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Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs

ISSN: 1360-2004 (Print) 1469-9591 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/cjmm20

Hazrat Bulbul Shah: The First Known Muslim
Missionary in Kashmir
Yoginder Sikand
To cite this article: Yoginder Sikand (2000) Hazrat Bulbul Shah: The First Known Muslim
Missionary in Kashmir, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 20:2, 361-367
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713680363

Published online: 04 Aug 2010.

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Date: 02 October 2015, At: 16:33

Vol. was characterized by ‘bloody sacriŽ ces of low caste people by the high caste Brahmins to please their gods and goddesses’. Nothing. a SuŽ from Turkistan popularly remembered as Hazrat Bulbul Shah. the Hindu king of Kashmir. 2000 Hazrat Bulbul Shah: The First Known Muslim Missionary in Kashmir Downloaded by [University of Minnesota Libraries. Little has been written about him. with the Brahmins exercising an untrammelled hegemony over the hapless majority who were consigned to the unenviable status of ‘low’ castes. no doubt seeing this as part of his own religious mission. could be further from the truth. without any force or pressure’. The Brahmins comfortably lived off the labour of the ‘low’ castes. Among the many detailed commandments are laws that strictly enjoin the enforcement of the caste system and the worship of the Brahmins. ‘It is an irrefutable fact of history that the people of Kashmir accepted Islam perfectly voluntarily with their hearts and souls [dil-o-jan se]. Twin Cities] at 16:33 02 October 2015 YOGINDER SIKAND Introduction The events of the last decade and more have occasioned a veritable  ood of writings on Kashmir. A particularly tragic victim of this sort of historiography has been the early history of Islam in Kashmir. although scattered references to him and his work are found in most of the medieval chronicles about Kashmiri history. Brahminical Rule in Kashmir Kashmir. building magniŽ cent temples where they stored their ill-gotten wealth. 20.Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs. 2. Some of these are genuine scholarly works. The extreme oppression under which the ‘low’ castes laboured is re ected in one of the earliest Kashmiri Sanskrit texts that we have at our disposal. in which Nilanaga. Efforts have been made to attempt to prove that the mass conversion to Islam in this region was the result of political patronage extended by Muslim kings or even their alleged mass persecution of the Hindu and Buddhist populace. however.2 The Brahminical period of Kashmiri history. of central importance in any study of Islam in Kashmir. on the eve of the advent of Islam in the region. No. Hazrat Bulbul Shah is. was a society rigidly hierarchically ordered. but most of them may be considered little more than pure propaganda. writes one scholar. in his ISSN 1360-2004 print/ISSN 1469-9591 online/00/020361-07 Ó 2000 Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs . however. the Nilamata Purana. The success of Hazrat Bulbul Shah’s missionary endeavours therefore needs to be understood in the context of the Brahminical social order of early medieval times. provides the social rules for the people of Kashmir to follow. for not only did he play a pioneering role in the spread of Islam here. and to that we now turn.3 Wilson.1 This article deals with the Ž rst known Islamic missionary to Kashmir. but he is also thought to have made bold efforts to bring about a transformation in the caste-ridden Brahmin-dominated society of the Kashmir of his times. As Bukhari rightly points out.

