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CHAPTER 5

DISCUSSION
The data elaborate upon the
The data further illustrate that more
It was evidence from the interview transcripts that the
This preliminary data analysis implies that Malaysian teacher
The findings support earlier research (Ismail & Alexander, 2005; Luan, Bakar & Hong,
2006).
However, several comments from the participants imply that
Research has revealed that higher order questions may have a somewhat broader
general facilitative effect than factual adjunct questions (Hamaker, 1986, p. 237).
Andre (1987, p. 81) also claims that higher level adjunct questions facilitate the
learning of factual information from text and increase the amount of attention readers
devote to processing text. Besides, Armbruster and Ostertag (1989, p. 3) state that
when students are asked questions on a certain text they form expectations based on
the type of question they receive, and these expectations affect learning from reading
subsequent material. [S]tudents interaction with questions directly influences future
learning outcomes. This emphasizes the role questions play to promote higher order
processing of the text.
English textbooks are usually full of questions that come either at the beginning or at
the end of each section, lesson or chapter; unfortunately however, research has shown
that most textbooks do not contain materials, nor do they include questions that require
critical thinking and meta-cognitive processes (Collins, Brown, & Newman, 1989). Most
textbooks questions, as research indicates, emphasize the lower-order cognitive levels
(Cotton, 1991; Ighbaria, 2013; Riazi & Mosalaejad, 2010). Accordingly, the cognitive

levels of the textbook questions should be one of basic criteria to be used to evaluate
textbooks.
The study provides evidence that
Malaysian education students have been exposed to some elements of student-centred
learning approaches. It appears that when student-centred learning approaches were used,
students were actively engaged in the learning process. They were indeed learning and
embracing elements of student-centred learning such as engaging various types of active
classroom learning strategies, enhancing their responsibility as students in knowledge
construction and developing good relationship with teacher educators.
The data elaborate upon the participants experiences in active learning strategies by
participating in classroom learning activities such as group discussion, classroom
presentation, project-based learning and accessed-based learning. The data further illustrate
that more than half of the participants were aware of their own responsibilities to play active
roles as students rather than passive. The participants responses also show that they were
quite responsible in active knowledge construction process for material that has not been
explicitly discussed in class. The data show that most of the participants indicated satisfaction
regarding relationship with their teacher educators. It was evidence from the interview
transcripts that the satisfaction was not only attributable to the degree of their learning
participation but also to their motivation for learning.
This preliminary data analysis implies that Malaysian teacher educators are employing
several student-centred learning techniques in their classroom teaching practices. The
findings support earlier research (Ismail & Alexander, 2005; Luan, Bakar & Hong, 2006).
However, several comments from the participants imply that some instructors are reluctant to
shift their own roles from being the expert to being the facilitator of learning. Such
participants comments evidence that teacher-centred are still being used in the teacher
education programme.

Moreover, other functions of questioning such as motivating students to think,


developing their reflections and interest, encouraging students to ask questions and
also the importance of questioning as a social construct are usually neglected (e.g.,
Brown & Edmondson, 1985; Cooper, 2010; Faizah, 2011; Noorizah, Idris, & Rosniah,
2012).

Questioning technique
Teachers very often seem to employ this technique as a way to involve the students,
and to break the monotonous rhythm of only they speaking in the class. This often
seems to take place when they dominate the discourse and are teaching a new
concept or introducing a new learning component.

Although the questioning

technique is often used in these classes, the question is whether the questions
asked are eliciting responses which grow out of their higher thinking processes, and
whether the responses are gain expanded to provide opportunities for students to
carry out higher-order thinking.

Schools must provide opportunities to question,

enquire, debate, reflect, and arrive at concepts or create new ideas.

Very often

teachers, in government as well as private schools, insist that all children must give
identical answers to questions.

Instead teachers should encourage divergent

answers from students so as to promote creativity among them.


There are five steps in the infusion approach: introduction to content and process;
thinking actively; thinking about thinking; consideration or enrichment activities; and
applying thinking (Teacher Education Division, 1994).