamim. that the Kashmiri Hindu king Harshadeva (1089–1101 CE) employed many mlecchas (a derogatory term he uses for Muslims) in his court and army. but. Kalhan. which was later corrupted as ‘Bulbul’. the records give con icting views. while others suggesting Iran and Baghdad. who is said to have been so impressed by their exposition of their faith that he began ‘leading a simple life and even distributed one-tenth of his agricultural produce [i. after a favourite companion of the Prophet Muhammad. says one writer. writes in his Rajataringini.19 As regards his place of birth. A story is told. some mentioning Turkistan.e. in turn. where he became a disciple of the noted SuŽ of the Suhrawardi order. taking along with him a Syrian Muslim general of his army.Hazrat Bulbul Shah 363 Consequently. revenues] amongst the poor and needy as ushr’. who. Hazrat Shah Nimatullah Wali Farsi. the Ž rst SuŽ in Kashmir about whom we have Ž rm historical evidence is Hazrat Bulbul Shah. where he built several mosques and laid the foundation of a  ourishing Muslim community. when the Ž rst Muslim missionaries arrived in Kashmir. Hazrat Bulbul Shah Hazrat Bulbul Shah’s real name was Sayyed Sharfuddin ‘Abdur Rahman. one Hamim bin Sama. the Hindu king of Kashmir. However.14 We also hear of an anonymous early ninth century Kashmiri Hindu king who wrote a letter to Amir ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar bin ‘Abdul ‘Aziz of Mansura. was warmly welcomed by the Hindu king of Kashmir and given an estate. the Hindu king of Sind.

in his treatise on SuŽ sm in Kashmir. He also appointed Rawanchandra. writes about Raja Suha Dev. because of which he emerged as a popular leader with much mass support. During Zulchu’s invasion Rinchen remained at Lar and played a heroic role in defending the people against the Mongol marauders. his commander-in-chief. in whose conversion to Islam he played the central role. had  ed to Kashmir after his father had been slain in a battle with the Baltis. . Hazrat Bulbul Shah travelled extensively in west and central Asia before Ž nally arriving in Kashmir in 1295 CE. Raja Suha Dev. for the women and children to be taken as slaves and for entire towns to be razed to the ground. Encouraged by the popular support that he had won in resisting the Mongols. and in the exterior [zahiri] as well as the esoteric [batini] disciplines’. in the reign of the last Hindu king of Kashmir. son of Ramachandra.22 As a wandering dervish. and were it not for Rinchen Shah and Shah Mir. Meanwhile. in the wake of the Mongol invasion Raja Suha Dev  ed to Kishtwar. he was accompanied by some one thousand disciples. but his rule did not last long. three months and twenty Ž ve days’. Rinchen Shah. It is believed that he stayed in Kashmir for a short while on his Ž rst trip and returned to central Asia. the last Hindu ruler of Kashmir. This time. that he was ‘a rakshasa [demon] of a king’. Twin Cities] at 16:33 02 October 2015 364 Yoginder Sikand RaŽ qui. Kashmir in the twelfth century was racked with political intrigue in the courts of the Hindu Rajas and considerable mass unrest. Zulchu ordered all able-bodied Kashmiri men to be killed. arrived in Kashmir from Swat. Rinchen deposed Rawanchandra and ascended the throne of Kashmir in 1320 CE as the Ž rst Buddhist king in Kashmir after several centuries of Hindu rule.24 Hazrat Bulbul Shah’s Missionary Endeavours The role of Hazrat Bulbul Shah in planting the seeds of Islam in Kashmir is inextricably linked with the political developments of his times. he came alone. Jonaraja. nephew and successor of Shaikh Ziauddin ‘Abdul Suhrawardi. With Raja Suha Dev hiding in Kishtwar. At around the same time. too. 21 He is said to have been ‘equally proŽ cient in the religious [dini] and worldly [duniyavi] sciences. Since Shah Mir had played a key role in bringing him to power. grandson of the dreaded Hulagu in 1319. Rinchen appointed him as his chief minister. joined in leading the struggle against the Mongols. as governor of Lar and gave him the province of Ladakh as an estate.23 According to another source.27 Shah Mir. another man who was to play a key role in the establishment of Muslim rule in Kashmir. took over as king of Kashmir. Rinchen Shah (whose Buddhist name was Lhachen-rgyal-bu-rin-chen). The then Hindu ruler of Kashmir. son of the Ladakhi Buddhist king Lha-chen-dngros-grub. the Kashmiris would have been left completely defenceless. in which thousands of Kashmiris lost their lives. but later came back in 1324 CE in the reign of Kashmir’s Ž rst Muslim king. the death-knell for Hindu rule was sounded with the invasion of the Tartar hordes led by the Mongol warlord Zulchu.26 Shortly before Zulchu’s invasion. Rawanchandra. He laid Kashmir waste in a campaign of mass slaughter that lasted some eight long months. 1234). and here a slight digression is in order. welcomed Rinchen and gave him an estate in the region of Lar. Shah Mir. who ‘devoured Kashmir for nineteen years. it is said. tells us. Raja Suha Dev. including leading Islamic scholars. the noted Ž fteenth century Hindu Pandit historian. that Hazrat Shah Nimatullah Wali Farsi was a disciple of Hazrat Shaikh Shihabuddin Abu Hafs ‘Umar bin ‘Abdullah (d. however.Downloaded by [University of Minnesota Libraries.25 Already tottering under the weight of its own contradictions. on the other hand.

