Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 23

N A’ VI - E NGLISH D ICTIONARY v. 9.

7
Compiled by Taronyu (Richard Littauer)
www.LearnNavi.org

Last updated: April 4th , 2010

This is the definitive dictionary for Na’vi, the language created by Dr. Paul Frommer for
the film Avatar. The words within come directly from, or are derived from, Frommer. Thanks
are certainly to be given to the following people for their monumental efforts: Dr. Frommer,
Karyu Amawey, all the people in the change log, and everyone on IRC, Skype, and the Learn
Na’vi site.
Where appropriate, extra notes have been included for the entries below. Compound non-
inflected words and loan words from English have been noted.The traditional Na’vi transcrip-
tion in use by Frommer has been maintained throughout: the IPA transcription is given as
well. Some lenited words have been included if in the official corpus. Some inflected words
are included here, if their inclusion is deemed particularly useful. I have on several occasions
derived non-attested words: these are marked by a *, and are marked as root forms. Note that
adpositions are free if before their modifier, but are bound as a suffix if situated after it.
Bold indicates Na’vi word. Italics indicate English definition." indicates where Frommer
has given us stress information for polysyllabic words: the following syllable is stressed. Plain
text indicates grammatical categorisation: parentheses indicate further notes. <x> represents
an infix, where t<pre-first><1>ar<2>on are the positions: I have included periods in the IPA
to mark where infixes are to be placed, as in t.ar.on - this is not standard IPA, but I deem it
useful. Proper nouns have been capitalised. Knowledge of lenition processes, including vowel
reduction and ellision, will be assumed. Note also that allomorphs, where specified, are subject
only to personal preference, and not syntactic or morphological rules. There are several useful
appendices that hold further information.

Abbreviations:

– = morpheme boundary inter. = interrogative


+ = leniting morpheme boundary lit. = literally
<> = infix morpheme n. = noun
adj. = adjective num. = number
adp. = adposition part. = particle
adv. = adverb pn. = pronoun
conj. = conjunction prop. n. = proper noun
c.w. = compound word v. = verb
dem. = demonstrative φ = illegal phonotactics
intj. = interjection

An English - Na’vi dictionary, and a Dictionary Categorised by Parts of Speech are provi-
ded, and may be helpful when searching fails. Translations are also available in Dutch, Ger-
man, Russian, Português, Hungarian, Estonian, and Polish.

1
Sources
I have sourced every word as best as I could. This sourcing is placed in a subscript after the
IPA transcription, and tells where I, or the source from which I received a word, initially got
their word from Frommer. In early March, Frommer sent us a list of words which he had: these
are the definitive source now, and not the ASG. Some words are not present in this list, and so,
in order of validity, from most to least:

• PF = Frommer’s Canon (Including approved entries by: JC, Prr and RL)
• F = Frommer himself
• M = The Movie
• S = The Survival Guide main text (flora, songs, and vocab list)
• G = the Avatar Games
• C = Cameron himself (not legalised by Frommer)
• T = Taronyu
• D = Words not derived by Taronyu
• ASG = The Survival Guide main text (flora, songs, and vocab list)

The Activists Survival Guide contains a list of words, with some errors. Words not in
this list but still within the Guide are all illegal phonetically, and are to be regarded as non-
canonical. I have attached the φ character to each such word, and put them in their own sec-
tion in the appendix. However, the plant names and songs are distinctly Frommerian, and are
thus included in the dictionary proper. James Cameron himself made up many words, which
Frommer then legalised. Frommer did not legalise some pronounciation errors made during
filming: these, like oìsss, are now canon regardless. Finally, Frommer has deigned some con-
structions made by learners as good words, and so, occasionally there are extra sources, as
P RR and RL. These are to be treated as Frommerian, if included here, although not if they are
attached to words whose part of speech is root, as those have been derived.
I have edited this dictionary too many times not to assume that it will have errors. Please,
if you note any, let me know here, and I will change them. As for version number, I’ll change
the first digit when there is a big change. I’ll update .0x0 when I make a significant, but not
large change. Finally, I’ll edit the .00x number when I’ve made tiny edits. Refer to the Change
Log for explanation.
Many, many thanks are to be given to Tuiq, who took the time and had the skill to put this
dictionary into an online database, to help other translators and make the process of changing
this dictionary much easier.

2
P

’ampi: ["P.amp.i] P F v. touch ’evi: ["PEvi] P F n. kid (affectionate form of


’aw: [Paw] P F num. one ’eveng child)
’awkx: [Pawk’] P F n. cliff ’ewan: ["PEwan] P F adj. young
’awlie: ["PawliE] P F adv. once(Note ’awlo) ’ewll: ["PEwl] P F n. plant
’awlo: ["Pawlo] P F adv. once "
’eylan: ["PEjlan] P F n. friend
’awpo: ["Pawpo] P F pn. one individual ’eyng: [P.EjN] P F v. answer, respond
’awsiteng: [Pawsi"tEN] P F adv. together (c.w. ’i’a: ["P.iP.a] P F v. end, conclude
from ’aw one and teng same, equal) ’ia: ["P.i.a] P F v. lose oneself (spiritual sense)
’awstengyem: [PawstEN"j.Em] P F v. join (two ’it: ["Pit^] P F n. bit, a small amount
things together) (c.w. from ’awsiteng toget- ’itan: ["Pitan] JC,P F n. son
her and yem put) ’ite: ["PitE] JC,P F n. daughter
’awve: ["PawvE] P F adj. first ’ì’awn: [P.I"P.awn] P F v. remain, stay
’änseym: [Pæn"sjEm] P F adj. complete ’ìheyu: [PI"hEju] P F n. spiral
’ärìp: ["P.äR.Ip^] P F v. move (something) ’ok: [Pok^] P F n. remembrance
’e’al: ["PEPal] P F adj. worst ’ong: [P.oN] P F v. unfold, blossom
’efu: ["P.Ef.u] P F v. feel, sense, perceive ’opin: ["Popin] P F n. color
’eko: ["P.Ek.o] P F v. attack ’ora: ["PoRa] P F n. lake
’ekong: ["PEkoN] P F n. beat (rhythmic) ’u: [Pu] P F n. thing (object, fact, abstraction)
’em: [P.Em] P F v. cook ’uo: ["Puo] P F pn. something
’engeng: ["PENEN] P F adj. level ’upe: ["PupE] P F inter. what (thing) (c.w. from
’eoio: ["PEoio] P F adj. ceremonious ’u thing and pe inter. marker)
’eveng: ["PEvEN] P F n. child ’upxare: [Pu"p’aRE] P F n. message

–a–: [a] F adjectival attributive marker aungia: [a"uNia] P F n. sign, omen


a: [a] P F pn. which, that awnga: [aw"Na] F pn. we derived from ayoeng
alaksi: [a"laksi] P F adj. ready we
alìm: [a"lIm] P F adv. far away, at a distance ayfo: [aj"fo] or ["ajfo] or [fo]] P F pn. they
apxa: [a"p’a] P F adj. large aylaru: [aj"laRu] P F pn. to the others (contraction
atan: [a"tan] JC n. light of ay+lahe–ru)
atokirina’: [atoki"RinaP^] JC n. seeds of the great aynga: [aj"Na] P F pn. you all, you (pl.)
tree (c.w. from rina’ seed) ayoe: [aj"oE] P F pn. we (exclusive)
atxkxe: [at’"k’E] P F n. land ayoeng: [aj"wEN] P F pn. we (inclusi-
au: ["au] JC n. drum (made of skin) ve)(ayoenga– base for suffixes)

äie: [æ"iE] P F n. vision (spiritual) ätxäle: [æ"t’ælE] P F n. request


äo–: ["æo] P F adp. below ätxäle si: [æ"t’ælE s.i] M v. request

ean: ["Ean] P F adj. blue, green eltu si: ["Eltu s.i] P F v. pay attention, quit goofing
off
ekxan: [e"k’an] P F n. barricade, obstruction
eltu: ["Eltu] P F n. brain
*em: [Em] T 9 root over derived from ta’em from
eltu lefngap: ["Eltu le"fNap^] P rr n. computer above and emza’u pass

3
emza’u: [Em"z.aP.u] P F v. pass (a test), overcome eyktan: ["Ejktan] JC n. leader
(c.w. from em over and za’u come) Eywa ngahu: ["Ejwa "Nahu] JC,P F intj. goodbye,
eo–: ["Eo] P F adp. before, in front of (place) Eywa (be) with you
eyawr: [Ej"awR] P F adj. correct, right
eyk: [.Ejk^] JC,P F v. lead

