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Total abdominal hysterectomy - bilateral salpingo oophorectomy (TAH-BSO) is the

surgical removal of the uterus, cervix, and bilateral ovaries and fallopian tubes.
Intussusception is a serious disorder in which part of the intestine slides into an
adjacent part of the intestine.
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is a surgical procedure performed by grafting
another vein or artery to the coronary arteries to bypass the atherosclerotic
narrowings, thereby improving coronary blood supply/circulation.
Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that uses powerful chemicals to kill fastgrowing cells in the body, such as cancer cells.
Laparoscopy is a procedure wherein one or more small incisions are made in the
abdomen for insertion of the laparoscope to examine the abdomen or pelvis and/or
to carry out surgical procedures.
Cellulitis is an infection of the skin and deep underlying tissues. Group A strep
(streptococcal) bacteria are the most common cause.
Mastectomy it is the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or
completely, to treat breast cancer.
Partial Mastectomy It is removal of the cancerous part of the breast and the
surrounding margin of normal tissue, allowing the noncancerous part to be
preserved.
Lumpectomy breast lump removal.
Anastomosis It is a surgical connection between two tubular structures, such as
blood vessels or the intestine.
Bronchoscopy is a test to view the airways and diagnose lung disease using a
bronchoscope.
Alveoli are tiny air sacs within the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon
dioxide takes place.
Capillaries are extremely small blood vessels located within the tissues of the
body that transports blood from arteries to veins.
Embolism refers to lodging of an embolus into the blood stream, which can cause
a blockage.
Embolus any intravascular mass such as a clot or a foreign body that travels
through the blood stream, which can block blood vessels.
Thrombosis - is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the
flow of blood.
Thrombus a blood clot that forms inside a vessel and remains there.

Ganglion an encapsulated group of nerve cells, usually located outside the brain
and spinal cord
Ganglia - a group of nerve cell bodies located externally to the brain or spinal cord.
Pruritus - An intense itching sensation that can have various causes (allergies,
infection, insect bites, etc.)
Cholelithiasis - presence of gallstones in the gallbladder.
Choledolithiasis presence of stones in the hepatic or common bile duct.
Diverticulosis - The presence of outpouching in the colon due to weakness of the
muscle layer in the colon wall.
Diverticulitis it is when a diverticulum (colon outpouching) becomes
inflamed/infected, resulting to abscesses.
Diverticulum - A pouch or sac branching out from a portion of a hollow organ or the
gastrointestinal tract, especially the large intestine.
Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) progressive loss of renal function over a period of
month or years. The final stage is end stage renal disease.
End Stage Renal Diseasethe condition wherein the kidneys are no longer able to
remove wastes and excess fluids from the body. Dialysis or kidney transplant are
the only treatment.
Ostomy - A surgical procedure creating an opening in the body for the discharge of
body wastes.
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome inflammatory state affecting the
whole body, frequently a response of the immune system to infection.
Thrombocytopenia An abnormal decrease in the number of platelets in the blood.
Platelet count below 50,000 per microliter. (Normal= 150,000 to 450,000)
Pancytopenia reduction in the number of rbc, wbc, platelets.
Bicytopenia reduction in the number of two types of blood cells.
Nosocomial Infection Infection acquired in the hospital.
Opportunistic Infection Infection with organisms which usually do not cause
disease in a healthy host but become pathogenic when the bodys defense
mechanisms are compromised.
Arthroscopy examination of the interior of a joint performed using an arthroscope
that is inserted into the joint through a small incision.