6 Violence on a large scale accompanied this tirade against the Buddhists. starting from the third century BCE.9 With the rapid decline of Buddhism. who visited Kashmir in the mid-seventh century. he says. . writes that ‘Brahmin offenders were treated with leniency. the in uence of Buddhism in Kashmir gradually began to decline at the hands of Brahminical revivalism. failed to make a major dent in the power of the Brahminical establishment. ‘is synonymous with the restoration of Shaivism’ in Kashmir. This. accordingly. says Baig. by the time Islam found its way to Kashmir. the leader of the Brahminical revivalist crusade.7 Numerous Buddhist temples were captured and converted into Hindu shrines. bitterly critiquing the empty ritualism and idolatry associated with the Hindu priesthood. The most forceful expression of this protest was the rapid spread of Buddhism in the region. Jayaratha. Buddhism remained the dominant religion of the non-Brahmins of Kashmir until around the eighth century CE. of course. The Chinese Buddhist traveller and scholar. over time even these reformist efforts within Kashmiri Shaivism were tamed. In the same vein. the Hindu king Nara is said to have burnt down ‘thousands of [Buddhist] viharas’. one that would appeal to the downtrodden ‘lower’ castes and the Buddhists.10 According to Hangloo. which consisted largely in propitiating the Brahmins as gods and upholding the caste order. and was dedicated to Jyeshteswara or Shiva. which saw egalitarian Buddhism as a major challenge to its supremacy. and it now became the established position that salvation was possible only through the learning of the Brahminical scriptures. however. Hiuen Tsang. and showers invectives on them for putting an end to the rites and sacriŽ ces prescribed by the Nilamata Purana. He writes that with their concern for philosophical speculation. protests against Brahminical hegemony now began. Kashmiri society was ripe for a new philosophy of life. the Shaivite leaders ‘did nothing to relieve the masses from their age-old suffering’. Kalhan declares in his Rajataringini that the Buddhists are ‘the enemies of the agamas’. whose name.11 Thus. ‘inevitably put the masses beyond its reach and limited its appeal to the select who had the leisure for intellectual pursuits’.8 Likewise.5 From the sixth century onwards. as indeed Kalhan also does in his Rajataringini. and calls the Adi Buddha (‘The First Buddha’) a demon. and branded it. By the end of the eighth century. observed some 100 or more Buddhist temples in Srinagar alone. he meant the Brahminical system of domination. The Hindu king Mihirakula. He writes that the Sravakatmanah Buddha is ‘bent on destroying the world’. ‘plotted to trap it in the maze of philosophy’. destroying their temples and ordering the massacre of ‘thousands of families’. This. expressing themselves within certain strands of Kashmiri Shaivism. by which. the most prominent being the temple of Pas Pahar atop the Takht-i-Sulaiman in Srinagar.Downloaded by [University of Minnesota Libraries.4 Protest against Brahminical hegemony took many forms in pre-Islamic Kashmir. as Nazki argues. who. however. The ferocity and hatred that Ž red many Brahminical revivalists is clearly brought out in the works of several early medieval Kashmiri Brahmin writers. The Brahminical campaign of exterminating Buddhism from Kashmir is one of the darkest chapters in Kashmir’s history. which was renamed after Shankaracharya. attributes the destruction of the Brahminical ritual sacriŽ ces to the Buddha. Brahminism had clearly emerged as the triumphant victor. the reformist effort was stif y opposed by the Brahmin priests. in his Haracharitachintamani . as ‘open heresy’. mercilessly slaughtered hundreds of Buddhist monks. while the latter ‘were increasingly burdened with cumbersome rituals and ceremonies’. because. Twin Cities] at 16:33 02 October 2015 362 Yoginder Sikand treatise on the history of Hindu rule in Kashmir. while offenders against them were treated with ten-fold severity’. from the ninth century onwards. both victims of Brahminical revivalism and orthodoxy.