fa–: [fa] P F adp. with, by means of fpìl: [fp.Il] P F v. think


fahew: [fa"hEw] P F n. smell fpom: [fpom] P F n. well-being, peace, happiness
fay+: [faj] D prefix these (c.w. from fì this and fpxäkìm: ["fp’.æk.Im] P F v. enter
ay+ plural) *fra–: [fRa] T prefix every derived from frapo
fayvrrtep: [fajvrtEp^] F n. these demons (c.w. everyone and fra’u everything D
from fay this "plural and vrrtep demon)T fra’u: ["fRaPu] P F pn. everything
fäpa: ["fæpa] P F n. top frakrr: ["fRakr] P F adv. always (c.w. from krr ti-
fewi: ["f.Ew.i] P F v. chase me) "
fì–: [fI] F prefix this derived from fìpo this one frapo: ["fRapo] P F pn. everyone (c.w. from po
and fì’u this thing he/she)
fì’u: [fI"Pu] P F pn. this (thing) frato: ["fRato] P F superlative marker than all
fìfya: [fI"fja] P F adv. this way, like this fratrr: [fRa"tr] P F adv. daily, every day (c.w. from
fìkem: [fI"kEm] P F pn. this (action) trr day) "
fìpo: ["fIpo] P F pn. this one (person or thing) fratseng: ["fRaţEN] P F adv. everywhere (c.w.
fìtrr: [fI"tr] P F adv. today from tseng place)
"
fìtseng(e): [fI"ţEN(E)] P F adv. here, this place frìp: [fr.Ip^] P F v. bite
fìtxan: [fI"t’an] P F adv. so, to such an extent (c.w. frrfen: ["f.rf.en] P F v. visit
from fì– this and txan great, much) "
frrtu: ["frtu] P F n. guest, visitor
fìtxon: [fI"t’on] P F adv. tonight (c.w. from txon "
ftang: [ft.aN] P F v. stop
night)
ftawnemkrr: [ftaw"nemkr] P F n. past (c.w.
fkarut: ["fk.aR.ut^] P F v. peel
from ft<awn>em pass" by (perfect participle
fkew: [fkEw] P F adj. mighty
form) and krr time)
fkip–: [fkip^] P F adp. up among
ftär: [ftæR] P F adj. left (not right)
fko: [fko] P F pn. one, it (unspecified agent)
fte: [ftE] P F conj. so that
fkxake: ["fk’.ak.E] P F v. itch
fkxen: [fk’En] P F n. vegetable (food) fteke: ["ftEkE] P F conj. so that not, lest (c.w. from
fte so that and ke not)
flä: [fl.æ] P F v. succeed
flew: [flEw] P F n. throat ftem: [ft.Em] P F v. pass by (something)
fmal: [fm.al] P F v. sustain ftia: [ft.i."a] P F v. study
fmawn: [fmawn] P F n. news, something to report ftu–: [ftu] P F adp. from (direction)
fmetok: ["fm.Et.ok^] P F v. test ftue: ["ftuE] P F adj. easy, simple
fmi: [fm.i] P F v. try, attempt ftxavang: ["ft’avaN] P F adj. passionate
fngap: [fNap^] P F n. metal ftxey: [ft’.Ej] P F v. choose
fnu: [fn.u] P F v. quiet, be quiet ftxey...fuke: [ft’Ej fu"ke] P F conj. whether....or
fo: [fo] P F pn. they derived from ay+ deleted not
plural leniting morpheme and po he/she ftxì: [ft’I] P F n. tongue
fpak: [fp.ak^] P F v. hold off, suspend action ftxozä: [ft’o"zæ] P F n. celebration, happy occasion
fpe’: [fp.EP^] P F v. send fu: [fu] P F conj. or
fpeio: [fpE"io] P F n. challenge (ceremonial) furia: ["fuRia] P F conj. that (subordinate clause
fpi+: [fpI] P F adp. for the sake of, for the benefit marker) (c.w. from fì’uri this (topical) and a
of relative clause marker)

4
futa: ["futa] P F conj. that (subordinate clause *fya–: [fja] T root path, direction derived from
marker) (c.w. from fì’u-t this (accusative) and fya’o path and fyape how
a that) fya’o: ["fjaPo] P F n. path, way, manner
fwa: [fwa] P F conj. that (subordinate clause mar-
ker) (c.w. from fì’u this (nominative) and a fyape: ["fjapE] PF inter. how allomorph of pe-
relative clause marker) fya
fwäkì: ["fwækI] P F n. mantis fyawìntxu: [fjaw.In"t’.u] P F v. guide (c.w. from
fwew: [fw.Ew] P F v. look for, seek, search *fya path and wìntxu show)

ha: [ha] P F adv. so, in that case hìm: [hIm] P F adj. small (in quantity)
hahaw: ["h.ah.aw] P F v. sleep hìmtxampe: [hIm"t’ampE] P F inter. how much
hangham: ["h.aNh.am] P F v. laugh allomorph of pìmtxan
hapxì: [ha"p’I] P F n. part hìmtxan: [hIm"t’an] P F n. amount
hapxìtu: [ha"p’Itu] P F n. member (c.w. from hol: [hol] P F adj. few
hapxì part) holpxay: [hol"p’aj] P F n. number (c.w. from hol
hasey: [ha"sEj] P F adj. done, finished few and pxay many)
hawl: [h.awl] P F v. prepare holpxaype: [hol"p’ajpE] P F inter. how many
hawnu: ["h.awn.u] P F v. protect, shelter (c.w. from holpxay number and pe how)
heyn: [h.Ejn] P F v. sit hrrap: ["hrap^] P F n. danger
hiyìk: ["hijIk^] P F adj. funny, strange hu–: [hu] "P F adp. with (accompaniment)
hì’ang: ["hIPaN] P F n. insect (c.w. from hì’i small hufwa: [hu"fwa] P F conj. although
and ioang animal) hufwe: [hu"fwE] P F n. wind
hì’i: ["hIPi] P F adj. small, little (in size) hum: [h.um] P F v. leave, depart

i’en: ["iPEn] JC n. stringed instrument io–: ["Io] P F adp. above


*ik: [ik^] D root heaven, sky, mountain derived
ioang: [i"oaN] P F n. animal, beast
from iknimaya stairway to heaven and ikran
walks the sky irayo: [i"Rajo] JC n., intj. thank you, thanks

ìlä+: ["Ilæ] or [I"læ] P F adp. by, via, following

ka–: [ka] P F adp. across *kaw–: [kaw] T root contraction of ke aw not


kalin: [ka"lin] P F adj. sweet one, derived from kawkrr never
kaltxì: [kal"t’I] P F intj. hello kawkrr: ["kawkr] P F adv. never (c.w. from krr
kame: ["k.am.E] P F v. see, see into, understand, time) "
know (spiritual sense)
kawng: [kawN] P F adj. bad, evil (c.w. from
kan: [k.an] P F v. aim *kaw– not and –ng inclusive)T
kangay: [ka"Naj] P F adj. valid
kawtu: ["kawtu] P F pn. no-one
kar: [k.aR] P F v. teach
karyu: ["kaRju] P F n. teacher kä: [k.æ] P F v. go
kato: ["kato] P F n. rhythm kä’ärìp: [kæ"P.æR.Ip^] P F v. push (c.w. from kä
kavuk si: [ka"vuk^ s.i] P F v. betray go and ’ärìp move)

5
kämakto: [kæ"m.akt.o] P F v. ride out (c.w. from kifkey: [kif"fkEj] P F n. world (physical, solid)
kä go and makto ride) kilvan: [kil"van] P F n. river
käpxì: [kæ"p’I] P F n. rear (part or section) (c.w. kin: [k.in] P F v. need
from kä go and hapxì part) kinam: [ki"nam] P F n. leg
käsatseng: [kæ"saţEN] P F adv. out there (c.w. kinamtil: [ki"namtil] P F n. knee
from kä go and tseng place) kinä: ["kinæ] P F num. seven
ke: [kE] P F adv. not kip–: [kip^] P F adp. among
ke–: [kE] T prefix no, not kì’ong: [kI"PoN] P F adj. slow
ke’u: ["kEPu] P F pn., adv. nothing, nothing at all, kìm: [k.Im] P F v. spin
not at all (c.w. from ke not and ’u thing) kìng: [kIN] P F n. thread
kea: ["kEa] P F adj. no (before a noun) kìte’e: [kItE"PE] P F n. service
kefyak: [kE"fjak^] P F part. isn’t it?, right? (c.w.
kìyevame: [kIjE"vam.E] P F intj. good-bye, see
from kefya not the way and srak question
you again soon (c.w. from kame see and
marker)
<ìyev> future subjunctive infix)
kehe: ["kEhE] P F adv. no
kll: [kl] F root ground
kelku: ["kElku] P F n. home, house "
kllfro’: [kl"fR.oP^] P F v. be responsible
kelku si: ["kElku s.i] P F v. live, dwell "
kllkä: [kl"k.æ] P F v. descend
kem: [kEm] P F n. thing (action), deed "
kllkulat: [kl"k.ul.at^] P F v. dig up
kemlì’u: ["kEmlIPu] P F n. verb (c.w. from kem "
kllkxem: [kl"k’.Em] P F v. stand
action and lì’u word) "
kempe: ["kEmpE] P F inter. what (action) kllpa: ["klpa] P F n. bottom
"
keng: [kEN] P F adv. even kllpxìltu: [kl"p’Iltu] P F n. territory
"
kenong: ["k.En.oN] P F v. model, represent, ex- kllte: ["kltE] P F n. ground
"
emplify (c.w. from ke not and nong follow ko: [ko] P F part. solicit agreement
after) kop: [kop^] P F adv. too, also
kerusey: ["kERusEj] P F adj. dead (c.w. from ke koren: [ko"REn] P F n. rule, guideline
not and r<us>ey live (adj. infix)) krr: [kr] P F n. time
"
keteng: ["kEtEN] P F adj. different (c.w. from ke krrnekx: [kr"n.Ek’] P F v. take/consume time (c.w.
not and teng same, equal) from krr" time and nekx consume)
ketuwong: ["kEtuwoN] P F n. alien krrpe: ["krpE] P F inter. when
"
kewong: ["kEwoN] P F adj. alien kunsìp: ["kunsIp^] P F n. gunship (loaned from
key: [kEj] P F n. face Eng. gunship)
keye’ung: [kE"jEPuN] P F n. insanity kurakx: [k.u"R.ak’] P F v. drive out

Kx

kxa: [k’a] P F n. mouth kxanì: ["k’anI] P F adj. forbidden


kxam: [k’am] P F n. middle, midpoint kxawm: [k’awm] P F adv. perhaps, maybe
kxamlä–: ["k’amlæ] P F adp. through (via the
middle of) kxener: ["k’EnER] P F n. smoke
kxamtseng: ["k’amţEN] P F n. center, place in the kxetse: ["k’EţE] P F n. tail
middle (c.w. from kxam center and tseng pla- kxeyey: ["k’EjEj] P F n. error, mistake
ce)
kxangangang: ["k’aNaNaN] P F intj. boom (ono- kxll: [k’l] P F n. charge, running attack
"
matopoeia) kxu: [k’u] P F n. harm