Cystoscopy Examination of the interior lining of the bladder and the urethra with
the use of a cystoscope. (for UTI, hematuria, incontinence, pelvic pain, painful
urination, prostate enlargement, stone, polyp/tumor/cancer)
Arthrectomy Surgical excision of a joint.
Anacusis complete deafness (can be unilateral or bilateral).
Ceruminoma benign glandular neoplasm of the ceruminous glands of the external
auditory canal.
Decubitus Ulcer Also known as pressure ulcers or bedsore, are localized injuries to
the skin and/or underlying tissue that usually occur over a bony prominence as a
result of pressure in combination with shear and/or friction. (as in bedridden
persons)
Comedo It is a plug of keratin and sebum within the dilated orifice of a hair follicle
Atrophy - Wasting away; a decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or part.
Cachexia wasting syndrome; loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness,
and significant loss of appetite in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight.
Xerophthalmia Abnormal dryness and thickening of the conjunctiva and cornea
caused by deficiency of tears, attributed to vitamin A deficiency.
Crohns Disease inflammatory bowel disease. It causes inflammation of the lining
of the digestive tract, which can lead to abdominal pain, severe diarrhea, and even
malnutrition.
Pulmonary Embolism a blood clot that forms in a vein, travels through the
bloodstream, and lodges in the lungs. A medical emergency, can be fatal in a short
time.
Cystitis inflammation of the urinary bladder caused by infection, usually
accompanied by frequent painful urination.
Cholera main symptoms are rice water diarrhea and vomiting. Transmission occurs
thru intake of water or food that is contaminated by feces of an infected person.
(Vibrio cholerae)
Systemic lupus erythematosus an autoimmune disease in which the bodys
immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. Characteristic sign is butterfly
rash on the face.
Juvenile diabetes mellitus type I diabetes mellitus, happens when your immune
system destroys cells in your pancreas called beta cells.
Myalgia muscle pain

Osteoporosis is a progressive bone disease that causes the bone to become weak
and fragile and more likely to break (fracture).
Gynecomastia - is enlargement of the male breast tissue caused by an imbalance of
the hormones estrogen and testosterone.
Condition due to vitamin deficiency
Gangrene - refers to the death of body tissue due to a lack of blood flow or a
bacterial infection.
Myocardial infarction - is the irreversible necrosis of heart muscle secondary to
prolonged ischemia.
Atresia - Absence of a normal opening, or failure of a structure to be tubular.
Pulmonary hypertension - is high blood pressure that occurs in the arteries in the
lungs.
Hepatitis - is a term used to describe inflammation (swelling) of the liver.
Gastralgia - pain in the stomach or abdomen.
Dumping syndrome - occurs when the contents of the stomach empty too quickly
into the small intestine.
Endometriosis - is the development of uterine-lining tissue outside the uterus.
Symptoms may include abdominal pain, heavy periods, and infertility. Treatment
options include pain relievers, hormones, and surgery.
Colostomy - is a surgical procedure that brings one end of the large intestine out
through an opening (stoma) made in the abdominal wall, providing a pathway for
waste to exit the body
Lymphadenopathy - Abnormally enlarged lymph nodes.
Tuberculosis - is an infectious bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium
tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs. It is transmitted from person
to person via droplets from the throat and lungs of people with the active
respiratory disease.
Cardiomyopathy - refers to diseases of the heart muscle. In cardiomyopathy, the
heart muscle becomes enlarged, thick, or rigid. In rare cases, the muscle tissue in
the heart is replaced with scar tissue.
Osteophytes - (bone spurs) is a tiny pointed outgrowth of bone usually caused by
local inflammation.

Ischemia- is a condition in which the blood flow (and thus oxygen) is restricted or
reduced in a part of the body.

Multiple choices:

A child had bacteria which affected pancreas-pancreatitis


SARS-coronavirus
Dark urine-dehydration
A 2 yr-old child has vitamin D deficiency-what diseases he will getosteoporosis & rickets
Severe neural tube defect- Anencephaly spina bifida occulta? (not sure)-other
choices-meningocele; myelomeningocele
Zinc deficiency- (meron anemia na choice-letter A, pero mali spelling ehAnema nklagay)
Compromised immune system
Diarrhea
Hair loss and skin lesions
Loss of appetite and/or anorexia:
Impairment of cognitive and motor functions
Other signs of zinc deficiency are reduced fertility, rashes on the skin,
spots on fingernails, sleep disturbance, loss of sex drive, loss of taste
or smell, and in some cases mild anemia.
Protein deficiency-kwashiorkor
Amylase=Pancreas
VitD deficiency= Ricketts (children), Osteomalacia (adults), and Osteoporosis
LDL=Bad cholesterol
High bilirubin=Breakdown of RBC.
Protein deficiency=Kwashiorkor
Pancreas=DM
Dark urine=DHN
Swayback (saddle back)=Lordosis
round back or hunchback=kyphosis
Cerclage=Miscarriage
Pernicious Anemia-Vit. B12
MI=MONA