taking along with him a Syrian Muslim general of his army. Dahir’s son Jaisiya  ed to Kashmir. where he built several mosques and laid the foundation of a  ourishing Muslim community. while others suggesting Iran and Baghdad.16 Firm evidence of the Muslim presence predating considerably the establishment of Muslim rule in Kashmir is available from the twelfth century onwards. ‘such a lover of the tradition of the Prophet [ashiq-i-sunnat-i-rasul] was he’ that he was given the title of Bilal. the Hindu king of Sind. who is said to have been so impressed by their exposition of their faith that he began ‘leading a simple life and even distributed one-tenth of his agricultural produce [i.18 As a result. after a favourite companion of the Prophet Muhammad. in 711 CE. the Kashmiris ‘converted to Islam in a  ood’. that the Kashmiri Hindu king Harshadeva (1089–1101 CE) employed many mlecchas (a derogatory term he uses for Muslims) in his court and army. who.Hazrat Bulbul Shah 363 Consequently. whose veracity may be doubtful.19 As regards his place of birth. Hazrat Bulbul Shah Hazrat Bulbul Shah’s real name was Sayyed Sharfuddin ‘Abdur Rahman. Twin Cities] at 16:33 02 October 2015 The First Muslims in Kashmir It is interesting to note that the spread of Islam in Kashmir long predates the establishment of the Ž rst Muslim dynasty in the region in the early fourteenth century. Hazrat Bulbul Shah is believed to have spent many years in Baghdad. being more concerned with happenings at the royal courts. but that their names have been distorted all out of recognition. revenues] amongst the poor and needy as ushr’. the noted twelfth century Kashmiri Pandit scholar. A story is told. His family claimed direct descent from the Prophet Muhammad and was well known for its piety. writes in his Rajataringini.15 The ninth century Arab traveller Buzurg bin Shahryar mentions in his travelogue.20 . when the Ž rst Muslim missionaries arrived in Kashmir. that the Hindu king of Mehroke in Kashmir had commissioned the preparation of a Kashmiri translation of the Holy Qur’an. says one writer. the Ž rst SuŽ in Kashmir about whom we have Ž rm historical evidence is Hazrat Bulbul Shah.e. Kalhan.14 We also hear of an anonymous early ninth century Kashmiri Hindu king who wrote a letter to Amir ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar bin ‘Abdul ‘Aziz of Mansura.12 Downloaded by [University of Minnesota Libraries. some mentioning Turkistan. according to one source. was a disciple of Hazrat Ziauddin-ul Najib Abdul Qahiri. of the Prophet Muhammad having himself dispatched two emissaries to the court of Venadutt. was warmly welcomed by the Hindu king of Kashmir and given an estate. one Hamim bin Sama. where he became a disciple of the noted SuŽ of the Suhrawardi order. in turn. but even in his case his story is shrouded in layers of myth and legend. the Hindu king of Kashmir. requesting him to dispatch a scholar to his court who could ‘explain the tenets of the Islamic shari’at in al-Hindia language’. Hamim. Aja’ib-al Hind (The Wonders of India). which was later corrupted as ‘Bulbul’.13 It is also said that after Muhammad bin Qasim and his army defeated Dahir. apparently. the records give con icting views. but. Hazrat Shah Nimatullah Wali Farsi.17 As regards the Ž rst Kashmiri converts to Islam. However. it has been opined that some of these texts might actually mention certain Muslim SuŽ missionaries active in the region well before the arrival of Hazrat Bulbul Shah in Kashmir. the early Hindu writers give us no indications.