6
L

*la–: [la] T root other, otherness derived from lew: [lEw] P F n. cover, lid
lapo other one and aylahe others lew si: [lEw s.i] P F v. cover (c.w. from lew cover)
lahe: ["lahE] P F adj. other *lì(’): [lI(P)] W root speak derived from lì’u
lam: [l.am] P F v. seem, appear word and lì’fya language
lapo: ["lapo] P F pn. other one (person or thing) lì’fya: ["lIPfja] P F n. language (c.w. from lì’u
(c.w. from po he/she) word and *fya way)
latem: ["l.at.Em] P F v. change lì’u: ["lIPu] P F n. word
latsi: [l.a"ţ.i] P F v. keep up with someone lì’upe: [lI"PupE] P F inter. what (word, utterance)
law: [law] P F adj. clear, certain allomorph of pelì’u
*lay+: [laj] D root others derived from *la other lìm: [l.Im] P F v. far, be far
and ay+ plural –lo: [lo] P F multiplicative number suffix
le–: [lE] F adjective deriving affix lok: [l.ok^] P F v. approach
lefpom: [lE"fpom] P F adj. happy, peaceful, joyous lok–: [lok^] P F adp. close to
(not for people) lonu: [l.o"n.u] P F v. release, let go
lek: [l.Ek^] P F v. heed, obey lor: [loR] P F adj. beautiful, pleasant to the senses
len: [l.En] P F v. happen, occur (non-human)
lena’vi: [lE"naPvi] F adj. having to do with the *lrr: [lr] lrrtok root smile, happy
Na’vi, the people lrrtok:" ["lrtok^] P F n. smile
lerìk: [lE"RIk] P F adj. leafy lrrtok si: "["lrtok s.i] M v. smile
lertu: ["lERtu] P F n. colleague lu: [l.u] P F "v. be, am, is, are (predicative copula,
lesar: [le"saR] F adj. useful existential verb)
letrr: [lE"tr] RL,P F adj. daily luke–: ["lukE] P F adp. without
" tr]
letrrtrr: [lE"tr P F adj. ordinary lumpe: ["lumpE] P F inter. why allomorph of
" "
letsunslu: [lE"ţunslu] P F adj. possible (c.w. pelun
from tsun be able and slu become) lun: [lun] P F n. reason

ma: [ma] P F part. O (vocative marker) mìkam–: [mI"kam] P F adp. between


makto: ["m.akt.o] P F v. ride mìn: [m.In] P F v. turn
maw–: [maw] P F adp. after (time) mìso: [mI"so] P F adv. away (position) derived
mawey: [ma"wEj] P F adj. calm from *to away
mefo: ["mEfo] P F pn. they, those two (c.w. from mllte: [m.l"t.E] P F v. agree
me+ dual marker and po he/she) "
moe: ["moE] P F pn. we two (exclusive) (c.w. from
melo: ["mElo] P F adv. twice me+ dual and oe I)
menari: [mE"naRi] P F n. eyes (two) (c.w. from mokri: ["mokRi] P F n. voice
me+ dual and nari eye) mowan: [mo"wan] P F adj. pleasing, enjoyable
meoauniaea: ["mEoaunia"Ea] F Frommer’s fa- mrr: [mr] P F num. five
vourite word, currently undefined "
muiä: [mu"iæ] P F adj. proper, fair, right, justified
meuia: [mE"uia] P F n. honor mun’i: [m.un"P.i] P F v. cut
meyp: [mEjp^] P F adj. weak mune: ["munE] P F num. two
mi: [mi] P F adv. yet, still, as before munge: ["m.uN.E] P F v. take, bring
mikyun: ["mikjun] JC n. ear mungwrr–: [muN"wr] P F adp. except
mip: [mip^] P F adj. new muntxa: [mun"t’a] P" F adj. mated
mì+: [mI] P F adp. in, on muntxa si: [mun"t’a s.i] P F v. mate (with someo-
mìfa: ["mIfa] or [mI"fa] P F n., adv. inside ne)

7
N

na–: [na] P F adp. like, as nìayoeng: [naj"wEN] P F adv. like us, as we do


na’rìng: ["naPRIN] P F n. forest nìftue: [nI"ftuE] P F adv. easily
nang: [naN] P F part. surprise, exclamation, en- nìftxavang: [nI"ft’avaN] P F adv. passionately,
couragement with all heart
nari: ["naRi] P F n. eye nìfya’o: [nI"fjaPo] P F adv. in a manner
nari si: ["naRi s.i] P F v. watch out, be careful nìhawng: [nI"hawN] P F adv. too, excessively
nawm: [nawm] P F adj. great, noble nìltsan: [nI"lţan] P F adv. well
nawmtu: ["nawmtu] P F n. great person (c.w. nìmun: [nI"mun] P F adv. again
from nawm great) nìn: [n.In] P F v. look at
näk: [n.æk^] P F v. drink nìna’vi: [nI"naPvi] F adv. like the Na’vi, Na’vi-ly
ne–: [nE] P F adp. to, towards (direction) nìngay: [nI"Naj] P F adv. truly
ne’ìm: [nE"PIm] P F adv. back (direction)
nìpxim: [nI"p’im] P F adv. erectly, rightly
nefä: [ne"fæ] P F adv. up (direction)
nìrangal: [nI"RaNal] P F adv. wish (contrary to
nekll: [nE"kl] P F adv. down (direction)
fact)
ne kllte: [nE" "kltE] P F intj. get down (c.w. from
" the ground) nìtam: [nI"tam] P F adv. enough (after an adjecti-
ne to and kllte
ve)
nekx: [n.Ek’] P F v. burn, consume
nìteng: [nI"tEN] P F adv. too, also, as well, likewise
nemfa–: ["nEmfa] P F adp. into, inside (c.w. from
(c.w. from teng same, equal)
ne towards and mì in)
nìtut: [nI"tut^] P F adv. continually
neto: [nE"to] P F adv. away (direction) derived
from ne to and *to away nìtxan: [nI"t’an] P F adv. much (abstract), very
new: [n.Ew] P F v. want (c.w. from txan much)
niä: [n.i."æ] P F v. grab nìwin: [nI"win] P F adv. fast
nikre: ["nikRE] P F n. hair nìwotx: [nI"wot’] P F adv. all (of), in toto, comple-
nitram: [ni"tRam] P F adj. happy (of people) tely
nì–: [nI] F adverbial deriving affix nìzawnong: [nI"zawnoN] P F adv. safely (c.w.
nì’aw: [nI"Paw] P F adv. only from <awn> perfect particple infix and zong
nì’awtu: [nIP"awtu] P F adv. alone (as one person) safe)
nì’awve: [nIP"awvE] P F adv. first nong: [n.oN] P F v. follow, proceed after
nì’eoio: [nI"PEoio] P F adv. ceremoniously nul–: [nul] T root comparative adjectival marker
nì’it: [nI"Pit^] P F adv. a bit, a small amount (ab- derived from nì’ul more and nulkrr longer
stract) (c.w. from ’it bit, a small amount) nulkrr: [nul"kr] P F adv. longer (time)
"
nì’ul: [nIPul] P F adv. more nulnew: [nul"n.Ew] P F v. prefer
nìawnomum: [nIaw"nomum] P F adv. as you nume: ["n.um.E] P F v. learn
know, as is known (c.w. from <awn> perfect numtseng: ["numţEN] P F n. school (c.w. from
particple infix and omum know) nume learn and tseng place)

Ng

nga: [Na] P F pn. you ngenga: [NE"Na] P F pn. you (honorific form)
ngawng: [NawN] P F n. worm ngian: [Ni"an] P F adv. however
ngay: [Naj] P F adj. true ngim: [Nim] P F adj. long (physical length)
ngaytxoa: [Naj"t’oa] P F intj. sorry, my apologi- ngop: [N.op^] P F v. create
es (acknowledgment of guilt and regret) (c.w. ngrr: [ngr] P F n. root
from ngeyä your and txoa forgiveness) nguway:"["Nuwaj] P F n. howl, viperwolf cry (c.w.
ngäng: [NæN] P F n. stomach from way song)

8
O

oe: ["oE] P F pn. I, me ohe: ["ohE] P F pn. I (deferential or ceremonial


oeng: ["wEN] P F pn. we two (dual inclusive), you form)
and I olo’: [o"loP^] P F n. clan
olo’eyktan: [olo"PEjktan] P F n. clan leader (c.w.
oeyk: [o"Ejk] P F n. cause from olo’ clan and eyktan leader)
oeyktìng: [o"Ejkt.IN] P F v. explain (why) deri- omum: [."om.um] P F v. know
ved from oeyk cause and tìng give ontu: ["ontu] P F n. nose

pa’o: ["paPo] P F n. side pelì’u: [pE"lIPu] P F inter. what (word, utterance)