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENT


HYPERTENSION Abnormally elevated blood pressure.
Signs
1.
2.
3.
4.

and Symptoms:
Headaches/Suboccipital headaches.
Dizziness.
Nausea and vomiting.
Visual disturbance.

Treatment
1. Change in diet (low salt and low fat).
2. Regular exercise.
3. Quit smoking.
4. Reducing alcohol consumption.
5. Avoid stress.
6. Medications:
a) Diuretics.
b) Beta-Blockers.
c) Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors.)
d) Angiotensin II receptor blockers.
e) Calcium channel blockers.
f) Alpha blockers.
g) Alpha-2 Receptor agonist.
h) Alpha-beta blockers.
i) Combined alpha and beta blockers.
j) Central agonists.
k) Peripheral adrenergic inhibitors.
l) Blood vessel dilators, or vasodilators.
ALCOHOLISM a primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and
environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations.
Description:
1. Prolonged period of frequent, heavy alcohol use.
2. Inability to control drinking once it has began.
3. Physical dependence manifested by withdrawal symptoms when the
individual stops using alcohol.
4. Tolerance, or the need to use more and more alcohol to achieve the same
effects.
5. A variety of social and/or legal problems arising from alcohol use.
Signs and symptoms:
1. Tolerance to alcohol.
2. Withdrawal signs of alcoholism (anxiety, shakiness, sweating, nausea and
vomiting, insomnia, depression, irritability, fatigue, loss of appetite and
headache).
3. You have lost control over your drinking.

4.
5.
6.
7.

You want to quit drinking, but you cannot.


You have given up other activities because of alcohol.
Alcohol takes up a great deal of your energy and focus.
You dink even though you know it is causing problems.

Treatments:
1. Detoxification.
2. Rehabilitation therapy.
3. Medications:
a. Disulfiram.
b. Naltrexone
c. Acamprosate.
d. Vivitrol
MALARIA
It is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by
parasitic protozoan (a type of unicellular microorganism) of the genus Plasmodium.
DIABETES MELLITUS
- A metabolic disease characterized by abnormally high levels of glucose in the
blood.
Type I (Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus)
- A rapidly developing form, affecting children and young adults, in which the body
does not produce enough insulin and insulin must therefore be injected.
Type II (Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus)
- A slowly developing form in which the body's tissues become unable to use insulin
effectively, usually in overweight or elderly individuals.
Signs and Symptoms:
1. Increased sugar levels.
2. Increased sugar in the blood and urine.
3. Excessive thirst.
4. Frequent urination.
5. Acidosis and wasting.
6. Weight loss.
7. Increased hunger.
8. Tiredness.
9. Lack of interest and concentration.
10.Tingling sensation or numbness in the hands or feet.
11.Blurred vision.
12.Slow healing wounds.
Treatment:
1. Insulin injection.
a. Rapid acting (NovoLog, Apidra, and Humalog).
b. Short acting (Humulin R and Novolin R).
c. Intermediate Acting (Humulin N and Novolin N).
2. Oral medications (Metformin, Januvia and glipizide).

Type 1: There is absolute lack of insulin. This is due to breakdown of the islet cells of
the pancreas.
Type 2: Insulin is produced but not in sufficient amount. Also, insulin resistance is
present.
SYSTEMIC VIRAL INFECTION
- A viral infection in which the pathogen is distributed throughout the body
NEUROTIC FASCIITIS
- Commonly known as flesh-eating disease. It is an infection of the deeper layer of
the skin and subcutaneous tissues, easily spreading across the fascial plane
resulting in gangrene of the underlying tissues.
Signs
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

and symptoms:
Intense pain.
Inflammation.
Fever.
Red to violet skin color.
Tachycardia.
Diarrhea and vomiting.