24 Hazrat Bulbul Shah’s Missionary Endeavours The role of Hazrat Bulbul Shah in planting the seeds of Islam in Kashmir is inextricably linked with the political developments of his times. in which thousands of Kashmiris lost their lives. in the wake of the Mongol invasion Raja Suha Dev  ed to Kishtwar. He also appointed Rawanchandra.23 According to another source. At around the same time. had  ed to Kashmir after his father had been slain in a battle with the Baltis.26 Shortly before Zulchu’s invasion. the death-knell for Hindu rule was sounded with the invasion of the Tartar hordes led by the Mongol warlord Zulchu. writes about Raja Suha Dev. It is believed that he stayed in Kashmir for a short while on his Ž rst trip and returned to central Asia.Downloaded by [University of Minnesota Libraries. Kashmir in the twelfth century was racked with political intrigue in the courts of the Hindu Rajas and considerable mass unrest.22 As a wandering dervish. Since Shah Mir had played a key role in bringing him to power. . three months and twenty Ž ve days’. he was accompanied by some one thousand disciples. Zulchu ordered all able-bodied Kashmiri men to be killed. in his treatise on SuŽ sm in Kashmir. This time.27 Shah Mir. as governor of Lar and gave him the province of Ladakh as an estate. including leading Islamic scholars. With Raja Suha Dev hiding in Kishtwar. Rawanchandra. and in the exterior [zahiri] as well as the esoteric [batini] disciplines’. in whose conversion to Islam he played the central role. and were it not for Rinchen Shah and Shah Mir. his commander-in-chief. it is said. Shah Mir. During Zulchu’s invasion Rinchen remained at Lar and played a heroic role in defending the people against the Mongol marauders. son of Ramachandra. Raja Suha Dev. but later came back in 1324 CE in the reign of Kashmir’s Ž rst Muslim king. nephew and successor of Shaikh Ziauddin ‘Abdul Suhrawardi. arrived in Kashmir from Swat. the noted Ž fteenth century Hindu Pandit historian. 1234). who ‘devoured Kashmir for nineteen years. tells us. for the women and children to be taken as slaves and for entire towns to be razed to the ground. that Hazrat Shah Nimatullah Wali Farsi was a disciple of Hazrat Shaikh Shihabuddin Abu Hafs ‘Umar bin ‘Abdullah (d. Jonaraja. He laid Kashmir waste in a campaign of mass slaughter that lasted some eight long months. Rinchen deposed Rawanchandra and ascended the throne of Kashmir in 1320 CE as the Ž rst Buddhist king in Kashmir after several centuries of Hindu rule. son of the Ladakhi Buddhist king Lha-chen-dngros-grub. however. the Kashmiris would have been left completely defenceless. Twin Cities] at 16:33 02 October 2015 364 Yoginder Sikand RaŽ qui. Meanwhile. took over as king of Kashmir. the last Hindu ruler of Kashmir. Rinchen Shah (whose Buddhist name was Lhachen-rgyal-bu-rin-chen). but his rule did not last long. too. on the other hand. The then Hindu ruler of Kashmir. Hazrat Bulbul Shah travelled extensively in west and central Asia before Ž nally arriving in Kashmir in 1295 CE.25 Already tottering under the weight of its own contradictions. that he was ‘a rakshasa [demon] of a king’. because of which he emerged as a popular leader with much mass support. 21 He is said to have been ‘equally proŽ cient in the religious [dini] and worldly [duniyavi] sciences. joined in leading the struggle against the Mongols. another man who was to play a key role in the establishment of Muslim rule in Kashmir. welcomed Rinchen and gave him an estate in the region of Lar. grandson of the dreaded Hulagu in 1319. Raja Suha Dev. Rinchen appointed him as his chief minister. Rinchen Shah. and here a slight digression is in order. in the reign of the last Hindu king of Kashmir. he came alone. Encouraged by the popular support that he had won in resisting the Mongols.