pak: [pak^] P F part. for disparagement allomorph of lì’upe
pam: [pam] P F n. sound pelun: [pE"lun] P F inter. why allomorph of
pamrel: [pam"REl] P F n. writing lumpe
pamrel si: [pam"REl s.i] P F v. write peng: [p.EN] P F v. tell
pamtseo: ["pamţEo] P F n. music (c.w. from peseng: [pE"sEN] P F inter. where allomorph of
pam sound and tseo art) tsengpe
pate: ["p.at.E] P F v. get to a place, arrive pesu: [pE"su] P F inter. who allomorph of tupe
pawm: [p.awm] P F v. ask peu: [pE"u] P F inter. what (thing) allomorph of
pay: [paj] P F n. water, liquid ’upe
payfya: ["pajfja] P F n. stream (c.w. from pay pewn: [pEwn] P F n. neck
water and fya’o way) pey: [p.Ej] P F v. wait, wait for
payoang: [paj"oaN] P F n. fish (c.w. from pay piak si: [pi"ak^ s.i] P F v. open
water and ioang animal) pizayu: ["pizaju] P F n. ancestor derived from
pähem: ["p.æh.Em] P F v. arrive *za come and yu noun deriving affix T
pängkxo: [p.æN"k’.o] P F v. chat, converse, have a pìmtxan: [pIm"t’an] P F inter. how much allo-
conversation morph of hìmtxampe
pängkxoyu lekoren: [pæN"k’oju lEko"rEn] P F plltxe: [p.l"t’.E] P F v. speak
n. lawyer po: [po] P F" pn. he, she
*pänu: [pænu] D root oath, word, promise deri- poan: [po"an] P F pn. he
ved from pänutìng promise poe: [po"E] P F pn. she
pänutìng: ["pænut.IN] P F v. promise (a thing to pom: [p.om] P F v. kiss
someone) (c.w. from tìng give) pongu: ["poNu] P F n. group of people, party (c.w.
pätsì: ["pæţI] P F n. badge from po he/she)
pe+: [pE] P F affix inter. marker prrnen: ["prnEn] P F n. infant, baby
pe’un: ["p.EP.un] P F v. decide prrnesyul: "["prnEsjul] P F n. bud (c.w. from prr-
pefya: [pE"fja] P F inter. how allomorph of fy- nen baby and " syulang flower)
ape prrte’: ["prtEP^] P F adj. pleasurable (of an activi-
pehem: [pE"hEm] P F inter. what (action) allo- ty) "
morph of kempe prrwll: ["prwl] P rr n. moss
pehrr: [pE"hr] P F inter. when allomorph of krr- puk: [puk^]" P"F n. book (loaned from Eng. book)
pe " pukap: ["pukap^] P F num. six

Px

pxan: [p’an] P F adj. worthy pxasul: ["p’asul] P F adj. fresh, appealing as food
pxasìk: ["p’asIk^] P F intj. screw that!, no way!
(vulgar) pxaw–: [p’aw] P F adp. around

9
pxawpa: ["p’awpa] P F n. perimeter, circumfe- pxi: [p’i] P F adj. sharp
rence, border (c.w. from pxaw around and pxim: [p’im] P F adj. erect, upright
pa’o side) pxìm: [p’Im] P F adv. often
pxay: [p’aj] P F adj. many pxor: [p’.oR] P F v. explode
pxel–: [p’El] P F adp. like, as pxun: [p’un] P F n. arm
pxey: [p’Ej] P F num. three pxuntil: ["p’until] P F n. elbow

ral: [Ral] P F n. meaning renu: ["REnu] P F n. pattern


ralpeng: [Ral"p.EN] P F v. interpret (c.w. from ral rey: [R.Ej] P F v. live
meaning and peng tell) reypay: ["REjpaj] P F n. blood (c.w. from rey life
ramunong: [ra"munoN] P F n. well and pay water)
*ran: [R.an] D root contracted form of walk de- rikx: [R.ik’] P F v. move, shift position
rived from tìran walk and ikran walks-the- rim: [Rim] P F adj. yellow
heavens rina’: [Ri"naP^] P F n. seed
rangal: ["R.aN.al] P F v. wish rìk: [RIk] P F n. leaf
rawke: ["RawkE] P F intj. alarm cry, call to defense ro+: [Ro] P F adp. at (locative)
rä’ä: [Ræ"Pæ] P F part. do not (for negative impe- rol: [R.ol] P F v. sing
ratives) ronsem: ["RonsEm] P F n. mind
re’o: ["rEPo] P F n. head rum: [Rum] P F n. ball
rel: [REl] P F n. image, picture run: [R.un] P F v. find, discover
reltseo: ["RElţEo] P F n. visual art (c.w. from rel rusey: [Ru"sEj] P F adj., n. alive, living, living
image and tseo art) thing (c.w. from rey live and <us> active
reltseotu: ["RElţEotu] P F n. artist (c.w. from participle infix)
reltseo art) rutxe: [Ru"t’E] P F intj. please

sa’nok: ["saPnok^] P F n. mother(from sa’atenuk seyri: ["sEjRi] JC n. lip


C) si: [si] P F do, make auxiliary verb, postpositio-
sa’nu: ["saPnu] P F n. mum, mommy (affectiona- nal non-bound verb deriving affix
te form of sa’nok mother) sim: [s.im] P F v. near, be near
salew: [s.a"l.Ew] P F v. proceed, go sì: [sI] P F conj. and (connects two things, can
san: [san] P F adv. saying, quote be attached as –sì: for clauses use ulte and)
sar: [s.aR] P F v. use sìk: [sIk^] P F adv. unquote
sä–: [sæ] F prefix instrumental noun derived sìlpey: [sIl"p.Ej] P F v. hope
from sänume teaching and säspxin disease sìlronsem: [sIl"RonsEm] P F adj. clever, smart
säfpìl: [sæ"fpIl] P F n. idea (thing) (c.w. from sìltsan good and ronsem
sänume: [sæ"numE] P F n. teaching, instruction mind)
säspxin: [sæ"sp’in] P F n. disease, sickness (c.w. sìltsan: [sIl"ţan] P F adj. good
from spxin sick) sìn–: [sIn] P F adp. on, onto
sekrr: ["sEkr] P F adv. present (c.w. from set now *sìp: [sIp^] T n. ship derived from tawsìp sky-
and krr "time) ship and kunsìp gunship
sempu: ["sEmpu] P F n. daddy (affectionate ska’a: [sk.a"P.a] P F v. destroy
form of sempul father) skepek: ["skEpEk^] M adj. formal
sempul: ["sEmpul] P F n. father skien: ["skiEn] P F adj. right (not left)
set: [sEt^] P F adv. now skxakep: ["sk’akEp^] P F adj., adv. probable; pro-
sevin: [sE"vin] P F adj. pretty (of people) bably

10
skxawng: [sk’awN] P F n. moron, idiot sre+: [sRE] P F adp. before (time)
skxom: [sk’om] P F n. chance, opportunity sre’: [sREP] P F n. tooth
slä: [slæ] P F conj. but srese’a: [sREs.E"P.a] P F v. prophetize (c.w. from
sleyku: [slEj"k.u] P F v. produce (c.w. from slu sre+ before and tse’a see)D
become and <eyk> causative infix) srew: [sR.Ew] P F v. dance
slu: [sl.u] P F v. become srung: [sRuN] P F n. help, assistance
sngap: [sN.ap^] P F v. sting srung si: [sRuN s.i] M v. help
sngä’i: ["sN.æP.i] P F v. begin, start (intransitive) stawm: [st.awm] P F v. hear
sngä’ikrr: ["sNæPikr] P F n. beginning, starting stä’nì: ["st.æPn.I] P F v. catch
"
time (c.w. from sngä’i begin and krr time) steftxaw: [st.E"ft’.aw] P F v. examine, check
sngel: [sNEl] P F n. garbage steyki: [stEj"k.i] P F v. anger, make someone angry
sngeltseng: ["sNElţEN] P F n. garbage place (c.w. (c.w. from sti anger and <eyk> causative in-
from sngel garbage and tseng place) fix)
snumìna: ["snumIna] P F adj. dim (of a person) sti: [st.i] P F v. angry, be angry
som: [som] P F adj. hot sto: [st.o] P F v. refuse (to do something)
sop: [s.op^] P F v. travel stum: [stum] P F adv. almost
spaw: [sp.aw] P F v. believe sung: [s.uN] P F v. add
spä: ["sp.æ] P F v. jump sutx: [s.ut’] P F v. track, follow, lock up
spe’e: [sp.E"P.E] P F v. capture swaw: [swaw] P F n. moment
spe’etu: [spE"PEtu] P F n. captive (c.w. from swey: [swEj] P F adj. best
spe’e capture and tu person) swirä: [swi"Ræ] P F n. creature
speng: [sp.EN] P F v. restore swizaw: [swi"zaw] P F n. arrow
spule: ["sp.ul.E] P F v. propel swok: [swok^] P F adj. sacred
spxam: [sp’am] P F n. mushroom, fungus swotu: ["swotu] P F n. sacred place
spxin: [sp’in] P F adj. sick syaw: [s.jaw] P F v. call
srak(e): ["sRak(E)] P F part. inter. marker for yes syä’ä: ["sjæPæ] P F adj. bitter
or no questions syep: [sj.Ep^] P F v. trap
sran: [sRan] P F adv., intj. yes (colloquial) syulang: [sjulaN] P F n. flower
srane: ["sRanE] P F adv., intj. yes syuve: ["sjuvE] P F n. food

ta–: [ta] P F adp. from (various uses) taronyu: ["taRonju] P F n. hunter (c.w. from ta-
ta’em: [ta"PEm] P F adv. from above ron hunt and –yu agent suffix)
ta’leng: ["taPlEN] P F n. skin tatep: ["t.at.Ep^] P F v. lose
tafkip–: [ta"fkip^] P F adp. from up among (c.w. tatlam: [tat"lam] P F adv. apparently (c.w. from
from ta from and fkip– up among) lam seem)
tafral: [ta"fRal] P F adv. therefore, because of that taw: [taw] P F n. sky
takip: [ta"kip^] P F adp. from among (c.w. from taweyk(a): [ta"wEjk(a)] P F conj. because, based
ta from and kip– among) on the cause
takuk: ["t.ak.uk^] P F v. strike tawng: [t.awN] P F v. duck, dive
talun(a): [ta"lun(a)] P F conj. because, from the tawsìp: ["tawsIp^] P F n. sky-ship (loaned from
reason Eng. ship)
tam: [t.am] P F v., intj. suffice, do", OK täftxu: [t.æ"ft’.u] P F v. weave
tam tam: [tam tam] M,T intj. calm, be content, täftxuyu: [tæ"ft’uju] P F n. weaver (c.w. from
there there täftxu weave and –yu agent suffix)
tangek: ["taNEk^] P F n. trunk (of a tree) tätxaw: [t.æ"t’.aw] P F v. return (intransitive)
tanhì: [tan"hI] P F n. star, bioluminescent freckle te: [tE(P)] JC part. used in full names
taron: ["t.aR.on] P F v. hunt tei: [tEi] G n. plain