Treatment:
1. Culture and sensitivity testing.
2. Antibiotics (piperacillin/tazobactam, vancomycin and clindamycin.)
3. Surgical debridement.
4. Amputation.
CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE
- Gradual loss of kidney function, with progressively more severe renal insufficiency
until the stage called chronic irreversible kidney failure or end-stage renal disease.
Signs
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

and symptoms:
High blood pressure.
Fluid volume overload.
Hyperkalemia.
Hyperphosphatemia.
Hypocalcemia.
Metabolic acidosis.
Lethargy/encephalopathy.

Treatment:
1. ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists.
2. Replacement of calcium.
3. Dialysis.
4. Kidney transplant.
ASTHMA
- It is a chronic (long-lasting) inflammatory disease of the airways, this inflammation
causes the airways to spasm and swell periodically so that the airways narrow.

Signs
1.
2.
3.
4.

and symptoms:
Wheezing.
Short of breath.
Chest tightness.
Coughing.

Treatment:
1. Identifying triggers/allergens.
2. Reduction of exposure to allergens.
3. Bronchodilators.
4. Inhaled corticosteroids.
5. Anticholinergic (ipratropium bromide).
6. Short acting beta adrenoceptor agonists (salbutamol).
PNEUMONIA
- It is a respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma
(excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants
Signs
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

and Symptoms:
Fever.
Cough.
Chest pain.
Shortness of breath.
Increased respiration.
Nasal flaring.

Treatment:
1. Antibiotics.
2. Antipyretic.
3. Drink plenty of water.
4. Rest.
YELLOW FEVER
- is a viral infection transmitted by a bite from infected mosquitoes most commonly
found in parts of South America and Africa. When transmitted to humans, the yellow
fever virus can damage the liver and other internal organs and be potentially fatal.
Signs and Symptoms:
1. Fever
2. Headache
3. Muscle aches, particularly in your back and knees
4. Sensitivity to light
5. Nausea, vomiting or both
6. Loss of appetite
7. Dizziness
8. Red eyes, face or tongue
9. Yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice)
10.Abdominal pain and vomiting, sometimes of blood
11.Decreased urination

12.Bleeding from your nose, mouth and eyes


13.Slow heart rate (bradycardia)
14.Liver and kidney failure
15.Brain dysfunction, including delirium, seizures and coma
Treatment:
1. Fluids and oxygen,
2. Adequate blood pressure,
3. Replacing blood loss,
4. Dialysis for kidney failure
5. Treating any other infections that develop.
6. Transfusions of plasma to replace blood proteins that improve clotting.
TETANUS
- is an acute, often-fatal disease of the nervous system that is caused by nerve
toxins produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani.
Signs
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

and Symptoms:
Spasms and stiffness in your jaw muscles
Stiffness of your neck muscles
Difficulty swallowing
Stiffness of your abdominal muscles
Painful body spasms lasting for several minutes, typically triggered by minor
occurrences, such as a draft, loud noise, physical touch or light
Fever
Sweating
Elevated blood pressure
Rapid heart rate

Treatment:
1. Wound care.
2. Antitoxin. tetanus immune globulin.
3. Antibiotics.
4. Vaccine.
5. Sedatives.
6. Magnesium sulfate and certain beta blockers.
7. Ventilator
CROHNS DISEASE
- is a disease where parts of the digestive tract become inflamed.
Signs
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

and Symptoms:
Crampy pain in the abdomen (belly area)
Fever
Fatigue
Loss of appetite
Feeling that you need to pass stools, even though your bowels are already
empty. It may involve straining, pain, and cramping.
6. Watery diarrhea, which may be bloody
7. Weight loss