Shah Mir embraced Islam at the hands of the SuŽ . he failed to Ž nd their views appealing because they did not satisfy his spiritual thirst. Because of this great spiritual vacuum in his life. for they were all aware of his Ž ne administrative capabilities and dedication. Malihabadi writes that Shah Mir. When he got up in the morning and looked out of the window of his palace. but when the king was given the news he insisted that Shah Mir’s change of religion had not prejudiced him in the least and that he and his courtiers would not allow Shah Mir to resign. caste and priesthood’. it is said.29 Rinchen Shah’s Ž rst meeting with Hazrat Bulbul Shah is mentioned in almost all the early Muslim chronicles of Kashmir. but even then. weeping profusely and praying to God to guide him to the ‘true path’. it is said. a certain SuŽ from Kabul. he would disguise himself and sit outside the little inn in Srinagar that served as a mosque and meeting place for the town’s small Muslim community. Witnessing the constant strife between his Hindu and Buddhist subjects. it is said. a medieval Persian text on the . as a pious Muslim. Shah Mir was convinced that the Hindu Raja would dismiss him from his post for having become a Muslim. who advised him to tell Raja Suha Dev about his conversion. This event occurred in 1323 CE. made on Rinchen. arrived at the inn and delivered a speech on Islam.28 Another version of Rinchen’s conversion has it that by temperament he was ‘inquisitive and alert’ and was ‘fond of the company of learned men’. Buddhism. which so in uenced Shah Mir that he decided to convert to that religion. He would spend hours with Buddhist and Hindu priests discussing religious matters. he developed a great interest in the religion. after the ‘isha prayers would be over. and being ‘so impressed by its teachings. which were simple. Shah Mir told him his heart’s desire. He was dissatisŽ ed with Hinduism. He spent the entire night praying to God for guidance. because of ‘Brahminical arrogance’ and caste discrimination. and said that he was even willing to give up the post of the prime minister in the Hindu Raja’s court if he had to. who was offering the early morning fajr prayers on the banks of the river Jhelum.Hazrat Bulbul Shah 365 Downloaded by [University of Minnesota Libraries. One night. From Hazrat Bulbul Shah Rinchen learnt about Islam and then became a Muslim. According to one account. One day. that was instrumental in the latter’s conversion to Islam. It was then that he happened to meet Hazrat Bulbul Shah in the city of Srinagar. Gradually. Learning about Islam from him. but who could well have been Hazrat Bulbul Shah. while in deep thought. he accepted Islam at his hands and received the name of Malik Sadruddin. Seeing him. earlier served as prime minister in the court of Raja Suha Dev. it was Shah Mir’s in uence and the impression that he. to listen to sermons being delivered by Muslim scholars. according to this version of the story. and. and this set him on the path of seeking to discover the spiritual truth. it was Shah Mir who played a major role in this regard. he came to the decision that he should accept the religion of the Ž rst person that he happened to see the next morning. Rinchen rushed out of his palace to pay his respects to him. When Rinchen ascended the throne he appointed Shah Mir as his prime minister. too. As the anonymous author of the Baharistan-i-Shahi. free from useless ceremonies. the Ž rst person he saw was Hazrat Bulbul Shah. did not answer his quest because by then it had ‘become diluted with foreign elements’. Twin Cities] at 16:33 02 October 2015 Rinchen Shah’s Conversion Rinchen’s conversion from Buddhism to Islam at the hands of Hazrat Bulbul Shah was the single most crucial event in his short-lived rule. said by some to have been a Hindu Rajput. he would spend many sleepless nights. the religion into which he had been born. Every evening. Rinchen was greatly disturbed. whose name we are not given.

