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Heat Transfer: A Practical Approach - Yunus A Cengel

Semester -1, Test 0
Tuesday, November 04, 2003
Chapter 8, Problem 41.
Hot air at atmospheric pressure and 85C enters a
10-m-long uninsulated square duct of cross section
0.15 m 0.15 m that passes through the attic of a
house at a rate of 0.10 m3/s. The duct is observed
to be nearly isothermal at 70C. Determine the exit
temperature of the air and the rate of heat loss
from the duct to the air space in the attic.
Answers: 75.7C, 941 W
Figure P8.41
Chapter 8, Solution 41

Flow of hot air through uninsulated square ducts of a heating system in the attic is
considered. The exit temperature and the rate of heat loss are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The inner surfaces of the duct are
smooth. 3 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 4 The pressure of air is 1 atm.
Properties We assume the bulk mean temperature for air to be 80C since the mean
temperature of air at the inlet will drop somewhat as a result of heat loss through the duct
whose surface is at a lower temperature. The properties of air at 1 atm and this
temperature are (Table A-15)
= 0.9994 kg/m 3

Te

k = 0.02953 W/m.C

= 2.097 10 -5 m 2 /s
C p = 1008 J/kg.C
Pr = 0.7154

Analysis The characteristic length that is the

hydraulic diameter, the mean velocity of air, and the
Reynolds number are
4 Ac 4a 2
Dh =
=
= a = 015
. m
P
4a
0.10 m 3 /s
V&
Vm =
=
= 4.444 m/s
Ac (0.15 m) 2
Re =

Vm D h

(4.444 m/s)(0.15 m)
2.097 10 5 m 2 /s

10 m
70C
Air
85C
0.1 m3/min

= 31,791

which is greater than 10,0000. Therefore, the flow is turbulent and the entry lengths in
this case are roughly
Lh Lt 10 D h = 10(0.15 m) = 1.5 m

which is much shorter than the total length of the duct. Therefore, we can assume fully
developed turbulent flow in the entire duct, and determine the Nusselt number from

Heat Transfer: A Practical Approach - Yunus A Cengel

Semester -1, Test 0
Tuesday, November 04, 2003
Nu =

hDh
= 0.023 Re 0.8 Pr 0.3 = 0.023(31,791)0.8 (0.7154)0.3 = 83.16
k

Heat transfer coefficient is

h=

k
0.02953 W/m.C
Nu =
(83.16) = 16.37 W/m 2 .C
Dh
0.15 m

Next we determine the exit temperature of air,

As = 4 aL = 4(0.15 m)(10 m) = 6 m 2
m& = V& = (0.9994 kg/m 3 )(0.10 m 3 /s) = 0.09994 kg/s

Te = Ts (Ts Ti )e

hA /( m& C p )

= 70 (70 85)e

(16.37 )(6 )
( 0.09994 )(1008)

= 75.7C

Then the logarithmic mean temperature difference and the rate of heat loss from the air
becomes
Tln =

Te Ti
T Te
ln s
Ts Ti

75.7 85
= 9.58C
70 75.7
ln

70 85

Q& = hAs Tln = (16.37 W/m 2 .C)(6 m 2 )(9.58C) = 941.1 W

Note that the temperature of air drops by almost 10C as it flows in the duct as a result of
heat loss.

Heat Transfer: A Practical Approach - Yunus A Cengel

Semester -1, Test 0
Tuesday, November 04, 2003
Chapter 8, Problem 53.
Hot air at 60C leaving the furnace of a house
enters a 12-m-long section of a sheet metal
duct of rectangular cross section 20 cm 20
cm at an average velocity of 4 m/s. The
thermal resistance of the duct is negligible,
and the outer surface of the duct, whose
emissivity is 0.3, is exposed to the cold air at
10C in the basement, with a convection heat
transfer coefficient of 10 W/m2 C. Taking
the walls of the basement to be at 10C also,
determine (a) the temperature at which the hot
air will leave the basement and (b) the rate of
heat loss from the hot air in the duct to the
basement.
Figure P8.53
Chapter 8, Solution 53

Hot air enters a sheet metal duct located in a basement. The exit temperature of hot air
and the rate of heat loss are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady flow conditions exist. 2 The inner surfaces of the duct are smooth.
3 The thermal resistance of the duct is negligible. 4 Air is an ideal gas with constant
properties. 5 The pressure of air is 1 atm.
Properties We expect the air temperature to drop somewhat, and evaluate the air
properties at 1 atm and the estimated bulk mean temperature of 50C (Table A-15),
= 1.092 kg/m 3 ;

k = 0.02735 W/m.C
T = 10C

Pr = 0.7228

Air duct
20 cm 20 cm

Analysis The surface area and the Reynolds

number are
As = 4aL = 4 (0.2 m)(12 m) = 9.6 m

4 Ac 4a 2
Dh =
=
= a = 0.2 m
p
4a
V D
(4 m/s)(0.20 m)
Re = m h =
= 44,509

1.797 10 5 m 2 /s

Air
60C
4 m/s

L = 12 m
= 0.3

which is greater than 10,000. Therefore, the flow is turbulent and the entry lengths in this
case are roughly
L h Lt 10 D h = 10(0.2 m) = 2.0 m

Copyright 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.