8. Constipation
9. Sores or swelling in the eyes
10.Draining of pus, mucus, or stools from around the rectum or anus
11.Joint pain and swelling
12.Mouth ulcers
13.Rectal bleeding and bloody stools
14.Swollen gums
15.Tender, red bumps (nodules) under the skin which may turn into skin ulcers
Treatment:
1. Corticosteroids
2. Immunosuppressants
3. Flagyl/Cipro
4. Anti-diarrheal.
5. Pain relievers.
6. Iron supplements
7. Nutrition therapy (enteral or parenteral)
8. Strictureplasty
9. Ileostomy
10.Bowel resection
PULMONARY EMBOLISM
- is a blockage in one of the pulmonary arteries in your lungs caused by blood clots
that travel to the lungs from the legs or, rarely, other parts of the body.
Signs
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

and Symptoms:
Shortness of breath.
Chest pain.
Cough.
Leg pain or swelling, or both, usually in the calf
Clammy or discolored skin
Fever
Excessive sweating
Rapid or irregular heartbeat
Lightheadedness or dizziness

Treatment:
1. Blood thinners (anticoagulants)
2. Clot dissolvers (thrombolytics)
3. Clot removal via catheter
4. vena cava filter
5. embolectomy
CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD)
- is a lung disease that makes it hard to breathe. It is caused by damage to the
lungs over many years, usually from smoking.
Signs and Symptoms:
1. Cough that won't go away.
2. Cough up mucus.

3. Shortness of breath/dyspnea on exertion.


4. Chest tightness.
Treatment:
1. Bronchodilators
2. Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitors
3. Corticosteroids
4. Methylxanthine
5. Lung volume reduction surgery
6. Lung transplant
7. Bullectomy
THYROID CANCER
- is a cancer originating from follicular or parafollicular thyroid cells.
Signs
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

and Symptoms:
A lump or swelling in your neck.
Pain in your neck and sometimes in your ears.
Difficulty swallowing.
Difficulty breathing or constant wheezing.
Hoarseness that is not related to a cold.
A cough that continues and is not related to a cold.

Treatment:
1. Radioactive iodine.
2. TSH suppression therapy.
3. Thyroid hormone.
4. Chemotherapy.
5. Thyroid lobectomy.
6. Near-total thyroidectomy.
7. Total thyroidectomy.
MENINGITIS
- is a bacterial infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord
(meninges).
Signs and Symptoms:
1. Fever and chills
2. Mental status changes
3. Nausea and vomiting
4. Sensitivity to light (photophobia)
5. Severe headache
6. Stiff neck (meningismus)
7. Agitation
8. Bulging fontanelles in babies
9. Decreased alertness
10.Poor feeding or irritability in children
11.Rapid breathing
12.Opisthotonos

Treatment:
1. Antibiotics.
2. Medicines to treat seizures.
3. Medicines to treat pressure on the brain.
4. Medicines to treat fever and muscle aches
5. Oxygen therapy.
CYSTITIS
- is an infection of the bladder or lower urinary tract.
Signs
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

and Symptoms:
Cloudy or bloody urine
Strong or foul smelling urine
Low fever (not everyone will have a fever)
Pain or burning with urination
Pressure or cramping in the lower middle abdomen or back
Strong need to urinate often, even right after the bladder has been emptied
mental changes or confusion in an elderly person

Treatment:
1. Antibiotics
2. Pyridium
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
- is a disease in which your immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin)
that covers your nerves.
Signs and Symptoms:
1. Numbness or weakness in one or more limbs that typically occurs on one side
of your body at a time, or the legs and trunk
2. Partial or complete loss of vision, usually in one eye at a time, often with pain
during eye movement
3. Double vision or blurring of vision
4. Tingling or pain in parts of your body
5. Electric-shock sensations that occur with certain neck movements, especially
bending the neck forward
6. Tremor, lack of coordination or unsteady gait
7. Slurred speech
8. Fatigue
9. Dizziness
10.Problems with bowel and bladder function
Treatment:
1) Corticosteroids,
2) Plasmapheresis.
3) Beta interferons.
4) Glatiramer acetate (Copaxone).
5) Dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera).
6) Fingolimod (Gilenya).
7) Teriflunomide (Aubagio).

