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BAHAYNABATO:ThePhilippineIndigenousHome

PARTI:ClimateInvestigation
TheclimateofMANILAistropicalandmaritime.Itischaracterizedbyrelativelyhightemperature,highhumidityandabundantrainfall.
Temperature: Mean annual temperature is 82 F. The coolest months fall in
January with a mean temperature of 79 F while the warmest months occur in
AprilandMaywithameantemperatureof85F.
Humidity:Duetohightemperatureandthesurroundingbodiesofwater,Manila
has a high relative humidity. The average monthly relative humidity varies
between 71 percent in March and 85 percent in September. It is especially
uncomfortable during April to May, when temperature and humidity attain their
maximumlevels.
Rainfall: Rainfall is one of the most important climatic elements in Manila. The
mean monthly rainfall is 0.1 inches in February to 16.3 inches in August. At its
meanpeakinAugust,rainoccurs24outof31daysand154daysannually.
Daylight:Locatedatlatitude1431N,theaveragelengthofdayrangesfrom11to
13hoursmeasuredatbothsolsticepositions.However,climaticconditionsaffect
skycover.Withvaryingdegreesofovercastcloudcoverconditionsprevalent,the
averageperiodofdirectsunlightrangesfrom4to9hours.
Wind:Constantprevailingmoderatebreezerangingfrom8to11knotsmovingin
aneasterlydirectionflowsmostoftheyearexceptduringtheheavyrainyseason
wheredirectionreverses.
Seasons: Using temperature and rainfall as bases, the climate in Manila can be
dividedintotwomajorseasons:(1)therainyseason,fromJunetoNovember;and(2)thedryseason,fromDecembertoMay.Thedryseason
maybesubdividedfurtherinto(a)thecooldryseason,fromDecembertoFebruary;and(b)thehotdryseason,fromMarchtoMay.
Typhoons: Typhoons have a great influence on the climate and weather conditions in Manila. A great portion of the rainfall, humidity and
cloudinessareduetotheinfluenceoftyphoons.TheygenerallyoriginateintheregionoftheMarianasandCarolineIslandsofthePacificOcean.
Their movements follow a northwesterly direction. The
Philippinessitsastridethetyphoonbelt,andsuffersanannual
onslaught of dangerous storms from July through October.
TheseareespeciallyhazardousfornorthernandeasternLuzon
and theBicolandEastern Visayasregions, but Manila gets
devastatedperiodicallyaswell.
InSeptember2009,typhoonOndoy(internationaldesignation
0916 Ketsana), hit Manila as one of the worst typhoons in
recorded history. Producing only moderate winds, a record
amount of rainfall measured at 17.9 inches in 24 hours fell
which flooded the lower lying areas of the metropolis under
10ftofwater.
Climatic Analysis: Except for limited periods between December and February, the psychrometric analysis shows Manilas climate to be well
beyondthecomfortzone.ThepeakofdiscomfortwouldoccurduringtheperiodsbetweenApriltoMay(redorangebubble)wheretheeffects
oftemperatureandhumidityinteractingareattheirhighest.Asinmosttropicalconditions,designingforeffectiveheatinsulationandnatural
coolingstrategiesshouldbeofprimaryconcern.
Duetoitsazimuth,directand/orindirectdaylightallaroundthebuildingisplentifuleveninwintermonthswherethesunspathremainshigh
abovethehorizon.OrientingthelongersideofthebuildinginanEastWestaxiswillreducesolarheatgain.Considerpropershadingonwindow
openingsalongthewestsidetominimizesolarheatgainfromtheafternoonsun.
Considerhowtheuseofmaterialswithhighthermalmassmaycontributeincoolingthebuildingthroughstrategieslikenighttimeflushing.
Natural ventilation should be available year round. Maximize
window/ventopeningsontheeastandwestsidestocapturebest
airflow.
Duetothehighamountsofprecipitation,designforawatertight
building envelope and increased water runoff. Consider flood
probabilitiesandstudyhistoricalflooddata.
Choiceofbuildingmaterialswhichcanwithstandhighprecipitation
andhumidityshouldbetakenintoaccount.Considerthecorrosive
effectsofsaltwaterifsiteislocatedclosetoManilaBay.
THEBUILDINGENVELOPE
Homework#1:ClimateResponsiveBuildingDesign
PauldeJesus
UCBerkeleyExtensionX413.3Summer2010
Instructor:RyanStroupe

PartII:CaseStudyBAHAYNABATO:ThePhilippineIndigenousHome
Introduction
Built by my greatgrandfather in 1917, the SantosAndres residence stood tall in the sealevel fishing
town of Navotas, north of Manila. It was designed in the typical Bahay na Bato fashion which has
successfully evolved over generations addressing local climatic conditions. In the years since, modern
industrial development had taken over as the driving force in design in lieu of historically functional
patterns. Flooding, congestion, along with other factors, led the
succeeding generations to leave their ancestral home. Four
generations later, the family sought to preserve their heritage by
deconstructing the entire structure and reconstructing it piece by
pieceinthecityofAntipolo40kilometersaway.Nowelevated500ft
above sea level on the gentle slopes of the Sierra Madre range
capturingthecoolermountainbreeze,itproudlysitsfacingwestward
overlookingthebustlingManilawhereitoncedidwatchingoverthe
fishingvesselsreturningtoportalongManilaBay.
TheProject
A herculean task of deconstruction ensued carefully taking apart each piece and recording its location for
thereconstructionwhichtook8monthstocomplete.Althoughoriginallybuiltwithawoodenstructure,it
was decided to frame the house using reinforced concrete instead. Careful attention to finishing details
were implemented to ensure that the project would be restored to its original specifications. Revisions in
planwereadoptedtoallowfortheprojectspresentneeds.GroundbreakingbeganinMay2000withthe
projectcompletedover2yearslater.
AdaptiveChanges
GroundFloorPlanOriginallydesignedforgaragespace(garaje)andanarea
tostoreprovisions(bodega),thebasement(silong)istraditionallyabovegrade
and never permanently lived in due to the annual inundation during the
monsoonmonths.Nowlocatedatahigherelevation,therevisedplanconverts
areaintolivingspaces.Groundfloorlevelisstillraisedabout2feetabovegrade
toprotectfromwaterrunoff.
Originally, windows on the ground floor are normally smaller in opening
compared to those located in upper living spaces. This, along with very thick
highthermalmasswalls,keeptheinteriorcooler,idealforstorage.Theoriginal
window sizes were retained during reconstruction. Awnings (media agua) are
located above window openings. Revised layout exhibits an open plan
promotingbetterairflowandgoodcrossventilation.
The
foyer(entradaprincipal)stillretainsitslocationandoriginalfunction.