as a pious Muslim. free from useless ceremonies.28 Another version of Rinchen’s conversion has it that by temperament he was ‘inquisitive and alert’ and was ‘fond of the company of learned men’. and said that he was even willing to give up the post of the prime minister in the Hindu Raja’s court if he had to. a certain SuŽ from Kabul. According to one account. He would spend hours with Buddhist and Hindu priests discussing religious matters. said by some to have been a Hindu Rajput. because of ‘Brahminical arrogance’ and caste discrimination. but when the king was given the news he insisted that Shah Mir’s change of religion had not prejudiced him in the least and that he and his courtiers would not allow Shah Mir to resign. and. and this set him on the path of seeking to discover the spiritual truth. Twin Cities] at 16:33 02 October 2015 Rinchen Shah’s Conversion Rinchen’s conversion from Buddhism to Islam at the hands of Hazrat Bulbul Shah was the single most crucial event in his short-lived rule. caste and priesthood’. Shah Mir told him his heart’s desire. he failed to Ž nd their views appealing because they did not satisfy his spiritual thirst. Seeing him. Learning about Islam from him. did not answer his quest because by then it had ‘become diluted with foreign elements’. Because of this great spiritual vacuum in his life. Shah Mir embraced Islam at the hands of the SuŽ . according to this version of the story. it was Shah Mir’s in uence and the impression that he. it was Shah Mir who played a major role in this regard. he accepted Islam at his hands and received the name of Malik Sadruddin. Buddhism. Witnessing the constant strife between his Hindu and Buddhist subjects. he came to the decision that he should accept the religion of the Ž rst person that he happened to see the next morning. Shah Mir was convinced that the Hindu Raja would dismiss him from his post for having become a Muslim. arrived at the inn and delivered a speech on Islam. he would spend many sleepless nights.29 Rinchen Shah’s Ž rst meeting with Hazrat Bulbul Shah is mentioned in almost all the early Muslim chronicles of Kashmir. He spent the entire night praying to God for guidance. whose name we are not given. When Rinchen ascended the throne he appointed Shah Mir as his prime minister. One night. This event occurred in 1323 CE. who advised him to tell Raja Suha Dev about his conversion. a medieval Persian text on the . earlier served as prime minister in the court of Raja Suha Dev. It was then that he happened to meet Hazrat Bulbul Shah in the city of Srinagar. When he got up in the morning and looked out of the window of his palace. Rinchen rushed out of his palace to pay his respects to him. weeping profusely and praying to God to guide him to the ‘true path’. Rinchen was greatly disturbed. which so in uenced Shah Mir that he decided to convert to that religion. who was offering the early morning fajr prayers on the banks of the river Jhelum. He was dissatisŽ ed with Hinduism. Gradually. From Hazrat Bulbul Shah Rinchen learnt about Islam and then became a Muslim. One day. for they were all aware of his Ž ne administrative capabilities and dedication. he would disguise himself and sit outside the little inn in Srinagar that served as a mosque and meeting place for the town’s small Muslim community. he developed a great interest in the religion.Hazrat Bulbul Shah 365 Downloaded by [University of Minnesota Libraries. too. it is said. after the ‘isha prayers would be over. Every evening. and being ‘so impressed by its teachings. the Ž rst person he saw was Hazrat Bulbul Shah. that was instrumental in the latter’s conversion to Islam. but who could well have been Hazrat Bulbul Shah. made on Rinchen. but even then. to listen to sermons being delivered by Muslim scholars. which were simple. it is said. it is said. As the anonymous author of the Baharistan-i-Shahi. while in deep thought. Malihabadi writes that Shah Mir. the religion into which he had been born.