8) Natalizumab (Tysabri).
9) Mitoxantrone (Novantrone).
10)
Physical therapy.
11)
Muscle relaxants.
12)
Medications to reduce fatigue.
13)
Other medications. Medications may also be prescribed for depression,
pain, and bladder or bowel control problems that are associated with MS.
SICKLE CELL
- a disease in which the red blood cells become rigid and sticky and are shaped like
sickles or crescent moons. They don't last as long as normal, round red blood cells
which leads to anemia.
Signs
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

and symptoms:
Anemia (pale skin, nail beds or mucous membranes)
Episodes of pain
Swollen hands and feet (in babies)
Frequent infections
Fever
Delayed growth
Problems with vision

Treatment:
Bone marrow transplant.
1. Blood transfusions
2. Oxygen therapy
3. Antibiotics
4. Pain relievers
5. Hydroxyurea
DEPRESSION
- is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts,
behavior, feelings and sense of well-being.
Signs and symptoms
Feelings of sadness, emptiness, or unhappiness
Angry outbursts
Irritability
Lost of interest in things
Sleep disturbances
Lack of energy
Changes in appetite
Anxiety
Feelings of worthlessness
Suicidal thoughts
Suicidal attempts
Treatment
Psychotherapy
Prozac, Zoloft
Cymbalta

Wellbutrin
Trazodone
MALIGNANT HPN
- is blood pressure that is so high that it is actually causing damage to organs,
particularly in the nervous system, the cardiovascular system, and/or the kidneys.
Signs and symptoms:
Chest pain
Difficulty breathing
Headache
Visual problems
Nausea and vomiting
Numbness/weakness of the legs, arms, face
Treatments:
Intravenous high blood pressure medications:
Nitroglycerin
Hydralazine
Beta-blockers (Labetalol)
ACE-inhibitor (Vasotec)
Oral antihypertensive drugs
Dialysis
CIRRHOSIS - is scarring of the liver.
Signs and symptoms:
Fatigue
Weakness
Itching
Loss of appetite
Weight loss
Nausea
Bloating of the abdomen from ascites
Edema
Spiderlike blood vessels on the skin
Jaundice
Treatments
Diuretics
Vitamin K
Blood products
Medicines for mental confusion
Antibiotics
Endoscopic treatments for enlarged veins in the throat (bleeding varicies)
Removal of fluid from the abdomen (paracentesis)
Placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) to repair
blood flow in the liver
Liver transplant
Osteoporosis- is a condition that weakens bones, making them fragile and more
likely to break.

Signs and symptoms


Back pain
Loss of height over time
A stooped posture
A bone fracture that occurs much more easily than expected
Treatment
Alendronate (Fosamax, Binosto)
Risedronate (Actonel, Atelvia)
Ibandronate (Boniva)
Zoledronic acid (Reclast, Zometa)
Aspiration Pneumonia - is an inflammation of your lungs and bronchial tubes. It
happens after you inhale foreign matter. It is also known as anaerobic pneumonia.
Signs and symptoms:
Chest pain
Shortness of breath
Wheezing
Fatigue
Blue discoloration of the skin
Cough, possibly with green sputum, blood, pus, or a foul odor
Difficulty swallowing
Bad breath
Excessive sweating
Decreased flow of oxygen
Rapid heart rate
Crackling sound in the lungs
Treatment
Steroids
Antibiotics
Oxygen therapy.
Portal hypertension - is an increase in the blood pressure within a system of veins
called the portal venous system.
Signs and Symptoms:
1) Gastrointestinal bleeding marked by black, tarry stools or blood in the stools,
or vomiting of blood due to the spontaneous rupture and hemorrhage from
varices
2) Ascites (an accumulation of fluid in the abdomen)
3) Hepatic encephalopathy or confusion and forgetfulness caused by poor liver
function
4) Reduced levels of platelets, blood cells that help form blood clots, or white
blood cells, the cells that fight infection
5) Varices
6) splenomegaly
Treatment:
1) Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS

2)
3)
4)
5)

Distal splenorenal shunt (DSRS


beta blockers
nitroglycerin
Endoscopy may be required to band or tie off varices in the esophagus

MEDICAL ABBREVIATION
BPM Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy.
VAD Vascular atherosclerotic disease.
AC Before meal.
CABG Coronary artery bypass graft.
NKA No known allergies.
CAD Coronary artery disease.
PTCA Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.
ERCP Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.
MRI Magnetic resonance imaging.
ECT Emission computed tomography.
PERRLA Pupils equally round and reactive to light and accomodation.
CPK Creatine phosphokinase.
ECCE Extracapsular cataract extraction.
tPa Tissue plasminogen activator.