grand

SecondFloorPlanThemainlivingarea.Theoriginalplancalledforrecessed
sections to allow daylight to reach deep into the interior. Revised open plan
compensates for the removal of the recesses allowing for more functional
T&Bs to be added. Original house had only 1 functional T&B. Note that all
T&Bsarelocatedalongexteriorwallsandarenaturallyventilated.Maindining
andkitchenarerelocated.Dirtykitchenaddedandlocatedinannex.
Original window openings maintained. Awning wraps around entire second
floorbuildingperimeter.
Interior partitions have punched wooden panels along top section to allow
crossventilationevenwithdoorsclosed.Highceilingmaintained.
ThirdFloorPlanOriginalbedroomsarecombinedandT&Badded.Balcony
wrapsaroundfor360view.Operablewindowsallaroundforincreased
ventilation.Deepoverhangingroofprovidessolarandrainprotection.

Ventilatedatticplenumusingpunchedwoodenpanels.

THEBUILDINGENVELOPE
Homework#1:ClimateResponsiveBuildingDesign
PauldeJesus
UCBerkeleyExtensionX413.3Summer2010
Instructor:RyanStroupe


Windows traditional windows with floor to ceiling arrangement in 3 sections bottom
ventanilla (operable sliding solid panels from floor to sill), mid ventana (operable sliding
wood/glass panels from sill to top of awning) with plantation shutters, top transom (fixed
glassfromtopofawningtoceiling)providingmaximumviews,daylightingandventilation.
Wooden shutters located at
the west end effectively
control late afternoon sun
andofferprivacy.
Clear or smoked glazing
provides
subdued
daylighting.
Capiz,
a
translucent material from bi
valveshellsweretraditionally
usedwhereglasswasnotavailable.
Coloredglasstransomprovidesacolorfulplayofinteriorlight.
Roof painted corrugated metal roof with wrap around and above
windowawning.Metalroofwasfirstintroducedlate19thtoearly20th
century which quickly replaced tile roof due to its weight advantage,
ornipathatchedroofwhichcaughtfirealltooeasily.

Deep overhangs provide ample shade while allowing windows to remain


opened even during heavy rains. Awnings could benefit from underside
insulation to lessen radiated heat from being transmitted into the interior.
Lightercolorshelptoreflectsunsraysandlessenheatgain.Redisafavored
colorduetoitsresemblancetoclaytileroof.
Exteriorwallwoodandstoneconstruction.Ground
floor of concrete (originally quarried natural adobe
withlimeplaster)providesprotectionfromdamaging
effects of rain while providing cooling effects of
thermal mass. Although new location is no longer
prone to flooding, backsplash from awning runoff
canbeasdamaging.Secondandthirdfloorofwood
construction providing less thermal mass and heat
gain.
Landscaping is a characteristic component of
Philippine homes. Trees when matured, will provide
added shading where needed while minimizing
disruption of airflow. The family also runs a large
scaleflowerfarmandisveryadeptinhorticulture.
PresentLivingConditionsInaninterviewwithitsoccupantsat
thesiteseveralyearsago,therelocationwasconsideredahuge
success,proudinthatitwilllastseveralmoregenerations.
Better environmental conditions only enhanced the already
effectivetropicaldesign.Airconditioning,whichwasaddedonly
as a backup for the warmest of nights, had hardly been used.
With the constant breeze, electric fans are mostly unnecessary.
The only drawback noted with opened windows was mosquito
control, They intend to install screens in living quarters that
match the architecture. Electrical lighting is only used in the
evening.Powerisprovidedbythelocalutilitycompanyfromgas
firedgenerators.

THEBUILDINGENVELOPE
Homework#1:ClimateResponsiveBuildingDesign
PauldeJesus
UCBerkeleyExtensionX413.3Summer2010
Instructor:RyanStroupe

Bibliography
Alejandro,Reynaldo;Santos,Vicente(2003)Tahanan:AHouseReborn.DuendePublishing.
Zialcita,Fernando;Tinio,Martin(1980)PhilippineAncestralHouses.GCFBooks.
Zialcita,Fernando;Javellana,Rene(1997)FilipinoStyle.PeriplusEditions.
Villalon,Augusto(2001)Lugar:PhilippineHeritageandArchitecture.Bookmark,Inc.
Reyes,Elizabeth(2000)TropicalLiving:ContemporaryHousesinthePhilippines.PeriplusEditions.
http://www.climatecharts.com/Locations/p/PH98429000000013.php
http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/world/city_guides/results.shtml?tt=TT002730

THEBUILDINGENVELOPE
Homework#1:ClimateResponsiveBuildingDesign
PauldeJesus
UCBerkeleyExtensionX413.3Summer2010
Instructor:RyanStroupe