1998. including a Jami’ah mosque for the Friday congregational prayers.31 Conclusion Being a devout Muslim SuŽ . and embraced the Islamic religion with sincerity and conviction. most notably Rawanchandra. p. now began to embrace the new faith. the sun appeared from behind a thick blanket of clouds and the ice on the lakes began to melt. at the height of a particularly severe winter when all the lakes had turned to ice. after which ‘he no longer heard complaints from the people about jinns troubling them’. The credit for introducing the institution of the langar in Kashmir. it is said. He gave up once and for all the false and corrupt religions’. Although the mass conversion of the Kashmiris to Islam had to wait for at least a century later. son of the Hindu king Ramachandra who had been deposed by Rinchen. so the story goes. although this Ž gure seems considerably exaggerated. Ved Kumari.30 Following the conversion of Rinchen and his family. came to him for help. it is said. Culture and Languages. organized a special religious service at which he recited the Surat al-Jinn.33 His close involvement with ordinary folk in their times of need is evident from the story that once. At the khanqah he would deliver regular sermons and provide spiritual instruction to his followers who. Rinchen Shah constructed two mosques. Rinchen. Many ‘low’ castes and Buddhists. too. Attached to the khanqah was a large langar khana or community kitchen.Downloaded by [University of Minnesota Libraries. Sayyed Muhammad Faruq Bukhari. seeing in it a source of liberation from the shackles of the Brahminical system. his role was crucial in planting the seeds of Islam in the region. II. thus goes to Hazrat Bulbul Shah. 2. in turn. Hazrat Bulbul Shah. Kashmir main Islam: Manzar Aur Pasmanzar (Islam in Kashmir: Historical Context). 1994.32 He preached against the popular superstitions that were widely prevalent amongst the Kashmiris of his day. NOTES 1. Twin Cities] at 16:33 02 October 2015 366 Yoginder Sikand history of Kashmir. Hazrat Bulbul Shah took up residence on the banks of the Jhelum where Rinchen Shah set up a khanqah or SuŽ centre at Ali Kadal in the heart of Srinagar. Vol. several other leading Kashmiris also followed suit.000 converts to Islam through means of peaceful missionary effort. Hazrat Bulbul Shah led ‘a life of complete self-abnegation’ and ‘cast an enormous in uence on the people amongst whom he worked and lived’. Hazrat Bulbul Shah. puts it. looked up towards the sky and called out. in all. now known as Bulbul Langar where the poor were fed free of cost twice a day. the people of Srinagar. Belief in the power of ghosts and evil spirits was particularly strong and widespread among the people. 4. Close to the khanqah. Srinagar: Maktaba ‘Ilm-o-Adab. which is still to be found in several SuŽ centres all over the region. ‘Where is the sun to melt all the ice?’ All at once. . ‘now subjected himself to the teachings of the religion of Mustafa [the Prophet]. carried the message of Islam to various other parts of Kashmir. and the right principles of the truthful path of Murtaza [Imam Ali]. The Nilamata Purana. It is said that. Srinagar: Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art. a chapter of the Holy Qur’an.34 Although this may well be a later hagiographic legend. Hazrat Bulbul Shah succeeded in making some 10. the story clearly suggests the understanding that ordinary Kashmiris have of the SuŽ being deeply concerned about the plight of the poor. having no access to water.35 Hazrat Bulbul Shah carried on with his mission of spreading Islam from his khanqah until he breathed his last in 1327 CE.