Differentiate HIV from AIDS


- Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a virus that infects human beings that leads to a
problem with their immune system.
- Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is a group of symptoms or conditions
associated with the damage of the immune system (decreased number of a specific
cell in the immune system) caused by the HIV. As the HIV infection progresses, there
is ongoing damage to the immune system, which makes the body susceptible to
infections that do not show up in healthy people.
What is herpes simplex?
- It is a viral disease from the Herpesviridae family caused by both Herpes simplex
virus type 1
(HSV-1 oral) and type 2 (HSV-2 genital). It is characterized by sores in the mouth
and genitals.
Abrev
Adhd- attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Ppd-purified protein derivative.
Hsv-herpes simplex virus
Pud-penis uncircumcising device
Mrsa-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Sars- severe acute respiratory syndrome.

Ptca-percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty


Tnm-tumor-node-metastasis

DOT
Laceration- a wound produced by the tearing of body tissue, as distinguished from a cut or incision
Miscarriage- loss of an embryo or fetus before the 20th week of pregnancy
Incisional biopsyremoval and examination, usually microscopic, of tissue from the living body, often to determine whether
a tumor ismalignant or benign
Bronchoscopy is a procedure in which a cylindrical fiberoptic scope is inserted into the airways. This sco
pe contains aviewing device that allows the visual examination of the lower airways.
Intussusception is the enfolding of one segment of the intestine within another. It is characterized and ini
tially presentswith recurring attacks of cramping abdominal pain that gradually become more painful.
Retinopexy -A procedure to repair a detached retina by holding it in place
Dilatation and curettage (D & C) is a gynecological procedure in which the lining of the uterus (endomet
rium) is scrapedaway.
Parasite is
a plant or animal that lives upon or within another living organism at whose expense it obtains some
advantage.

Mgt and terms


Cushings - The most common cause of Cushing's syndrome is the long-

term use of glucocorticoid hormones in medications.Medications such as prednisone are used in a numbe
r of inflammatory conditions. Such conditions include rheumatoidarthritis, asthma, vasculitis, lupus, and
a variety of other autoimmune
disorders in which the body's immune cellsaccidentally attack some part of the body itself. In these disor
ders, the glucocorticoids are used to dampen the immuneresponse, thereby decreasing damage to the bo
dy. meds. chemotherapy, radiation therapy. Mgt.
Pituitary and adrenaladenomas are usually removed surgically. Malignant adrenal tumors always require
surgical removal.

Acute renal failure-

renal failure of sudden onset, such as from physical trauma, infection, inflammation, or toxicity. Symptoms
includeuremia and usually oliguria or anuria, with hyperkalemia and pulmonary edema. Three types are di
stinguished: prerenal,associated with poor systemic perfusion and decreased renal blood flow, such as wi
th hypovolemic shock or congestiveheart failure; intrarenal, associated with disease of the renal parenchy
ma, such as tubulointerstitial nephritis, acuteinterstitial nephritis, or nephrotoxicity; and postrenal, resultin
g from obstruction of urine flow out of the kidneys.
Pneumonia- is an infection of the lung that can be caused by nearly any class of organism known to caus
e humaninfections. These include bacteria, amoebae, viruses, fungi, and parasites
Prior to the discovery of penicillin antibiotics, bacterial pneumonia was almost always fatal. Today, antibiot
ics, especiallygiven early in the course of the disease, are very effective against bacterial causes of pneu
monia. Erythromycin andtetracycline improve recovery time for symptoms of mycoplasma pneumonia. Th
ey, do not, however, eradicate theorganisms. Amantadine and acyclovir may be helpful against certain vir
al pneumonias.
A newer antibiotic named linezolid (Zyvox) is being used to treat penicillin-resistant organisms that cause
pneumonia.Linezolid is the first of a new line of antibiotics known as oxazolidinones. Another new drug kn
own as ertapenem (Invanz)is reported to be effective in treating bacterial pneumonia.mgt. vaccination.
UTI an infection of one or more structures in the urinary system.
CHFan abnormal condition that reflects impaired cardiac pumping and the inability to maintain the metabolic n
eeds of thebody. Its causes include myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and cardiomyopathy. F
ailure of the ventricles toeject blood efficiently results in volume overload, ventricular dilation, and elevate