4
Heat Transfer: A Practical Approach - Yunus A Cengel
Semester -1, Test 0
Tuesday, November 04, 2003
which is much shorter than the total length of the duct. Therefore, we can assume fully
developed turbulent flow for the entire duct, and determine the Nusselt number from
Nu =

hDh
= 0.023 Re0.8 Pr 0.3 = 0.023(44,509)0.8 (0.7228)0.3 = 109.2
k

and
h=

k
0.02735 W/m.C
Nu =
(109.2) = 14.93 W/m 2 .C
Dh
0.2 m

The mass flow rate of air is

m& = AcV = (1.092 kg/m 3 )(0.2 0.2)m 2 (4 m/s) = 0.1748 kg/s

In steady operation, heat transfer from hot air to the duct must be equal to the heat
transfer from the duct to the surrounding (by convection and radiation), which must be
equal to the energy loss of the hot air in the duct. That is,
Q& = Q& conv,in = Q& conv+rad,out = E& hot air

Assuming the duct to be at an average temperature of Ts , the quantities above can be

expressed as
Q& conv,in :

Q& = hi As Tln = hi As

E& hot air :

Te Ti
T Te
ln s
Ts Ti

Q& = (14.93 W/m 2 .C)(9.6 m 2 )

Te 60
T Te

ln s

Ts 60

Q& = ho As (Ts To ) + As Ts4 To4 Q& = (10 W/m 2 .C)(9.6 m 2 )(Ts 10)C

2

This is a system of three equations with three unknowns whose solution is

Q& = 2622 W, Te = 45.1C, and Ts = 33.3C

Therefore, the hot air will lose heat at a rate of 2622 W and exit the duct at 45.1C.

Heat Transfer: A Practical Approach - Yunus A Cengel

Semester -1, Test 0
Tuesday, November 04, 2003

Chapter 8, Problem 59.

Water at 54F is heated by passing it through 0.75-in.-internal-diameter thin-walled
copper tubes. Heat is supplied to the water by steam that condenses outside the
copper tubes at 250F. If water is to be heated to 140F at a rate of 0.7 lbm/s,
determine (a) the length of the copper tube that needs to be used and (b) the
pumping power required to overcome pressure losses. Assume the entire copper tube
to be at the steam temperature of 250F.

Chapter 8, Solution 59
Water is heated by passing it through thin-walled copper tubes. The length of the copper
tube that needs to be used is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady flow conditions exist. 2 The inner surfaces of the tube are smooth.
3 The thermal resistance of the tube is negligible. 4 The temperature at the tube surface is
constant.
Properties The properties of water at the bulk mean fluid temperature of
Tb, ave = (54 + 140) / 2 = 97F 100F are (Table A-9E)
= 62.0 lbm/ft

250F

k = 0.363 Btu/h.ft.F

Water
54F
0.7 lbm/s

= 0.738 10 ft /s
-5

C p = 0.999 Btu/lbm.F

D = 0.75 in
140F

Pr = 4.54

Analysis (a) The mass flow rate and the Reynolds number are
m& = AcV m V m =

Re =

Vm Dh

m&

Ac

0.7 lbm/s
(62 lbm/ft )[ (0.75/12 ft) 2 /4]

(3.68 ft/s)(0.75/12 ft)

0.738 10 5 ft 2 /s

= 3.68 ft/s

= 31,165

which is greater than 4000. Therefore, the flow is turbulent and the entry lengths in this
case are roughly
Lh Lt 10D = 10(0.75 in) = 7.5 in

which is probably shorter than the total length of the pipe we

will determine. Therefore, we can assume fully developed
turbulent flow in the entire duct, and determine the Nusselt
number from
Nu =

hDh
= 0.023 Re0.8 Pr 0.4 = 0.023(31,165)0.8 (4.54)0.4 = 165.8
k

and
h=

k
0.363 Btu/h.ft.F
Nu =
(165.8) = 963 Btu/h.ft 2 .F
Dh
(0.75 / 12) ft

Copyright 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.