1996. Kashmir Today. p.. Ibid. 12. 77. 16. 4–20. p. n. p. Srinagar: Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art. 1981–1982. Vol. M. Srinagar: Jammu and Kashmir Islamic Research Center. 5. 48. Kashir: Being a History of Kashmir.. two stand out as most prominent: the Fatawa-i-Shihabiya. Bamzai. op. R. New Delhi: Capital Publishing House. 38. 6. D. Baharistan-i-Shahi (The Royal Garden). Mohiuddin. G. Srinagar: Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art. cit.. 1998. 39. New Delhi: Anjuman-i-Minhaj-i-Rasul. n. Muhammad Yusuf Teng. The Role of Kashmiri SuŽ s in the Promotion of Social Reform and Communal Harmony [14th–16th Century]. SuŽ . op. Muhammad Amin Pandit. 1980. ed. op. 93. 9. K. Srinagar: Ali Mohammad. 117. op. p. Abdur Rashid Baig. 22. Culture and Languages. ‘Sayyed Bulbul Shah’. p. ‘Ibadat Gahen’ (‘Places of Worship’). cit. Vol. 8. the al-Shahab al-Shaqab. Abdur Rabb Kardar. Khwaja Muhammad ‘Azam Didamari. p. Mumbai: Center for Study of Society and Secularism. Ibid. Directorate of Information. who ascended the throne of Kashmir after Rinchen Shah as Sultan Shamsuddin (r. op. in Hamara Adab (Our Culture). in Heritage of Kashmir. p. Culture and Languages. d. Srinagar: Ghulam Muhammad & Nur Muhammad.. 24. p. A. D. L. as the Ž rst Shaikh-ul Islam or chief ‘alim of Islam in Kashmir. 25. p. M. To the Mullah goes the credit of writing the Ž rst Islamic texts in Kashmir about which we have Ž rm historical evidence. Waqi’at-i-Kashmir (The History of Kashmir) [translated by Khwaja Hamid Yazdani]. New Delhi: Bharatiya Publishing House. 1995... The Way to SuŽ sm: Life and Teachings of SuŽ s. 33. 9. Bukhari. cit. p.. 32. ‘Accepting Islam and Abandoning Hinduism: A Study of Proselytisation Process in Medieval Kashmir’. Srinagar: Gulshan. Mohibbul Hasan. 1997. 27. 19. 31. Kashmir University. Kashmir University. d. ‘Role of Shah-i-Hamadan in the Islamization of Kashmir’. 46.. cit.. a compendium on Islamic jurisprudence (Ž qh) and the other. 43. 315. II. Kashmir main Islam. Vol. Hangloo. 35. F. Kashir: Being a History of Kashmir from the Earliest Times to Our Own. 29. Kashmir Ki Kali: Kashmir Mai Musalmano Ka Pahla Qadam (The Flower of Kashmir: The Advent of Muslims in Kashmir). Yoginder Sikand. Zayb Malihabadi. 22. Abdul Qaiyum RaŽ qui. M. Hassnain. Cultural and Political History of Kashmir. p. p. New Delhi: M. whom he made his chief deputy to carry on Islamic missionary work in Kashmir. 18. p. in Hamara Adab (Our Culture). Hasan. Department of History. 1989. p. 167. Abdur Rabb Kardar. Among his many works. p. Calcutta: Firma KLM. Ibid. 18. Darakshan Abdullah. S. 13. 95. Kashmir main Islam. Abdur Rabb Kardar. 20. 49. Later. 16. ‘Religious Views of Sultan Sikander [1389–1413]’.. ‘From Burzahom to Solomon’s Throne’.. 9. cit. ‘Accepting Islam’. Rampur: Pakeeza Kitab Ghar. Hassnain. M. 1974. The most prominent among Hazrat Bulbul Shah’s principal disciples. SuŽ sm in Kashmir From the Fourteenth Century to the Sixteenth Century. p. Shah-i-Hamadan Institute of Islamic Studies. 1994. op. ‘Sayyed Bulbul Shah’. Bashir Akhtar. Abdul Ahad RaŽ q. 117. 30. 92. 172. 31. in Hamara Adab. 7. . op. 11. cit. Twin Cities] at 16:33 02 October 2015 Hazrat Bulbul Shah 367 3. cit. F. p. Vol. 6. 1979. p. p. Srinagar: Government of Jammu and Kashmir. 44. 26. Publications. ‘Mazahib-o-Aqa’id’. ‘Mazahib-o-Aqa’id’ (‘Religions and Beliefs’). was Mullah Ahmad. pp. Bukhari. M. Rashid Nazki. 23. lxxi. 49. P. in Heritage of Kashmir. 27. Rashid Nazki. The Way to SuŽ sm. ‘Islam in Kashmir’. F. Tazkirat-ul Auliya-i-Kashmir (The History of the SuŽ s of Kashmir). I.D. p. 1990. Kashmir Under the Sultans. PhD thesis. Mushahir Number. 1998. 1979. 61. Hangloo. 113–14. M.. K. ed.. who included Islamic scholars (ulama) as well as mystics of great accomplishment. p. cit. p. II. S.. Didamari. Abdul Ahad RaŽ q. Islamic Culture. R. 1341–1345). 4. 181. p. L. 4. SuŽ . 28. 15. 1988. 14. cit. G. Waqi’at-i-Kashmir op. ed. Mohibbul Hasan. p. 10. 2000. 26. F. pp. 21.Downloaded by [University of Minnesota Libraries. 1981–1982. op. Srinagar: Gulshan. p. Srinagar. the Mullah was appointed by Shah Mir.. 48. cit. p. MPhil dissertation. p. Srinagar. p. The Way to SuŽ sm. p. M. 34. p. Kashmir Under the Sultans. M. op. 17. a treatise on SuŽ sm.