the sun appeared from behind a thick blanket of clouds and the ice on the lakes began to melt. now known as Bulbul Langar where the poor were fed free of cost twice a day. Rinchen. Hazrat Bulbul Shah. Srinagar: Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art.34 Although this may well be a later hagiographic legend. after which ‘he no longer heard complaints from the people about jinns troubling them’. seeing in it a source of liberation from the shackles of the Brahminical system. 2.000 converts to Islam through means of peaceful missionary effort. Culture and Languages. the people of Srinagar. p. puts it. son of the Hindu king Ramachandra who had been deposed by Rinchen. Attached to the khanqah was a large langar khana or community kitchen. The credit for introducing the institution of the langar in Kashmir. The Nilamata Purana. it is said. NOTES 1. 4. Hazrat Bulbul Shah succeeded in making some 10. Twin Cities] at 16:33 02 October 2015 366 Yoginder Sikand history of Kashmir. at the height of a particularly severe winter when all the lakes had turned to ice. which is still to be found in several SuŽ centres all over the region. although this Ž gure seems considerably exaggerated. now began to embrace the new faith. 1994. Srinagar: Maktaba ‘Ilm-o-Adab. and embraced the Islamic religion with sincerity and conviction. ‘Where is the sun to melt all the ice?’ All at once. in turn. thus goes to Hazrat Bulbul Shah. Hazrat Bulbul Shah took up residence on the banks of the Jhelum where Rinchen Shah set up a khanqah or SuŽ centre at Ali Kadal in the heart of Srinagar. Many ‘low’ castes and Buddhists. it is said. the story clearly suggests the understanding that ordinary Kashmiris have of the SuŽ being deeply concerned about the plight of the poor.32 He preached against the popular superstitions that were widely prevalent amongst the Kashmiris of his day.31 Conclusion Being a devout Muslim SuŽ . Hazrat Bulbul Shah led ‘a life of complete self-abnegation’ and ‘cast an enormous in uence on the people amongst whom he worked and lived’. Hazrat Bulbul Shah. Although the mass conversion of the Kashmiris to Islam had to wait for at least a century later. ‘now subjected himself to the teachings of the religion of Mustafa [the Prophet]. carried the message of Islam to various other parts of Kashmir. II.35 Hazrat Bulbul Shah carried on with his mission of spreading Islam from his khanqah until he breathed his last in 1327 CE. Close to the khanqah.Downloaded by [University of Minnesota Libraries. and the right principles of the truthful path of Murtaza [Imam Ali]. organized a special religious service at which he recited the Surat al-Jinn. came to him for help. 1998. He gave up once and for all the false and corrupt religions’. . a chapter of the Holy Qur’an. Sayyed Muhammad Faruq Bukhari. including a Jami’ah mosque for the Friday congregational prayers. looked up towards the sky and called out. Kashmir main Islam: Manzar Aur Pasmanzar (Islam in Kashmir: Historical Context). several other leading Kashmiris also followed suit. Belief in the power of ghosts and evil spirits was particularly strong and widespread among the people.30 Following the conversion of Rinchen and his family. so the story goes. most notably Rawanchandra. his role was crucial in planting the seeds of Islam in the region. in all. Vol. too. Rinchen Shah constructed two mosques. At the khanqah he would deliver regular sermons and provide spiritual instruction to his followers who. having no access to water.33 His close involvement with ordinary folk in their times of need is evident from the story that once. Ved Kumari. It is said that.