d intracardiac pressure. Increasedpressure in the left side of the heart causes pulmonary congestion. Incr
eased pressure in the right side causes systemicvenous congestion and peripheral edema.
MGT- 1. non-pharmacologic maneuvers
eg, salt restriction in the form of a 'no salt added' regimen, reduction of alcoholintake, exercise as tolerate
d and, for Pts with impaired renal function or psychogenic polydipsia, fluid restriction
.
2. drug therapy with multiple agentsdiuretics, ACE inhibitors, digoxin, nitrates, CCBs, beta-blockers, inotr
opic agentsthat intracellular sodiumeg, vesnarinonehave a narrow therapeutic range Prognosis Poor;
5-yr mortality rate forCHF after the onset of Sx-per Framingham Heart data, is 62% for ; 42% for ; 200,
000 deaths attributable to CHFoccur/yrUS; norepinephrine levels direct correlates with hemodynamic s
everity and poor prognosis. See Beta-blockers, Calcium channel blockers, Nitrates.
HyperthyroidismHyperthyroidism is the overproduction of thyroid hormones by an overactive thyroid.
Hyperthyroidism is often associated with the body's production of autoantibodies in the bl
ood which cause the thyroid togrow and secrete excess thyroid hormone. This condition,
as well as other forms of hyperthyroidism, may be inherited.Regardless of the cause, hyper
thyroidism produces the same symptoms, including weight loss with increased appetite,s
hortness of
breath and fatigue, intolerance to heat, heart palpitations, increased frequency of bowel m
ovements,weak muscles, tremors, anxiety, and difficulty sleeping. Women may also notice
decreased menstrual flow and irregularmenstrual cycles.mgt. antithyroid drug, radioactive
iodine, or thyroidectomy. Med. Radioactive iodine treatment, anti thyroid drugs.
an abnormal condition of the brain characterized by occlusion by an embolus, thrombus, or cerebr
ovascular hemorrhageor vasospasm, resulting in ischemia of the brain tissues normally pe
rfused by the damaged vessels
CVAan abnormal condition of the brain characterized by occlusion by an embolus, thrombus, or cerebrovascul
ar hemorrhageor vasospasm, resulting in ischemia of the brain tissues normally perfused by the damaged
vessels.
Meds. Anticoagulant medicine, Antiplatelet aggregating medicine, Thrombolytic

medicine,surgery.

URTI- Any infection of the nose, throat, sinuses or LARYNX such asthe common cold, sore throat (phar
yngitis), tonsillitis, sinusitis, laryngitis and croup. The cumbersome phrase is oftenabbreviated to U
RTI.
Mgt. Antibiotics are rarely needed to treat upper respiratory infections and generally should

be avoided, unless the doctor suspects a bacterial infection.


Celiac disease- also known as celiac sprue or gluten-sensitive enteropathy -- is a digestive
and autoimmune disorder that results in damage to the lining of the small intestine when foods
with gluten are eaten. Gluten is a form of protein found in some grains. The damage to the
intestine makes it hard for the body to absorb nutrients, especially fat, calcium, iron, and folate.
S and S-

Digestive problems (abdominal bloating, pain, gas, diarrhea, pale stools,


and weight loss)
A severe skin rash called dermatitis herpetiformis
Iron deficiency anemia (low blood count)
Tingling sensation in the legs (caused by nerve damage and lowcalcium)
Consultation with a skilled dietitian
Education about the disease
Lifelong adherence to a gluten-free diet