6
Heat Transfer: A Practical Approach - Yunus A Cengel
Semester -1, Test 0
Tuesday, November 04, 2003
The logarithmic mean temperature difference and then the rate of heat transfer per ft
length of the tube are
Tln =

Te Ti
T Te
ln s
Ts Ti

140 54
= 148.9F
250 140
ln

250 54

Q& = hAs Tln = (963 Btu/h.ft 2 .F)[ (0.75 / 12 ft )(1 ft)](148.9F) = 28,150 Btu/h

The rate of heat transfer needed to raise the temperature of water from 54 F to 140 F is
Q& = m& C p (Te Ti ) = (0.7 3600 lbm/h)(0.999 Btu/lbm.F)(140 - 54)F = 216,500 Btu/h

Then the length of the copper tube that needs to be used becomes
Length =

216,500 Btu/h
= 7.69 ft
28,150 Btu/h

(b) The friction factor, the pressure drop, and then the
pumping power required to overcome this pressure drop can
be determined for the case of fully developed turbulent flow to
be
f = 0.184 Re0.2 = 0.184(31,165)0.2 = 0.02323
P = f

2
(7.69 ft) (62 lbm/ft 3 )(3.68 ft/s) 2
1 lbf
L V m

= 0.02323
= 37.27 lbf/ft 2

2
(0.75 / 12 ft)
2
D 2
32.174 lbm ft/s

1 hp
m& P (0.7 lbm/s)(37.27 lbf/ft 2 )

=
W& pump =

= 0.00078 hp
3

62 lbm/ft
550 lbf ft/s

Heat Transfer: A Practical Approach - Yunus A Cengel

Semester -1, Test 0
Tuesday, November 04, 2003

Chapter 8, Problem 66.

A house built on a riverside is to be cooled in summer by utilizing the cool water
of the river, which flows at an average temperature of 15C. A 15-m-long section
of a circular duct of 20-cm diameter passes
through the water. Air enters the underwater
section of the duct at 25C at a velocity of 3
m/s. Assuming the surface of the duct to be
at the temperature of the water, determine
the outlet temperature of air as it leaves the
underwater portion of the duct. Also, for an
overall fan efficiency of 55 percent,
determine the fan power input needed to
overcome the flow resistance in this section
of the duct.
Figure P8.66
Chapter 8, Solution 66
Air enters the underwater section of a duct. The outlet temperature of the air and the fan
power needed to overcome the flow resistance are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady flow conditions exist. 2 The inner surfaces of the duct are smooth.
3 The thermal resistance of the duct is negligible. 4 The surface of the duct is at the
temperature of the water. 5 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 6 The pressure of
air is 1 atm.
Properties We assume the bulk mean temperature for air to be 20C since the mean
temperature of air at the inlet will drop somewhat as a result of heat loss through the duct
whose surface is at a lower temperature. The properties of air at 1 atm and this
temperature are (Table A-15)
= 1.204 kg/m 3

River water
15C

k = 0.02514 W/m.C

= 1.516 10 -5 m 2 /s
C p = 1007 J/kg.C
Pr = 0.7309

Analysis The Reynolds number is

Air
25C
3 m/s

D = 20 cm

L = 15 m

V D
(3 m/s)(0.2 m)
Re = m h =
= 3.959 10 4
2
5

1.516 10 m /s

which is greater than 10,000. Therefore, the flow is turbulent and the entry lengths in this
case are roughly
Lh Lt 10D = 10(0.2 m) = 2 m

Copyright 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.

8
Heat Transfer: A Practical Approach - Yunus A Cengel
Semester -1, Test 0
Tuesday, November 04, 2003
which is much shorter than the total length of the duct. Therefore, we can assume fully
developed turbulent flow in the entire duct, and determine the Nusselt number from
Nu =

hD h
= 0.023 Re 0.8 Pr 0.3 = 0.023(3.959 10 4 ) 0.8 (0.7309) 0.3 = 99.75
k

and
h=

k
0.02514 W/m.C
Nu =
(99.75) = 12.54 W/m 2 .C
Dh
0.2 m

Next we determine the exit temperature of air,

As = DL = (0.2 m)(15 m) = 9.425 m 2
(0.2 m) 2
= 0.1135 kg/s
m& = Vm Ac = (1.204 kg/m 3 )(3 m/s)

and
Te = Ts (Ts Ti )e

hAs /( m& C p )

= 15 (15 25)e

(12.54 )( 9.425)
( 0.1135 )(1007 )

= 18.6C

The friction factor, pressure drop, and the fan power required to overcome this pressure
drop can be determined for the case of fully developed turbulent flow in smooth pipes to
be

P = f

15 m (1.204 kg/m 3 )(3 m/s) 2

L Vm2
= 0.02212
0.2 m
2
D 2

W& fan =

W& pump,u
pump-motor

V&P
pump-motor

0.2

1N

1 kg m/s 2

= 0.02212

1 Pa

= 8.992 Pa
1 N/m 2

(0.1135 m 3 /s)(8.992 Pa ) 1 W

=
= 1.54 W
0.55
1 Pa m 3 /s