11
tel: [t.El] P F v. receive tìpawm: [tI"pawm] P F n. question (c.w. from
telem: [tE"lEm] P F n. cord pawm ask)
tem: [t.Em] P F v. shoot (intransitive) tìpängkxo: [tIpæN"k’o] P F n. conversation, di-
teng: [tEN] P F adj. same, equal scussion (c.w. from pängkxo chat)
tengfya: ["tENfja] P F conj. as, same way as (c.w. tìprrte’: [tI"prtEP^] P F n. pleasure (c.w. from prr-
"
te’ pleasurable)
from teng same, equal and fya’o path)
tengkrr: [tEN"kr] P F conj. while, same time as tìran: [t.I"R.an] P F v. walk
(c.w. from teng " same, equal and krr time) tìrey: [tI"REj] P F n. life
teri–: [tE"RI] P F adp. about, concerning tìrol: [tI"Rol] P F n. song
terkup: ["t.ERk.up^] P F v. die tìspxin: [tI"sp’in] P F n. the state of being ill, sick-
teswotìng: [tEs"wot.IN] P F v. grant (c.w. from ness (c.w. from spxin sick)
tìng give) tìsraw: [tI"sRaw] P F n. pain
tete: ["tEtE] P F adj. dull (as a blade) tìsraw seyki: [tI"sRaw sEj"k.i] P F v. hurt (someo-
tewti: ["tEwti] P F intj. wow, expression of surpri- ne or something) (c.w. from tìsraw pain and
se and pleasure si + <eyk> make (causative))
teya: [tE"ja] P F adj. full tìsraw si: [tI"sRaw s.i] P F v. hurt, be painful
til: [til] P F n. joint, hinge tìsrese’a: [tI"sREsEPa] P F n. prophecy (c.w. from
tirea: [ti"REa] P F n. spirit srese’a prophetize)
tìtakuk: [tI"takuk^] G n. strike
tireafya’o: [ti"REa"fjaPo] P F n. spirit path (c.w.
from tirea spirit and fya’o path) tìtxur: [tI"t’uR] P F n. strength, power
tìyawn: [tI"jawn] P F n. love (c.w. from yawne
tireaioang: [ti"REai­oaN] P F n. spirit animal (c.w.
beloved)
from tirea spirit and ioang animal)
*to: [to] T root away (concept) derived from ne-
tireapängkxo: [ti"REap.æN"k’.o] P F v. commune
to away (direction) and mìso away (position)
(c.w. from tirea spirit and pängkxo chat)
to: [to] P F comparative marker than
tì–: [tI] W noun. deriving affix
tok: [t.ok^] P F v. be at, occupy a space (transitive)
tì’awm: [tI"Pawm] P F n. camping
toktor: ["toktoR] P F n. doctor (loaned from Eng.
tì’awm si: [tI"Pawm s.i] P F v. camp
doctor)
tì’eyng: [tI"PEjN] P F n. answer, response
tokx: ["tok’] P F n. body
tìfmetok: [tI"fmEtok^] P F n. test
toltem: [t.ol"t.Em] P F v. shoot (transitive)
tìftang: [tI"ftaN] P F n. stopping tompa: ["tompa] P F n. rain
tìfyawìntxu: [tIfjawIn"t’u] P F n. guidance toruk makto: [toRuk makto] JC n. toruk rider
tìhawnu: [tI"hawnu] P F n. protection (c.w. from toruk leonopteryx and makto ri-
tìkangkem: [tI"kaNkEm] P F n. work de)
tìkangkem si: [tI"kaNkEm s.i] P F v. work trr: [tr] P F n. day
tìkawng: [tI"kawN] P F n. evil "
trram: [tr"am] P F adv. yesterday
tìkenong: [tI"kEnoN] P F n. example (c.w. from "
trray: [tr"aj] P F adv. tomorrow (c.w. from trr day
tì- abstract noun prefix and kenong model) "
and <ay> future infix)
tìkin: [tI"kin] P F n. need *tu: [tu] T root person, personage marker
tìlor: [tI"loR] P F n. beauty –tu: [tu] direct object noun deriving affix, as
tìng: [t.IN] P F v. give in spe’etu captive T
tìngay: [tI"Naj] P F n. truth tukru: [tuk"Ru] P F n. spear
tìng mikyun: [t.Im "mikjun] P F v. listen, lit. gi- tul: [t.ul] P F v. run
ve an ear tung: [t.uN] P F v. allow
tìng nari: [t.In "naRi] P F v. look, lit. give eye tungzup: [tuN"z.up^] P F v. drop (c.w. from tung
tìng tseng: [t.IN ţEN] P F v. back down, lit. give allow and zup fall)
place tup: [tup^] P F conj. instead of, rather than
tìoeyktìng: [tI"wejktIN] F n. explanation (c.w. tupe: ["tupE] P F inter. who allomorph of pesu
from <eyk> cause (root)) tut: [tut^] P F part. continuation marker

12
tutan: [tu"tan] P F n. male (person) tute: [tu"tE] P F n. female (person)
tuteo: ["tutEo] P F pn. somebody, someone
tute: ["tutE] P F n. person tuvon: ["t.uv.on] P F v. lean

Ts

*tsa–: [ţa] T prefix that derived from tsakem tsko: [ţko] P F n. bow (weapon)
that action and tsakrr that time tsko swizaw: [ţko swi"zaw] P F n. bow and ar-
tsa: [ţa] F dem.,pn. that, it row
tsa’u: ["ţaPu] P F dem. that (thing) (c.w. from tskxe: [ţk’E] P F n. rock, stone
tsa that and *’u thing) tskxekeng: ["ţk’EkEN] P F n. training, exercise
tsaheyl si: [ţa"hEjl s.i] P F v. bond with, establish tslam: [ţl.am] P F v. understand
a neural connection tsleng: [ţlEN] P F adj. false
tsaheylu: [ţa"hEjlu] P F n. bond tslolam: [ţlo"lam] P F intj. get it, I understand
tsakem: ["ţakEm] or [ţa"kEm] P F dem. that (ac- derived from tslam understand and <ol>
tion) perfect aspect infix
tsakrr: [ţa"kr] P F dem. then, at that time tsmuk: [ţmuk^] P F n. sibling
tsam: [ţam] "P F n. war tsmukan: ["ţmukan] P F n. brother
tsampongu: ["ţampoNu] P F n. war party (c.w. tsmuke: ["ţmukE] P F n. sister
from tsam war and pongu party) tsmuktu: ["ţmuktu] P F n. sibling(allomorph of
tsamsiyu: ["ţamsiju] P F n. warrior (c.w. from tsmuk sibling) T
tsam si make war and –yu agent suffix) tsngal: [ţNal] P F n. cup
tsap’alute: [ţap"PalutE] P F n. apology tsngan: [ţNan] P F n. meat
tsap’alute si: [ţap"PalutE s.i] P F v. apologise tsngawvìk: ["ţN.awv.Ik^] P F v. cry, weep
tsatseng: [ţa"ţEN] or ["ţaţEN] P F dem. there, tsnì: [ţnI] P F conj. that (function word)
that place (c.w. from tsa that and tseng place) tsopì: ["ţopI] P F n. lung
tsatu: ["ţatu] P F dem. that person (c.w. from tsa tspang: [ţp.aN] P F v. kill
that and tu person) tsranten: ["ţR.ant.En] P F v. matter, be of import
tsawke: ["ţawkE] P F n. sun tsray: [ţRaj] P F n. village
tsawl: [ţawl] P F adj. big (in size), tall tsre’i: ["ţR.EP.i] P F v. throw
tsawl slu: [ţawl sl.u] P F v. grow (c.w. from tstal: [ţtal] P F n. knife
tsawl big and slu become) tstew: [ţtEw] P F adj. brave
*tsay+: [ţaj] D prefix those derived from *tsa– tstu si: [ţtu s.i] P F v. close
that and ay+ plural tstxo: [ţt’o] P F n. name
tsä’: [ţ.æP^] P F v. squirt tstxolì’u: ["ţt’olIPu] P F n. noun (c.w. from tstxo
tse: [ţE] P F part. well (conversation starter) name and lì’u word)
tse’a: [ţ.E"P.a] P F v. see (physical sense) tsuksìm: ["ţuksIm] P F n. chin
tseng(e): ["ţEN(E)] P F n. place tsun: [ţ.un] P F v. can, be able
tsengo: ["ţENo] P F pn. somewhere tsunslu: ["ţ.unsl.u] P F v. may, be possible (c.w.
tsengpe: ["ţENpE] P F inter. where allomorph of from tsun be able and slu become)
peseng tsurokx: [ţ.u"R.ok’] P F v. rest
tseo: ["ţEo] P F n. art tswayon: ["ţw.aj.on] P F v. fly
tsim: [ţim] P F n. source tsyal: [ţjal] P F n. wing
tsìng: [ţIN] P F num. four tsyo: [ţjo] P F n. flour
tskalep: ["ţkalEp^] P F n. crossbow tsyokx: [ţjok’] P F n. hand