To the Mullah goes the credit of writing the Ž rst Islamic texts in Kashmir about which we have Ž rm historical evidence. G. p. 6. p. 93.. K. R. ed. S. 1998. Kashmir Under the Sultans. The Way to SuŽ sm. Srinagar.. cit. Kashmir Today. Kashir: Being a History of Kashmir. cit. Ibid. 17. p. Yoginder Sikand. 49. a compendium on Islamic jurisprudence (Ž qh) and the other. 11.. 7. in Hamara Adab (Our Culture). I. Hasan. who included Islamic scholars (ulama) as well as mystics of great accomplishment. ‘Mazahib-o-Aqa’id’. Bashir Akhtar. p. 31. 1998. M. Mohiuddin. p. ‘Ibadat Gahen’ (‘Places of Worship’).. ‘Islam in Kashmir’. p.. L. 4. Srinagar: Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art. 1341–1345). 28. 1989. Shah-i-Hamadan Institute of Islamic Studies. ed. 29. Srinagar: Ali Mohammad. F. Mumbai: Center for Study of Society and Secularism. Vol. Ibid. Srinagar: Gulshan. Ibid. Rashid Nazki. p. p. p. Mohibbul Hasan. Kashmir main Islam. Muhammad Amin Pandit. cit. 4. 27. Bamzai. op. Srinagar. Baharistan-i-Shahi (The Royal Garden). Srinagar: Government of Jammu and Kashmir. 9. Bukhari. Waqi’at-i-Kashmir op. 1979. 172. SuŽ . p. p. 1994. A. p. 315. 23. ‘Role of Shah-i-Hamadan in the Islamization of Kashmir’. pp. F. 95. p. 9. op. 12. p. Abdul Ahad RaŽ q. Zayb Malihabadi. p. 10. ‘From Burzahom to Solomon’s Throne’. p. 15. R. G. PhD thesis. p. p. M. 19. Srinagar: Jammu and Kashmir Islamic Research Center. Twin Cities] at 16:33 02 October 2015 Hazrat Bulbul Shah 367 3. 1980. Kashmir main Islam. cit... was Mullah Ahmad. . Rashid Nazki. 9. M. ‘Accepting Islam and Abandoning Hinduism: A Study of Proselytisation Process in Medieval Kashmir’. ed. 4–20. Directorate of Information. Culture and Languages. the al-Shahab al-Shaqab. the Mullah was appointed by Shah Mir. cit. 33.. Srinagar: Gulshan. D. p. op. ‘Sayyed Bulbul Shah’. Kashmir University. Mushahir Number. p. 181. cit. n. II. cit. Didamari. 167. in Heritage of Kashmir. ‘Religious Views of Sultan Sikander [1389–1413]’. op. Publications. F. pp. Cultural and Political History of Kashmir. Hassnain.. Muhammad Yusuf Teng. Hassnain. ‘Accepting Islam’. 2000.. Bukhari. op. 35. F. 117. Khwaja Muhammad ‘Azam Didamari. p. 13. 18. Hangloo. n. P. two stand out as most prominent: the Fatawa-i-Shihabiya. in Hamara Adab (Our Culture). lxxi. d. K. S. L. 1988. M. 26. p. Waqi’at-i-Kashmir (The History of Kashmir) [translated by Khwaja Hamid Yazdani]. 44. Abdur Rashid Baig. M. Mohibbul Hasan. 48. 39. 77. 22. op. ‘Sayyed Bulbul Shah’. Vol. p. p. whom he made his chief deputy to carry on Islamic missionary work in Kashmir. in Hamara Adab. 16. 31. Kashmir University. 1981–1982. 117. p. op. 38. 27. Among his many works. p. New Delhi: Bharatiya Publishing House. SuŽ . 46. 18. d. MPhil dissertation. 21. Abdul Qaiyum RaŽ qui. Srinagar: Ghulam Muhammad & Nur Muhammad. Calcutta: Firma KLM. Islamic Culture. 49. op.. 1995. 61. Vol. Tazkirat-ul Auliya-i-Kashmir (The History of the SuŽ s of Kashmir). 6. Department of History. ‘Mazahib-o-Aqa’id’ (‘Religions and Beliefs’). 1996. The Way to SuŽ sm. Darakshan Abdullah.. p. Culture and Languages. in Heritage of Kashmir. cit. who ascended the throne of Kashmir after Rinchen Shah as Sultan Shamsuddin (r. 113–14. 48. 16. 20. 32. 24. p. D. 1997. M. 34. II. 43.D.... Vol. 25. M. The most prominent among Hazrat Bulbul Shah’s principal disciples. The Role of Kashmiri SuŽ s in the Promotion of Social Reform and Communal Harmony [14th–16th Century]. 1974. cit. M. 14. 1981–1982. Kashmir Ki Kali: Kashmir Mai Musalmano Ka Pahla Qadam (The Flower of Kashmir: The Advent of Muslims in Kashmir). p. 1979.Downloaded by [University of Minnesota Libraries. Rampur: Pakeeza Kitab Ghar. Srinagar: Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art. New Delhi: Anjuman-i-Minhaj-i-Rasul. The Way to SuŽ sm: Life and Teachings of SuŽ s. op. 26. 1990. 92. 22. p. New Delhi: M. Abdur Rabb Kardar. a treatise on SuŽ sm. cit. Abdul Ahad RaŽ q. 5. 30. New Delhi: Capital Publishing House. Abdur Rabb Kardar. 8. Kashmir Under the Sultans. Kashir: Being a History of Kashmir from the Earliest Times to Our Own. Abdur Rabb Kardar. Hangloo. SuŽ sm in Kashmir From the Fourteenth Century to the Sixteenth Century. as the Ž rst Shaikh-ul Islam or chief ‘alim of Islam in Kashmir. Later.