13
Tx

txal: [t’al] F n. back (of the body) txìm: [t’Im] P F n. butt, rear end, ass
txampay: [t’am"paj] P F n. sea, ocean (c.w. from txìng: [t’.IN] P F v. leave, abandon
txan great and pay water) txo: [t’o] P F conj. if
txan: [t’an] P F adj. great, much, many (in quan- txoa: ["t’oa] P F n. forgiveness
tity) txokefyaw: ["t’okEfjaw] P F conj. if not, or else,
txantsan: ["t’antsan] P F adj. excellent otherwise (c.w. from txo-ke-fya-aw if not one
txantslusam: ["t’anţlusam] P F adj. wise (c.w. path)
from txan much and tsl<us>am un- txon: [t’on] P F n. night
derstand)
txon’ong: [t’on"PoN] P rr n. evening, twilight
txantstew: ["t’anţtEw] P F n. hero (c.w. from tx-
txonam: [t’o"nam] P F adv. last night (c.w. from
an very and tstew brave)
txon night and <am> past infix)
txayo: ["t’ajo] P F n. field, open terrain
txe’lan: [t’EP"lan] P F n. heart txonay: [t’o"naj] P F adv. tomorrow night (c.w.
txele: ["t’ElE] P F n. matter (subject) from txon night and <ay> future infix)
txen: [t’En] P F adj. awake txopu: ["t’opu] P F n. fear
txep: [t’Ep^] P F n. fire txopu si: [t’opu s.i] M v. be afraid
txepvi: ["t’Epvi] P F n. spark txula: ["t’.ul.a] P F v. build, construct
txewk: [t’Ewk^] P F n. club (weapon) txum: [t’um] P F n. poison
txey: [t’.Ej] P F v. halt txur: [t’uR] P F adj. strong

u’imi: [uPimi] S n. streamers uniltìrantokx: [uniltI"Rantok’] JC,P F n. avatar,


ukxo: [u"k’o] P F adj. dry dreamwalker body
ulte: ["ultE] P F conj. and (clausal conjunction) uniltìranyu: [unitI"Ranju] P F n. dreamwalker
uo–: ["uo] P F adp. behind
ultxa: [ul"t’a] P F n. meeting
*–ut: [ut^] T root tree derived from pxiut sharp
ultxarun: [ul"t’aR.un] P F v. encounter, meet by tree and rumut ball tree(compound-word
chance allomorph of utral)
ultxa si hu: [ul"t’a s.i hu] P F v. meet with some- utral: ["utRal] P F n. tree
one intentionally uvan: [u"van] P F n. game
unil: ["unil] P F n. dream uvan si: [u"van s.i] P F v. play

vay–: [vaj] P F adp. up to virä: [v.i"R.æ] P F v. spread, proliferate


vaykrr: [vay"kr] P F conj. until (c.w. from vay– vitra: [vit"Ra] P F n. soul
up to and krr" day)
vä’: [væP^] P F adj. unpleasant to the senses, no- vol: [vol] P F num. eight
isome T vrrtep: ["vrtEp^] P F n. demon
venu: ["vEnu] P F n. foot "
venzek: ["vEnzEk] P F n. toe (c.w. from venu foot vul: [vul] P F n. branch (of a tree)
and zekwä finger) vur: [vuR] P F n. story

14
way: [waj] P F n. song win si: [win s.i] P F v. rush something, make so-
waytelem: ["wajtElEm] P F n. song chord mething fast (c.w. from win fast and si do)
wä+: [wæ] P F adp. against (as in: fight against) wìntxu: [w.In"t’.u] P F v. show
wem: [w.Em] P F v. fight *wong: [woN] T root sameness, the same derived
wew: [wew] P F adj. cold from kewong alien and ketuwong alien
weyn: [w.ejn] P F v. draw, illustrate
win: [win] P F adj. fast wotx: [wot’] P F n. totality, whole
win säpi: [win sæ"p.i] P F v. hurry (c.w. from wrrpa: ["wrpa] P F n., adv. outside
"
win fast and si + <äp> do (reflexive)) wutso: ["wuţo] P F n. dinner, served meal

ya: [ja] P F n. air yemfpay si: [jEm"fpaj s.i] P F v. dip into liquid
yawne: ["jawnE] P F adj. beloved yey: [jEj] P F adj. straight
yayo: ["jajo] P F n. bird (c.w. from ya air and io- yìm: [j.Im] P F v. bind
ang animal)D
yol: [jol] P F adj. short (of time)
yän: [j.æn] P F v. fasten, tie down
yom: [j.om] P F v. eat
ye’rìn: ["jEPRIn] P F adv. soon
*ye’ung: [jEPuN] D root sanity derived from yomtìng: ["jomt.IN] P F v. feed (c.w. from yom
keye’ung insanity eat and tìng give)
yem: [j.Em] P F v. put, place –yu: [ju] W nominative agent noun deriving
yemfpay: [jEm"fpaj] P F n. dipping, immersion affix, as in taron-yu hunter
(into liquid) yur: [j.uR] P F v. wash

za’ärìp: [za"P.æR.Ip^] P F v. pull zenke: ["z.ENkE] P F v. must not (root sense) (c.w.
za’u: ["z.aP.u] P F v. come from zene must and ke not)
zam: [zam] P F num. sixty four zìsìt: ["zIsIt^] P F n. year
zamunge: [za"m.uN.E] P F v. bring derived from zong: [z.oN] P F v. save, defend
munge bring zongtseng: ["zoNţEN] P F n. safe place, refuge
zapxì: [za"p’I] P F n. front (part or section) (c.w. (c.w. from zong save and tseng place)
from *za come and hapxì part) zoplo: [zop"lo] P F n. offence, insult
zawng: [z.awN] P F v. scream zup: [z.up^] P F v. fall
zekwä: ["zEkwæ] P F n. finger zusawkrr: [zu"sawkr] P F n. future (c.w. from
zene: ["z.En.E] P F v. must z<us>a’u coming" and krr time)

15
A The Number System.
The following are charts of Na’vi numbers. Note that it is not a decimal, but an octal system.
Underlining indicates where the stress ought to fall.

Na’vi Numbers: 0 – 39
0 1 2 3 4
0 vol mevol pxevol tsìvol
1 ’aw volaw mevolaw pxevolaw tsìvolaw
2 mune vomun mevomun pxevomun tsìvomun
3 pxey vopey mevopey pxevopey tsìvopey
4 tsìng vosìng mevosìng pxevosìng tsìvosìng
5 mrr vomrr mevomrr pxevomrr tsìvomrr
6 pukap vofu mevofu pxevofu tsìvofu
7 kinä vohin mevohin pxevohin tsìvohin

Na’vi Numbers: 40 – 63
5 6 7
0 mrrvol puvol kivol
1 mrrvolaw puvolaw kivolaw
2 mrrvomun puvomun kivomun
3 mrrvopey puvopey kivopey
4 mrrvosìng puvosìng kivosìng
5 mrrvomrr puvomrr kivomrr
6 mrrvofu puvofu kivofu
7 mrrvohin puvohin kivohin

More Na’vi Numbers:


x1 combining x8 x64 x512 x4096
1 ’aw -aw vol zam vozam zazam
2 mune -mun mevol mezam mevozam mezazam
3 pxey -pey pxevol pxezam pxevozam pxezazam
4 tsìng -sìng tsìvol tsìzam tsìvozam tsìzazam
5 mrr -mrr mrrvol mrrzam mrrvozam mrrzazam
6 pukap -fu puvol puzam puvozam puzazam
7 kinä -hin kivol kizam kivozam kizazam

16
B Na’vi Proper Nouns
’Ìnglìsì: ["PINlIsI] P F n. English language (loa- Neytiri: [nEjtiRi] JC prop.n. woman’s name
ned from Eng. English) Ninat: [ninat^] JC prop.n. woman’s name, good
’Rrta: ["Prta] P F prop.n. Earth (loaned from singer
"
Eng. Earth) Nok: [nok^] G prop.n man’s name
Amhul: [amhul] S prop.n. name Omati: [omati] G prop.n man’s name
Änsìt: ["ænsIt^] S prop.n. name Omatikaya: [omati"kaja] JC,S prop.n. Blue Flu-
Anurai: [anuRai] G prop.n. clan name te Clan
Ateyitan: [atEjitan] JC prop.n. son of Ateyo de- Onantu: [onantu] G prop.n a Na’vi name
rived from Ateyo male name and ’itan son Peyral: [pEjRal] JC prop.n name
Ayvitrayä Ramunong: [ajvit"Rajæ Ra"munoN] Rai’uk: [RaiPuk^] G prop.n name
JC prop.n Well of Souls (c.w. from vitra soul Ralu: ["Ralu] S prop.n. child’s name
and ramunong well) Rongloa: [RoNloa] JC prop.n clan name
Eytukan: ["Ejtukan] JC prop.n. man’s name Seyvaro: [sEjvaRo] G prop.n Na’vi name
Eywa: ["Ejwa] JC prop.n. world spirit, Gaia (de- Silwanin: [silwanin] JC prop.n. Neytiri’s sister
rived from Proto-Indo-European *aiw) T Swotulu: ["swotulu] P F prop.n. sacred river
Eywa’eveng: [Ejwa"PEvEN] P F prop.n. Pandora (c.w. from swotu sacred place)
(c.w. from Eywa Gaia and ’eveng child) Tasun: [tasun] G prop.n name
Iknimaya: ["ikni"maja] JC prop.n. Stairway to Tawkami: [tawkami] G prop.n clan name (c.w.
Heaven, the rite of passage for young Na’vi from taw sky and kame see)
li’Ona: [liPona] G,F prop.n clan name Tawtute: ["tawtutE] P F prop.n. Sky-person, hu-
Lompo: [lompo] G prop.n man’s name man (c.w. from taw sky and tute person)
Malimi: [malimi] G prop.n a Na’vi name Tipnai: [tipnai] G prop.n. clan name
Mo’at: ["moPat^] JC prop.n. woman’s name Tsahìk: ["ţahIk^] P F prop.n. matriarch, high pri-
Mo’at’ite: [moPatPitE] JC prop.n. daughter of estess, interpreter
Mo’at derived from Mo’at a woman and ’ite Tskaha: [ţkaha] JC prop.n. tribe name
daughter Tsu’tey: [ţuP"tEj] JC prop.n. man’s name
Na’vi: ["naPvi] JC,P F prop.n. the People, indige- U’imi huyuticaya: [uPimi hujutikaja] ASG
nous Pandoran sentient race prop.n. clan name φ
Nera’nak: [nERaPnak^] G prop.n a Na’vi name Uniltaron: ["unil"taRon] P F prop.n. Dream Hunt

Flora

*atoki: [atoki] T n. sacred tree derived from ato- penghrrap: [pENhrap^] S n. binary sunshine,
kirina’ seeds of the great tree fringed lamp (c.w." from peng tell and hrrap
ar’lek: [arPlEk^] G n. a seed-bearing plant φ danger)
awaiei: [awaiEi] S n. banshee of paradise pxiut: [p’iut^] S n. razor palm, sharp tree
eyaye: [EjajE] S n. warbonnet pxorna’: [p’oRnaP^] S n. episoth, exploding seed
fngapsutxwll: [fNapsut’wl] S n. metal-following (c.w. from rina’ seed and pxor explode)
plant " rumut: [Rumut^] S n. ball tree
Kelutral: ["kElutRal] S,M prop.n. Hometree seze: ["sEzE] P F n. blue flower
loreyu: [loREju] S n. helicoradium spirale, beauti- somtìlor: [somtIloR] S n. popsicle, hot beauty
ful spiral (c.w. from lor beautiful and ’ìheyu (c.w. from som hot and tìlor beauty)
spiral)T tautral: [tautRal] S n. sky tree (c.w. from taw sky
pamtseowll: [pamţEowl] S n. cat ear, music and utral tree)T
plant "
tawtsngal: [tawţNal] S n. panopyra, sky cup
paywll: [pajwl] S n. water plant, dapophet (c.w. from taw sky and tsngal cup)
"
17
torukspxam: [toRuksp’am] S n. octoshroom, gre- poison-squirting plant (c.w. from tsä’ squirt
at leonopteryx fungus and ’ewll plant)
tsawlapxangrr: [ţawlap’aNr] S n. unidelta tree, Utral Aymokriyä: ["utRal aj"mokRijæ] P F
"
lit. tall large root (c.w. from ngrr root)(for prop.n. Tree of Voices(from utraya mokri C )
short, tsawlapx) utral utu mauti: [utRal utu mauti] S n. push
tsyorina’wll: [ţjoRinaPwl] S n. cycad, flour seed fruit tree
"
plant (c.w. from rina’ seed and ’ewll plant)T utu mauti: [utu mauti] S n. banana fruit, push
txll’u: [t’lPu] P F n. hookagourd fruit
txumpaywll:" [t’umpajwl] S n. scorpion thistle, Vitrautral: [vit"RautRal] P F prop.n Tree of Souls
poison water plant (c.w. " from txum poison (c.w. from vitra soul and utral tree)
and paywll water plant) yomioang: [jomi"oaN] S n. chalice plant (c.w.
txumtsä’wll: [t’umţæPwl] S n. reclining flask, from yom eat and ioang animal T )
"

Fauna

’angtsìk: ["PaNţIk^] P F n. hammerhead pa’li: ["paPli] P F n. direhorse


eltungawng: ["EltuNawN] P F n. brainworm (c.w. palulukan: ["palu"lukan] JC n. thanator
from eltu brain and ngawng worm) riti: ["Riti] P F n. stingbat
fpxafaw: ["fp’afaw] P F n. medusa talioang: ["tal"ioaN] P F n. sturmbeest (c.w. from
ikran: ["ikRan] JC n. banshee ioang animal)
ikranay: ["ikRanaj] ASG n. forest banshee(non-F)
teylu: ["tEjlu] P F n. beetle larva
T
kali’weya: [kaliPwEja] S n. species of poisonous toruk: ["toRuk^] JC n. great leonopteryx, last sha-
arachnid dow
lenay’ga: [lEnajPga] ASG n. slinger, predatory yerik: ["jERik^] P F n. hexapede
animal φ yomhì’ang: [jomhIPaN] S n. small animal/insect
lonataya: [lonataja] ASG n. medusa eater, dakteron derived from yom eat and
nantang: ["nantaN] JC,P F n. viperwolf Caniferra- hì’ang insect
tus costatus, striped armored wolf zize’: [zi"zEP] P F n. hellfire wasp

18
C Illegal Words
These are illegal words that are not from Frommer: I have included them as they are in the
corpus, but they are not to be regarded as Na’vi words. The following words, or their roots,
either break syllable rules that Frommer set forth, or have at least one of the following illegal
sounds, spellings, or digraphs:

’h [Ph], b [b], c [k], ch [tS], d [d], g [g], h’ [hP], ii [i:], j [Z], sh [S], uu [u:]

chan’tu gor’ek nuuto: [tSanPtu gorPEk^nuuto] na’hla buk’ne: [naPhla bukPnE] ASG n. direhor-
ASG n. stone jarφ se lead, lit. face pull φ
chey: [tSEj] ASG n. possesions rack derived from nikt’chey: [niktPţhEj] or [niktPtSEj] ASG n.
P’ah s’ivil chey rackφ small bit of food, packed lunchφ
Eywa k’sey nivi’bri’sta: [Ejwa kPsEj niviP- nivi: [nivi] ASG n. hammock (informal), us de-
briPsta] ASG hammock, from Eywa cradles rived from Eywa k’sey nivi’bri’sta Ewya
everyone φ cradles everyone φ
Eywa s’ilivi mas’kit nivi: [Eywa sPilivi masP- omati s’ampta: [omati sPampta] ASG n. blue
kit^nivi] ASG Ewya’s wisdom is revealed to all flute
of us φ P’ah s’ivil chey: [pPah sPivil tSEy] SAG n. per-
Eywa te’ _ tan’sey mak’ta: [Ejwa tEP tanP- sonal belongings rackφ
sEJ makPta] ASG n. ikran queue harness, lit. pxtxawng: [p’t’awN] C n. douchebag φ
the love of Eywa’s embrace is gifted to (personal
shah-tell: [SahtEl] ASG n. shuttle (loaned from
name) φ
Eng. shuttle)φ
feru m’predu’k: [fEru mPpREduPk^] ASG n. bas-
su’shiri t’acto sa: [suPshiri tPacto sa] or
ket φ
[suPshiri tPacto sa] ASG n. toy ikranφ
iveh k’nivi s’dir: [ivEh kPnivi sPdir] ASG n. ba-
by slingφ sumin jiit’luy: [sumin ZiitPluy] ASG n. leaf pla-
jakesully: [ZEjk’su:li] M n. moron, toruk mak- teφ
toyu (loaned from " Eng. Jake Sully)φ sumin’sey hulleh: [suminPsEj hulEh] ASG slee-
ping outside of the groupφ "
k’sey nivi: [kPsEj nivi] ASG n. group sleepφ
Kyuna: [kjuna] G prop.n girl’s nameφ t’riti so jahmka: [tPRiti so Zahmka] ASG n. pen-
m’resh’tuyu: [mPRESPtuju] or [mPREshPtuju] dulum drumφ
ASG n. shieldφ tmi nat’sey: [tmi natPsEj] ASG n. bladder lan-
malmoks: [malmoks] G n. rings of stone tern, from food here φ
mas’kit nivi sa’nok: [masPkit^nivi saPnok^] ulivi mari’tsey mak’dini’to: [Ulivi mariPţEj
ASG mother loomφ makPdiniPto] ASG loom, lit. branches of the
meresh’ti cau’pla: [mERESPti kauPpla] or tree look to each other for strength, or many
[meReshPti kauPpla] ASG n. banshee catcher, branches together are strong φ
bola, lit. nothing to see φ ulu’tah inib’sey mulsi: [uluPtah inibPsEy mul-
mreki u’lito: [mREki uPlito] ASG n. fire pitφ si] ASG n. leaf plateφ

19
D Inflections
Verb Infixes
<am>: [am] W past tense verbal infix in position 1: Oe tamaron. I hunted.
<äng>: [æN] W pejorative affect verbal infix in position 2: Oe tarängon. I hunt (ugh!).
<äp>: [æp^] F E reflexive verbal infix in position 0: Oe täparon. I hunt myself.
<arm>: [aRm] W imperfective past tense verbal infix in position 1, derived from am + er: Oe
tarmaron. I was hunting.
<asy>: [asj] P F future tense with determination verbal infix in position 1: Oel tspasyang pa-
lulukanit. I will definately kill the thanator.
<ats>: [aţ] F E inferential, indicating uncertainty or indirect knowledge verbal infix in position
2: Oel tspatsang poanit. I killed him (I think.)
<awn>: [awn] P F passive participle verbal infix in position 0: Oe tawnarona tute lu. I am a
hunted person.
<ay>: [aj] W future tense verbal infix in position 1: Oe tayaron. I will hunt.
<ei>: [Ei] W laudative affect verbal infix in position 2: Oe tareion. I hunt (hooray!).
<er>: [ER] D imperfective aspect verbal infix in position 1: Oe teraron. I am hunting.
<eyk>: [Ejk] F E causative verbal infix in position 0: Oel teykaron pot. I caused him to hunt.
<ilv>: [ilv] F E present perfective subjunctive verbal infix in position 1: Oe new tslilvam. I
want to understand.
<ìm>: [Im] W recent past verbal infix in position 1: Oe tìmaron. I just hunted.
<imv>: [imv] F E past subjunctive verbal infix in position 1: Oe namew tslimvam I wanted to
understand.
<ìrm>: [IRm] W imperfective recent past tense verbal infix in position 1: Oe tìrmaron. I was just
hunting.
<irv>: [iRv] F E present imperfective subjunctive verbal infix in position 1: Oe new tslirvam. I
want to be understanding.
<ìsy>: [Isj] P F immediate future tense with determination verbal infix in position 1: Oel
tspìsyang palulukanit. I will definately kill the thanator soon.
<iv>: [iv] W subjunctive mood verbal infix in position 1: Ngal new futa oe tivaron. You want
this thing: for me to hunt
<ìy>: [Ij] W immediate future tense verbal infix in position 1: Oe tìyaron. I am about to hunt.
<ìyev>: [IjEv] F E future subjunctive verbal infix in position 1: Oel kìyevame ngati. I will see
you soon.
<iyev>: [ijEv] F E future subjunctive verbal infix in position 1: Oel kiyevame ngati. I will see
you soon.
<ol>: [ol] F perfective aspect verbal infix in position 1: Oe tolaron. I hunted (finished action).
<us>: [us] W active participle verbal infix in position 0: Oe tusarona tute lu. I am a hunting
person.
<uy>: [uj] F honorific or ceremonial verbal infix in position 2: Na’viyä, l<uy>u hapxì. You are
part of The People.

20
Noun Inflections
–ä: [æ] F genitive suffix for nouns ending in a everything but a, ä, e, and ì (allomorph of yä):
Oel yom ikran–ä yerikit. I eat the ikran’s yerik.
–an: [an] W masculine suffix for certain nouns: Oe tute–an lu. I am a male dude.
–e: [E] F feminine suffix for certain nouns: Oe tut–e ke lu. I am not a girl
–ìl: [Il] F ergative case suffix for nouns ending in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo-vowel
(allomorph of l): Ikran–ìl taron yerikit. The ikran hunts the yerik.
–ìri: [IRi] F topical suffix for nouns ending in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo-vowel (allo-
morph of ri): Ikran–ìri taron yerikit. The ikran hunts a yerik.
–it: [it^] F accusative suffix for nouns ending in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo-vowel (allo-
morph of t, ti): Oel taron yerik–it. I hunt the yerik.
–l: [l] W ergative case adp. for nouns ending in a vowel: Oe–l taron yerikit. I hunt the yerik.
–ng: [N] W clusivity adp. for pronouns: Ayoe–ng taron. We all hunt.
–o: [o] P F indefinite suffix: Oel tspamang tute–o–t. I killed someone.
–ri: [Ri] F topical adp. for nouns ending in a vowel: Oe–ri taron yerikit. I hunt the yerik.
–ru: [Ru] W dative suffix for nouns ending in a vowel (allomorph of –ur): Oel kxenerit nga–ru
tìng. I give fruit to you.
–t: [t^] W accusative suffix for nouns ending in a vowel (allomorph of it, ti): Oel nga–t kame. I
see you.
–ti: [ti] W accusative adp. for pronouns and nouns: Nga–ti taron torukìl. The toruk hunts you.
–ur: [uR] F dative suffix for nouns ending in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo-vowel (allo-
morph of –ru): Ayeylan-ur oeyä. To my friends.
–yä: [jæ] W genitive suffix for nouns ending in a a, ä, e, and ì (allomorph of ä): Oel yom
Neytiri-yä yerikit. I eat Neytiri’s yerik. (Causes vowel fronting of a in pronouns: may look
like –eyä)
ay+: [aj] F plural adp. for nouns: Ay+oe taron. We hunt.
ma: [ma] M part. vocative marker: Ma tsmukan, kaltxì! Yo brother, hello!
me+: [mE] W dual adp. for nouns: Oel new me+narit. I want eyes.
pe+: [pE] W affix inter. marker what: pe+hrr nga tayaron. What time will you hunt?
pxe+: [p’E] F trial adp. for nouns and pronouns: Ayoeng Pxe+veng lu. We are three child-
ren.(Note that e + e cannot be together, and so ellision occurs)

Other

–a–: [a] F adjectival attributive marker: Oel nì–Na’vi plltxe. I speak na’vi-ly. (Like a
ikranit a–ean tswayon. I fly the blue ikran. Na’vi.)
–tu: [tu] T direct object noun deriving affix Oe sä–: [sæ] F instrumental noun deriving affix
taron–tu lu. I am prey. Oel sä–numet nume. I learn the teaching.
–yu: [ju] W nominative agent noun deriving si: [si] W postpositional verb deriving affix Oe
affix Oe ska’a–yu ke lu. I am not a destroyer. kelku si mì kelutral. I live in Hometree. (lit.
le–: [lE] F adjective deriving affix Poan I home make in Hometree.)
le–hrrap lu. He is dangerous. tì–: [tI] W noun deriving affix Tì–ngay sìltsan
nì–: [nI] W adverbial deriving affix Oe lu. The truth is good.

21
E English Short-Hand Terms for Trilinear Glosses
Here is a list of the short-hand notation often used in trilinear glosses on the Forums, with
some common morphemes.

ACC: –it. F accusative suffix for nouns ending IMPF. REC. PAST: <ìrm>. W imperfective re-
in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo-vowel cent past tense verbal infix in position 1 1.
(allomorph of ti) INST: sä–. T instrumental noun deriving affix.
ACC: –t. W accusative suffix for nouns ending INTER: pe+. W affix inter. marker what.
in a vowel (allomorph of ti) LAUD: <ei>. F laudative affect verbal infix in
ACC: –ti. W accusative adp. for nouns. position 2 2.
ADJ: le–. F adjective deriving affix.
MASC: –an. W masculine suffix for certain
ADJ M.: –a–. F adjectival attributive marker.
nouns.
ADV: nì–. W adverbial deriving affix.
NMLZ: tì–. W nominalizer (noun-er) deriving
AGENT N: –yu. W nominative agent noun de-
affix.
riving affix.
CAUS: <eyk>. F E causative verbal infix in OBJ: –tu. T direct object noun deriving affix.
position 0 0. PAST: <am>. W past tense verbal infix in po-
CLU: –ng. W clusivity adp. for pronouns. sition 1 1.
DAT: –ru. W dative adp. for nouns. PEJ: <äng>. W pejorative verbal infix in posi-
DUAL: me+. W dual adp. for nouns. tion 2 2.
ERG: –ìl. F ergative case suffix for nouns en- PEJ: <äng>. W pejorative affect verbal infix in
ding in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo- position 2 2.
vowel (allomorph of –l) PERF: <ol>. W perfective aspect verbal infix
ERG: –l. W ergative case adp. for nouns en- in position 1 1.
ding in a vowel. PLU: ay+. F plural adp. for nouns.
FEM: –e. F feminine suffix for certain nouns. REC. PAST: <ìm>. W recent past verbal infix
FUT: <ay>. W future tense verbal infix in po- in position 1 1.
sition 1 1.
REFL: <äp>. F E reflexive verbal infix in posi-
GEN: –ä. F genitive suffix for nouns ending in
tion 0 0.
a everything but a, ä, e, and ì (allomorph of
SUBJ: <iv>. W subjunctive mood verbal infix
yä)
in position 1 1.
GEN: –yä. W genitive suffix for nouns ending
in a a, ä, e, and ì (allomorph of ä) TOP: –ìri. F topical suffix for nouns ending
IMM. FUT: <ìy>. W immediate future tense in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo-vowel
verbal infix in position 1 1. (allomorph of ri)
IMPF: <er>. D imperfective aspect verbal in- TOP: –ri. F topical adp. for nouns ending in a
fix in position 1 1. vowel.
IMPF. PAST: <arm>. W imperfective past V: si. W postpositional verb deriving affix.
tense verbal infix in position 1 1. VOC: ma. F vocative particle.

22
F The Changelog
This is the changelog. I’ve kept it in, not for translators, who should contact Tuiq, but for the
reader, who would presumably like to know what I’ve done.

• 9.643 Added flew, kxa, nikre, pen, re’o, sre’, tsuksìm, key throat, mouth, hair, neck, head,
tooth, chin, face. Added ngäng, puk stomach, book, edited nemfa to include inside. Fixed
ngaytxoa, puk. Added tsopì, venu, venzek, reypay, ta’leng, tsyokx lung, foot, toe, blood,
skin, hand. Edited Ayvitrayä Ramunong, swotulu, added ramunong well) payfya stream
(pay-fya’o) pxawpa perimeter, circumference, border (pxaw-pa’o) txampay sea, ocean (txan-
pay) ’ora, ekxan, tsim, tsray, txayo, ukxo, wew lake, barricade/obstruction, source, village,
field/open terrain, dry, cold. Changed capitalisation of lì’Ona. Changed sorting of Ìnglìsì,
added someone to tuteo.

• 9.687 Added fìtxon, txonam, txonay, trray, sekrr tonight, last night, tomorrow night, to-
morrow, present vur, tìpängkxo, tìsrese’a, nawmtu, txantstew, tstew, fkew, nguway story,
conversation, prophecy, great person, hero, brave, mighty, viperwolf howl. Deleted *ngu. Ad-
ded ’opin, syuve, tsngan, tstal, tete, lew color, food, meat, knife, dull, cover, derivations for
some related words. Added lena’vi, nìna’vi.

• 9.7 Added kemlì’u, tstxolì’u, ftär, skien, ’änsyem, wotx, mowan, vä’, tatlam, keteng,
numtseng, skxakep, tìprrte’ verb, noun, left, right, complete, whole, pleasing, noisome, seem,
different, school, probable; probably, pleasure, fwäkì, hì’ang, payoang, yayo, zize’ mantis,
insect, fish, bird, hellfire wasp, hapxìtu, ’Rrta member, Earth and many derivations of all of
these.

23